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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

52 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE

52 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6territorial reach 47 in a number of distinct situations. This includes caseswhere the State exercises effective control of an area outside its borders(e.g. in the case of military occupation where effective control of an areacan be shown). 48 It also includes situations where agents of the Stateacting, either lawfully or unlawfully, outside the State’s territory, exerciseauthority or control over an individual—for example, where someone isheld in detention, or is within firing range of the State’s forces in a borderzone. 49 Therefore, a State may have obligations to respect and protectthe rights of persons who have not entered the territory, but who haveotherwise entered areas under the authority and control of the State, orwho have been subject to extra-territorial action (such as detention) by aState agent who has placed them under the control of that State.Of particular relevance for migrants is the fact that the State’s jurisdictionmay extend in certain situations to international waters. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (“Inter-American Commission”)has found that returning asylum-seekers, intercepted on the high seas, totheir country of origin, suffered a violation of their right to seek asylum ina foreign country, as protected by the American Declarations of the Rightsand Duties of Man (ADRDM) and the American Convention on HumanRights (ACHR). 50 The Grand Chamber of the European Court of HumanRights has held that measures of interception of boats, including on thehigh seas, attract the jurisdiction of the State implementing the interception.From the moment of effective control of the boat, all the persons onit fall within the jurisdiction of the intercepting State, which must secureand protect their human rights. 51 The same principles apply in the contextof operations of rescue at sea, as will be discussed in Section II.6.3. Human rights in the entry processAs outlined above, it is a basic principle of human rights law that States’human rights obligations are owed to all within its jurisdiction, regard-47 See, Issa and Others v. Turkey, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 46; Öcalan v. Turkey, ECtHR, GC, ApplicationNo. 46221/99, Judgment of 12 May 2005; Illich Sanchez Ramirez v. France, ECommHR,Application No. 28780/95, Admissibility Decision, 24 June 1996; Pad and Others v. Turkey,ECtHR, Application No. 60167/00, Admissibility Decision, 28 June 2007; Isaak and Others v.Turkey, ECtHR, Application No. 44587/98, Admissibility decision, 28 September 2006; Xhavaraand Others v. Italy and Albania, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 46; and, Women on Waves cases,ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 46; Al-Skeini and Others v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, GC, op. cit., fn. 46,paras. 133–142: Hirsi Jamaa and Others v. Italy, ECtHR, GC, op. cit., fn. 46, paras. 73–82.48 Loizidou v. Turkey, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 46; Al-Skeini and Others v. United Kingdom, ECtHR,GC, op. cit., fn. 46.49 Solomou and Others v. Turkey, ECtHR, Application No. 36832/97, Judgment of 24 June2008, paras. 50–51.50 Haitian Interdictions Case, IACHR, op. cit., fn. 46, paras. 156, 157 and 163.51 See, Hirsi Jamaa and Others v. Italy, ECtHR, GC, op. cit., fn. 46, paras. 77–82; Medvedyevand Others v. France, ECtHR, GC, Application No. 3394/03, Judgment of 29 March 2010,paras. 62–67.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 53less of nationality. From the moment migrants enter the State’s jurisdiction,territorial or extraterritorial, the State has a duty to respect alltheir human rights and to protect them from impairment of their rightsfrom third parties that may occur in the entry process, or in the case ofirregular migrants, on their interception on entry to the territory. Thismeans that, for example, irregular migrants entering or attempting toenter the territory must not be arbitrarily deprived of life by agents ofthe State; 52 and that the State has positive obligations to take measureswithin its power to protect migrants from arbitrary deprivation of life orill-treatment by third parties, including private actors, on entry to theterritory (for example in cases of trafficking or smuggling). This meansthat where irregular migrants are apprehended by the authorities, theymust not be subjected to physical or psychological treatment amountingto torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, including theuse of excessive physical restraint, or excessive and inappropriate bodysearches, or compulsory medical testing, and that their rights to healthand adequate food while in detention must be guaranteed.Nevertheless, international human rights law affords limited proceduralprotection to migrants entering a country: in particular, the right to afair hearing is unlikely to apply to decisions on entry to the territory. Ithas been expressly excluded by the European Court of Human Rightsin relation to decisions regarding other aspects of immigration control, 53while the UN Human Rights Committee has left the question open. 54Granting of entry must not infringe the protection from discrimination ongrounds of race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion,national or social origin, property, birth or other status. 55 This protectionis enshrined in Article 2.1 ICCPR, read together with Article 13ICCPR and Article 26 ICCPR (general clause on non-discrimination) aswell as in other universal and regional human rights treaties. 56 Both52 This also applies to migrants in border zones who have not yet entered the territory but areclose enough to be within its agents’ authority and control and therefore within its jurisdiction—e.g.within firing range of border guards—see, Solomou and Others v. Turkey, ECtHR,op. cit., fn. 49.53 Maaouia v. France, ECtHR, GC, Application No. 39652/98, Judgment of 5 October 2000, para. 37.54 Adu v. Canada, CCPR, Communication No. 654/1995, Views of 28 December 1994.55 CCPR, General Comment No. 15, op. cit., fn. 30. See, Aumeeruddy-Cziffra and 19 otherMauritian women v. Mauritius, CCPR, Communication No. 35/1978, Views of 9 April 1981(Mauritian Women Case), on discrimination based on sex.56 The principle of non-discrimination is enshrined in Article 2.1 UDHR; Articles 2.1 and 26 ICCPR;Article 2.2 ICESCR; Article 1 ICERD; Article I CEDAW; Article 2.1 CRC; Article 1.1 ICRMW; Article4, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD); Article 14 ECHR; Article E,ESC(r); Article II, American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man (ADRDM); Article 1.1ACHR; Article 3, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 2 ACRWC. However, the principle of non-discriminationdoes not mean that the State cannot differentiate among different categories ofmigrants when there is a reasonable ground of justification, e.g. the need to hire people ofa certain expertise instead of others. See further, in relation to discrimination in expulsion,Chapter 3 section II.1.e., and, CCPR, General Comment No. 15, op. cit., fn. 30, paras. 9–10.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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