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Discussion Paper Series Racial Harassment, Ethnic Concentration ...

Discussion Paper Series Racial Harassment, Ethnic Concentration ...

the home safer and so

the home safer and so on, is a decision which will be motivated both by the prevalenceof harassment in the area and personal circumstances and characteristics which makeharassment harmful,n i = G(λ i , X i , Z j(i) ) (6)with ∂G/∂λ positive.A partially reduced form for this system relates harassment and precaution jointly tolocal characteristics, including local white attitudes, and personal circumstancesλ i = L(A j(i) , π j(i) , ∆π j(i) , X i , Z j(i) ) (7)n i = N(A j(i) , π j(i) , ∆π j(i) , X i , Z j(i) ). (8)The fact that A j(i) , π j(i) and ∆π j(i) enter (6) only through λ i implies cross-equation(proportionality) restrictions on the way that these enter (7) and (8) which could betested with suitable data.These equations pick up effects of ethnic context π j on harassment intensity givenwhite prejudice. However we can also substitute from (5) to develop a fully reduced formcapturing total dependence of harassment on π j incorporating its effect on white attitudesλ i = Λ(π j(i) , ∆π j(i) , X i , Z j(i) ) (9)n i = H(π j(i) , ∆π j(i) , X i , Z j(i) ). (10)Which of these we choose to estimate will depend upon the availability and reliabilityof information on local attitudes of the white community.Structural identification of (4) and (6) requires exclusion restrictions in the harassmentequation that are unlikely to be plausible. Characteristics which might encourageprecaution without affecting harassment propensities directly might be those which affectthe costliness to the victim of being harassed but in so far as these are observable by potentialharassers it is difficult to justify the exclusion required. Racism may, for instance,encourage people to direct harassment at the most vulnerable.Restrictions which might allow separation of effects through µ i and through ν i arealso difficult to imagine. Since several ambiguities have been identified in effects coming12

through f(·) and through g(·) overall impact of white attitudes and of ethnic densities onharassment are difficult to sign. 22 We may worry about endogeneity of location choice j(i) if our interest is in identifying effects conditionalon fixed location. Moving house is after all one extreme form of precaution. This could motivateinstrumenting A j(i) and π j(i) if suitable instruments exist but arguments for these tend to be tenuous.We do not follow this route.13

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