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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

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42 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE

42 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6heightened risk of discrimination on grounds of age, disability, class andsocial status. 22 As discussed in Section IV below, such discrimination isprohibited by international human rights law.Children also migrate and require a different approach than that reservedto adults. Again, traditional migration perspectives have beenmodelled on the assumption that migrants are adults. Children may migratewith adult family members, or alone. Under international humanrights law, the overriding principle governing the rights of children, isthat in all actions relating to them, the best interests of the child mustbe a primary consideration. 23 Unaccompanied minors are particularlyvulnerable to exploitation and abuse, 24 but children migrating with theirfamily, especially where they are undocumented, may also encounterproblems of access to education or healthcare because their parents,out of fear of being deported upon contact with national authorities, willnot allow their children to have access to those authorities. 25Many other migrants may also suffer discrimination on a range of othergrounds, including discrimination on the basis of age, class, disability,economic or social status, marital status, or sexual orientation and genderidentity. 26In this Guide, the term of “migrant” will be used to include all peoplewho find themselves outside of their country of origin and/or nationality,regardless of their reason to migrate. The term “migrant”, whenused in this general way, will also include refugees and asylum-seekers.However, when certain rights or situations apply only to certain catego-22 General Comment No. 20, Non-Discrimination in Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, CESCR,UN Doc. E/C.12/GC/20, 10 June 2009, para. 17. See also, General Comment No. 16, Theequal right of men and women to the enjoyment of all economic, social and cultural rights,CESCR, UN Doc. E/C.12/2005/4, 11 August 2005, para. 5. Similarly the Human Rights Committeehas noted that discrimination against women is often intertwined with discriminationon other grounds such as race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, nationalor social origin, property, birth or other status. See, General Comment No. 28, Equalityof rights between men and women (article 3), CCPR, UN Doc. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.10,29 March 2000, para. 30; General Recommendation No. 25 on temporary special measures,CEDAW, UN Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.9 (Vol.II), 2004, para. 12.23 Article 3.1, Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) (emphasis added).24 GA resolution No. 50/150, UN Doc. A/RES/50/150, 9 February 1996, Article 3. See also,GA resolutions No. 51/73, UN Doc. A/RES/51/73, 12 February 1997; No. 52/105, UN Doc.A/RES/52/105, 11 February 1998; No. 53/122, UN Doc. A/RES/53/122, 10 February 1999;No. 56/136, UN Doc. A/RES/56/136, 15 February 2002; No. 49/172, UN Doc. A/RES/49/172,24 February 1995.25 GMG, Statement of the Global Migration Group on the Human Rights of Migrants in IrregularSituation, op. cit., fn. 126 A useful reference in regard to the latter are the Yogyakarta Principles on the Applicationof International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity,March 2007, available at http://www.yogyakartaprinciples.org/principles_en.pdf (“YogyakartaPrinciples”). The Principles were developed by the ICJ and the International Servicefor Human Rights, and were unanimously adopted during an expert meeting in Yogyakarta,Indonesia, 6–9 November 2006.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 43ries of migrants, these will be referred to by more specific terms suchas “refugees”, “asylum-seekers” or “migrant workers”.IV. The Legal FrameworkHuman rights are rights to which all persons, without exception, are entitled.Persons do not acquire them because they are citizens, workers,or have any other status. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights(UDHR) affirmed in 1948 that “all human beings are born free andequal in dignity and rights”. 27The legal framework which this Guide applies is the universal framework ofinternational human rights law, applicable to all human beings, containedin the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenanton Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), and the InternationalCovenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). These treaties are supplementedby regional human rights instruments of general breath: theEuropean Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and FundamentalFreedoms (ECHR) and its Protocols and the Revised European SocialCharter (ESCr) in the Council of Europe system; the American Declarationon Rights and Duties of Man (ADRDM), the American Convention on HumanRights (ACHR) and its Additional Protocol in the Area of Economic, Socialand Cultural Rights (Protocol of San Salvador), for the Inter-American system;the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights for the Africanone; and the Arab Charter on Human Rights for the Arab system.Other specific human rights treaties further elaborate the frameworkfor the respect, protection, promotion and fulfillment of the humanrights of specific categories of people or address specific human rights,many of which are of significant for some or all migrants. These include,at a global level, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms ofDiscrimination Against Women (CEDAW); the Convention on the Rightsof the Child (CRC) and its Protocols; the Convention on the Rights ofPersons with Disabilities (CRPD); the International Convention for theElimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD); the Conventionagainst Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment orPunishment (CAT); and the International Convention for the Protectionof All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (CPED). These treaties aresupplemented by many other global and regional treaties and standards,considered throughout the Guide.The International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of AllMigrant Workers and Members of Their Families (ICRMW) is the humanrights treaty elaborating particular standards addressed to migrant27 Article 1, Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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