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A Parametric Study of Age-Related Factors Affecting ... - IRCOBI

A Parametric Study of Age-Related Factors Affecting ... - IRCOBI

IRC-13-50

IRC-13-50 IRCOBI Conference 2013TABLE 3SELECTED PARAMETERS AND THEIR LEVELS FOR ANALYSIS (NORMALIZED)ID Parameters ValueLevel1 2 3A Stiffness of Falx cerebri Young’s Modulus 1.0 2.0B Stiffness of Tentorium Young’s Modulus 1.0 1.5 2.0C Brain Atrophy PAC layer volume 1.0 1.3 1.6D Stiffness of WM Shear Modulus 0.5 1.0 1.5E Stiffness of GM Shear Modulus 0.5 1.0 1.5F Stiffness of CSF Shear Modulus 0.5 1.0 1.5G Stiffness of Ventricle Shear Modulus 0.5 1.0 1.5H Stiffness of BV Young’s Modulus 0.2 1.0 1.8Design of SimulationFor either case 1 (occipital impact) or case 2 (temporal impact), 18 different combinations of the eightstructural and material parameters were determined using L18 orthogonal array to see statistical significanceof each parameter on intracranial responses with a minimal number of simulations. Table 4 shows thecombination of the levels of each parameter for case 1 and case 2.TABLE 4L18 ORTHOGONAL TABLE OF PARAMETERSNo. A B C D E F G H No. A B C D E F G H1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 2 1 1 3 3 2 2 12 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 11 2 1 2 1 1 3 3 23 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 12 2 1 3 2 2 1 1 34 1 2 1 1 2 2 3 3 13 2 2 1 2 3 1 3 25 1 2 2 2 3 3 1 1 14 2 2 2 3 1 2 1 36 1 2 3 3 1 1 2 2 15 2 2 3 1 2 3 2 17 1 3 1 2 1 3 2 3 16 2 3 1 3 2 3 1 28 1 3 2 3 2 1 3 1 17 2 3 2 1 3 1 2 39 1 3 3 1 3 2 1 2 18 2 3 3 2 1 2 3 1Intracranial responsesKameyama et al. [13] investigated the incidence of such brain injuries as diffuse injury, contusion, acutesubdural hematoma (ASDH) and epidural hematoma (EDH) by age group. Figure 7 summarizes the results,showing that the incidence rates of ASDH and contusion increase with age and that of diffuse injury is high ineach age group. From these results, the following three injury metrics were selected for the index ofintracranial response to be investigated.・ Elongation of BVs: this metric is thought to be a predictor for rupture of BV which is one of the maincauses of ASDH.・ Dilatational Damage Measure (DDM) [14]: this metric is the volume ratio of the brain experiencing aspecified negative pressure level (-100kPa) and is thought to be a predictor for brain contusion.・ Cumulative Strain Damage Measure (CSDM) [14]: this metric is the volume ratio of the brainexperiencing a specified maximum principle strain level (0.2) and thought to be a predictor for diffuseaxonal injury (DAI).- 447 -

IRC-13-50 IRCOBI Conference 2013For the occipital impact (case 1), in order to investigate a mechanism of intracranial responses, a peak valueof the brain-skull relative motion at the front end of the brain, internal energy of CSF and internal energy ofthe brain were checked.Furthermore, in order to investigate the influence of impact direction on intracranial responses, totalinternal energy and peak ratio of the sum of internal energy of the falx cerebri and tentorium to total internalenergy, which was assumed to be related to the restriction of the falx cerebri and tentorium, were checked ineach impact direction.Fig. 7. Incidence rate of typical traumatic brain injuries by age groupIII. RESULTSInfluence of each parameter on injury metrics (case 1: occipital impact)Table 5 shows the simulation results of 18 combinations of parameters. In order to clarify the influence ofeach parameter on each injury metric, a factorial effect graph was plotted using the average value of each levelfor each parameter and the statistical significance of each parameter was confirmed by the analysis of variance.Figure 8 to Figure 10 show the factorial effects of each parameter on each injury metric where a dashed lineshows the average of all combinations, * means p

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