Views
2 years ago

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

54 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE

54 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the UN Human Rights Committee 57 and the European Court of HumanRights 58 have found that legislation which limited the right of free accessto the destination country and immunity from deportation to thewives of male citizens, and not the husbands of female citizens, violatedthe prohibition of discrimination on grounds of sex (Articles 2 ICCPRand 14 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rightsand Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR)), and the rights of the country’sfemale citizens to family life (Articles 17 ICCPR and 8 ECHR) and tothe equal enjoyment of human rights (Article 3 ICCPR). It is also worthnoting the case of Hode and Abdi v. the United Kingdom, in which theEuropean Court of Human Rights ruled that laws differentiating betweenrefugees who had married before leaving their country of origin andthose who had married afterwards, for the purpose of family reunification,constituted an unjustified discrimination and, therefore, violatedArticle 14 ECHR in connection with Article 8 ECHR. The Court, in takingthis position, accepted that “in permitting refugees to be joined by preflightspouses, the [State] was honouring its international obligations.However, where a measure results in the different treatment of personsin analogous positions, the fact that it fulfilled the State’s internationalobligation will not in itself justify the difference in treatment.” 59II. Categories and status of migrantsNotwithstanding the right of the State to control its borders, certain situationsor legal statuses confer rights to enter or remain on the territory.Others, while not leading to a right to enter or remain, confer particularrights or obligations of protection. This Section describes two types of statuswhich migrants may seek to establish in order to secure leave to enteror remain: refugee status, and the status resulting from family reunificationwith a migrant already present in the destination State. The proceduralrights connected with establishing these statuses and the substantiverights conferred by their establishment are considered. In addition, thisSection addresses situations which are recognised as making migrantsparticularly vulnerable—in particular, human trafficking and smuggling—and therefore giving rise to some additional rights of protection of migrants.1. Refugee statusThe international right to seek asylum was first recognised in the UniversalDeclaration of Human Rights which states in Article 14.1 that “everyonehas the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from perse-57 Mauritian Women Case, CCPR, op. cit., fn. 55.58 Abdulaziz, Cabales and Balkandali v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 43.59 Hode and Abdi v. the United Kingdom, ECtHR, Application No. 22341/09, Judgment of6 November 2012, para. 55.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 55cution”. 60 While not enshrining a right of asylum, the Geneva Conventionrelating to the status of refugees of 1951, read together with its AdditionalProtocol of 1967 (Geneva Refugee Convention), contains a set of rightsand entitlements that follow from the recognition of refugee status. TheConvention provides a quasi-universal definition of refugee in Article 1A.2according to which a refugee is a person who “owing to well-founded fearof being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membershipof a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country ofhis nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to availhimself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationalityand being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a resultof such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it.”Although the right of asylum is not guaranteed by binding internationalhuman rights law treaties at a global level, the right is protected in severalregional instruments. The American Declaration on the Rights andDuties of Man protects the right, in Article XXVII, “to seek and receiveasylum.” The ACHR, in Article 22.7, protects the right “to seek and begranted asylum in a foreign territory, in accordance with the legislationof the State and international conventions, in the event he is beingpursued for political offenses or related common crimes.” Despite theseemingly more liberal reference to a “right to seek and receive or begranted asylum”, the Inter-American Commission has stressed that thisright “implies no guarantee that it will be granted”. 61 However, it doesassure the right to be heard in presenting the asylum application andother procedural guarantees discussed below. 62 The Commission hasgenerally interpreted these provisions in light of the Geneva RefugeeConvention. 63 The meaning of asylum under the American Conventionand Declaration may also include the other forms of asylum recognisedin several Inter-American Conventions on the subject. 6460 See, Guy S. Goodwin-Gil, The Refugee in International Law, Oxford University Press, 2 nd Edition,1998, p. 175; and Alice Edwards, “Human Rights, Refugees and The Right ‘To Enjoy’ Asylum”,17 Int’l J. Refugee L. 293 (2005), p. 299. Within the European Union, the right of asylum is enshrinedin Article 18 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (“EU Charter”).61 Report on the situation of human rights of asylum seekers within the Canadian refugee determinationsystem, OAS Doc. OEA/Ser.L/V/II.106,Doc. 40 rev., 28 February 2000 (IACHR,Report on Canada), para. 60.62 Ibid.63 Desmond McKenzie and Others v. Jamaica, IACHR, Cases 12.023—12.044—12.107—12.126—12.146, Report No. 41/00, Merits, 13 April 2000, para. 229; Donnason Knights v. Grenada,IACHR, Case 12.028, Report No. 47/01, Merits, 4 April 2001, para. 111; Haitian InterdictionsCase, IACHR, op. cit., fn. 46, paras. 151–163.64 Convention on Territorial Asylum, OAS, A-47, adopted on 28 March 1954; Convention onDiplomatic Asylum, OAS, A-46, adopted on 28 March 1954; Treaty on Asylum and PoliticalRefuge, adopted on 4 August 1939; Convention on Political Asylum, OAS, A-37, adoptedon 26 December 1933; Convention on Asylum, adopted on 20 February 1928, at the SixthInternational Conference of American States. Due to the limited number of States and reachof subject-matter of these conventions, they will not be dealt with in this Guide.

  • Page 1 and 2:

    Migration andInternational Human Ri

  • Page 3 and 4:

    Migration andInternational Human Ri

  • Page 5 and 6:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 7 and 8:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 9 and 10:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 11 and 12:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 13 and 14:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 15 and 16:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 17 and 18:

    MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R

  • Page 19 and 20: MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R
  • Page 21 and 22: MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R
  • Page 23 and 24: MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R
  • Page 25 and 26: MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R
  • Page 27 and 28: MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R
  • Page 29 and 30: MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R
  • Page 31 and 32: MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R
  • Page 33 and 34: MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R
  • Page 35 and 36: MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R
  • Page 37 and 38: MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R
  • Page 39 and 40: MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R
  • Page 41 and 42: MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R
  • Page 43 and 44: MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R
  • Page 45 and 46: MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R
  • Page 47 and 48: MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R
  • Page 49: MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN R
  • Page 52 and 53: 36 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6of ri
  • Page 54 and 55: 38 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the i
  • Page 56 and 57: 40 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6• A
  • Page 58 and 59: 42 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6heigh
  • Page 60 and 61: 44 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6worke
  • Page 62 and 63: 46 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6activ
  • Page 64 and 65: 48 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6rent
  • Page 66 and 67: 50 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6CHAPT
  • Page 68 and 69: 52 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6terri
  • Page 72 and 73: 56 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The A
  • Page 74 and 75: 58 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ii) G
  • Page 76 and 77: 60 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6gende
  • Page 78 and 79: 62 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Note
  • Page 80 and 81: 64 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6A lim
  • Page 82 and 83: 66 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The U
  • Page 84 and 85: 68 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Box 3
  • Page 86 and 87: 70 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6be su
  • Page 88 and 89: 72 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6right
  • Page 90 and 91: 74 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the a
  • Page 92 and 93: 76 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6isfy
  • Page 94 and 95: 78 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6In pa
  • Page 96 and 97: 80 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6and i
  • Page 98 and 99: 82 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6It is
  • Page 100 and 101: 84 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Under
  • Page 102 and 103: 86 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6lies
  • Page 104 and 105: 88 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the p
  • Page 106 and 107: 90 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6evolv
  • Page 108 and 109: 92 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6also
  • Page 110 and 111: 94 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6permi
  • Page 112 and 113: 96 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6es in
  • Page 114 and 115: 98 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6State
  • Page 116 and 117: 100 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 65. S
  • Page 118 and 119: 102 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Unde
  • Page 120 and 121:

    104 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6tion

  • Page 122 and 123:

    106 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6they

  • Page 124 and 125:

    108 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6CHAP

  • Page 126 and 127:

    110 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6has

  • Page 128 and 129:

    112 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6for

  • Page 130 and 131:

    114 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6prot

  • Page 132 and 133:

    116 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6to s

  • Page 134 and 135:

    118 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ment

  • Page 136 and 137:

    120 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6also

  • Page 138 and 139:

    122 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6nati

  • Page 140 and 141:

    124 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6(iv)

  • Page 142 and 143:

    126 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6char

  • Page 144 and 145:

    128 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6In t

  • Page 146 and 147:

    130 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6this

  • Page 148 and 149:

    132 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6thro

  • Page 150 and 151:

    134 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6In t

  • Page 152 and 153:

    136 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6proh

  • Page 154 and 155:

    138 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6mate

  • Page 156 and 157:

    140 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6just

  • Page 158 and 159:

    142 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6“p

  • Page 160 and 161:

    144 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 63. t

  • Page 162 and 163:

    146 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Furt

  • Page 164 and 165:

    148 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6poss

  • Page 166 and 167:

    150 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6CHAP

  • Page 168 and 169:

    152 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6proc

  • Page 170 and 171:

    154 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the

  • Page 172 and 173:

    156 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6expu

  • Page 174 and 175:

    158 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Box

  • Page 176 and 177:

    160 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6•

  • Page 178 and 179:

    162 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6have

  • Page 180 and 181:

    164 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6At t

  • Page 182 and 183:

    166 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Box

  • Page 184 and 185:

    168 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The

  • Page 186 and 187:

    170 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6exec

  • Page 188 and 189:

    172 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6huma

  • Page 190 and 191:

    174 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6“i

  • Page 192 and 193:

    176 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Arti

  • Page 194 and 195:

    178 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6to r

  • Page 196 and 197:

    180 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6suff

  • Page 198 and 199:

    182 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Righ

  • Page 200 and 201:

    184 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6•

  • Page 202 and 203:

    186 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6vent

  • Page 204 and 205:

    188 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6One

  • Page 206 and 207:

    190 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6tion

  • Page 208 and 209:

    192 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6orde

  • Page 210 and 211:

    194 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ICCP

  • Page 212 and 213:

    196 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6gans

  • Page 214 and 215:

    198 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6one

  • Page 216 and 217:

    200 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6his

  • Page 218 and 219:

    202 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6For

  • Page 220 and 221:

    204 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6c) A

  • Page 222 and 223:

    206 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the

  • Page 224 and 225:

    208 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6race

  • Page 226 and 227:

    210 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ing

  • Page 228 and 229:

    212 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6left

  • Page 230 and 231:

    214 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6judi

  • Page 232 and 233:

    216 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6b) R

  • Page 234 and 235:

    218 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6upon

  • Page 236 and 237:

    220 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6well

  • Page 238 and 239:

    222 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6•

  • Page 240 and 241:

    224 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Wher

  • Page 242 and 243:

    226 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6CHAP

  • Page 244 and 245:

    228 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6This

  • Page 246 and 247:

    230 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The

  • Page 248 and 249:

    232 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6law

  • Page 250 and 251:

    234 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6a re

  • Page 252 and 253:

    236 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Huma

  • Page 254 and 255:

    238 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the

  • Page 256 and 257:

    240 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6same

  • Page 258 and 259:

    242 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6civi

  • Page 260 and 261:

    244 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6As f

  • Page 262 and 263:

    246 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6priv

  • Page 264 and 265:

    248 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6•

  • Page 266 and 267:

    250 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6has

  • Page 268 and 269:

    252 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The

  • Page 270 and 271:

    254 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6allo

  • Page 272 and 273:

    256 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6stre

  • Page 274 and 275:

    258 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6is c

  • Page 276 and 277:

    260 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6educ

  • Page 278 and 279:

    262 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6CHAP

  • Page 280 and 281:

    264 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ther

  • Page 282 and 283:

    266 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6not

  • Page 284 and 285:

    268 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6•

  • Page 286 and 287:

    270 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6also

  • Page 288 and 289:

    272 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Wher

  • Page 290 and 291:

    274 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6•

  • Page 292 and 293:

    276 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6port

  • Page 294 and 295:

    278 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The

  • Page 296 and 297:

    280 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6irre

  • Page 298 and 299:

    282 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6any

  • Page 300 and 301:

    284 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6serv

  • Page 302 and 303:

    286 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6d) P

  • Page 304 and 305:

    288 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Cent

  • Page 306 and 307:

    290 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ANNE

  • Page 308 and 309:

    292 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ANNE

  • Page 310 and 311:

    294 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6of w

  • Page 312 and 313:

    296 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Amer

  • Page 314 and 315:

    298 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6righ

  • Page 316 and 317:

    300 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6of a

  • Page 318 and 319:

    302 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6a re

  • Page 320 and 321:

    304 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6prov

  • Page 322 and 323:

    306 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6one,

  • Page 324 and 325:

    308 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6When

  • Page 326 and 327:

    310 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Ther

  • Page 328 and 329:

    312 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6•

  • Page 330 and 331:

    314 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6the

  • Page 332 and 333:

    316 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6dire

  • Page 334 and 335:

    318 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6II.

  • Page 336 and 337:

    320 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Comm

  • Page 338 and 339:

    322 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Admi

  • Page 340 and 341:

    324 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6fina

  • Page 342 and 343:

    326 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 63. E

  • Page 344 and 345:

    328 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6asks

  • Page 346 and 347:

    330 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The

  • Page 348 and 349:

    332 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6subm

  • Page 350 and 351:

    334 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6ligh

  • Page 352 and 353:

    336 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6The

  • Page 354 and 355:

    338 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6a) B

  • Page 356 and 357:

    340 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6resp

  • Page 358 and 359:

    342 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6Spec

  • Page 360:

    344 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6(d)

  • Page 364:

    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng
Universal-ESCR-PG-no-8-Publications-Practitioners-guide-2014-eng
Universal-PG-13-Judicial-Accountability-Publications-Reports-Practitioners-Guide-2016-ENG
Universal-Fight-against-impunity-PG-no7-comp-Publications-Practitioners-guide-series-2015-ENG
Universal-PG-11-Asylum-Claims-SOGI-Publications-Practitioners-Guide-Series-2016-ENG
Universal-PG-13-Judicial-Accountability-Publications-Reports-Practitioners-Guide-2016-ENG
presentation-2014-eng-screen
18784-PG-Prospectus---ENG-final-web
PG Urban Conservation - University of Leicester
Universal-Enforced-Disappearance-and-Extrajudicial-Execution-PGNo9-Publications-Practitioners-guide-series-2015-ENG
2014-12-04-Camput-Prelim-Program-Eng
PG Engineering Brochure - The University of Nottingham, Malaysia ...
Security Forces send-off|pg. 6 - 102nd Intelligence Wing ...
Breakfast for Keiki >> pg 6 Pregnancy and Flu Shot ... - AlohaCare
What makes this unit 'special' pg 6-7 - Hurlburt Field
The Cool Kid with the Cool Dog pg. 6 - Can Do Canines
ENG 0XX - University of Maine at Augusta
idc-digital-universe-2014
European-facts-and-the-Global-status-report-on-violence-prevention-2014-Eng
HIPS-2014-Annual-Report-ENG.
pg 59-80 - Western Michigan University Athletics Department
March 6-8, 2014 - Pacific Dental Conference
Birth to 6 Years - Winter 2014 - KidsAbility