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# Chromatically unique bipartite graphs with low 3-independent ...

Chromatically unique bipartite graphs with low 3-independent ...

## 108 F.M. Dong et al. /

108 F.M. Dong et al. / Discrete Mathematics 224 (2000) 107–124Corollary 1.1. For p¿q¿3 and 06s6q − 1; if G ∈ K −s (p; q) − K −s2(p; q); thens = q − 1 and (G ′ )=q − 1.Two graphs G and H are said to be chromatically equivalent (or simply -equivalent),symbolically G ∼ H, ifP(G; )=P(H; ). The equivalence class determined by G under∼ is denoted by [G]. A graph G is chromatically unique (or simply -unique) ifH ∼ = G whenever H ∼ G. For a set G of graphs, if [G] ⊆ G for every G ∈ G, then Gis said to be -closed. In [1], we established the following result.Theorem 1.1. For integers p; q; s with p¿q¿2 and 06s6q−1; K −s2(p; q) is -closed.The complete bipartite graph K p;q is -unique for any p¿q¿2 (see [2,6]). Inthis paper, we shall search for -unique graphs or -equivalence classes from the setK −s2(p; q), where p¿q¿3 and 06s6q−1. Hence, in this paper, we x the followingconditions for p; q and s:p¿q¿3 and 06s6q − 1:For a graph G and a positive integer k, a partition {A 1 ;A 2 ;:::;A k } of V (G) is calleda k-independent partition in G if each A i is a non-empty independent set of G. Let(G; k) denote the number of k-independent partitions in G. For any bipartite graphG =(A; B; E), dene ′ (G; 3) = (G; 3) − (2 |A|−1 +2 |B|−1 − 2):In [1], we found the following sharp bounds for ′ (G; 3):Theorem 1.2. For G ∈ K −s (p; q) with p¿q¿3 and 06s6q − 1;s6 ′ (G; 3)62 s − 1;where ′ (G; 3) = s i (G ′ )=1 and ′ (G; 3)=2 s − 1 i (G ′ )=s.For t =0; 1; 2;:::; let B(p; q; s; t) denote the set of graphs G ∈ K −s (p; q) with ′ (G; 3) = s + t. Thus, K −s (p; q) is partitioned into the following subsets:B(p; q; s; 0); B(p; q; s; 1);:::;B(p; q; s; 2 s − s − 1):Assume that B(p; q; s; t)=∅ for t¿2 s − s − 1.Lemma 1.2. For p¿q¿3 and 06s6q − 1; if 06t62 q−1 − q − 1; thenB(p; q; s; t) ⊆ K −s2(p; q):Proof. We consider the following two cases.Case 1: s6q − 2. By the corollary to Lemma 1.1, K −s (p; q)=K −s2(p; q) and thusB(p; q; s; t) ⊆ K −s2(p; q) for all t.

F.M. Dong et al. / Discrete Mathematics 224 (2000) 107–124 109Case 2: s = q − 1. If 06t62 q−1 − q − 1, by Theorem 1.2, for any G ∈ B(p; q; s; t),we have (G ′ )6q − 2 and thus by the corollary to Lemma 1.1, G is 2-connected.Hence B(p; q; s; t) ⊆ K −s2 (p; q) if06t62q−1 − q − 1.For any graph G, we have P(G; )= ∑ k¿1(G; k)( − 1) ···( − k + 1) (see [5]).If G ∼ H, then (G; k)=(H; k) for k =1; 2;::: . Thus, by Theorem 1.1, the followingresult is obtained.Theorem 1.3. The set B(p; q; s; t) ∩ K −s2(p; q) is -closed for all t¿0.Corollary 1.2. If 06t62 q−1 − q − 1; then B(p; q; s; t) is -closed.We have proved in [1] the following result.Theorem 1.4. For any graph G ∈ B(p; q; s; 0) ∪ B(p; q; s; 2 s −s−1); if G is 2-connected;then G is -unique.In this paper, we shall show that every 2-connected graph in B(p; q; s; t) is-unique for 16t64. Further, we prove that every graph in K −s2(p; q) is-uniqueif 16s6min{4;q− 1}.2. B(p; q; s; t) for t64In this section, we shall study the structure of graphs in B(p; q; s; t) for t64.Lemma 2.1. For G =(A; B; E) ∈ K −s (p; q) with |A| = p and |B| = q; we havee(G ′ )= ∑ d G ′(x)= ∑ d G ′(y)=s:x∈A ′ y∈B ′For a graph G and x ∈ V (G), let N G (x) or simply N(x) denote the set of verticesy such that xy ∈ E(G). Let G =(A; B; E) be a graph in K −s (p; q) with |A| = p and|B|=q. Since s6q −16p −1, there exist vertices u ∈ A and v ∈ B such that N(u)=Band N(v)=A. Thus, for any independent set Q in G, ifu ∈ Q, then Q ⊆ A; ifv ∈ Q,then Q ⊆ B. Therefore for any 3-independent partition {A 1 ;A 2 ;A 3 } in G, there are atleast two A i ’s, say A 2 ;A 3 , such that A 2 ⊆ A and A 3 ⊆ B. Hence G has only two typesof 3-independent partitions {A 1 ;A 2 ;A 3 }:Type 1: either A 1 ∪ A 2 = A, A 3 = B or A 1 ∪ A 3 = B, A 2 = A.Type 2: A 1 ∩ A ≠ ∅, A 1 ∩ B ≠ ∅, A 2 = A − A 1 and A 3 = B − A 1 .The number of 3-independent partitions of Type 1 is 2 p−1 +2 q−1 − 2. Let (G) bethe set of 3-independent partitions {A 1 ;A 2 ;A 3 } of Type 2 in G. Thus | (G)|= ′ (G; 3)by the denition of ′ (G; 3). Let(G)={Q|Q is an independent set in G with Q ∩ A ≠ ∅;Q∩ B ≠ ∅}:

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