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Discussion Paper Series Racial Harassment, Ethnic Concentration ...

Discussion Paper Series Racial Harassment, Ethnic Concentration ...

Again, except for

Again, except for education and age, little evidence is found to relate individual or otherarea characteristics to the outcome variable.To summarize, higher ethnic concentrations in the individual’s immediate neighborhoodseem to be associated, at least at all but high values of ethnic concentration, withhigher hostility towards ethnic minorities. This is in stark contrast with the harassmentestimates in the previous section. This suggests strongly that racial abuse is not justan intensification of hostile prejudice towards minorities. In fact at low ethnic minoritydensities the two measures relate to ethnic concentrations in the opposite way, indicatingthat, although whites in areas with higher ethnic concentration tend to be more prejudicedtowards minorities, incidents of racial harassment occur less frequently. While theformation of attitudes seems therefore compatible with theories that predict a positivecorrelation between concentration of minorities and attitudes, the relationship betweenracial abuse and concentration points rather towards explanations that emphasize theopposite.It is not unlikely that attitudes are formed consistently with group conflict theories,while harassment is reduced with concentration due to decreasing contact, as well as safetyin numbers serving as a deterrent of aggression, as predicted by the power differentialhypothesis. On the basis of our results, the contact hypothesis, for example, has littleground as a complete underlying explanation for attitude formation, as it should predicta negative relationship between ethnic concentration and prejudice, and it is thereforealso unlikely to be a candidate for explaining racial harassment.7 ConclusionsIn this paper, we analyze the association between ethnic minority concentration, hostileattitudes towards minorities, and the probability of ethnic minorities experiencing racialhostility. Our main focus is on the relationship between ethnic concentration of minoritiesand economic conditions on the one side, and hostile attitudes as well as acts of racialharassment on the other. In addition, we investigate in detail precautionary behavior ofminority individuals. Changes in behavior induced by fear of racial violence may lead to32

Table 12: Inter-ethnic marriage: Probit, Marginal EffectsVariable Coeff S.e. Coeff S.e. Coeff S.e.Local% Black/Asian 0.038 0.139 1.265 0.486 0.987 0.616(% Black/Asian) 2 . . -2.925 1.060 -3.670 1.455∆ % Immigrant . . . . 2.012 3.023London 0.116 0.054 0.078 0.050 0.089 0.056% Unemployed 0.049 0.340 -0.121 0.279 0.651 0.593% With degree -0.159 0.238 -0.370 0.253 -0.311 0.274% Sharing facs -1.394 0.910 -1.388 0.986 -1.556 1.532% No cent heating -0.025 0.119 -0.057 0.108 -0.196 0.142PersonalMale 0.001 0.017 0.003 0.018 -0.006 0.023Age 0.142 0.027 0.146 0.027 0.136 0.032Age 2 -0.008 0.003 -0.008 0.003 -0.007 0.003Has children -0.016 0.047 -0.011 0.046 -0.054 0.057No of children 0.015 0.021 0.014 0.021 -0.033 0.027Degree -0.175 0.045 -0.175 0.045 -0.145 0.048Voc training -0.064 0.027 -0.059 0.027 -0.050 0.031A Level -0.058 0.021 -0.055 0.021 -0.051 0.025Unemployed -0.049 0.050 -0.051 0.050 -0.026 0.053Student -0.063 0.068 -0.058 0.068 -0.035 0.076Out of lab force -0.006 0.027 -0.006 0.027 -0.028 0.029Constant -0.624 0.092 -0.632 0.088 -0.639 0.113Mean log-likelihood -0.523 -0.597 -0.519Number of cases 2491 2491 1777Dependent variable: Respondent minds marriage of close relative with ethnic minority individual. Seefootnote to table 10 for wording of question.33

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