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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

294 | PRACTITIONERS

294 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6of whether the situation originated from an act/fact that occurredbefore that date. 1253 This case must be distinguished from breachesof international obligations which occurred and ended beforethe entry into force of the treaty but still have effects after theentry into force of the treaty. In such cases, the mechanism willhowever be able to adjudicate collateral violations: for examplethe lack of investigation into responsibility for violations of humanrights law, if the State did not remedy it before the entry intoforce of the treaty. 1254• Breach of obligation to prevent: this situation occurs when theState has an obligation to prevent a given event, but fails to do so.The breach extends over the entire period during which the eventcontinues and remains in violation of that obligation. 1255ii) Material jurisdiction (“ratione materiae”)This kind of jurisdiction relates to the treaty or the international obligationof which the international mechanism is the “guardian”. It meansthat it is not possible to raise before an international mechanism humanrights violations that are not covered by the relevant treaty.In assessing whether there is material jurisdiction, it should be borne inmind that evolutive interpretation has led to an expansion of the scopeof certain human rights. For example, it is possible to argue againsta forced eviction under the ICCPR and the ECHR claiming a violationof the right to respect for the home and for private and family life.Also, the creation of conditions of life leading to a situation of destitutionmight constitute a violation of the right to life (see, Box No. 14,and Chapter 5, Section II.1(c)(iii)). The boundaries between civil andpolitical and social, economic and cultural rights, and among differenttreaties must not be viewed strictly and a careful analysis of the mechanisms’jurisprudence is recommended.The “Human Rights Committee” (HRC) is competent ratione materiaefor breaches of the International Covenant on Civil and PoliticalRights (ICCPR); the “Committee against Torture” (CAT) for theConvention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or DegradingTreatment or Punishment (CAT); the “Committee on the Elimination ofRacial Discrimination” (CERD) for the International Convention on the1253 See, Blake v. Guatemala, IACtHR, Series C No. 36, Judgment of 24 January 1998, para. 67;X. v. Switzerland, ECommHR, Application No. 7601/75, Admissibility Decision, 12 July 1976.On continuing violations in the context of enforced disappearances, see, Serrano Cruz Sistersv. El Salvador, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 853, paras. 100 and 105.1254 See, Article 14.2, ILC Draft Articles on State Responsibility. See, Lovelace v. Canada, CCPR,Communication No. R.6/24, Views of 30 July 1981. See, Moldovan and Others (2) v. Romania,ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 937, paras. 104–106.1255 See, Article 14.3, ibid.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 295Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD): the “Committeeon the Elimination of Discrimination against Women” (CEDAW) for theConvention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination againstWomen (CEDAW); and the “Committee on Migrant Workers” (CMW)for the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights ofAll Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (ICRMW); the“Committee on the Rights of the Child” (CRC) for the Convention onthe Rights of the Child (CRC), the Optional Protocol to the Conventionon the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitutionand child pornography (OP-CRC-SC), and the Optional Protocol to theConvention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children inarmed conflicts (OP-CRC-AC); the “Committee on the Rights of Personswith Disabilities” (CRPD) for the Convention on the Rights of Personswith Disabilities (CRPD); the “Committee on Enforced Disappearances”for the International Convention on the Protection of All Persons fromEnforced Disappearance; and the “Committee on Economic, Social andCultural Rights” (CESCR) for the International Covenant on Economic,Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR).At a regional level, the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) iscompetent to hear complaints referring to the European Conventionfor the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. TheEuropean Committee on Social Rights (ESCR) is competent for collectivecomplaints against the States Parties to the Additional Protocolto the European Social Charter Providing for a System of CollectiveComplaints (“Additional Protocol of 1995”) and those who accepted thecollective complaint mechanism through a declaration under Article Dof the European Social Charter (revised). The ESCR is competent toconsider complaints only against those rights of the European SocialCharter by which the State Party has undertaken to be bound. 1256The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), establishedby the OAS Charter, 1257 is competent 1258 to consider alleged violationsof American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, the AmericanConvention on Human Rights and of the right to establish and join tradeunions and the right to education under the Additional Protocol to the1256 See, Article 11, Additional Protocol to the European Social Charter Providing for a System ofCollective Complaints (AP-ESC); and Article A (Part III), ESC(r).1257 Article 106, Charter of the Organisation of American States (OAS Charter).1258 See, Article 23, Rules of Procedure of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights,approved by the Commission at its 137 th regular period of sessions, held from 28 October to13 November 2009, and modified on 2 September 2011 and during the 147 th Regular Periodof Sessions, held from 8 to 22 March 2013, for entry into force on 1 August 2013 (IACHRRules of Procedure). Other human rights treaties of IACHR competence are the Protocol tothe American Convention on Human Rights to Abolish the Death Penalty, the Inter-AmericanConvention to Prevent and Punish Torture, the Inter-American Convention on Forced Disappearanceof Persons, and/or the Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishmentand Eradication of Violence Against Women “Convention of Belém do Pará”.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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