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SUMMARY OF KEY IMMIGRATION REFORM PROPOSALS ...

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Delivering Economic OpportunityNational EmploymentLaw Project<strong>SUMMARY</strong> <strong>OF</strong> <strong>KEY</strong> <strong>IMMIGRATION</strong> <strong>REFORM</strong> <strong>PROPOSALS</strong>: IMMIGRANT WORKER ISSUESThis chart analyzes elements of key legislative proposals for immigration reform, with particular focus on issues of interest to immigrant workers. Theseproposals include: Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (“IRCA”), Pub. L. 99‐603, 100 Stat. 3359, 99th Cong. (1986). This statute’s amnesty/legalization provisionsprovide an earlier benchmark for legalization proposals. Immigration Reform Bill of 2004: Strengthening America’s National Security, Economy, and Families (“Hagel‐Daschle”), S. 2010, 108th Cong. (2004).Introduced by Sens. Hagel and Daschle. Safe, Orderly, Legal Visa and Enforcement Act (“SOLVE”), S. 2381/H.R. 4262, 108th Cong. (2004). Introduced by Sens. Kennedy, Feingold, Clinton andRep. Luis Gutierrez. Secure American and Orderly Immigration Act (“McCain/Kennedy”), S. 1033/H.R. 2230, 109th Cong. (2005). Introduced by Sens. Kennedy and McCain. Agricultural Job Opportunities, Benefits and Security Act (“Ag Jobs”), introduced in several sessions, including S. 359/H.R. 884, 109th Cong. (2006); aspart of the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006, S. 2611 (109th Cong. (2006); and reintroduced in 2007 as S. 340/H.R. 371, 110th Cong.(2007). Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006 (“CIRA”), S. 2611, 109th Cong. (2006). Introduced by Senators Hagel, Martinez, McCain, Kennedy,Graham, and Brownbeck, and was passed by the Senate. The bill never became law, as it failed in conference committee (House counterpart H.R. 4437). Comprehensive Immigration Reform of 2007 (“CIR 2007”), S. 1639, 110th Cong. (2007). Introduced by Sen. Kennedy and Specter. Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2011 (“CIRA 2011”), S. 1258, 112th Cong. (2011). Introduced by Senators Menendez, with Sens. Reid, Leahy,Durbin, Schumer, Kerry, Murray, and Gillibrand.<strong>KEY</strong>PROVISIONSGeneralreduction ofimmigrationbacklogs andgeneral accessto family visasLegalizationProvisionsIRCA Hagel‐Daschle SOLVE McCain/ AgJobs CIRA CIR 2007 CIRA 2011KennedyYes Yes Yes Yes No Yes. Yes. Yes.Temporaryresidentstatusgranted if 1)timelyapplication;Workers inindustries, herefor 5 years with 3years of work.$1000 fine,payment of taxes,Workers in allindustries, herefor 5 years with24 months or1800 hours ofwork.Adjustment totemporary H‐5B status withinitial stay of 6years. H‐5Bvisa holdersAgriculturalworkers whohave worked 863hours or 150 daysover 24 months.Payment of fineAlso includesprovisions of AgJobsand DREAM Act.Earned legalizationfor unauthorizedimmigrants with 5Also includes provisionsof AgJobs and DREAMAct.Creation of Znonimmigrant visa.Requires physicalAlso includesAgJobs and DREAMAct.Expands basis offamily reunificationand increasesNational Employment Law Project—Immigrant Worker Justice Project | www.nelp.org | www.immigrantworkerjustice.org


<strong>KEY</strong>PROVISIONSTemporaryWorkerProgram?2IRCA Hagel‐Daschle SOLVE McCain/Kennedy2) continuous English.Exceptions for could thenresidence Exceptions for age/disability/e adjust to LPRsince 1/1/82; age/spouse/ ducation. upon work3) continuous humanitarian Transitional requirement,physical waivers.program for payment ofpresence Transitional those who do fine, and othersince worker for those not qualify for eligibilityenactment; 4) who worked 2 legalization: 5+ criteria.admissible as years and 5 years yearsimmigrant, 5) continuous employmentminimal presence. authorization;English.eligibility toGrantsadjust to LPR,authorizationdemonstrationto travel,of 2 yearswork.employment.Cuban –Haitianadjustment.Yes. CreatedH‐2ATemporaryAgriculturalWorkerprogram.Yes. “WillingWorkerProgram,”350,000 visas,creation of H‐2Cprogram; sunsetsin 5 years.Employer orworker’s unioncan petition atYes. 250,000visas, no sunsetprovision.Yes. Creationof “EssentialWorker”program.400,000 visasper year, pluspercentageincrease.AgJobs CIRA CIR 2007 CIRA 2011and applicationfee. SubsequentLPR status afterworking for 100‐150 days/year for3‐5 years,payment of fine,and payment ofincome taxes.Yes.“Streamlines”current H‐2Aprogram.years continuousresidence; 3 yearsemployment before;6 years employmentafter date ofenactment.Mandatorydeparture and reentryfor those with2‐5 years residence.Includes Ag‐Jobs andDREAM.Yes. Creates H‐2Cvisa for up to 6 yearsof temporaryworkers.presence from specifieddate, must be employedon date of applicationand seek to continuelabor, services, oreducation; orspouse/child of Z visaapplicant physicallypresent.Must not be inadmissibleor subject to final orderof removal ordeportation, specificcriminal background.Must pay penalty andprocessing fee, taxes.Adjustment to LPR notpermitted until backlogclears. $4000 penalty,travel to home countryfor adjustment. Noeligibility for publicbenefits.Exclusion for criminalhistory and otherinadmissibility grounds.Yes. Creates Y visa fortemporary workers;amends H2A and H1Bprovisions.number of availablevisas. “Lawfulprospectiveimmigrant status” ifphysically presenton June 1, 2011,and continuouspresence since thatdate. Grants workauthorization;ability to travel.Processing/penaltyof $500. Ability toadjust status to LPRafter 8 years orafter backlog clears.Must prove Englishlanguageacquisition,satisfaction ofnaturalizationrequirements,payment of taxescontinuouspresence. $1000fee.Exclusion forcriminal history andother inadmissibilitygrounds.Yes. Amends H2Aprogram. Includesprotections forcollectivebargainingagreements.Establishes standingcommission onforeign workers,National Employment Law Project—Immigrant Worker Justice Project | www.nelp.org | www.immigrantworkerjustice.org


<strong>KEY</strong>PROVISIONSIRCA Hagel‐Daschle SOLVE McCain/Kennedyany time forworker to remainpermanently.LEGALIZATION PROVISIONSFuture work NoYes.requirement?Laborprotectionswhile inapplicant stageCorrection ofSocial SecurityrecordswithoutpenaltyEmployersprotected fromemployersanctionsliability forprovision ofrecordsEmploymentdocumentsneeded toestablisheligibility?NoYes, one year,including fortransitionalprogram.Same rights asthose authorizeto work.No, except fortransitionalprogram.Same rights asthoseauthorized towork.Same rights asthoseauthorized towork.AgJobs CIRA CIR 2007 CIRA 2011Yes. Generally,450‐500 days inagricultural workover 6 years.Equal rights withother workers.Administrativeprocess if firedwithout “justcause.”Yes—6 years Yes. Must be employedat time of applicationand seek futureemployment.NoNo No NoNo Yes Yes No Yes No Precludes SS credits forperiods without workauthorization. AssignsSSN after grant of visa.Createsemploymentsanctions.No, except forSpecialAgriculturalWorkers, whomustdocumentwork history.Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes YesYes. SSA, paystubs, IRS, daylabor center orunion records,governmentdocuments.Yes. Includespay stubs, taxrecords, daylabor centerrecords, orotherdocuments.Yes. Includespay stubs, taxrecords, daylabor centerrecords, orotherdocuments.Eligibility can beestablished withgovernmentemploymentrecords,employmentrecords,collectivebargainingagreements, orother reliabledocumentation.Yes. Includes paystubs, tax records,day labor centerrecords, or otherdocuments.Yes. Includes bankrecords, businessrecords, employerrecords, labor union/daylabor center, remittancerecords.labor markets.Yes. Also assignsSSN after grantedlawful prospectiveimmigrant status.Creation of new SScards.No. Eligibility needsto be based onpresence.3National Employment Law Project—Immigrant Worker Justice Project | www.nelp.org | www.immigrantworkerjustice.org


<strong>KEY</strong>IRCA Hagel‐Daschle SOLVE McCain/ AgJobs CIRA CIR 2007 CIRA 2011PROVISIONSKennedyIMMIGRANT WORKER PROTECTIONSHoffman N/A No Yes No No No No YesPlastic fix(back pay forundocumentedworkers underNLRA).NoninterferenceNo Yes Yes No No No No NobyICE in labordisputes/retaliationVisas forvictims oflabor lawviolationsNo Yes Yes No No No No Yes. IncludesPOWER Act,providing U visa forvictims of labor andemploymentviolations.Temporaryprotection fromdeportation forvictims ofcrime/laborviolations.Redefinition ofdocumentfraudNo Yes Yes No No No No NoEligibility forLSC services4Designatesqualifiedvoluntaryorganizationsforassistance; H‐2A workershave LSCeligibility.No Yes No Yes No No NoOther Broadens groundsfor unfairimmigration relatedpractices; barsNational Employment Law Project—Immigrant Worker Justice Project | www.nelp.org | www.immigrantworkerjustice.org


<strong>KEY</strong>PROVISIONS5IRCA Hagel‐Daschle SOLVE McCain/KennedyTEMPORARY WORKER PROVISIONSRecruitment ofU.S. workersNot specified Yes. Attestation,with some limits.14‐dayrecruitmentperiod.Pathway tolegalization fortemporaryworkersEnforcementSchemeYes. SpecialAgriculturalWorkers.Residence inU.S. andagriculturalwork for 90days.Naturalizationrequires 5years.Not specifiedYes. Attestation,with somelimits. 14‐dayrecruitmentperiod.Yes, after 3 years. Yes, after 2years.No private rightto sue, DOLenforcement.Equal rights withU.S. workers.Private right tosue; DOLenforcement;Equal rightswith U.S.Yes.Attestation.30‐dayrecruitmentperiod.Yes, after 4years orsponsorship byemployer.Equal rightswith U.S.workers.Whistleblowerprotections.AgJobs CIRA CIR 2007 CIRA 2011Yes. Attestation,with some limits.28 day postingwith Job Bank; 14day posting inlocal publication.50% rulepreference forU.S. workers.Only for H‐2Asheepherders,goat herders ordairy workerswho have workedfor 36 months.Private right tosue. Continuedexclusion fromAgriculturalWorkerYes. Attestation. 14day recruitmentperiod.Floor Amendmentallows self‐petition ifin H2‐C status for 4years; employerattests job isavailable; DOLcertifies there are nosufficient workersavailableDOL enforcement.Y visas: Yes, attestation.10 day recruitmentperiod. No Y visa grantedif labor disputes inprogress at workplace,or in area whereunemployment rate ismore than 7%.H‐2A workers:attestation. 14 dayrecruitment period.No. (exception for thosewho fit within AgJobsframework).DOL enforcement.Private right of action(H2A).Bars threats ofreverification foranything other thanexpiration or tointerfere with laborrights or retaliation.Defines retaliationas unfairimmigration relatedpractice, includingdisparate impact.Increase penaltieson notario fraud.Yes. Attestation.Must contactformer workers. 28day posting withJob Bank; 14 dayposting in localpublication. 50%rule preference forU.S. workers.Only for H‐2Asheepherders, goatherders or dairyworkers whoworked for 36months.DOL enforcement.Private right ofaction, includingmediation.WhistleblowerNational Employment Law Project—Immigrant Worker Justice Project | www.nelp.org | www.immigrantworkerjustice.org


<strong>KEY</strong>PROVISIONSWageenhancementsIRCA Hagel‐Daschle SOLVE McCain/Kennedyworkers. DOLenforcement.Not specifiedPrevailing orDavis‐Bacon,Service ContractAct, or collectivebargaining. Studyon wagedepression.Prevailing orenhanced DOLWage (or Davis‐Bacon, ServiceContract Act, orcollectivebargaining)Not specifiedAgJobs CIRA CIR 2007 CIRA 2011Protection Act.Prevailing wageor currentenhanced wage;whatever ishigher. Studynew methods ofdeterminingenhanced wage.Additionalprovisions forguaranteed work;housingallowance, andtransportationreimbursement.Study wagedepression.Prevailing wage.withdrawal of protectionfor exercise of rights.Same labor rights as U.S.workers.Prevailing wage for bothY and H2A visa holders;Raises floor for requiredwage if Congress doesnot raise wage standardsfor H2A.Y visa applicants mustpay visa processing fee,state impact fee, andundergo medical exam,subject to backgroundcheck. Must showmedical insurancecoverage for spouse andchildren. Visa valid for 2years; may be extendedfor 2 more years. Noextension unless Y visaholder has spent 12months outside the U.S.Y visa holders may traveloutside the U.S.Permanent bar foroverstay.protection allowingportability if claimbrought.Includes wage/hourprotections; DOLcommission onwage standards.Prevailing wage;requirement forhousing6H2A workers may onlybe present for 10months, may not renewunless outside of U.S. for1/5 of time spent in U.S.Exception for dairyworkers.National Employment Law Project—Immigrant Worker Justice Project | www.nelp.org | www.immigrantworkerjustice.org


<strong>KEY</strong>PROVISIONSIRCA Hagel‐Daschle SOLVE McCain/KennedyJob portability No Yes, after 3 Yes, after 3 No.months.months. Termination ofstatus within45 days of lossofemployment.But workerswho haveobtained priorvisa mayaccept newemploymentwithsubsequentemployer.<strong>IMMIGRATION</strong> ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONSElectronicVerification7Createdemployersanctions andoriginalverificationsystem.Study on useof telephoneverificationsystem.None None New biometricvisas;electronicemploymentverificationsystem.AgJobs CIRA CIR 2007 CIRA 2011Not for H2Atemporaryworkers.NoneNo. Status lost ifunemployed for 60days.Establishes electronicverifications system.Requires allemployers toparticipate afterimplementation.Nonconfirmation:providesnonconfirmationwith 10 day period tocontest; employersmay not terminateemployment basedon tentativenonconfirmationuntil finalconfirmation issued.Compensation forlost wages for error.Civil penalties forhiring ofunauthorizedworkers under EEVS:Y visa: Yes, if position isnewly certified, nounauthorized work, andnotification of change ofemployment.H2A: potentialportability for workerswho file complaint withDOL.Creates electronicverification system. After6 months, newemployees at someemployers hired must besubject to EEVS; 18months, all newemployees and thosewho are subject toreverification due toexpiration of documents.After 3 years: applies toall employees notpreviously verified inEEVS. Some employersrequired to submitbiometrics.Nonconfirmation: leadsto termination ofcontinued employment.Employer may not useEEVS prior to offeringemployment; cannotterminate or retaliateWhistleblowerprotections;portability ifcomplaint is filed.Creates employerverification system,requires federalcontractors,employers withmore than 1,000workers to complyin 2 years; 500+workers (3 years);100+ workers (4years) toparticipate; allemployers (5 years).Employeeprotections includenotice of nonconfirmation,administrativeappeal. ER mustterminateemployees withnon‐confirmation ifno admin appeal.Includes judicialappeal and privateNational Employment Law Project—Immigrant Worker Justice Project | www.nelp.org | www.immigrantworkerjustice.org


<strong>KEY</strong>PROVISIONSIRCA Hagel‐Daschle SOLVE McCain/KennedyAgJobs CIRA CIR 2007 CIRA 2011$500‐$20,000 perworker, criminalpenalties for patternviolations.due to further actionnotice. Complaintprocess for employees.Employer penalties from$5000‐$75,000.Government contractorsrequired to use EEVS.SSA No‐Match: mustestablish regulation forreasonable time tocorrect.Creates new fraudresistantsocial securitycards; requirescompliance with REAL ID.right of action.Compensation forerror/lost wagesWorksiteEnforcementProvisions8Enactedemployersanctionsregime.None None None None Adds fine of $5000and 3‐year term ofimprisonment forworkers who falselyrepresent eligibilityfor employment.Increases DHSworksiteinvestigations; SSAno‐match disclosureto DHS; preemptsstate laws thatrequire shelter forday labor;strengthenedemployer liability forCreates voluntaryprogram to allowemployers to submit andverify employee’sfingerprints fordetermining identity ofemployee.Limits use of state ID asidentity document if notcompliant with REAL ID;requires employers toretain copy ofverification. See abovefor increased employerpenalties.Worksiteenforcementmeasures extendemployer sanctionsto those with“reckless disregard”for employment ofunauthorizedworkers, includingcontractors andsubcontractors.Adds civil penalty of$2000‐$5000 forhiring ofunauthorizedworker; up toNational Employment Law Project—Immigrant Worker Justice Project | www.nelp.org | www.immigrantworkerjustice.org


<strong>KEY</strong>PROVISIONSImmigrationEnforcementProvisions9IRCA Hagel‐Daschle SOLVE McCain/KennedyIdentifiesfacilities toincarceratedeportableimmigrants;authorizesenforcementappropriationfor INS. Statereimbursement for costs ofincarceratingundocumented immigrantsand Cubannationals.None None Extensive.Developmentof a nationalstrategy forbordersecurity; aerialsurveillance;groundsurveillancetechniquesagainsttrafficking;security onMexico’ssouthernborder;tracking ofCentralAmericangangs;reimbursement to states forcost ofAgJobs CIRA CIR 2007 CIRA 2011Noneviolation of employersanctions.Extensive. Increasesborder enforcement,database andbiometricimmigrationdocuments. SCAAPcompensation toreimburse states forprocessingundocumentedimmigrants.Extensive. Increase ofCBP officers, additionaltechnological assets andinfrastructure for borderenforcement, biometricexit‐entry system,unmanned aircraftsystems, andsurveillance technologyalong border, US‐VISIT,and document fraud.Development of nationalborder security policy.Criminalizes flight fromimmigration or customspatrol; increase offederal detentionfacilities, northernborder.Expansion of LOPprograms in detention;promulgation of$25,000 for repeatviolations. 5‐yearterm ofimprisonment forhiring 10+unauthorizedworkers. Privateright of action foranyone injured byreason ofemployment of anunauthorizedworker.10 year prison termfor abusiveemployment for10+ unauthorizedworkers.Extensive.Legalizationconditioned onbaseline fundingand employment ofBorder PatrolAgents, immigrationcourt staff. 2500additional Northernand Southernborder CBP officers;additional Port ofEntry construction.1000 additionalalien smugglinginvestigators.Reimbursements tostates forincarceration ofundocumentedimmigrants.Implements USVISIT system. IllegalNational Employment Law Project—Immigrant Worker Justice Project | www.nelp.org | www.immigrantworkerjustice.org


<strong>KEY</strong>PROVISIONSIRCA Hagel‐Daschle SOLVE McCain/Kennedyincarceratingundocumentedimmigrants.AgJobs CIRA CIR 2007 CIRA 2011detention standards,office of detentionoversight. Alternatives todetention. Expandsauthority to detain forextended period.Expands aggravatedfelony grounds,inadmissibility of gangmembers; increasedcriminal penalties fordrunk driving, illegalentry, perjury, andfirearms offenses.Criminalizes illegal entrywith imprisonment of 6months, heightenspenalties for illegalreentry, immigrationfraud offenses.Increases incarcerationof criminal aliens.Provides appropriationsfor state and localenforcement of federalimmigration laws.entry fine of $250‐$500. Illegalreentry—2 yearsimprisonment.Reentry of criminaloffenders =10 yearsentence.Requiresalternatives todetention;implementation ofcivil detentionstandards. Trainingfor Border Securityon civil rights.Requires report ondeaths at Southernborder. Amends287(g) by requiringreview of terms ofcompliance.Requires releasefrom detention forvulnerable groups;protections forfamilies withchildren. CreatesICE Ombudsman.Eliminates timelimits on asylumapplications.Detainers: RequiresDHS to confirmalienage andidentity,removability, andvictim status beforeissuing detainer.10National Employment Law Project—Immigrant Worker Justice Project | www.nelp.org | www.immigrantworkerjustice.org


<strong>KEY</strong>PROVISIONSIRCA Hagel‐Daschle SOLVE McCain/KennedyAgJobs CIRA CIR 2007 CIRA 2011Increased criminalpenalties for gangviolence.Increased criminalpenalties for SSNfraud. Creates SSAno‐match disclosureto DHS.PreemptionPreemptionof states andlocalities fromimposingsanctions onthose whorecruitunauthorizedworkers.1 year prison termfor use of falsedocuments, withprotections forrefugees.Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified Not specified Preemption of stateand local employersanctions laws;preemption of anystate or local lawthat discriminatesor imposessanctions on basisof immigrationstatus.Please contact Eunice Cho, Staff Attorney, National Employment Law Project at echo@nelp.org with any questions or suggestions for this chart.11National Employment Law Project—Immigrant Worker Justice Project | www.nelp.org | www.immigrantworkerjustice.org

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