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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

304 | PRACTITIONERS

304 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6provisions will not change in the new Statute of the African Court ofJustice and Human Rights. 13022. Admissibility requirementsAdmissibility requirements must be fulfilled before a complaint is examinedon the merits. They are contained in the human rights treaty establishingthe competence of the human rights body to hear individual orcollective complaints. Generally, these requirements are very similar forall human rights bodies and, even when some are not specifically providedfor in the treaty, they are usually upheld by the competent humanrights body on the basis of the uniform interpretation of internationalhuman rights law. As for the Inter-American Court of Human Rights andthe African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights, since these bodies donot hear individual complaints directly, the admissibility criteria are thesame as those of their lower bodies, the IACHR and the ACHPR.a) Exhaustion of domestic remediesIt is a general standard of international human rights law that, beforebringing a case before an international legal mechanism, an applicant musthave first exhausted the domestic remedies available. The rationale of theprinciple lies in the fact that, as it is the international responsibility of theState as a whole that is challenged, the State must have had the possibilityto redress that human rights violation domestically, before an internationalforum should be made available. However, only those remedies that areeffective need to be exhausted. If several effective and adequate remediesare available, it is sufficient to exhaust only one of them. 1303A domestic remedy is “adequate” only when it is able to address thatparticular human rights violation according to international human rightslaw standards. 1304 A complaint under a substantial provision containing aright under international human rights law must be arguable before the1302 Article 30, Protocol on the Statute of the African Court of Justice and Human Rights, adoptedby the 11 th Ordinary Session of the Assembly of the African Union in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt,1 July 2008 (not yet in force) (ACJHR Statute).1303 See, T.W. v. Malta, ECtHR, GC, Application No. 25644/94, Judgment of 29 April 1999, para.34; Iatridis v. Greece, ECtHR, GC, Application No. 31107/96, Judgment of 25 March 1999,para. 47. A comprehensive restatement of the European Convention’s admissibility criteriatogether with the European Court’s jurisprudence is available in the Practical Guide onAdmissibility Criteria produced by the Research Division of the European Court of HumanRights, and available at http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Admissibility_guide_ENG.pdf.1304 See, Danyal Shafiq v. Australia, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 687, para. 6.4; Vélez Loor v. Panama,IACHR, Case 92-04, Report No. 95/06, Admissibility Decision, 23 October 2006, para. 36;Velasquez Rodriguez v. Honduras, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 799, para. 64; Godinez Cruz v. Honduras,IACtHR, Series C No. 5, Judgment of 20 January 1989, para. 67; Garbi and Corrales v.Honduras, IACtHR, Series C, No. 6, Judgment of 15 March 1989, para. 88; Salah Sheekh v. theNetherlands, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 317, para. 121; Soldatenko v. Ukraine, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 361,para. 49; Shamayev and Others v. Georgia and Russia, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 434, para. 446.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 305domestic remedial mechanism. 1305 It is not necessary that the specific articleof the human rights treaty be used as a ground of judicial review. Itis sufficient that the substance of the human rights claim be arguable. 1306The domestic remedy must also be “effective”, i.e. able to ascertainand redress the potential violation once this is established. It must havethe power to give binding orders that reverse the situation of violationof the person’s rights or, if that is impossible, provide adequatereparations. Reparation includes, as appropriate, restitution, compensation,rehabilitation, satisfaction and guarantees of non-repetition. 1307Remedies whose decisions do not have binding force or whose decisionsor the implementation of them are at the discretion of a political bodyare not deemed to be effective. 1308 Furthermore, particularly in cases ofexpulsions, the remedy must have the power to suspend the situationof potential violation when the lack of suspension would lead to irreparableharm/irreversible effects for the applicant while the case is beingconsidered. 1309The remedy must also have certain characteristics of due processof law. 1310 It must be independent, which means that it must not besubject to interference by the authorities against which the complaintis brought. 1311 It must afford due process of law for the protection ofthe right or rights alleged to be violated, must be accessible by every-1305 Muminov v. Russia, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 343, para. 99.1306 See, Fressoz and Roire v. France, ECtHR, GC, Application No. 29183/95, Judgment of 21 January1999, paras. 33–37; Castells v. Spain, ECtHR, Application No. 11798/85, Judgment of23 April 1992, paras. 24–32.1307 Articles 19–23, UN Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation.See also, ICJ, Practitioners Guide No. 2, op. cit., fn. 480, Chapters VI and VII.1308 See, Madafferi and Madafferi v. Australia, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 460, para. 8.4; C. v. Australia,CCPR, op. cit., fn. 350, para. 7.3; L.Z. B. v. Canada, CAT, Communication No. 304/2006,Views of 15 November 2007, para. 6.4; L.M.V.R.G. and M.A.B.C. v. Sweden, CAT, CommunicationNo. 64/1997, Views of 19 November 1997, para. 4.2; Shamayev and Others v.Georgia and Russia, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 434, para. 446. However, there must be evidencein practice that the discretion of the political power does not lead to a predictable decisionaccording to legal standards. It must be evident that the discretion is absolute. Otherwise,the applicant has a duty to try to exhaust also that remedy. See, Danyal Shafiq v. Australia,CCPR, op. cit., fn. 687, para. 6.5. See also, Article 22.5(b) CAT; Article 4.1 OP-CEDAW;Article 77.3(b) ICRMW.1309 See, Dar v. Norway, CAT, Communication No. 249/2004, Views of 16 May 2007, paras. 6.4–6.5;Tebourski v. France, CAT, op. cit., fn. 353, paras. 7.3–7.4; Na v. United Kingdom, ECtHR,op. cit., fn. 309, para. 90; Jabari v. Turkey, ECtHR, Application No. 40035/98, AdmissibilityDecision, 28 October 1999; Bahaddar v. the Netherlands, ECtHR, Application No. 25894/94,Judgment of 19 February 1998, paras. 47 and 48; Soldatenko v. Ukraine, ECtHR, op. cit.,fn. 361, para. 49; Muminov v. Russia, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 343, para. 101; Gebremedhin v.France, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 602, paras. 66–67.1310 See, Article 46 ACHR; and Article 31, IACHR Rules of Procedure.1311 See, CCPR, General Comment No. 31, op. cit., fn. 46, para. 15; Keenan v. United Kingdom,ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 769, para. 122; Muminov v. Russia, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 343, para. 101;Judicial guarantees in states of emergency, IACtHR, Advisory Opinion OC-9/87, 6 October1987, para. 24.

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