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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

284 | PRACTITIONERS

284 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6service.” 1211 The Convention lists a series of reasons for which terminationof employment is prohibited: “union membership or participationin union activities outside working hours or, with the consent of theemployer, within working hours; seeking office as, or acting or havingacted in the capacity of, a workers’ representative; the filing of a complaintor the participation in proceedings against an employer involvingalleged violation of laws or regulations or recourse to competent administrativeauthorities; age, colour, sex, marital status, family responsibilities,pregnancy, religion, political opinion, national extraction or socialorigin; absence from work during maternity leave[;] [t]emporary absencefrom work because of illness or injury”. 1212The ILO Convention provides that workers must be given an opportunityto contest the allegations made in order to terminate the employmentfor reasons related to the worker’s conduct or performance. 1213 Theyare “entitled to appeal against that termination to an impartial body,such as a court, labour tribunal, arbitration committee or arbitrator.” 1214If the termination is unjustified, these bodies, “if they are not empoweredor do not find it practicable, in accordance with national law andpractice, to declare the termination invalid and/or order or propose reinstatementof the worker, [. . .] shall be empowered to order paymentof adequate compensation or such other relief as may be deemed appropriate.”1215 In any case, workers are entitled to a reasonable periodof notice. 1216 The Convention provides that “[a]dequate safeguards shallbe provided against recourse to contracts of employment for a specifiedperiod of time the aim of which is to avoid the protection resulting fromthis Convention.” 1217Two important provisions of the ICRMW, which concern only migrantswho have entered the country in a regular situation, are Article 49.2and Article 51. They require time to be allowed for a migrant workerwho has become unemployed to seek another job before being deprivedof his or her authorisation of residence. Article 49.2 states that “[m]igrant workers who in the State of employment are allowed freely tochoose their remunerated activity shall neither be regarded as in anirregular situation nor shall they lose their authorization of residenceby the mere fact of the termination of their remunerated activity prior1211 Article 4, Termination of Employment Convention (C158), ILO, adopted on 22 June 1982.1212 Articles 5 and 6, ibid.1213 See, Article 7, ibid.1214 Article 8.1, ibid. On the powers of the deciding bodies see Article 9.1215 Article 10, ibid.1216 See, Article 11, ibid. See also, Article 4.4 ESC(r).1217 Article 2.3, ibid.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 285to the expiration of their work permits or similar authorizations.” 1218Another provision, Article 51, was included in order to afford the sameprotection to migrants who are not permitted freely to choose theirremunerated activity, except where the authorisation of residence isexpressly dependent upon the specific remunerated activity for whichthey were admitted. The Committee on Migrant Workers has appliedthis last provision on two occasions, where the State has not allowedsufficient time to the migrant worker to find alternative employmentand linked automatically the loss of employment with the expiration ofthe residence authorisation. 1219 An analysis of the drafting history ofthe ICRMW suggests that Article 51 was introduced in order to protectmigrants from those work permits that are linked to a single employerand that would, consequently, impede employment by another employer.The provision implicitly allows for limitations in work permits as tothe kind of work to be performed. 1220Some of the content of these Articles is reflected in comments of theHuman Rights Committee in the examination of the principle of non-discriminationand the right to private and family life. 1221 The Committeehas held that States have an obligation to guarantee full and effectiveaccess to personal documents to migrants and that, in order to providea remedy for these violations, a State should “consider establishing agovernmental mechanism to which migrant workers can report violationsof their rights by their employers, including illegal withholding oftheir personal documents.” 1222The African Commission has found that an abrupt expulsion without recourseto national courts can “severely compromise [. . .] the [migrant’s]right to continue working [. . .] under equitable and satisfactory conditions”,resulting in loss of employment in violation of the right to work(Article 15 ACHPR). 12231218 See also, Article 8, Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention (C143), ILO,which applies this principle in an absolute way for migrant workers and members of theirfamily present in the territory for more than five years.1219 See, Concluding Observations on Azerbaijan, CMW, UN Doc. CMW/C/AZE/CO/1, 19 May 2009,paras. 34–35; and Concluding Observations on El Salvador, CMW, UN Doc. CMW/C/SLV/CO/1,4 February 2009, paras. 35 and 36.1220 See, Report of the Open-Ended Working Group on the Drafting of an International Conventionon the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Their Families, Third Committee,43 rd session, UN Doc. A/C.3/43/1, 20 June 1988, paras. 53–66. The representativeof Italy has clarified this approach to the text, that was proposed by Finland on behalf ofthe Scandinavian and Mediterranean Group with amendments by the USA. The rejection ofthe proposal by the Netherlands confirms this reading. Articles 51 and 49(2) were stronglyopposed by the Federal Republic of Germany.1221 See, Concluding Observations on Thailand, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 244, para. 23.1222 Ibid., para. 23.1223 IHRDA v. Republic of Angola, ACommHPR, op. cit., fn. 395, para. 76.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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