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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

298 | PRACTITIONERS

298 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6rights obligations apply in unmodified form to a State exercising extra-territorialjurisdiction—for example, an occupying power, a militarybase abroad or a state operating an extra-territorial detention centre—as has been authoritatively affirmed regarding comparable obligationsunder CAT, the ICCPR, the ECHR, 1274 by the Inter-American Commissionon Human Rights 1275 and the Refugee Convention. 1276Of particular relevance for migrants is the fact that the State’s jurisdictionmay extend in certain situations to international waters. TheIACHR has found that the interception and return of asylum-seekers,on the high seas, to their country of origin constituted a violationof their right to seek asylum in a foreign country, as granted by theADRDM and the ACHR. 1277 The Grand Chamber of the European Courtof Human Rights has clearly stated that measures of interception ofboats, including on the high seas, fall within the jurisdiction of theState implementing the interception. From the moment of effectivecontrol of the boat, all the persons on it fall within the jurisdiction ofthe intercepting State, which must secure and protect their humanrights. 1278 The Committee against Torture has also held that the seizureof a boat in international waters, and even the control over thepassengers in foreign territory in order to proceed with their identificationand repatriation, attracted the jurisdiction of the State whichhad control over them. 1279 The same principles apply in the context ofrescue operations at sea, analysed in Chapter 1.In a case concerning human trafficking, the European Court of HumanRights has held that there jurisdiction was established for the State oforigin of the person trafficked in so far as its obligations to protect theconcerned person from trafficking were engaged. 12801274 See, inter alia, Al-Sadoon and Mufti v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 391; Al-Skeiniand Others v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 1267, paras. 133–142.1275 See, Haitian Interdictions Case, IACHR, op. cit., fn. 46, paras. 163, 168 and 171.1276 Concluding Observations on USA, CAT, op. cit., fn. 46, para. 20; Concluding Observationson USA, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 323; UNHCR, The Scope and Content of the Principle of Non-refoulement,Opinion, Sir Elihu Lauterpacht CBE QC, Daniel Bethlehem, Barrister, paras. 62–67,concludes that: “the principle of non-refoulement will apply to the conduct of State officialsor those acting on behalf of the State wherever this occurs, whether beyond the nationalterritory of the State in question, at border posts or other points of entry, in internationalzones, at transit points, etc.” See also, para. 242. See further, UNHCR, Advisory Opinion onthe Extraterritorial Application, op. cit., fn. 293; CAT, General Comment No. 2, op. cit., fn. 31,paras. 7, 16 and 19; Nowak and McArthur, op. cit., fn. 391, p.129, para.4; p.147, para. 72and p. 199, para. 180–1; CCPR, General Comment No. 31, op. cit., fn. 46, para. 10–11;Concluding Observations on United Kingdom, CAT, op. cit., fn. 391, paras. 4(b) and 5(e).1277 Haitian Interdictions Case, IACHR, op. cit., fn. 46, paras. 156, 157 and 163.1278 See, Hirsi Jamaa and Others v. Italy, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 46, paras. 73–82; Medvedyev andOthers v. France, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 51, paras. 62–67.1279 J.H.A. v. Spain, CAT, op. cit., fn. 266, para. 8.2.1280 Rantsev v. Cyprus and Russia, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 236, paras. 206–208.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 299b) StandingThe terms “locus standi” or “standing” address the question of who isentitled to enter an application or submit a complaint for a human rightsviolation before an international mechanism. Whilst some internationalmechanisms with a judicial or quasi-judicial character provide forstanding for individuals to bring complaints, others allow for “collectivecomplaints” by groups.• Individual Complaints: some mechanisms allow only for thevictims of a violation, or for those petitioning on his or her behalfto lodge a complaint. Certain mechanisms allow for general humanrights NGOs to lodge a complaint on behalf of victims, evenwithout their direct authorisation, although it must be demonstratedthat it would have been impossible or very difficult toobtain authorisation for reasons independent from the victimsthemselves.• Collective Complaints: This mechanism allows organisations tochallenge a general legal or factual situation which gives rise to orhas the potential to give rise to human rights violations, withoutnaming individual complaints.i) Standing to bring individual application: the meaning of “victim”In individual complaints mechanisms, standing is generally accorded topersons who are “victims” of a human rights violation. Victims may beeither direct or indirect. A victim is generally a person directly affectedby the violation of the human rights concerned. 1281 However, particularcases might arise when the direct cause and effect is more blurred. Forexample, the existence of a law that potentially impedes the individualin asserting his or her rights, although the person has not yet breachedthe law, may put the individual in the situation of “victim”, if the riskof the law being applied when the action contrary to it is taken is morethan a theoretical possibility. 1282 Furthermore, laws might violate the individual’sright even when the individual cannot be aware of it, becausethe law makes such awareness impossible, for example in the case ofsome types of surveillance. 1283 Individuals may also be indirect victims1281 Companies might be victims too, but due to the scope of this Guide we will deal only withindividuals.1282 See, Mauritian Women Case, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 55; Toonen v. Australia, CCPR, CommunicationNo. 488/1992, Views of 31 March 1994, paras. 8.2 and 9. See, Dudgeon v. UnitedKingdom, ECtHR, Plenary, Application No. 7525/76, Judgment of 22 October 1981; Norrisv. Ireland, ECtHR, Plenary, Application No. 10581/83, Judgment of 26 October 1988; OpenDoor and Well Woman v. Ireland, ECtHR, Plenary, Applications nos. 14234/88; 14235/88,Judgment of 29 October 1992; Campbell and Cosans v. United Kingdom, ECommHR, ApplicationsNos. 7511/76; 7743/76, Report of 16 May 1980.1283 Klass and Others v. Germany, ECtHR, Plenary, Application No. 5029/71, Judgment of 6 September1978.

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