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Discussion Paper Series Racial Harassment, Ethnic Concentration ...

Discussion Paper Series Racial Harassment, Ethnic Concentration ...

Table 6:

Table 6: Harassment: Independent Negative BinomialVariable Coeff S.e. Coeff S.e. Coeff S.e. Coeff S.e.Local% Black/Asian -3.252 0.393 -6.373 1.120 -6.414 1.707 -6.061 1.854(% Black/Asian) 2 . . 7.958 2.612 7.874 4.199 5.928 4.324∆ % Immigrant . . . . 0.339 1.606 -0.429 1.667% Prejudiced . . . . . . -2.069 0.691London 0.349 0.066 0.429 0.072 0.571 0.091 0.818 0.126% Unemployed 2.318 0.623 2.633 0.646 2.411 0.946 2.843 1.042% With degree 0.288 0.600 0.373 0.616 -0.541 0.786 -0.433 0.861% Sharing facs 3.853 1.699 3.952 1.681 2.713 2.154 1.874 2.229% No cent heating -0.929 0.300 -0.701 0.305 0.056 0.383 -0.065 0.410PersonalMale 0.387 0.061 0.382 0.061 0.333 0.072 0.263 0.074Age 2.689 1.532 2.825 1.547 3.796 1.780 3.910 1.957Age 2 -3.762 1.821 -3.899 1.838 -4.055 2.117 -4.274 2.383Has children 0.097 0.086 0.110 0.087 0.046 0.099 -0.026 0.108No of children -0.021 0.230 -0.054 0.229 0.461 0.253 0.525 0.272Degree 0.426 0.086 0.425 0.087 0.575 0.103 0.562 0.105Voc training 0.230 0.083 0.236 0.083 0.307 0.095 0.304 0.093A Level 0.309 0.068 0.308 0.068 0.323 0.088 0.388 0.089Unemployed -0.212 0.071 -0.198 0.071 -0.175 0.079 -0.112 0.080Student 0.095 0.104 0.111 0.106 0.184 0.124 0.269 0.128Out of lab force -0.199 0.086 -0.198 0.088 -0.111 0.100 -0.116 0.105Foreign born -0.483 0.083 -0.484 0.084 -0.614 0.093 -0.605 0.096Caribbean 0.516 0.129 0.508 0.131 0.770 0.164 0.832 0.178Indian 0.258 0.137 0.259 0.138 0.539 0.165 0.651 0.199Afro Asian 0.633 0.133 0.635 0.134 0.930 0.178 1.066 0.209Pakistani 0.537 0.126 0.541 0.127 0.843 0.158 1.038 0.180Chinese 0.584 0.147 0.556 0.153 0.987 0.177 1.153 0.203Constant -2.479 0.336 -2.468 0.338 -3.178 0.445 -2.703 0.553ζ 1.473 0.054 1.474 0.054 1.483 0.065 1.499 0.073Mean log-likelihood -0.556 -0.556 -0.588 -0.588Number of cases 4930 4930 3651 343024

PrecautionsIn table 7 we present results from the precaution equation. The pattern of results regardinglocal area characteristics is very much compatible with the findings from directanalysis of harassment. As with harassment, precautions seem to decrease with ethnicconcentration, though the effect is well determined only in the linear specification. Asbefore, the effect of changes in ethnic composition on precautions is positive, but notsignificant. There is no strong evidence of association with local white prejudice. Localunemployment nonetheless appears possibly to be associated with more precautionarybehavior.There are few significant effects from personal characteristics although those with morechildren do seem more inclined to undertake precautions and there are some differencesamong racial groups (with Caribbeans noticeably disinclined to precaution).Joint EstimationNot all determinants of precautions and harassment are observable. Much variation inthese two variables is explained by unobservables. In table 8 we present results of a jointmodel, where we allow the unobservables in the two equations to be correlated. Theestimates point very conclusively towards a positive value for ψ showing that harassmentand precautionary behavior are positively associated either because of correlationin unobserved influences or because precaution responds to the prevalence of harassment.The main influences remain well identified when estimated jointly. In particular,our key finding of a negative relationship between ethnic concentration on the one handand the incidence of harassment and of precautionary responses on the other continuesto find strong support in these estimates (although specifications with nonlinear termsare less well estimated). There is still no clear evidence of any effect from changes inimmigrant numbers and the puzzling result on association with local white prejudicehas now disappeared. At the same time, some evidence of association between localunemployment and harassment remains apparent.Table 9 presents some of the same results in terms of the implied marginal effects at25

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