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I R 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 T 14 15 A - SDP/SI

I R 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 T 14 15 A - SDP/SI

IRT12ELEMENTS OF METRIC GEAR TECHNOLOGYPHONE: 516.328.3300 • FAX: 516.326.8827 • WWW.SDP-SI.COMEven when a gear is ideally manufactured, it may reveal poor surface contact due tolack of precision in housing or improper mounting position, or both. Usual major faultsare:1. Shafts are not intersecting, but are skew (offset error).2. Shaft angle error of gear box.3. Mounting distance error.Errors 1 and 2 can be corrected only by reprocessing the housing/mounting. Error 3can be corrected by adjusting the gears in an axial direction. All three errors may be thecause of improper backlash.19.2.1 The Offset Error ofShaft AlignmentMetric0 1034If a gear box has an off seterror, then it will produce crossedend contact, as shown in Figure19-2. This error often appears asif error is in the gear tooth orientation.ErrorError519.2.2 The Shaft AngleError of Gear Box67As Figure 19-3 shows, thecontact trace will move towardthe toe end if the shaft angleerror is positive; the contacttrace will move toward the heelend if the shaft angle error is negative.Fig. 19-2 Poor Contact Due to Offset Error of Shafts89101112131419.2.3 Mounting Distance ErrorWhen the mounting distance of the pinion is a positive error, the contact of the pinionwill move towards the tooth root, while the contact of the mating gear will move toward thetop of the tooth. This is the samesituation as if the pressure angle(–) Shaftof the pinion is smaller than that(+) Shaft Angle Error Angle Errorof the gear. On the other hand,if the mounting distance of thepinion has a negative error, thecontact of the pinion will movetoward the top and that of thegear will move toward the root.This is similar to the pressureangle of the pinion being largerthan that of the gear. Theseerrors may be diminished by axialadjustment with a backing shim.The various contact patterns dueto mounting distance errors areshown in Figure 19-4.Fig. 19-3 Poor Contact Due to Shaft Angle Error15AT-222

ELEMENTS OF METRIC GEAR TECHNOLOGYPHONE: 516.328.3300 • FAX: 516.326.8827 • WWW.SDP-SI.COMMounting distance error will cause a change of backlash; positive error willincrease backlash; and negative, decrease. Since the mounting distance error of thepinion affects the surface contact greatly, it is customary to adjust the gear rather thanthe pinion in its axial direction.19.3 Surface Contact Of Worm And Worm GearThere is no specificJapanese standard concerningworm gearing,except for some specificationsregarding surfacecontact in JIS B 1741.Therefore, it is thegeneral practice to test thetooth contact and backlashwith a tester. Figure 19-5shows the ideal contact fora worm gear mesh.From Figure 19-5,we realize that the idealportion of contact inclinesto the receding side. Theapproaching side has asmaller contact trace thanthe receding side. Because the clearance in the approaching side is larger than in thereceding side, the oil film is established much easier in the approaching side. However,an excellent worm gear in conjunction with a defective gear box will decrease the levelof tooth contact and the performance.There are three major factors, besides the gear itself, which may influence thesurface contact:1. Shaft Angle Error.2. Center Distance Error.3. Mounting Distance Error of Worm Gear.Errors number 1 and number 2 can onlybe corrected by remaking the housing. Errornumber 3 may be decreased by adjusting theworm gear along the axial direction. These threeerrors introduce varying degrees of backlash.19.3.1. Shaft Angle Error(+) Error (–) ErrorPinion Gear Pinion GearFig. 19-4 Poor Contact Due to Error in Mounting DistanceMetric0 10Rotating DirectionIRT12345678910If the gear box has a shaft angle error,then it will produce crossed contact as shownin Figure 19-6.A helix angle error will also produce asimilar crossed contact.Approach SideRecess SideFig. 19-5 Ideal Surface Contact of Worm Gear11121314T-22315A

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