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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

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80 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE

80 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6and implemented in national legislation by many Latin American States.It has been endorsed by the Organisation of American States (OAS),by UNHCR’s Excom and by the Conference of the States Parties to theGeneva Refugee Convention. 162 Certain Asian and African countries,which are parties to the Asian-African Legal Consultative Organisation,may derive elements of their legislation from the Revised BangkokDeclaration which includes within its definition of refugee “every person,who, owing to external aggression, occupation, foreign domination orevents seriously disturbing public order in either part or the whole of hiscountry of origin or nationality, is compelled to leave his place of habitualresidence in order to seek refuge in another place outside his countryof origin or nationality.” 163 In EU law, the EU Qualification Directive (see,Box No. 6) grants complementary protection (known in the Directive as“subsidiary protection”) to people facing “serious and individual threatto a civilian’s life or person by reason of indiscriminate violence in situationsof international or internal armed conflict”. 164Finally, some people, who cannot return to their country because ofnon-refoulement concerns under human rights law, are nonetheless leftunprotected by the Geneva Refugee Convention or the regional instrumentsdescribed above. In these situations, certain regional organisations,like the EU, as well as national laws have afforded them othercomplementary forms of protection.Box 6. The EU approach: “subsidiary protection”Within the European Union, the Directive 2011/95/EC of13 December 2011 on standards for the qualification of thirdcountry nationals or stateless persons as beneficiaries of internationalprotection, for a uniform status for refugees andfor persons eligible for subsidiary protection, and for the contentof the protection granted (recast) (“the EU QualificationDirective”) establishes that international protection be grantednot only to refugees but also to persons eligible for “subsidiaryprotection”. “Subsidiary protection” is granted to third countrynationals or stateless persons not qualifying for refugee status“but in respect of whom substantial grounds have beenshown for believing that the person concerned, if returned tohis or her country of origin, or in the case of a stateless per-162 See, OAS General Assembly Resolution 1273 (XXIV–0/94) of 10 June 1994; ConclusionNo. 77, UNHCR, op. cit., fn. 79; 2001 Ministerial Declaration of States Parties to the 1951Convention and/or 1967 Protocol.163 1966 Bangkok Principles on Status and Treatment of Refugees, adopted on 24 June 2001 atthe Aalco’s 40 th session, New Delhi, Article I.2 (Revised Bangkok Declaration).164 Article 15, EU Qualification Directive, op. cit., fn. 98.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 81son, to his or her country of former habitual residence, wouldface a real risk of suffering serious harm [. . .], and is unable,or, owing to such risk, unwilling to avail himself or herself ofthe protection of that country”. 165 Under the Directive, seriousharm includes, first, sentencing to the death penalty or execution;second, torture or inhuman or degrading treatment orpunishment in the country of origin; and third, “serious andindividual threat to a civilian’s life or person by reason of indiscriminateviolence in situations of international or internalarmed conflict”. 166The first two grounds for subsidiary protection correspond totraditional grounds for non-refoulement according to internationalhuman rights law, although the limitation of subsidiaryprotection for torture and inhuman or degrading treatment orpunishment to refoulement to the country of origin, and notalso to third countries where the individual may be at risk,means that it falls short of the protection offered by internationallaw (see, Chapter 3). The third ground correspondsto the grounds for refugee protection provided by the OAURefugee Convention and the Cartagena Declaration (see, supra).It has been interpreted by the Grand Chamber of theEuropean Court of Justice as meaning that “the existence ofa serious and individual threat to the life or person of an applicantfor subsidiary protection is not subject to the conditionthat that applicant adduce evidence that he is specificallytargeted by reason of factors particular to his personalcircumstances”. 167 Furthermore, the Court has specified that“the existence of such a threat can exceptionally be consideredto be established where the degree of indiscriminate violencecharacterising the armed conflict taking place—assessed bythe competent national authorities before which an applicationfor subsidiary protection is made, or by the courts of aMember State to which a decision refusing such an applicationis referred—reaches such a high level that substantial groundsare shown for believing that a civilian, returned to the relevantcountry or, as the case may be, to the relevant region, would,solely on account of his presence on the territory of that countryor region, face a real risk of being subject to that threat.” 168165 Article 2(f), ibid.166 Article 15, ibid.167 Meki and Noor Elgafaji v. Staatssecretaris van Justitie, ECJ, GC, Case C-465/07, Judgmentof 17 February 2009.168 Ibid.

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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