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Dolines and sinkholes - Ispra

Dolines and sinkholes - Ispra

Acta carsologica, 32/ 2

Acta carsologica, 32/ 2 (2003)Subsoil karrenInfiltration and percolationConcentrated drainageACCELERATEDSOLUTIONDOLINESoluble rocksLimestoneCaveCOLLAPSEDOLINESandstoneLimestoneSUBSIDENCEDOLINESoluble rocksCover materialLimestoneCOVERDOLINESoluble rocksCave fillingsLimestoneStalagmitesSoluble rocksINTERSECTIONDOLINEFig. 1: The main categories of dolines. The anthropogenic dolines are not represented.44

Ugo Sauro: Dolines and sinkholes: Aspects of evolution and problems of classificationABCDEF- “normal”, dolines, or “accelerated corrosion” dolines,- collapse dolines,- subsidence dolines,- cover dolines,- intersection dolines,- anthropogenic dolines.Between the category of the normal solution dolines, the forth criterion provides the possibilityof distinguishing some main types and in particular:A1. drawdown doline,A2. point recharge doline,A3. inception doline,A4. underprinting doline.Between these types, it is possible to recognise sub-types according to points 5 and 6. Forexample, it is possible to distinguish very active dolines from inactive or relict dolines, “chalktype” dolines from“massive limestone type”POINT RECHARGE DOLINESUBSOIL KARRENSUBSOIL KARRENINFILTRATION AND PERCOLATIONINFILTRATION AND PERCOLATIONCONCENTRATED DRAINAGE"COMMON" ACCELERATED CORRSION DOLINE OR "DRAWDOWN DOLINE"CAPILLARY BARRIERCONCENTRATED DRAINAGEFig. 2: The two most known types of accelerated corrosion dolines.CAPILLARY BARRIERdolines, fault line dolinesfrom dolines developedalong not displacedfractures, inception dolinesdetermined by cherty lensesfrom inception dolinesdetermined by the contactof different types oflimestones, etc…While types A1 and A2are already well defined(Ford & Williams, 1989)and generally accepted(Fig. 2), the type A3 is anew one (Fig. 3), firstlydescribed in theEncyclopedia of Caves,awaiting publication now(Sauro, in press - a). An“inception doline” resultsfrom the focusing of thevertical drainage of ahanging aquifer, hosted ina soluble rock and markedby a diffuse conductivity,through a vent in animpermeable layer situated45

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