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44 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE

44 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6workers and members of their families. It has not yet been widely ratified,and none from the most developed countries are party to it. 28These treaties constitute the backbone of the analysis of the specifichuman rights issues which are addressed by the Guide.A basic principle of international human rights law, which will pervade allthe Chapters of the Guide, is that States have obligations not only torespect, but also to protect and fulfil human rights. The duty to respectrequires the State not to take action that directly violates a particular right.The duty to protect requires the State, through legislation, policy and practice,to ensure the protection of rights, including by taking steps to preventthird parties from violating rights. The duty to fulfil imposes on a State’sobligations to facilitate, provide or promote access to human rights. 291. Equality and Non-DiscriminationOf paramount importance for migrants, is the international legal entitlementof all human beings to the enjoyment of human rights on a basisof equality and free from discrimination on grounds of race, colour, sex,sexual orientation, language, religion, political or other opinion, nationalor social origin, property, birth or other status. 30 This fundamental legalprinciple is encompassed in a wide range of international and regional28 At 10 January 2014, the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All MigrantWorkers and Members of Their Families (ICRMW) had 47 State Parties.29 See, generally, International Commission of Jurists, Courts and Legal Enforcement of Economic,Social and Cultural Rights; Comparative Experiences of Justiciability, ICJ HumanRights and Rule of Law Series No. 2, Geneva, 2008, pp. 42–53. See also a complete descriptionin The Social and Economic Rights Action Center (SERAC) and the Center for Economicand Social Rights (CESR) v. Nigeria, ACommHPR, Communication No. 155/96, 30 th OrdinarySession, 13–27 October 2001, paras. 44–48; and, General Recommendation No. 24: Womenand Health, CEDAW, UN Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.9 (Vol.II), 1999, paras. 13–17. See also, Article6, Maastricht Guidelines on Violations of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, adopted22–26 January 1997 (Maastricht Guidelines). The Maastricht Guidelines were adopted in anexpert conference held in Maastricht, 22–26 January 1997, at the invitation of the InternationalCommission of Jurists (Geneva, Switzerland), the Urban Morgan Institute on HumanRights (Cincinnati, Ohio, USA) and the Centre for Human Rights of the Faculty of Law ofMaastricht University (the Netherlands). The instrument has been extensively employed bythe CESCR to interpret the ICESCR).30 Articles 2.3 and 26, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR); Article 7ICRMW; Article 14, Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms(European Convention on Human Rights—ECHR); Article 1 of Protocol 12 ECHR;Articles 1 and 24, American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR); Articles 2 and 3, AfricanCharter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (ACHPR); Articles 3 and Article 11 Arab Charter onHuman Rights (ArCHR). See also, General Comment No. 15, The position of aliens under theCovenant, CCPR, UN Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.9 (Vol.I), 11 April 1986, paras. 9–10. Article E ofthe Revised European Social Charter (ESC(r)) and Article 21 of the Charter of FundamentalRights of the European Union (EU Charter) refer also to the ground of “national associationwith a national minority”; the EU Charter additionally refers to “ethnic origin”, “genetic features”,“disability”, “age”, and “sexual orientation”; the ACHR (Article 1) and the AdditionalProtocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social andCultural Rights (Protocol of San Salvador) (Article 3) to “economic status”; Article 2 ACHPRand Article 3 of the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (ACRWC) to “ethnicgroup” and “fortune”; Article 3.1 ArCHR to “physical or mental disability”.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 45treaties. 31 It is also the subject of dedicated instruments which addressparticular forms of discrimination and apply the principles of universality,non-discrimination and equality in respect of particular groups, forexample, ICERD, CEDAW, CRPD. 32International and regional judicial and quasi-judicial bodies have repeatedlyaddressed the obligation on States to respect and ensure theequal enjoyment of human rights and freedom from discrimination onprohibited grounds. 33 They have addressed what constitutes a prohibitedground of discrimination, specifying that in addition to the expressgrounds listed in the treaties, the “other status” ground entails a numberof implied grounds, including: age, disability, economic and socialstatus, health situation, marital status, sexual orientation and genderidentity. 34They have also addressed the nature of States’ obligations to ensureequality and non-discrimination. They have specified that State actorsmust refrain from discriminatory actions that undermine the enjoymentof rights (duty to respect); prevent and protect against certain forms ofdiscrimination by private actors (duty to protect); and take positive pro-31 See, above, fn. 30. See, furthermore, General Comment No. 18, Non-Discrimination, CCPR,UN Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.9 (Vol.I), 11 October 1989; CCPR, General Comment No. 28,op. cit., fn. 22; CESCR, General Comment No. 20, op. cit., fn. 22; CESCR, General CommentNo. 16, op. cit., fn. 22; CEDAW, General Recommendation No. 25, op. cit., fn. 22; GeneralRecommendation No. 28 on Core Obligations of States Parties under Article 2 of the Conventionon the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, CEDAW, UN Doc.CEDAW/C/2010/47/GC.2, 19 October 2010; CERD, General Recommendation No. 25,op. cit., fn. 21; General Comment No. 2: Implementation of article 2 by States parties, CAT,UN Doc. CAT/C/GC/2, 24 January 2008.32 It has not yet been widely ratified, and none from the most developed countries are partyto it. See also, at the regional level, Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa; Inter-American Convention on the Prevention,Punishment and Eradication of Violence against Women (Convention of Belém do Pará);Inter-American Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Personswith Disabilities.33 See, fn. 31. See also, for example, Juridical Condition and Rights of the UndocumentedMigrants, IACtHR, Advisory Opinion OC-18/03, 17 September 2003 (Advisory Opinionon Undocumented Migrants); Legal Resources Foundation v. Zambia, ACommHPR,Communication No. 211/98, 29 th Ordinary Session, 23 April – 7 May 2001; Certain Aspectsof the Laws on the Use of Languages in Education in Belgium, ECtHR, ApplicationsNos. 1474/62–1677/62–1691/62–1769/63–2126/64, Judgment of 23 July 1968.34 CESCR, General Comment No. 20, op. cit., fn. 22, para. 15. See also, as example, ProposedAmendments to the Naturalization Provisions of the Constitution of Costa Rica, IACtHR, AdvisoryOpinion OC-4/84, 19 January 1984; Legal Resources Foundation v. Zambia, ACommHPR,op. cit., fn. 33; Alatulkkila and Others v. Finland, ECtHR, Application No. 33538/96, Judgmentof 28 July 2005; Sidabras and Dziautas v. Lithuania, ECtHR, Applications Nos. 55480/00 and59330/00, Judgment of 27 July 2004; Salgueiro da Silva Mouta v. Portugal, ECtHR, ApplicationNo. 33290/96, Judgment of 21 December 1999; E.B. v. France, ECtHR, GC, ApplicationNo. 43546/02, 22 January 2008; Young v. Australia, CCPR, Communication No. 941/2000,Views of 6 August 2003; Love et al. v. Australia, CCPR, Communication No. 983/2001, Viewsof 25 March 2003. For a thorough explanation and jurisprudence related to the ground of“sexual orientation” see, International Commission of Jurists, Sexual Orientation, GenderIdentity and International Human Rights Law—Practitioners’ Guide No. 4, Geneva, 2009.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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