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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

76 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE

76 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6isfy the definition of “refugee” under that Convention, or for people whowish to apply for or are potentially able to qualify for asylum, but forwhom the circumstances of entry to the State of refuge does not allowthem to access immediately the ordinary Refugee Status DeterminationProcedure (RSDP), as in the case of a mass-influx of asylum-seekers.In situations of mass influx, the additional protection is necessary, notbecause of a “deficiency” of refugee protection, but due to factual circumstances,which may prevent the State from providing immediateaccess to the ordinary procedure for asylum. In these situations, theprinciple of non-refoulement in both refugee and international humanrights law (see, Chapter 2) obliges the State to grant some form oftemporary protection, until the persons concerned can access therefugee status determination procedure.In some cases, persons are excluded from protection as refugees not bythe Geneva Refugee Convention itself, but by restrictive interpretationof the Convention in the legislation or practice of the country of refuge.142 In these cases, the UNHCR ExCom has held that people shouldbe recognised as refugees under the Geneva Refugee Convention andthat complementary forms of protection should not be used to underminethe Convention protection. 143There are, however, other circumstances where persons in need ofprotection fall outside the definition of refugee in the Geneva RefugeeConvention. 144 These include people who are victims of the indiscriminateeffects of violence in conflict situations, 145 or persons who cannotbe expelled from the country of destination in light of the internationalhuman rights law principle of non-refoulement (see, Chapter 2), butwho do not fall within the refugee definition. The UNHCR ExCom definesprotection offered to people in these situations as “complementaryforms of protection”. 146There are situations where neither international human rights law northe Geneva Refugee Convention requires protection, but where theState has devised systems of protection for “humanitarian” or “compassionate”reasons, such as serious health risks or destitution by ex-142 See, Complementary Forms of Protection: Their Nature and Relationship to the InternationalRefugee Protection Regime, UNHCR, Doc. EC/50/SC/CRP.18, 9 June 2000, paras. 7–9. Seealso, Ruma Mandal, “Protection Mechanisms Outside of the 1951 Convention (“ComplementaryProtection”)”, in UNHCR Legal and Protection Policy Research Series, Department ofInternational Protection, UNCHR, UN Doc. PPLA/2005/02, June 2005, paras. 19–20, pp. 8–9.143 See, Conclusion No. 103 (LVI) Provision on International Protection Including Through ComplementaryForms of Protection, ExCom, UNHCR, 56 th Session, 2005, paras. (b) and (k).144 Ibid., para. 2.145 See Complementary Forms of Protection: Their Nature and Relationship to the InternationalRefugee Protection Regime, UNHCR, op. cit., fn. 142, paras. 10–11.146 See, Conclusion No. 103, UNCHR, op. cit., fn. 143.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 77treme poverty in case of return. Although varied terminology is used innational legislation, these will be referred to as “discretionary formsof protection”. These forms of protection, although sometimes inspiredby international human rights law, are in general not mandatedby it and remain at the discretion of the State. However, the existenceof crises such as famine, or natural disasters, which have an impacton the enjoyment of economic, social and cultural rights, might triggerthe obligations of all States to provide international cooperation for developmentand thus for the realisation of economic, social and culturalrights 147 which includes providing assistance to refugees and internallydisplaced persons. 148 These situations might, in certain circumstances,oblige the State to grant some form of temporary protection to thepersons affected.a) Temporary ProtectionTemporary protection constitutes, in the words of UNCHR, “a specificprovisional protection response to situations of mass influx providingimmediate emergency protection from refoulement”, 149 without formallyaccording refugee status. The term “temporary protection” is used incertain States to describe legal regimes including other forms of protection,such as in cases of people fleeing war or other crises. In thisGuide, the definitions provided by the UNHCR will be adopted, but theprinciples described here may also apply to different domestic regimes.The need for States to apply this protection comes from the obligation ofnon-refoulement both under international refugee law and internationalhuman rights law (see, Chapter 2). It is not a complementary form ofprotection to the Geneva Refugee Convention. It is a kind of “interimprotection” for people who may prima facie qualify as refugees, butwhose conditions of arrival mean that they cannot proceed immediatelythrough an ordinary RSDP.In these situations, the ExCom has established that “persons seekingasylum should always receive at least temporary refuge”, 150 and “[t]heyshould be admitted without any discrimination as to race, religion, politicalopinion, nationality, country of origin or physical incapacity.” 151147 See, General Comment No. 3, The nature of States Parties obligations, CESCR, UN Doc.HRI/GEN/1/Rev.9 (Vol.I), 14 December 1990, para. 14.148 See, inter alia, General Comment No. 12, The right to adequate food, CESCR, UN Doc.E/C.12/1999/5, 12 May 1999, para. 38; General comment No. 15, The right to water,CESCR, UN Doc. E/C.12/2002/11, 20 January 2003, para. 34; CESCR, General CommentNo. 14, op. cit., fn. 37, para. 40.149 Conclusion No. 103, UNHCR, op. cit., fn. 143, para. l.150 Conclusion No. 15, UNHCR, op. cit., fn. 120, para. (f).151 Conclusion No. 22 (XXXII) Protection of Asylum-Seekers in Situation of Large-Scale Influx,ExCom, UNHCR, 32 nd Session, 1981, para. (II-A-1).

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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