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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

46 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE

46 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6active steps to ensure the equal enjoyment of human rights (obligationto fulfil). 35 They have affirmed that States must ensure both de factoand de jure equality, 36 and eliminate both direct and indirect discrimination.This requires that States address and prevent discriminationin law and practice. It also necessitates that they not only eliminateplainly discriminatory laws, policies, and practices but also ensure thatseemingly neutral measures do not have a discriminatory effect in realterms. 37 In certain instances, States will be obliged to take account ofdifferences and under certain circumstances, different treatment will berequired in order to ensure substantive equality. 38 In order to correctsituations of inequality and discrimination, a State may also be requiredto implement temporary special measures deemed necessary in orderto re-establish equality. 39ICERD defines racial discrimination as “any distinction, exclusion, restrictionor preference based on race, colour, descent, or national orethnic origin which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairingthe recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of humanrights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, culturalor any other field of public life”. 40 Although differences in treatmentbetween nationals and non-nationals are permitted by Article 1.2ICERD, discrimination in legislation, policy or practice between differentgroups of non-nationals based on race, colour, descent, or national orethnic origin would constitute a breach of the treaty. 4135 CESCR, General Comment No. 16, op. cit., fn. 22, paras. 17–18, and 21; CESCR, GeneralComment No. 20, op. cit., fn. 22, para. 8(b); CEDAW, General Recommendation No. 25,op. cit., fn. 22, paras. 4, 7–8. See also, paras. 2 and 19. See, on the obligation to fulfil,CERD, General Recommendation No. 32, The meaning and scope of special measures in theInternational Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, 75 th session, August2009, para. 20.36 CESCR, General Comment No. 16, op. cit., fn. 22, para. 7; CEDAW, General RecommendationNo. 25, op. cit., fn. 22, para. 4; CERD, General Recommendation No. 32, op. cit., fn. 35,para. 6; CESCR, General Comment No. 20, op. cit., fn. 22, para. 8.37 CEDAW, General Recommendation No. 25, op. cit., fn. 22, para. 7; CESCR, General CommentNo. 16, op. cit., fn. 22, paras. 5, 12–13; CESCR, General Comment No. 20, op. cit.,fn. 22, para. 10; General Comment No. 14, The right to the highest attainable standard ofhealth, CESCR, Un Doc. E/C.12/2000/4, 11 August 2000, para. 19; CERD, General RecommendationNo. 32, op. cit., fn. 35, para. 7.38 CERD, General Recommendation No. 32, op. cit., fn. 35, para. 8; CERD, General RecommendationNo. 30, op. cit., fn. 18, para. 4; CEDAW, General Recommendation No. 25, op. cit.,fn. 22, para. 8.39 Article 2.2 ICERD; Article 4, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discriminationagainst Women (CEDAW). See also, CEDAW, General recommendation No. 25, op. cit.,fn. 22, and CERD, General Recommendation No. 32, op. cit., fn. 35.40 Article 1.1 ICERD.41 See, CERD, General Recommendation No. 30, op. cit., fn. 18; and Gabriela Rodríguez Pizarro,UN Special Rapporteur on the rights of migrants, Annual Report 2000, op. cit., fn. 18. TheCERD has expanded on the nature of the obligations on States parties to the Conventionin a number of general comments available at http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/TBSearch.aspx?Lang=en&TreatyID=6&DocTypeID=11.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 47CEDAW defines discrimination against women as “any distinction, exclusionor restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect orpurpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exerciseby women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equalityof men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms inthe political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.” 422. Beyond International Human Rights LawAlthough international human rights law constitutes the main frameworkfor the Guide, there are other bodies of international law withoutwhich a Guide on the human rights of migrants would be incomplete.The first of these is international refugee law embodied in theGeneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees of 1951, andits Protocol Related to the Status of Refugees of 1967 (altogether, theGeneva Refugee Convention), and supplemented by regional instrumentsand standards. International refugee law is considered in particularin Chapter 1 of the Guide.As violations of labour rights are a common feature of the migrationexperience, the Conventions negotiated under the auspices of theInternational Labour Organisation are addressed in Chapter 6. Finally,mention will also be made of other two bodies of law which concern migrantsin specific situations: one is international criminal law related totrafficking and smuggling, which will be dealt with briefly in Chapter 1.The other, also addressed in Chapter 1, is international maritime law,which is of relevance for those migrants who try to reach their destinationby sea.V. A Guide for Practitioners: limits and benefitsThe Guide has admittedly certain limitations. First, it presents a snapshotof an area of law in constant and dynamic development. It addressessome recent developments and principles which are not yet clearlyestablished in international law, but it does not speculate or make recommendationson the many points where standards and jurisprudencemay progress further. As the Guide is aimed at practitioners, it presentsthe established law and principles which will be of most use in practicebefore national or international courts or tribunals, or in making legalarguments in regard to proposed laws or policies. In setting out the cur-42 The Committee has expanded on the nature of the obligations on States parties to the Conventionin a number of general recommendations available at http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/comments.htm.See also, Article 3 ICCPR; Article 3, International Covenanton Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR); Articles 1 and 2 CEDAW; CESCR,General Comment No. 16, op. cit., fn. 22, paras. 1 and 10; CESCR, General Comment No. 20,op. cit., fn. 22, paras. 2, 3, 4 and 20.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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