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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

MIGRATION AND

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 35IntroductionI. Purpose of this GuideWhen people cross their country’s border, they might not know it yet,but the world no longer sees them as it did before. They have a speciallabel or status now: they are migrants. And because of this, they willoften find themselves in an inferior position to those around them, whohold the passport of the country in which they live.Whatever the circumstances in which they travel, those who becomemigrants typically move in a new, unfamiliar, and less secure world.Whether they have entered with an authorisation or they are undocumented,migrants will generally find their rights diminished in comparisonwith the citizens of their country of residence. The degree towhich those rights are violated, and the degree to which migrants areexcluded from legal protection or redress, varies widely from jurisdictionto jurisdiction. A “legal” migrant may face workplace violence orsub-standard working conditions and a lack of labour rights protectionand be fearful of claiming legal protection because a supervisor threatensdismissal and subsequent loss of a work permit. A refugee maybecome caught in the complex, long, and often arbitrary maze of arefugee qualification procedure, during which rights are curtailed andthe applicant is suspended in a legal limbo without identity. Most vulnerablewill be the undocumented migrant. People finding themselves inthis situation, while having a nominal entitlement to their human rights,effectively lack, because of their fear of being identified and deported,any opportunity to vindicate those rights, or to access the remedieswhich should protect them. 1 They risk exposure to economic or physicalexploitation, to destitution, and to summary return to their country oforigin, where some may face danger to their safety or even to their life.There is, as will be described, a multitude of reasons to migrate. 2 Forirregular migrants however, who enter a country in an undocumentedfashion or stay there after expiration of a permit, an almost constantfactor is, that the motivation not to be sent back to their country of originis so strong they are prepared to accept many hardships and denials1 Global Group on Migration (GMG), Statement on the Human Rights of Migrants in IrregularSituation, 30 September 2010, http://www.globalmigrationgroup.org/sites/default/files/uploads/news/GMG Joint Statement Adopted 30 Sept 2010.pdf. See, footnote No. 4 for adescription of the GMG.2 IACHR, Second Report of the Special Rapporteurship on Migrant Workers and Their Familiesin the Hemisphere, OAS Doc. OEA/Ser.L/V/II.111, Doc. 20 rev., 16 April 2001, para. 61. Seealso, General Comment No. 2 on the rights of migrant workers in an irregular situation andmembers of their family, CMW, UN Doc. CMW/C/GC/2, 28 August 2013.

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