Appendix M Recreation and Tourism Effects - Hurunui District Council

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Appendix M Recreation and Tourism Effects - Hurunui District Council

Rob Greenaway &AssociatesMeridian EnergyProject Hurunui WindProposalAssessment of Recreationand Tourism Effects17 February 2011www.greenaway.co.nzProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 0Rob Greenaway & Associates


Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 1Rob Greenaway & Associates


Meridian EnergyProject Hurunui Wind ProposalRecreation and Tourism Assessment of EffectsContents12Introduction and summary ............................................................................................................. 31.1 Report structure ........................................................................................................................ 31.2 Recreation and tourism values .................................................................................................. 41.3 Summary of effects ................................................................................................................... 41.4 Future tourism options .............................................................................................................. 5Aims and objectives ....................................................................................................................... 62.1 Aim ............................................................................................................................................ 62.2 Objectives ................................................................................................................................. 62.3 Definitions and scope ................................................................................................................ 62.4 Method ...................................................................................................................................... 63 Recreation and tourism activities near proposal area ................................................................. 73.1 Hurunui Tourism ........................................................................................................................ 83.1.1 Summary ................................................................................................................................................ 193.2 Tourism flows .......................................................................................................................... 203.3 Public reserve and conservation lands .................................................................................... 203.4 Motunau Beach ....................................................................................................................... 233.5 Waipara and Glenmark ........................................................................................................... 233.6 Greta Valley ............................................................................................................................ 243.6.1 Tipapa ..................................................................................................................................................... 243.7 Omihi ....................................................................................................................................... 253.8 Scargill .................................................................................................................................... 253.9 Significance ............................................................................................................................. 2545Literature review summary .......................................................................................................... 274.1 United Kingdom ....................................................................................................................... 284.2 Australasia .............................................................................................................................. 314.3 Summary ................................................................................................................................. 31Effects of the proposal ................................................................................................................. 335.1 Construction ............................................................................................................................ 335.2 Operation ................................................................................................................................ 335.3 Future tourism options ............................................................................................................ 355.4 Mitigation ................................................................................................................................. 355.5 Summary ................................................................................................................................. 366 References ..................................................................................................................................... 377Appendix 1: On-line literature search by location ..................................................................... 398Appendix 2: International research: wind farms, tourism and recreation ............................... 528.1 United Kingdom ....................................................................................................................... 528.2 Spain ....................................................................................................................................... 588.3 Australia .................................................................................................................................. 598.4 New Zealand ........................................................................................................................... 628.5 United States ........................................................................................................................... 65Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 2Rob Greenaway & Associates


1 Introduction and summaryThis report describes the effectsof a wind farm proposed byMeridian Energy for Centre Hillnear Greta Valley in NorthCanterbury (Figure 1). Theproject site is on six privatecattle and sheep farms –collectively almost 3,500 ha ofland. The proposed wind farmfootprint will includeapproximately 58 ha of that.Thirty-three turbine locationshave been identified. Themaximum height from theground to the top of the rotorarc of each turbine will be nogreater than 130.5m.Figure 1: LocationProposedHurunuiwind farm1.1 Report structureThis report provides: A description of the proposal and a summary of all key findings (this section). A definition of the aims, objectives, study area and method (Section 2). A review of all the recreation and tourism activities identified in the study area (Section3). A summary of international and national research relating to the effects of wind farms onrecreation and tourism (Section 4). A review of the effects of the proposal on these values (Section 5). A set of appendices that provide background data for a complete understanding of theissues raised in the main body of the report. Specifically, an on-line review of tourism andrecreation values in the study area and international case studies of wind farms andtourism.Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 3Rob Greenaway & Associates


1.2 Recreation and tourism valuesThe main regional tourism centre in the southern corner of the Hurunui District is Waipara,with its wine focus and association with the Weka Pass railway. Motunau Beach is a popularregional recreation destination with fishing charters the key tourism activity. Severalaccommodation options are available in the Greta Valley, including the Greta Valley CampingGround and several B&B-style services. The Woolshed at Tipapa (Tipapa) on Motunau ValleyRoad is a recently opened events venue associated with an accommodation service. Thereare few other tourism activities in the immediate area surrounding the proposed wind farm.The local setting is one where visitors are likely to stop off on their way through to otherdestinations (such as Waipara, Christchurch and Kaikoura), rather than a specific touristcentre in itself. Tipapa is the only setting operating as a specific visitor destination close to thewind farm site.Recreation settings within the immediate area are Motunau Beach, Scargill Golf Course andDomain, Omihi Reserve (the Glenmark Rugby Club and tennis courts), and the MotunauBeach Road (which is used for the Greta Valley Marathon Relay).1.3 Summary of effectsInternational research into the effects of wind farms indicates that they have little adverseeffect on tourism and recreation activity. This outcome partly results from the fact that windfarms are rarely built in areas with high tourism profiles, and also reflects that there is a mix ofpersonal responses to wind farm developments. The majority of respondents to relevantsurveys consider that wind farms have no effect on their activities.All primary research into the effects of wind farms on recreation and tourism cited in thisreport describe a portion of respondents who state that wind farm development would havean adverse effect on their likelihood of returning to a visitor setting. No surveys considerdeterrents to visiting a setting for the first time, because they are conducted in situ. There isalso a portion of respondents who state that wind farms are an attraction, although no datahas been located in preparing this report to support the finding that people will visit a regionspecifically because of wind farms. Rather, wind farms are something to visit while already ina visitor setting. The portion of respondents who do not like wind farms and who state thatwind farms would reduce the likelihood of visiting a destination may therefore represent apotential net loss to tourism. However, none of the studies cited have reported an actual lossin tourism activity, and the final conclusions are that wind farm developments have negligibleeffects on tourism and recreation. However, the caveat is that wind farms are generally notbuilt in popular visitor areas where tourism is fully dependent on landscape values.Effects of the operation of the proposed wind farm on recreation and tourism will relate to thevisibility and audibility of the turbines. There is little tourism or recreation activity in the areawhich defines itself by the landscape setting of Centre Hill, although the North Canterburylandscape in general is referred to as adding to the visitor experience. Tipapa is the exceptionand promotes itself as a specific seasonal destination (October to April), based around itsrestored woolshed, the sale of a small range of boutique products, refreshments, luxuryaccommodation and two short rural walks. The visual amenity of the Greta Valley andWaipara areas is supported by the pleasant rural backdrop, but there are no data to suggestthat the changes reviewed in the landscape assessment for the proposal would lead tonotable changes in regional tourism and recreation participation levels. For example, there islittle evidence to suggest that anglers fishing off Motunau would be less likely to visit as aresult of seeing a wind farm.Rough (2011), in his assessment of landscape and visual effects of the proposal concludesthat there will be ‘substantial’ effects from five publically accessible viewpoints: Greta Village Café and Bar car parkProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 4Rob Greenaway & Associates


SH1 and lay-by near “Glenmore” Motunau Beach Road near Greta Valley School Motunau Beach Road, 4km from SH1 Reeces Road opposite “Serrat Downs”None of these is a visitor setting where views of the wind farm are likely to have an adverseeffect on the recreation or tourism experience of the district. All but one (Greta Village Caféand Bar car park) are transit areas. The Greta Village Cafe and Bar car park is not, in itself, avisitor destination – unlike the bar and café itself, which looks out to the west. The GretaVillage Café and Bar is more likely to benefit from additional traffic stopping to observe thewind farm than suffer any adverse effect.It is unlikely that settings which have a ‘slight’ or lower visual effect from the wind farm willundergo any change to their level of recreation or tourism activity or satisfaction, consideringthe rural character of those settings and the minor contribution of the wind farm to the generalvista.Areas with ‘moderate’ visual effects may have some resulting effects on levels of recreation ortourism activity or satisfaction, if there is a dependency on the pre-existing character of thelandscape setting. Omihi Reserve (Glenmark), as a focus for sports activity, is unlikely tohave any change in participation or satisfaction levels considering its sporting focus.In relation to Tipapa, Rough (2011) concludes:With regard to the private property of Tipapa,... unless visitors take a walk on a futurewalking track to a feature referred to by the land owner as One Tree Hill, or roam onfoot or horseback over hills and farmland where turbines will be highly prominent insome views, the proposed wind farm will have only a very slight to nil landscape andvisual effect on those areas of Tipapa that are the principal visitor attractions.The proposed wind farm is unlikely to have long-term adverse effects on recreation andtourism in the Hurunui District. Some minor adverse effects may accrue to Tipapa during theconstruction phase, and upon completion the scene from some viewpoints on the property willchange. Some visitors to Tipapa may be adverse to wind farms in this setting, and‘substantial’ views of the turbines from farm walks will reduce the quality of their experience,although this may not translate into a reduction in the number of people who chose to take thewalk or stay at the property.As with any wind farm development, potential visitors to settings in the immediate area whodislike wind farms as a component of the landscape will have a reduced quality of experienceConversely, capitalising on the regionally rare option to view a wind farm should be examinedby local service operators and an appropriate opportunity developed. If that occurs, there maybe a small benefit from increased visitor activity in the Greta Valley area.1.4 Future tourism optionsThe wind farm proposal is unlikely to curtail the development of future tourism options in theHurunui District, considering the suite of tourism opportunities available regionally comparedwith the natural and developed features of the Greta Valley area. The wind farm footprint is onprivate land and the visual catchment is not strongly promoted for its landscape values,although they remain important.The wind farm itself may be of interest to some visitors, with Greta Valley its closest servicecentre. Working with service providers to develop an off-road viewing area and informationservices will afford local benefit by giving passing traffic an additional reason to stop. Thelocal community could establish a strategy to take further advantage of visitor interest bydeveloping an access opportunity to the turbines.Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 5Rob Greenaway & Associates


2 Aims and objectives2.1 AimReview the recreation and tourism values within the study area, assess the adverse andpositive effects of Meridian’s proposed wind farm on these values, and identify the potentialfor mitigating any adverse effects of the proposal.2.2 Objectives Identify and assess the significance of the recreation and tourism values in the studyarea. Review the impacts of the proposed operation of the wind farm on the identifiedrecreation values and describe the likely changes to the recreation setting. Propose mitigations required to manage any adverse effects. Identify any potential benefits.2.3 Definitions and scopeThis report deals with recreation and tourism values that may be affected by the developmentof the Project Hurunui wind farm. Recreation is loosely defined as activities pursued forpleasure during free time. Tourism is a subset of recreation. A tourist is a person stayingaway from home for at least one night while undertaking recreation. It is very hard to tell thedifference between a tourist and a recreational visitor within a recreation setting – theygenerally do the same things.A Kiwi family camping by a river might not consider themselves to be tourists, but by definitionthey are the same as an Australian visitor staying in the same location, although theAustralian may have a different expenditure pattern including international air travel, adifferent frequency of visit and some different expectations. Locally, their social, economicand environmental impacts will be very similar.This study does not consider personal recreation undertaken on one’s own property. Thiscould include watching television while glancing out the window at the view, or hunting on aprivate farm. Effects of a development proposal on such personal and local values areconsidered to be covered by, for example, landscape assessments, albeit at a generic level.How an individual responds during their recreation time to a development when experiencedfrom their own property is personal and specific and are not covered in this report. Effects onpublic recreation spaces are more general; visitors have more options as to where and howthey visit and effects of change are more broad and general, relating to tourism flows, generallevels of satisfaction and expenditure patterns.2.4 MethodThis study is based on: A comprehensive literature review including relevant recreation studies, national andregional policy documents and strategies, popular recreation and tourism guides (indexsearchedfor listings of the study area or potentially relevant locations), internetresources and international wind farm case studies and research reports; Site visits to the study area, including ‘The Woolshed at Tipapa’, Motunau Beach andother regional recreation settings; The review of project designs and parallel technical reports (such as noise, landscape,traffic and construction), and communication with their authors.Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 6Rob Greenaway & Associates


3 Recreation and tourism activities near proposal areaThis section describes the tourism and recreation settings identified within the area circled inFigure 2. The area represents a radius of approximately 15 kms from the centre of theproposed wind farm site. The assessment of Rough (2011) notes that at the 15 km boundarythe visual effects are considered to be ‘very slight’ and at 20 km or more, ‘negligible’.However, the objective here is not to identify the scale of visibility from publically accessiblerecreation and tourism settings, but to describe the type and scale of tourism and recreationactivity in those settings, and the degree to which the wind farm is likely to have an impact.The primary assessment made here considers the effect of the operation of the wind farm,with visibility the key determinant. Construction effects are considered later in this report(Section 5), as these effects are not bound by the study are shown in Figure 2.This section summarises land and activities managed or promoted by specific agencies (sucha territorial authorities and the Department of Conservation), and then reviews tourism andrecreation activities at specific locations. The World Wide Web (the Web) has been referred tofor identifying tourism activities. On-line promotion for tourism activities is a core componentof the marketing plan of any serious tourism operation. Those tourism businesses which donot have a Web presence are likely to be very small scale. A summary of Web references isincluded as Appendix 1.10kmFigure 2: 15km radius(red) around approximatewind farm footprint(orange)Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 7Rob Greenaway & Associates


3.1 Hurunui TourismThis section considers the tourism products promoted in the Hurunui District at the broadlevel. A review of specific locations in the District is provided in subsequent sections.‘Hurunui Tourism’ is governed by a Board comprised of both Hurunui District councillors andindependent members who in turn are a sub-committee of the Hurunui District Council. Theagency is tasked with promoting tourism in the Hurunui District and supporting industrycapability. 1 The agency operates the ‘Visit Hurunui’ website which seeks to describe theattractions in the region and to coordinate the promotion of commercial accommodation andattraction providers. The site (www.visithurunui.co.nz) provides a snapshot of the region’smain attractions.The region is described as: 2Located as close as a quick 30-minute drive from Christchurch the Hurunui districtoffers diverse landscape, a rich country lifestyle and award-winning attractions.The Hurunui’s small towns offer a window into the rich culture of New Zealand’s rurallifestyle.Boasting an abundance of beaches, forests, parks and rivers, including more than274 hectares of recreation reserves the Hurunui is the perfect playground. The mainbeaches are at Leithfield, Amberley, Motunau and Gore Bay and there arerecreational lakes at Lake Sumner, Lake Taylor and Lake Tennyson.From walks to fishing, picnics to surfing – there truly is something to suit every tasteand budget.Twenty-two commercial activity providers are listed with Visit Hurunui. Figure 3 shows thelocation of these. Two maps are shown to include both ‘pages’ of data. Activities areconcentrated in the Waipara and Hanmer areas.Wind farmFigure 3: Activity providers in Hurunui listed with Visit Hurunui1Hurunui Community Plan 2004.2http://www.visithurunui.co.nz/hurunui/touring_route/Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 8Rob Greenaway & Associates


Thirty-three accommodation providers are also listed and their locations are shown in Figure4. The campgrounds at Greta Valley and Motunau are not included and various B&Bs arealso absent, such as Lovat Downs on Greta Valley Road several kilometres north west ofGreta Valley township. 3 Identified providers are clustered around Hanmer Springs andWaipara with several in rural areas, including ‘The Woolshed at Tipapa’ (Figure 4, number 12right map), the Waiau Motor Camp (Figure 4, number 13 right map) and the Hurunui PioneerVillage (Figure 4, number 4 right map). Tipapa is the only service provider, in addition to theservices in Greta Village, in proximity (less than 2kms) to the wind farm site.Wind farmFigure 4: Accommodation providers in Hurunui listed with Visit Hurunui‘Visit Hurunui’ describes the Greta Valley and Motunau area thus:Greta Valley is a great family camping area midway between Amberley and Cheviot.It’s the ideal location for those wanting to get away from it all while still being close tosurrounding tourism destinations.If you enjoy hitting the golf ball then check out the Scargill Golf Course located only4kms from Greta Valley. Enjoy the tranquillity of nine holes with tree lined fairways, afew hills and target greens.Highlights Motunau Beach Golf - 9 holes Nape Nape Heritage sites Coastal walks Greta Valley and Motunau BeachNear Greta Valley, on the coast, is Motunau Beach, a popular holiday settlement andcamping ground. The beach was first used by Maori sailors as a stopover whentravelling by canoe between Kaikoura and Kaiapoi. Surfcasting is popular, acrayfishing industry is based here and charter boats are available for sea fishing.The Motunau Beach Clifftop Coastal Reserve offers sweeping views of the coastlineand Motunau Island. Motunau Island once a whaling station is now a nature reservefor some of New Zealand’s rarest birds, including the endangered white flippedpenguin.3http://www.lovatdowns.co.nz/Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 9Rob Greenaway & Associates


Local Events (yearly) Motunau Beach Boat Fishing Contest – FebruaryOne service provider is identified in the Greta Valley / Motunau area: Tipapa. This serviceprovider is discussed in more detail in Section 3.6.1 of this report.The Alpine Pacific Triangle is a touring route between Waipara, Kaikoura and HanmerSprings promoted by Visit Hurunui. The three destinations form the vertices of the triangleand are the primary tourism service centres, although various centres are promoted inbetween. Figure 5 shows an extract from the Alpine Pacific Triangle promotional brochurewithin the area of the proposed wind farm, with text details for Glenmark (Omihi), Motunau,Waikari and Greta Valley.The nearest promoted walking settings are immediately south of Cass Peak.Figure 5: Alpine Pacific Triangle touring map extractsProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 17Rob Greenaway & Associates


Table 1: Hurunui District domestic and international visitor activities. Percent ofrespondents reporting carrying out each activity. Source: TRC 2010aActivity Domestic % International %Entertainment 4 3Other activities 4 3Other scenic/natural attractions 3 2Theme and leisure parks 3 1Cycle sports 3 3Golf 3 2Other sports 2 0Other water activities 2 0Motor sports 1 1Snow sports 1 0Wineries 1 1Farms 1 0Boating 1 2Museums and galleries 1 0Hunting/shooting 1 0Convention/conference 1 0Gardens 1 0Horse trekking/riding 1 2Other land activities 0 1Canoeing, kayaking, rafting 0 1Bungy jumping 0 1The importance of the Hanmer area is shown by the percent of respondents who visited‘volcanic / geothermal attractions’ – more-so by international visitors than domestic, althoughinternational visitors account for only 30% of the guest nights in accommodation in theHurunui District (TRC 2010b). Of note is the low participation in ‘winery’ activities and theimportance of walking and trekking. Wineries are heavily promoted in the Waipara area, butdo not appear to have high prominence in these results, which may reflect the nascence ofthe attraction or an association in the minds of respondents who eat at wineries with theactivity of ‘dining’. ‘Sightseeing (land)’, which is differentiated from sightseeing from the air, isalso an important regional activity.3.1.1 SummaryRegional promotion of tourism services in the Hurunui District are concentrated in and aroundHanmer and Waipara. Kaikoura, outside the District, forms an important promotional partnerfor Hurunui. The Greta Valley area is outside these core areas with one operator active inmarketing through ‘Visit Hurunui’ – Tipapa. The Scargill Golf Course and the Omihi clubroomsare also promoted. Motunau Beach is the main natural feature in the immediate areadescribed as a visitor destination.Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 19Rob Greenaway & Associates


3.2 Tourism flowsThe Tourism Research Council has developed a Tourism Flows Model while identifies the airand road movements of domestic and international travellers within New Zealand. 7 The datafor international visitors is sourced from the TRC’s International Visitor Survey and thedomestic data from a periodic household survey.Full-year data are available up to2007 on-line. The TRC haspublished a summary of the 2005data at a regional level, which iscomparable to that for 2007. Figure 6shows the results for the lower SouthIsland. The minimum thresholds foreach data subset for inclusion in thestudy results are: Domestic day travellers: 4000annual tourist trips on each roadsection, although where a roadfeatures more than this basenumber, counts down to 1000trips are reported for thedestinations of travellers. Domestic overnight travellers:1000 annual tourist trips oneach road section. International travellers: 1000annual tourist trips on each roadsection.Figure 6: Lower South Island road flows byall travellers in 2005. Source: TRC (2007)Motunau and the Motunau Beach Road are not described due to insufficient data (they do notmeet the minimum data thresholds). Data are only presented as one set for the road betweenWaipara and Kaikoura. Greta Valley or any location on SH1 between Waipara and Kaikourahave insufficient responses in the surveys to identify them as a destination with any reliability.That is, the road between Waipara and Kaikoura is not subdivided into discrete sections anddata are only provided for the road section in toto as no site within the road section appearswithin the results as a destination.3.3 Public reserve and conservation landsFigure 7 locates public reserve land managed by the Department of Conservation (DOC) andthe Hurunui District Council (HDC), as identified by the 2002 Canterbury ConservationManagement Strategy (DOC 2002), and the HDC Reserves Management Plan (HDC 2008).Tables 2 and 3 describe the recreation attributes of each land unit. The largest and closestreserve area is the Scargill Motunau Reserve, which includes a nine-hole golf course, tenniscourts, cricket oval, sports pavilion, bowling club, squash courts and a scout den. Severalsmall and isolated esplanade reserves, marginal strips and gravel reserves are not shown inFigure 7 due to their very small size and lack of recreation value.7http://www.tourismresearch.govt.nz/Data--Analysis/Analytical-Tools/Tourism-Flows-Model/Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 20Rob Greenaway & Associates


Balmoral Picnic AreaBalmoral Lookout ReserveFigure 7: DOC and HDC reservesHDC administeredDOC administered7aBoundaryCreek ScenicReserveTurbinefootprintCranky TomScenic ReserveOmihi Reserve7bGlenmark ReserveMt Ararat RataReserveTiromoana Scenic Reserve Cass Peak“UC1 Adj. Pacific Ocean”Tiromoana Scenic Reserve Ella Peak2a2bMotunauMotunauRiverRiverMarginalMarginalStripStripMotunau BeachConservation AreaScargill MotunauReserve (golf course)Conservation areaN34005Motunau BeachCamping Ground7aMotunau BeachReserves7bTavern DriveReserveProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 21Rob Greenaway & Associates


Table 2: Department of Conservation-administered public landsCMS Land UnitN33039 and N33041 Boundary Creek Scenic ReserveN33040 Cranky Tom Scenic ReserveN33046 Ex Balmoral Lookout ReserveN34047 Motunau River Marginal StripN34010 Motunau Beach Conservation AreaN34005 Conservation area (Motunau)N34004 Mt Ararat Rata ReserveN34023 Tiromoana Scenic Reserve (Cass Peak Area)N34023 Tiromoana Scenic Reserve (Ellla Peak Area)“UC1 Adj. Pacific Ocean”CMS recreation dataVisitor Use: Low. Facilities: NilVisitor Use: Low. Facilities: NilVisitor Use: Day visitors. Facilities: Fire lookoutNo dataVisitor use: Low. Facilities: nilNo dataVisitor use: not defined. Facilities: nilVisitor use: Low. Facilities: nilVisitor use: Low. Facilities: nilNo data (unclassified)Table 3: Hurunui District Council administered reservesHDC ReserveOmihi Reserve.3.7 ha.Scargill MotunauReserve. 54.2 haGlenmark Reserve.6.0 ha.Tavern DriveReserve 0.5 ha.Greta townshipMotunauRecreationReserve. 1.4 ha.Motunau BeachParade Reserve.0.2 ha.Motunau BeachCliff Top CoastalReserve. 9.7 ha.HDC Reserves Management Plan descriptionOmihi Reserve is primarily dedicated to the sporting recreational uses of rugby, tennisand netball. Centrally located, and adjacent to the Omihi School, the Omihi Reserve isthe social and sporting centre for the district community.The Reserve is a centre for sports, recreation and social activities for theScargill/Motunau community and includes a sports domain area, nine-hole golf course,and a remainder of farmland planted in woodlot and amenity trees.The Reserve is made up of two distinct areas including a large grove of mature oakwhich cover approximately half of the total 6.0703 hectares. The balance of the reserveconsists of an open informal sports area with tennis courts.The Tavern Drive Reserve situated beside the Greta Valley Tavern serves as a "villagegreen" for the Greta Valley community. The Reserve comprises a small amenityplanting adjacent to the Greta Valley Store and the central reserve features anadventure playground, picnic facilities, and a number of shade trees.The Motunau Recreation Reserve is centrally located in the hilltop residential area onLindsay Terrace. It is ideally situated to function as a centre for community recreationand social activities. The Reserve features tennis courts, a basket ball hoop, thecommunity fire shed and some grazed grassed area.Otherwise known as Fisherman's Reserve, is situated along the foreshore of theMotunau River mouth adjacent to the recreational fishing boat launch area. Forpractical purposes, the entire foreshore area is treated as reserve land. The Reserveconstitutes a significant part of the Motunau River mouth landscape, with views ofsandstone cliffs and dunes opposite, and Motunau Island off shore. Recentdevelopments include the construction of a shower/changing shed, the installation ofbarriers around undermining prone areas and a petanque area.A narrow strip of land that runs along the Pacific Coast edge from the Motunau Rivermouth to Sandy Bay. Due to the high erosion potential of the cliffs, there is concernabout safety along some sections of the existing cliff top walkway. The CanterburyRegional Council monitors the rates of erosion in this area, and the indications are thatthe process of cliff failure or slumping will continue. While this process may deprivewalkers the opportunity to traverse the cliff tops in safety, the natural erosion offers awealth of fossil debris for collectors. The recent installation of steps at the end of SandyBay Road enables walkers to have direct access to Motunau Beach from the cliff topreserve. The Reserve provides a walking track from Island Terrace to Clutha McKenzieReserve.Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 22Rob Greenaway & Associates


Table 3: Hurunui District Council administered reservesHDC ReserveMotunau BeachCamping Ground.0.6 ha.Clutha MackenzieReserve. 0.3 ha.Happy Valley RiverReserve. 1.3 ha.HDC Reserves Management Plan descriptionThe Motunau Beach Camping Ground occupies low-lying land along the south bank ofthe Motunau River. Since the 1930s this land has been used as an informalcampground for visitors and fisherman. An honesty box system for the collection offees is operated to help maintenance costs. In response to public demand, the campingground has been provided with a new toilet block. Access to the campground is fromthe lower end of Lindsay Tce. This area is prone to occasional flooding.Located on the south side of Beach Road, Motunau Beach. The Reserve is named inmemorial after Mr Clutha Mackenzie C.B.E, former Chairperson of the Hurunui CountyCouncil for 37 years. The reserve underwent development as a native planting area in2000 and features a self closing gate on Beach Road and a walkway through thereserve which links to Motunau Beach Cliff Top Coastal Reserve. From its vantagepoint, the Reserve provides commanding views of the ocean.Previously referred to as Bridge Corner Reserve, is located on the north bank of theMotunau River. The Reserve includes a corner lot of land extending from the bridgeand connects to a marginal strip. Happy Valley River Reserve was formed on therealignment of Happy Valley Road in the 1960s. It was thought that this riverside areahad the potential to be developed as an alternate camping ground, however this planhas never been realised.3.4 Motunau BeachMotunau Beach is off the main tourist route (SH1), and is not described in the Insight (2007),Footprint (Donald 2009), Let’s Go (2006) 8 or Lonely Planet (2010) guides to New Zealandavailable at the time of writing. It is a regionally popular holiday and bach area providingimportant fishing and diving access to the Canterbury coast. Local reserves provide for basiccamping, coastal walking and play areas for the Motunau community and visitors. The focusof the area is strongly coastal, including fishing and surfing. The HDC Reserves ManagementPlan (HDC 2008) suggests continued upgrading of the Motunau Beach Camping Ground to‘official campground’ status (rather than the existing ‘informal’ status). Motunau Island isadministered by the Department of Conservation as a Nature Reserve under the ReservesAct 1977 and access is by permit only (DOC 2002).Several events are held in the area annually and occasionally, such as the CanterburyClassic Triathlon. 93.5 Waipara and GlenmarkThe tourism scene in the Waipara Valley is dominated by the wine industry. The 2008 LonelyPlanet Guide to New Zealand described the “scenic Waipara valley” as “NZ’s fastestexpanding wine region … home to over a dozen wineries”. The 2010 Lonely Planet editiondescribes it as having “up-and-coming vineyards”, with the introduction, “the scenic WaiparaValley is home to around 20 vineyards”. The Lonely Planet guides (2010 and 2008) make noother activity recommendations for the Valley.The Alpine Pacific Triangle Touring Route guide (see section 3.1 of this report) describes theWaipara Valley as, “one of New Zealand’s finest and most rapidly expanding wine regions”.The touring guide recommends wineries, olives, lavender and “other local produce”, as wellas identifying the Weka Pass vintage railway, “‘walking tracks and a nature reserve” (theTiromoana Bush and Mt Cass Walkways). Also noted as visitor locations are the GlenmarkEstate and Glenmark Church and Glenmark Vicarage.The Insight Guide to New Zealand (2007) focuses on wine in the Waipara – “Wineries atWaipara in North Canterbury produce some top pinot noirs, but for the greatest wine-andlandscapespectacle, go to Central Otago” – but does mention the Waikari limestonelandscape (Frog and Seal Rocks) on SH7 – beyond the Waipara Valley.8Now only an online resource, also with no mention of the area (www.letsgo.com at Jan 2011).9http://203.21.3.144/www.canterburytriclub.co.nz/index.php?id=75Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 23Rob Greenaway & Associates


The Footprint New Zealand guide (Donald, 2007) states that the, “Alpine Pacific Triangle … isdesigned to combine the lesser attraction of the Waipara Valley with its two star destinations,Hanmer Springs and Kaikoura” – and offers no more information about Waipara. The 2009edition omits the area entirely.An off-road mountain bike event around Mount Cass, south of the proposal area, called TheMud House Winery and Café Mud Ride was planned for April 2010 but was postponed. 10The key tourism attractions in the Waipara Valley are not strongly landscape-dependent,being based on the cultural features of viticulture, boutique horticulture, vintage rail (which isstrongly linked to the Waikari and Weka Pass limestone landscapes) and, to a lesser extent,the two local walkways – Mount Cass and Tiromoana Bush. While the scenic characteristicsof the Valley will always be important, there is little suggestion in the tourism literature thatvisitors should be drawn to the area as a result of important landscape features per se.3.6 Greta ValleyGreta Valley offers a refreshmentstop on SH1 and accommodationat the Greta Valley CampingGround and at Tipapa (see 3.6.1below). An annual road runningrelay event – the Greta ValleyMarathon Relay – uses theMotunau Beach Road, HappyValley Road and Glendhu Roadcircuit. In 2009 the event wasstaged in early September, andAugust in 2010. 11Figure 8: Greta Valley WalkwayThe township is not promoted asa destination in itself, but isgenerally described as providingeasy access to a number ofregional recreation settings. TheGreta Valley Camping Ground islocated off Valley Road in Gretatownship and offers a higher level of service than the Motunau Beach Camping Ground, withshowers and lounge facilities. Consequently, it attracts users of Motunau Beach (some onlyfor a shower), as well as passing traffic on the State Highway, particularly touring cyclists(Rob Hey, camp owner, pers comm.).The Greta Valley Walkway is shown on the 2009 Topo50 series (Figure 8), and although thisappears in the New Zealand Walkways guide (NZCA 2003), it has never been officiallygazetted, has no status as a Walkway, passes over private land and has been shut by thelandowner. It is no longer available.3.6.1 TipapaTipapa (bottom right in Figure 8 offers a converted woolshed as a seasonal (October to April)events venue, museum and shop, plus a restored homestead offering luxury accommodation.Farm walks to viewpoints offering expansive views of North Canterbury and distant rangesare available to guests. More detail from Tipapa’s on-line promotion is included in Appendix 1.10http://www.topofthesouthevents.co.nz/11http://www.sportsground.co.nz/ClubSite.asp?SiteID=11789&NoCache=100728175923BQZQVKXQProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 24Rob Greenaway & Associates


3.7 OmihiOmihi features no tourismaccommodation or activity and isthe location of the OmihiReserve, which is described bythe HDC (2008) as, “primarilydedicated to the sportingrecreational uses of rugby, tennisand netball. Centrally located,and adjacent to the OmihiSchool, the Omihi Reserve is thesocial and sporting centre for thedistrict community”. The Reserveis home to the Glenmark RugbyFigure 9. Omihi ReserveFootball Club and the GlenmarkClubrooms, and is often referred to as the Omihi Domain.Mt Vulcan Station, approximately 6 kms directly west from Motunau and accessed fromReeces Rd via Omihi, hosts mountain biking (the Vulcaniser) and rogaining (long distancecross-country navigation) events. 123.8 ScargillScargill’s reserve area is limited to the Scargill Motunau Reserve which is largely occupied bythe nine-hole Scargill Golf Club, but also includes a domain which provides tennis courts, acricket oval, sports pavilion, bowling club, squash courts and a scout den. Communitymembers have been volunteering time and resources to develop a walkway around theScargill Golf Course (Kerry Prenter, Ward Councillor, pers comm.). Lilburn Farm, almost8kms from the wind farm site on Stewarts Run Road, offers horse trekking and farmstayaccommodation.3.9 SignificanceThere are few tourism activities in the area surrounding the proposed wind farm which treatthe setting as a destination in itself. Tipapa is an exception to this generalisation andpromotes itself as a specific seasonal destination (October to April), based around its restoredwoolshed, the sale of a small range of boutique products, refreshments, luxuryaccommodation and two short rural walks. Otherwise, the Greta Valley relies on passingtraffic and other attractions in the district, particularly Motunau Beach. For example, the GretaValley Camping Ground is described as a location from where other recreation and tourismsettings are accessible, rather than a recreation destination per se. The setting relies heavilyon visitors stopping off on their way through to other locations (such as Christchurch andKaikoura).The main proximate tourism centre is Waipara, with its wine focus and its association with theWeka Pass railway. Motunau Beach is a popular regional recreation destination with sometourism activity via fishing charters and events. Several accommodation options are availablein Greta Valley and Scargill, including the Greta Valley Camping Ground and several B&B orfarmstay-style services.While the landscape setting of the Greta Valley area will be important to visitors, it is notmarketed in a general manner as a reason for visiting the area. Key recreation settings arethe Motunau Beach area, Scargill Golf Course and Omihi Reserve, the Motunau Beach Road(which is used for the Greta Valley Marathon Relay) and Tipapa as a tourism and venue12http://www.singletrack.org.nz/events/vulcaniser/Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 25Rob Greenaway & Associates


centre. Motunau Beach and possibly Omihi Reserve with the Glenmark Rugby Club are theonly established regionally significant visitor settings in the study area. Tipapa is a nascentdevelopment and its long-term significance is difficult to define at this stage.Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 26Rob Greenaway & Associates


4 Literature review summaryThe literature reviewed (see Appendix 2) indicates that there is a mix of reactions to windfarms from a recreation and tourism perspective, but the trend is generally neutral (when bothpositive and negative attitudes are weighed), and there are often positive factors to consider.No domestic longitudinal research into the effect of wind farms on tourism or recreation – preand post wind farm construction – has been located. Difficulties arise where many factorsmay affect the success of a tourism operation, and businesses come and go with and withoutwind farms in proximity.Figure 10, for example, shows monthly ‘guest night’ data for the Manawatu Regional TourismOrganisation (RTO) area compared with national ‘guest nights’, for the period January 2000to October 2010 (MED 2010), with linear trend lines shown for both data sets. Wind farmshave been prominent on the Tararua Ranges since 1999, with their numbers progressivelygrowing since (Tararua wind farm with 134 turbines, Te Rere Hau with 65 and Te Apiti with 55turbines). The Manawatu RTO has shown a growth trend in guest nights over that time, with arecent softening in-line with the national trend, which is correlated with the global recession.Figure 10: Monthly guest nights, Manawatu RTO and New Zealand, Jan 2000 – Oct 2010Manawatu RTO guest nightsNational guest nightsThe Footprint New Zealand Guide (Donaldson 2009) notes in relation to the Te Apiti andTararua wind farms, “Well before arriving in Palmy you will no doubt have seen the smallforest of white blades that make up the Te Apiti and Tararua Wind Farm on the ranges east ofthe town. With almost 200 turbines it is one of the largest wind farm sites in the southernhemisphere and a great testimony to clean, renewable energy in New Zealand. It is well worthgoing to take a closer look and you can do so in the heart of the Te Apiti site via the town ofAshhurst .... If you do not have you own transport you can join a quad bike tour ....”It would be risky to correlate any positive or negative effects of wind farm development withProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 27Rob Greenaway & Associates


any regional trend in accommodation uptake in the Manawatu. However, there has been noovert difference between the regional profile and the national.4.1 United KingdomIn a survey of 307 visitors to Argyll in Scotland (MORI, 2002) – where 83% of respondentsnoted the landscape and countryside of the area as ‘of particular interest’ – of the 49% whohad seen a wind farm in the area, 15% reported they had a ‘completely positive effect’, 28%reported a ‘generally positive effect’, 43% reported an ‘equally positive and negative effect’,7% reported a ‘generally negative effect’, and 1% a ‘completely negative effect’. Four percentnoted that the wind farms would make them more likely to visit again, 91% reported that theywould make no difference and 2% reported that the wind farms meant it was less likely thatthey would visit again.Similarly, a 2004 study by the University of West England into a proposed wind farm in NorthDevon (Aithchison, 2004), based on interviews with 379 ‘day visitors and tourists’, reportedthat the majority of respondents (58%) thought that wind farms had no overall impact on thetourism experience. Eighteen percent reported that they had a positive effect on the tourismexperience, and 15% reported a negative effect. The authors’ conclusion was no overallnegative impact on tourism numbers, no overall detrimental effect on the tourist experience,and no overall decline in tourism expenditure.Research carried out by QA Research (2005) of 449 visitors to Cumbria into additionalpotential wind farms in the area reported that, to 86% of visitors, more wind farms in Cumbriawould make no difference to their visit frequency, 10% would visit less often and 1% wouldnot visit at all. With regard to the statement, ‘I would avoid an area of countryside if I knewthere was a wind farm there’, 77% disagreed or strongly disagreed and 19% agreed orstrongly agreed. However, 71% indicated an extra wind farm would make no difference whenvisiting the district; 28% thought it would be an additional attraction; 79% indicated it wouldnot reduce their enjoyment on visits; and 91% indicated it would not discourage them fromvisiting. Seventy-five percent of respondents had prior experience of wind farms in Cumbria,and unfortunately the study report does not indicate the response differences between thosewho had and had not experienced a wind farm.RBA Research (2002) completed 234 face-to-face interviews with residents near theLambrigg wind farm in Cumbria and reported that 71% of respondents thought that the windfarm had no effect on the number of people visiting the area, 14% said they didn’t know whatthe impact had been and 11% believed that the number of visitors to the area had increased.Three percent thought that visitor numbers had declined.Undergraduate students from Leeds Metropolitan University (Star Consultants 2003)completed face-to-face interviews with 147 visitors to the Lake District for Friends of the LakeDistrict. In relation to visits to Kirby Moor, 79% of respondents were neither encouraged nordiscouraged to visit that area as a result of the wind farm. Equal numbers of respondents(7.5%) were encouraged and discouraged. In relation to Lambrigg Fell – another wind farmarea – the neutral group was even larger – 84%. In response to the potential for increasingthe number of wind farms in the Lake District, 75% of respondents stated it would make nodifference to their visit frequency, 22% stated they would visit less frequently and 2% wouldbe encouraged to visit. The students also interviewed 30 ‘tourism organisations’ in the LakesDistrict, including the Ramblers Association. The students’ report includes analysis of theresults by subgroup (such as B&Bs and museums), but as each subgroup was quite small(three B&Bs for example), this detailed analysis is unlikely to be representative. In relation tothe Kirby Moor wind farm, all businesses noted that it had had no effect on their operations.Only the Ramblers considered it a negative effect. The same results applied to Lambrigg Felland a proposed wind farm at Wharrels Hill. Almost three-quarters supported the concept ofwind farm visitor centres, and those who did not felt they would be competition for theirbusinesses.Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 28Rob Greenaway & Associates


In a visitor survey undertaken on behalf of the Wales Tourist Board (NFO System Three2003), 68% of respondents said that if the number of wind farms increased in Wales it wouldhave no difference to the likelihood they would take holidays in the Welsh countryside. Afurther 9% said any impact would be negligible, 11% would ‘steer clear of the area’ (althoughthis statement was not defined in the report compared with the following group) and 2% saidthey would be ‘less likely to come back’.In 2008 the Scottish Government released an analysis of the economic impacts of wind farmson Scottish tourism undertaken by Glasgow Caledonian University (2008). This study wasbased on international literature review, intercept surveys with almost 400 visitors to areas inScotland with wind farms, and an internet-based response survey.The literature review found: There is often strong hostility to developments at the planning stage on the grounds ofthe scenic impact and the perceived knock-on effect on tourism. However, developmentsin the most sensitive locations do not appear to have been given approval so that wherenegative impacts on tourism might have been a real outcome there is, in practice, littleevidence of a negative effect. This finding is reiterated in Eltham et al (2008). There is a loss of value to a significant number of individuals but there are also somewho believe that wind turbines enhance the scene. An established wind farm can be a tourist attraction in the same way as a hydro-electricpower station. This was considered to be only true whilst a visit remains a noveloccurrence. In Denmark, a majority of tourists regard wind turbines as a positive feature of thelandscape. Over time hostility to wind farms lessens and they become an accepted, even valued,part of the scenery. Those closest seem to like them most. Overall there is no evidence to suggest a serious negative economic impact of windfarms on tourists.In relation to the effects of wind farms on visitor intentions to return to Scotland, the study’sintercept survey found:Under all circumstances [the respondent having seen a real wind farm, having seen aphoto-montage of a local landscape before and after the creation of an existing windfarm, and seeing a photo-simulation of an expanded existing wind farm] the vastmajority (93-99%) of those who had seen a wind farm suggested that the experiencewould not have any effect. Indeed there were some tourists for whom the experienceincreased the likelihood of return rather than decreasing it. The assessed change inlikelihood combines both decreases (negative impacts) and increases (positiveimpacts). In the second case (no farm to current levels [that is, when viewing a ‘beforeand after’ photo-montage of an existing wind farm]) the net result of these changes inintentions at both the area level and nationally is relatively small, and in almost allcases is not significantly different from zero in a statistical sense.However when the farm was extended respondents became significantly morenegative. The extended development scenario at the area level shows a small butstatistically significant (at the 10% level) fall of 2.5% in the likelihood of revisiting anarea and just under 0.5% fall in the likelihood of revisiting Scotland.The result at first sight seems to stand at odds to the result from the internet survey,where it appeared that once there was an intrusion into the scenery, the effect on thevalue of the landscape of expanding the size is relatively small. It is believed that thisdiscrepancy may be explained by the difference between stated and revealed actions.The extended photos used in the intercept study were theoretical developments.Again those who did not like the idea of wind farms were given the opportunity toregister a “protest vote” by threatening to withdraw if it proceeded. Because of theProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 29Rob Greenaway & Associates


context this protest was far lower than in some other studies but it would appear toexist. Consequently it is our view that the identified change should be viewed as themaximum response that might be expected.The Scottish Government report concluded a reduction in ‘general tourism expenditure’ atfour study areas of between 1.3% and 1.7% as a result of wind farm development. The totalloss for Scotland was estimated at 0.1%. However, this was considered a ‘worst casescenario’ as it was based on responses to extending existing wind farms where a statisticallysignificant result was noted, and did not include the potential positive effects of wind farmtourism. The authors also reported:andThe intercept study possibly overstates the likely negative responses because theywere based on hypothetical extensions and were out of line with the marginalityfindings of the internet study. It is believed that there is an inherent possibility of aprotest vote against wind farms which is not matched by similar responses fromsupporters.The development will happen over a number of years and both the market andtourists are likely to in part adjust to meet the new challenges.In 2008 four researchers from the Centre for the Study of Environmental Change andSustainability and the School of Engineering and Electronics at the University of Edinburgh(Eltham et al 2008) compared residents’ perceptions of a Cornish wind farm (Carland Cross)based on their recall of the their opinions prior to its construction in 1991 and after living nearthe farm up to 2006. Figure 11 shows an example of the proximity to residences. A samplesize of 100 respondents was sought and achieved.Figure 11: “Carland Cross wind farm viewed from St. Newlyn East. Many residents cansee the turbines from their property.” Source: Eltham et al 2008.Findings included: The overall proportion of the population of St. Newlyn East finding the wind farm visuallyattractive changed from 6% to 40%. A total of 10% (±5.9%) of the population thought thatthe visual intrusion of the wind turbines was greater after the wind farm was constructedthan they had expected while 8% (±5.3%) thought that the visual impact was lessintrusive. A total of 59% of the population recalled anticipating that, in 1991, the wind farm wouldbring no positive environmental, social or economic impact to St. Newlyn East. By 2006this proportion reduced by 37% (±16%) to 22%. There was no statistically reliable change in the perception about the positive or negativeeffects of the wind farm on tourism. The authors noted: “If socio-institutional factorsinstigated the lower levels of acceptance seen in 1991 compared with 2006, it isProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 30Rob Greenaway & Associates


interesting that the number of residents remembering being concerned about the impactof Carland Cross on local tourism is negligible. This is despite the prominence of tourismwithin the Cornish economy (Lang, 2004) and the importance of the promotion of the‘‘unique and beautiful natural environment’’ (South West Tourism, 2007) as a pull factorfor potential visitors. St. Newlyn East, however, has no significant tourist accommodationor facilities, which Toke (2005) 13 found to be an important requirement in a settlement forsignificant concern to arise about impacts on tourism from local wind farms.4.2 AustralasiaThe Ten Mile Lagoon wind farm in Western Australia with nine turbines was reported to havehad 50,000 visitors in 2001. The Albany wind farm, also in WA, with 12 turbines was reportedto have had 100,000 visitors in 2004. In the Manawatu, Destination Manawatu reports apositive effect of the turbines east of Palmerston North, and a car park count showed 1200vehicles at the Te Apiti wind farm visitor area in one weekend in 2004. In comparison, theManapouri Power Station has around 40,000 visitors annually, and Benmore Power Station4000 – which is only slightly fewer than the number of people who walk the Heaphy Trackeach year.A UMR Research study (UMR 2007) completed for Meridian Energy in 2007, based on atelephone survey of 500 Otago residents, found: When asked to respond to the statement, ‘Wind farms can be tourist attractions’, 36%agreed, 26% disagreed and the remainder were neutral. When asked to respond to the statement with regard to the Project Hayes proposal, ‘Itwould adversely impact the recreational value of the area’, 24% agreed and 27%disagreed. When asked to respond to the statement with regard to the Project Hayes Proposal, ‘Itwould be a new attraction for locals and visitors to the region’, 33% agreed and 26%disagreed.In that same study, 14% of respondents were found to be opposed to the Project Hayesproposal, and 2.9% of that group (two people) based that opposition on, ‘adverse impacts onrecreational use of land.’4.3 SummaryWhile there is a segment of the tourism and recreation population who may consider that windfarms have an adverse effect on their experience, there are no data which suggest that awind farm will have important negative effects on tourism and recreation activity generally,with the caveat that wind farms have not generally been located in highly sensitive landscapesettings where they would be likely to undermine an important recreation or tourism value.Rather, the data indicate that concerns are occasionally expressed by tourism operators andvisitors about the effects of additional or ‘too much’ wind farm development. Longitudinalresearch suggests that support for extant wind farms generally increases relative to opinionsheld pre-development.While most respondents to relevant surveys state that wind farms do not affect their tourismchoices, a notable minority have some concerns. It is not possible to state that theseconcerns are in fact translated into actions. Consequently, the conclusions of the studiesgenerally indicate that there has been little if any adverse effects on tourism in the areasconsidered. That is not to say that all visitors enjoy or are not affected by the visibility ofturbines – there is a minority of respondents to all the surveys quoted who would rather notsee them at all.The conclusion that is used in this assessment is that while wind farms have not beenidentified as a deterrent to tourism, there is the potential to diminish the quality of the13Toke (2005) offers a review of English and Welsh planning outcomes in relation to wind farms.Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 31Rob Greenaway & Associates


experience of some visitors, and this may translate into a decision to not revisit a site if theadverse effects are significant. However, the scale of effect in gross tourism activity in aregion is likely to be minimal, or impossible to measure, if wind farm developments avoidareas with important scenic qualities or where the landscape is the primary focus of the visitorexperience. Also, wind farms have the potential to enhance the visitor experience for some.Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 32Rob Greenaway & Associates


5 Effects of the proposalThis section considers the effects of the wind farm proposal considering the recreation andtourism activities which occur in the study area, and the findings of the national andinternational data on the effects of wind farm on recreation and tourism.5.1 ConstructionConstruction effects on recreation and tourism will be confined to traffic activity on SH1 andthe Motunau Beach Road. If passage for other vehicles to Motunau Beach is maintained,there will be no notable effects on this setting and on recreation in Greta Valley.Avoiding traffic activity during the Greta Valley Marathon Relay will avoid effects on thisannual event.The construction traffic and associated traffic noise and passage may affect patronage at TheWoolshed at Tipapa. Quantifying the scale of effect is difficult – due to the potentially limitedeffect and the nascent stage of business development at Tipapa. The staging area fordelivery of construction materials and turbine components is 2kms in a direct line south-eastof Tipapa – over a 90m hill, relative to ground level at Tipapa – near 278 Motunau BeachRoad. URS (2011) reports that the staging area is 300 metres from 278 Motunau Beach Roadand 400m from 285 Motunau Beach Road, and that daytime construction noise limits will becomplied with at this site. Night time activities at the staging area may include concrete pours,and management and liaison with the proximate residence is recommended. However,Tipapa, at a much greater distance, will not be affected by noise. Movement restrictions forturbine components will limit their arrival times to daylight hours.5.2 OperationInternational research into the effects of wind farms indicates that they have little adverseeffect on tourism and recreation activity. This outcome partly results from the fact that windfarms are rarely built in areas with high tourism profiles, and also reflects that there is a mix ofpersonal responses to wind farm developments. The majority of respondents to relevantsurveys consider that wind farms have no effect on their activities.All primary research into the effects of wind farms on recreation and tourism cited in thisreport describe a portion of respondents who state that wind farm development would havean adverse effect on their likelihood of returning to a visitor setting. No surveys considerdeterrents to visiting a setting for the first time, because they are conducted in situ. There isalso a portion of respondents who state that wind farms are an attraction, although thereappears to be no data to support the finding that people will visit a region specifically becauseof wind farms. Rather, wind farms are something to visit while already in a visitor setting. Theportion of respondents who do not like wind farms and who state that wind farms wouldreduce the likelihood of visiting a destination may therefore represent a potential net loss totourism. However, none of the studies cited have reported an actual loss in tourism activity,and the final conclusions are that wind farm developments have negligible effects on tourismand recreation. However, the caveat is that wind farms are generally not built in popular visitorareas where tourism is fully dependent on landscape values.Effects of the operation of the proposed wind farm on recreation and tourism will relate to thevisibility and audibility of the turbines. There is little tourism or recreation activity in the areawhich defines itself by the landscape setting of Centre Hill, although the North Canterburylandscape in general is referred to as adding to the visitor experience. Tipapa is an exceptionand promotes itself as a specific destination. The visual amenity of the Greta Valley andWaipara areas is supported by the pleasant rural backdrop, but there are no data to suggestthat the changes reviewed in the landscape assessment for the proposal would lead toProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 33Rob Greenaway & Associates


notable changes in regional tourism and recreation participation levels. For example, there islittle evidence to suggest that anglers fishing off Motunau would be less likely to visit as aresult of seeing a wind farm.Rough (2011), in his assessment of landscape and visual effects of the proposal concludesthat there will be ‘substantial’ effects from five publically accessible viewpoints: Greta Village Café and Bar car park SH1 and lay-by near “Glenmore” Motunau Beach Road near Greta Valley School Motunau Beach Road, 4km from SH1 Reeces Road opposite “Serrat Downs”None of these is a visitor setting where views of the wind farm are likely to have an adverseeffect of the recreation or tourism experience of the district. All but one are transit areas. TheGreta Village Cafe and Bar car park is not, in itself, a visitor destination – unlike the bar andcafé itself, which looks out to the west. The Greta Village Café and Bar is as likely to benefitfrom additional traffic stopping to observe the wind farm than suffer any adverse effect,considering, for example, the level of interest in wind farms described by the researchsummarised in Section 4.0 of this report.It is unlikely that settings which have a ‘slight’ or lower visual effect from the wind farm willundergo any change to their level of recreation or tourism activity or satisfaction, consideringthe rural character of those settings and the minor contribution of the wind farm to the generalvista.Areas with ‘moderate’ visual effects may have some resulting effects on levels of recreation ortourism activity or satisfaction, if there is a dependency on the pre-existing character of thelandscape setting. Omihi Reserve (Glenmark), as a focus for sports activity, is unlikely tohave any change in participation or satisfaction levels considering its sporting focus. It wouldbe difficult to ascribe adverse effects on recreation and tourism participation from transitoryviews gained from such busy roads as SH1 and Scargill Valley Road, even where the visualeffects are ‘substantial’.In relation to Tipapa, Rough (2011) concludes:With regard to the private property of Tipapa,... unless visitors take a walk on a futurewalking track to a feature referred to by the land owner as One Tree Hill, or roam onfoot or horseback over hills and farmland where turbines will be highly prominent insome views, the proposed wind farm will have only a very slight to nil landscape andvisual effect on those areas of Tipapa that are the principal visitor attractions.Tipapa is located within two kilometres of the wind farm footprint. The visual effect of the windfarm are described by Rough (2011) as ‘nil’, ‘negligible’ or ‘very slight’ around the woolshedand homestead. Views from farm walks, such as that proposed to ‘One Tree Hill’ (see Figure12) are assessed as having the potential for ‘substantial’ visual effects. The visibility maydiminish the experience of those visitors who do not like the sight of wind farms in this setting.It is difficult to quantify the scale of effect on the operation of the business, but some minoradverse effect may result considering the promotion of the operation as being based in asetting with historic values.The soundscape at Tipapa is an important value in relation, particularly, to the luxuryaccommodation service provided. URS (2011) has reviewed the impact of turbine sound inareas near the wind farm and identifies the Tipapa property (40 Motunau Beach Road) asalmost entirely outside the modelled 35 dB sound contour for the turbines (Figure 12). (TheNZS 6808 criteria for noise sensitive locations is 40 dB).Visitors to the woolshed and homestead will be unlikely to be able to detect the sound of theturbines, although when certain wind directions and very low background sound levelsProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 34Rob Greenaway & Associates


coincide, “it may be faintly audible at times” (Dr Stephen Chiles, URS, pers comm.). Walkerson the property going beyond the main visitor area may experience higher levels of soundexposure, but at levels below 35 dB.As the literature review shows, the effects on tourists of the visibility of turbines, and somevery limited sound exposure, will depend upon their personal response to wind farms. As aproportion of visitors are likely to prefer to not experience turbines in any setting, or in thisparticular setting, some adverse effects are likely. The scale of the potential adverse effectson Tipapa are uncertain, as the potential scale of effect will be minor until a visitor has walkedto certain viewpoints on the property from where a view of the wind farm will be possible. Thiswill be an attraction to some and a detraction to others.Figure 12: Tipapaboundary and soundcontours. Source: URS2010 with Tipapaboundary overlayTipapa boundary approx35 dB contour40 dB contourTurbineNoise sensitive locationOne Tree Hill1000 metres5.3 Future tourism optionsThe wind farm proposal is unlikely to curtail the development of future tourism options in theHurunui District, considering the suite of tourism opportunities available regionally comparedwith the natural and developed features of the Greta Valley area. The wind farm footprint is onprivate land and the visual catchment is not strongly promoted for its landscape values,although they remain important.The wind farm itself may be of interest to some visitors, with Greta Valley its closest servicecentre. Working with service providers to develop an off-road viewing area and informationservices will afford local benefit by giving passing traffic an additional reason to stop. Thelocal community could establish a strategy to take further advantage of visitor interest bydeveloping an access opportunity to the turbines.5.4 MitigationThe main mitigation of interest to recreation is the management and minimisation of adversevisual, sound and effects relating to construction of the wind farm. Rough (2011) considersthe management of visual effects in more detail. URS (2011) reviews sound effects and theProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 35Rob Greenaway & Associates


Traffic Design Group (2011) reviews construction traffic.The project development process has led to the relocation and removal of turbines which hadthe potential to adversely affect the visual amenity values at Tipapa. Some residual adverseeffects may remain in relation to potential visitors to the setting who are particularly sensitiveto the location of a wind farm in the area and who visit Tipapa beyond the main compound ofwoolshed and homestead.There is however the potential to positively market Tipapa in association with the wind farm,but it is understood that this is not a preferred option for the property owner.5.5 SummaryThe proposed wind farm is unlikely to have any long-term adverse effects on recreation andtourism in the Hurunui District. Some minor adverse effects may accrue during theconstruction phase. Some visitors to Tipapa may be adverse to wind farms in this setting, and‘substantial’ views of the turbines from farm walks will reduce the quality of their experience.As with any wind farm development, potential visitors to settings in the immediate area whodislike wind farms as a component of the landscape will have a reduced quality of experience,although relevant visitor settings are limited to Tipapa. Conversely, capitalising on theregionally rare option to view a wind farm should be examined by local service operators andan appropriate opportunity developed. If that occurs, there may be a small benefit fromincreased visitor activity in the Greta Valley area.Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 36Rob Greenaway & Associates


6 ReferencesAitchison, C. 2004. Evidence gathering of the impact of wind farms on visitor numbers and touristexperience. Geography Research Unit, University of West England for North Devin Wind Power.Donald, D. 2009. Footprint New Zealand. Footprint.Donald, D. 2005. Footprint New Zealand. Footprint.Department of Conservation, 2002. Canterbury Conservation Management Strategy. Department ofConservation, Christchurch.Eltham, D., Harrison, G.P., Allen, S.J. 2008. Change in public attitudes towards a Cornish wind farm:Implications for planning. Energy Policy 36 (2008) 23–33.FERMATA, 2005. Experiential tourism strategy for the Kansas Flint Hills. Kansas Division of Travel andTourism Development. Topeka, Kansas.Glasgow Caledonian University. 2008. The economic impacts of wind farms on Scottish tourism. Reportfor the Scottish GovernmentGreenaway, R. 2006. Meridian Energy Project Hayes Proposed Wind Farm Recreation and TourismAssessment of Effects. Rob Greenaway & Associates for Meridian Energy, Christchurch.Hurunui District Council, 2008. District Reserves Management Plan. Hurunui District Council, Amberley.Insight Guides, 2007. Insight Guides New Zealand. APA Publications.Insight Guides, 2004. Insight Guides New Zealand. APA Publications.Law, E. 1991. Recreation opportunities in Canterbury. Department of Conservation, Christchurch.Lonely Planet, 2010. Lonely Planet Guide to New Zealand. Lonely Planet.Lonely Planet, 2008. Lonely Planet Guide to New Zealand. Lonely Planet.Ministry of Economic Development. Commercial Accommodation Monitor (CAM).http://www.tourismresearch.govt.nz/Data--Analysis/Accommodation/Commercial-Accommodation-Monitor/. Dec 2010MORI, 2002. Tourist Attitudes towards Wind Farms. Research Study Conducted for ScottishRenewables Forum & the British Wind Energy AssociationNew Zealand Conservation Authority, 2003. New Zealand’s Walkways. Department of Conservation,Wellington.NFO System Three, 2003. Investigations into the potential impact of wind farms on tourism in Wales.Wales Tourist Board.NFO System Three, 2002. Investigations into the potential impact of wind farms on tourism in Scotland.VisitScotland.QA Research, 2005. Cumbria Tourist Board wind farm visitor impart research. Research completed forthe Cumbria Tourist BoardRBA Research, 2002. Lambrigg Wind Farm – Public Attitude Survey. Report prepared for National WindPower Ltd.Rough, P. 2011. Project Hurunui Wind Assessment of Landscape and Visual Effects. Prepared forMeridian Energy Limited by Peter Rough Landscape Architects LimitedStar Consultants, 2003. A Study into the Attitudes of Visitors, Tourists and Tourism Organisationstowards Wind Farms on the Boundaries of the Lake District National Park. Report for Friends of theLake District. , Leeds Metropolitan University.Tourism Resource Consultants, 2005. Project Westwind Recreation and Tourism Report . Client reportfor Meridian Energy.Tourism Research Council, 2010. On-line: The Ministry of Tourism research website. TRCNZ,Wellington. http://www.tourismresearch.govt.nz/ . Note, as of mid 2010 these data are no longeravailable on-line.Toke, D. 2005. Explaining wind power planning outcomes: Some findings from a study in England andWales. Energy Policy 33 (2005) 1527–1539Tourism Research Council, 2007. The Tourism Flows Model Summary Document. TRC, Ministry ofEconomic DevelopmentTourism Research Council, 2010a. On-line: The Ministry of Economic Development tourism researchwebsite. TRCNZ, Wellington. http://www.tourismresearch.govt.nz/Tourism Research Council, 2010b. Commercial Accommodation Monitor: October 2010 Hurunui.TRCNZ, Wellington.Tourism Research Council, 2011. On-line: The Ministry of Economic Development tourism researchwebsite. TRCNZ, Wellington. http://www.tourismresearch.govt.nz/Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 37Rob Greenaway & Associates


Traffic Design Group, 2011 Project Hurunui Wind Assessment of Traffic Effects. Client report forMeridian Energy Ltd.UMR Research, 2007. Meridian Energy - Wind Farm Research. Research report for Meridian Energy.URS, 2011. Project Hurunui Wind Acoustics Assessment. Client report for Meridian Energy Ltd.Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 38Rob Greenaway & Associates


7 Appendix 1: On-line literature search by locationActivity Text ReferenceMotunau BeachAccommMotunau Beach Camping Area Details of this camp are in The New ZealandCamping Guide. [which states: Not right on the beach, but at the rivermouth. Pleasant open area with shady trees. Just flush toilets and water.]Event This event is open to both members and non-members of Athletics NZ .This is the 3rd running of the Greta Valley Marathon relay, so far it hasproven to be popular with the 20+ teams entered each year. There havebeen many favourable comments and everyone has a good time with theday completed at the Greta Valley Cafe & Bar with fine food, refreshmentsand the prizegiving.Greta Valley is a comfortable 1 hour drive north of Christchurch. The GretaValley Marathon Relay is a six person running relay starting from the GretaValley school on the corner of SH1 and Motunau Beach Road and finishingback at the Greta Valley Cafe & Bar in the village. The course follows thesealed road into Motunau Beach for approximately 15km then turns into theHappy Valley Road which becomes unsealed after a further 2km thencontinues along the Happy Valley Road for another 13-14km before meetingup with Glendhu Road. The course then continues along Glendhu Roadbefore meeting with the Motunau Beach Road again and covers the reverseof the first lap then continuing back into Greta Valley village to finish outsidethe Cafe & Bar carpark.The course is very challenging with many twists, turns, climbs and descentsthroughout the whole course.EventFishingCanterbury Classic Triathlon 2009 – cycle on Motunau Beach Road betweenGlendhu and Happy Valley Roads.The little settlement of Motunau Beach nestles at the northern tip of PegasusBay . That's about one third of the way up the coast between Christchurchand Kaikoura. The drive from the city takes little over an hour. This is one ofthe reasons for the high turnout of boaties and anglers on most weekends.Motunau is a top destination for Canterbury divers. They are attracted to thisstretch of rugged rocky coastline by the abundance of crayfish and goodbottom fishing…Motunau offers Canterbury boat anglers the best chance of catching themuch sort after blue cod within reasonable reach of the city of Christchurch .For this reason the area takes a bit of a hammering by recreational fishers.On weekends when weather and tide are favourable dozen of trailer boatshead out of this small fishing village after fish dinners. The Motunau BeachRate payers Assn., Canterbury Sport Fishing Club, Can-terbury recreationalFishers Assn, Basher Charters, The North Canterbury Dive Club, and SeaAqua Dive Club, have banded together to ask that anglers reduce their bluecod catch to reduce stress on the fishery.Kingfish are sometimes caught off Motunau over summer. It is also a goodplace to head out in search of albacore tuna. Boats anglers havesuccessfully targeted this species from here particularly when the seatemperature is just right.The Motunau River bar is prone to silting and must be dredged periodically.Most anglers try to head out and return on the half tide. Many a prop hasbeen altered from its original shape whilst making the crossing. For thisreason the crayboats operating from here use large inboard jet units to crossthe shallow bar – or to at least extend the window for a safe crossing.Broadbill have been seen off this coast in the past, and there are certainlybig mako and blue sharks out there….http://www.nzcamping.co.nz/camp.php?id=889http://www.sportsground.co.nz/ClubSite.asp?SiteID=11789&NoCache=9/4/2009+4:50:36+PMhttp://203.21.3.144/www.canterburytriclub.co.nz/fileadmin/user_upload/EventInfo/2009/20090215_CantyClassicForm.pdfhttp://www.fishingmag.co.nz/deepsea-motunau.htmProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 39Rob Greenaway & Associates


FishingA word of warning for those considering diving for crayfish with scuba gearoff Motunau. Every year divers get into trouble here. The tides aredeceptively strong and even very experienced divers can get into serioustrouble very quickly. I hate to say it but divers seem to lose their lives offMotunau on a regular basis.Visibility isn't that good. The water generally has a greenish tint to it. Whenthe surface chops up - which it does most days - it is difficult for a surfacingdiver to see the boat. It is equally difficult for boat crew to spot surfacingdivers. The fast moving current, wind and tidal stream can separate diversand boat very quickly with disastrous consequences.My eldest son is a very competent diving instructor but I don't want himdiving off Motunau! At the very least all divers should carry an “OrangeSausage” inflatable signal device. These things make you easier forsearchers to spot, cost only a couple of dollars, and have been the differencebetween life and death for divers lost off Motunau.Fishing Spots - MotunauLaunching & bar crossing at Motunau BeachGeoff Basher - 2003I am a commercial fisherman and charter operator and I do search & rescue.Motunau beach is about 1¼ hours drive north of Christchurch and has had afishing fleet since about the mid 1930’s. Ranging from sailboats, inboards,stern legs, and outboards to what we use today, Hamilton jets.There are approximately 114 batches and houses, with about 30 permanentresidents. The Motunau River is a tidal river. With about 100 mm at low tideto up to 2 m at high tide. The amateur boat ramp is situated on the southside of the river, and the commercial ramp is on the north side.On a busy weekend there can be up to 70 boats per day go out.When launching your boat always get it ready before you back down theramp. If you don’t, you could get a mouth full of abuse for blocking the wayhttp://fishclub.net.nz/fishingspots/motunau.htmGeneralGeneralSurfingNear Greta Valley, on the coast, is Motunau Beach, a popular holidaysettlement and camping ground. The beach was first used by Maori sailorsas a stopover when travelling by canoe between Kaikoura and Kaiapoi.Surfcasting is popular, a crayfishing industry is based here and charter boatsare available for sea fishing. The Motunau Beach Clifftop Coastal Reserveoffers sweeping views of the coastline and Motunau Island. Motunau Islandonce a whaling station is now a nature reserve for some of New Zealand’srarest birds, including the endangered white flipped penguin.Near Greta Valley about 1 hour 20 minutes North of Christchurch, on theEast coast of the South Island, is Motunau Beach, a popular holidaysettlement and camping ground. Surfcasting is popular and a crayfishingindustry is based here. Charter boats are available for sea fishing and youmay even leave with a Crayfish or two. The beach with its backdrop of seacliffs is a prized hunting ground for fossils, which occur in abundance, whilethe Motunau Beach Clifftop Coastal Reserve offers sweeping views of thecoastline and offshore island.There are many wineries within 1/2 an hours drive.This is one of many New Zealand beach settlements where house priceshave jumped up. For a $60,000 house in 2000 you would now pay around$300,000 or more.It is a great place to get away and relax.Not far away is the Scargill Golf course, always in great condition and thegreen fees are cheap at around $10. You will be lucky if there are any morethan around 15 people on the course on any week day. Even in theweekends you should have no problems getting a round in.Motunau Beach in Kaikoura is an exposed beach and point break that hasfairly consistent surf, although summer tends to be mostly flat. Works best inoffshore winds from the north northeast. Windswells and groundswells inhttp://www.alpinepacifictourism.co.nz/Information/Motunau/http://www.newzealandatoz.com/index.php?pageid=880http://www.surfforecast.com/breaks/MotunauBeachProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 40Rob Greenaway & Associates


Greta Valleyequal measure and the ideal swell direction is from the south southeast. Thebeach break offers both left and right hand waves and there is a left handpoint break too. Best around high tide. Unlikely to be too crowded, evenwhen the surf is up. Beware of rocks and private access.Accomm Greta Valley Camping Ground S Hwy 1, PO Box 19 Greta Valley (03) 3143340 Fax (03)314 3341(025) 290 7061http://www.nzcamping.co.nz/camp.php?id=525Accomm Brand new fully self contained cottage within Greta Valley Village http://www.holidayhouses.co.nz/properties/8895.aspAccommEventEventEventGeneralGeneralEscape the bustle of the city and stay in the tranquil, rolling hills of GretaValley. Located just 1 hour from Christchurch, Lovat Downs Bed andBreakfast Country Lodge is the perfect rural retreat, offering spaciousaccommodation and facilities of the highest quality. A working deer farm on212 hectares, Lovat Downs Bed and Breakfast Country Lodge provides anunequalled rural setting for the perfect country escape. It also producesdelicious venison – an added bonus for the hungry traveller! You'll feel rightat home in one of the four spacious double bedrooms, each with their veryown private en suite and spa bath. With exceptional facilities, including theuse of a tennis court and swimming pool, you won't find anything as tranquiland spacious at such an affordable rate. Explore the surrounding countrysidevia a number of neighbouring walkways to witness the commanding views orobserve the velveting herd in action.Greta Valley is a comfortable 1 hour drive north of Christchurch. The GretaValley Marathon Relay is a six person running relay starting from the GretaValley school on the corner of SH1 and Motunau Beach Road and finishingback at the Greta Valley Cafe & Bar in the village. The course follows thesealed road into Motunau Beach for approximately 15km then turns into theHappy Valley Road which becomes unsealed after a further 2km thencontinues along the Happy Valley Road for another 13-14km before meetingup with Glendhu Road. The course then continues along Glendhu Roadbefore meeting with the Motunau Beach Road again and covers the reverseof the first lap then continuing back into Greta Valley village to finish outsidethe Cafe & Bar carparkGreta Valley Marathon Relay Date 5/09/2009 Location Greta Valley,North Canterbury Region Canterbury Discipline Road RunningDate: Saturday, 5th September 2009Time: 10.00am, 10.30am & 11.00amStart Venue: Greta Valley SchoolFinish Venue: Greta Valley Tavern carparkDistance: 42.2kmFab Fitz Health and Fitness Winter warm up Trail fun run & walkSunday 5th July 2009. 20km run – 10km run or walk Date – Sunday 5th July2009Where- MJ&LA Johnstone's property , Patersons road (off Motunau Beachroad ) GRETA VALLEYCourse- This course offers spectacular views of the magnificent SouthernAlps, Kaikoura ranges to Pegasus Seas. It follows farm tracks over hills andundulating territory consisting of grass, gravel and may include small watercrossings. Drink stations will be available. Previews of the course are notpermitted. No dogs allowed.Greta Valley is a great family camping area midway between Amberley andCheviot where you can get away from it all. It’s the ideal location for thosewanting to get away from it all while still being close to surrounding tourismdestinations.Greta Valley is located approximately halfway between Amberley andCheviot and is a wonderful place for anyone wanting to 'get away from it all'.The closeness of surrounding tourism destinations and the chance to explorehttp://www.lovatdowns.co.nz/http://www.sportsground.co.nz/ClubSite.asp?SiteID=11789&NoCache=9%2F14%2F2009+10%3A42%3A45+AMhttp://www.athletics.org.nz/article.aspx?ID=3670&Mode=1203.21.3.144/www.../20090705_WinterWarmupEntryForm.dochttp://www.alpinepacifictourism.co.nz/Information/Motunau/http://www.newzealandnz.co.nz/hurunui/motunau-Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 41Rob Greenaway & Associates


VenueVisitorattractionaccommfor fossils make this a terrific family camping spot. A local walkway offerscommanding views of the surrounding countryside.Venue for hire at historic woolshed in the Greta Valley. Corporate eventsand private events, Music, food and fashion events, Product launches,Exhibitions, Weddings….Cradled in the rolling hills of North Canterbury isTipapa, an oasis of privacy surrounded by 500 acres of its own land andpark-like grounds….It is a property blessed by its own geography, positionedin the middle of the Alpine Pacific Triangle – Christchurch, Hanmer Springsand Kaikoura are all barely 1 hour’s drive away, and within just 15 minutes ofTipapa you will discover the pleasures of the wonderful Waipara winegrowing region, trout fishing on the Hurunui River, plus the diving and richfishing grounds at Motunau Beach.Tipapa. Historic homestead in Greta Valley, North Canterbury with luxuryaccommodation available.Cradled in the rolling hills of North Canterbury, Tipapa was one of theoriginal Grand Estates of the South Island. A Homestead befitting its statureis surrounded by 500 acres of its own land, and the original Woolshed datingback to 1890 nestles nearby. The Woolshed is a museum with original sheeppens, shearing machinery, wool press, and extensive shearers stencillingmarks on the walls. It is also a store selling rare, high-end traceable woollenproducts, as well as fine wines, and unique speciality products. Everything is100% made in the South Island.It is a property blessed by its own geography, positioned in the middle of theAlpine Pacific Triangle – Christchurch, Hanmer Springs and Kaikoura are allbarely 1 hour’s drive away, and within just 15 minutes of Tipapa you willdiscover the pleasures of the wonderful Waipara wine growing region, troutfishing on the Hurunui River, plus the diving and rich fishing grounds atMotunau Beach.The Woolshed at Tipapa has been meticulously restored to its former andcharacter-filled glory. The atmosphere of a working woolshed pervadesevery plank, and the extensive shearers stencilling on the walls tells afascinating and historic story. The Woolshed is now ready to be shared as avery special events centre.Features include…~Approximately 170 sq metres of floor space~Music system~Theatre capability~Fully heated~Telephone & Broadband facilities~Fully equipped commercial kitchen~Catering as required~Tables, chairs, cutlery, crockery and glassware~Disabled facilities~On & Off-licence~Secluded courtyard~Adjacent gallery with private gardenThe well-preserved sheep pens remain at The Woolshed together with theoriginal shearing equipment, which dates back to the early 1900s, and wasat that time steam engine driven.Facing North, The Woolshed overlooks an attractive grass circle to the hillsbeyond and is protected by a mature and impressive stand of trees. Parkingis plentiful yet out of sight of The Woolshed and the surrounding area.Available for...~Corporate events, meetings & conferences~Private events and partiesgreta-valley.htmlhttp://www.tipapaevents.com/http://www.tipapaevents.comProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 42Rob Greenaway & Associates


WaiparaAccommAccommAccomm~Music, food, fashion, and other events~Product launches~Exhibitions~Courses & demonstrations~WeddingsThe Tipapa Homestead and gardens are also available for receptions, andthe surrounding land is on offer to explore, or for team building activities.Limited accommodation is available in the beautifully furnished TipapaHomestead.This is a wonderful opportunity to enjoy, entertain and do business on one ofNorth Canterbury’s most exclusive private properties.It is the perfect place for meetings, planning and ‘clear air’ thinking. This isindeed an exceptional location. We look forward to welcoming you at TheWoolshed at Tipapa....A visit to Tipapa is an experience of great beauty. Walk to the view point onthe land with spectacular views over North Canterbury to the Southern Alps.Relax in the Gallery and adjoining garden, and enjoy a bottle of wine, or arefreshing beer, and a smoko platter. You will leave Tipapa knowing youhave experienced a unique and original North Canterbury estate.AA Accommodation in Waipara: five options identified: Teviot ViewAccommodation, Amberley Beach; House of Ball, Waipara, Dunnolly LuxuryVineyard Cottage and Villa, Waipara; Winery Cottage, Waipara; WaiparaHotel, Waipara.Claremont's luxury lodge - set among some of the hottest wineries in NewZealand. Nestled amongst the fertile and sun warmed plains of NorthCanterbury, within just 10-15 minutes drive from Claremont, areCanterbury’s award-winning Waipara wineries. This is now the fourth largestwine-producing area in New Zealand and expanding the most rapidly.Waipara has gained an international reputation for consistently producingsome of the finest wines year after year.Enjoy New Zealand’s beautiful Waipara wine country in the luxuriouscomfort of your very own private contemporary holiday home.Welcome to Dry Paddocks country retreat - your secluded and selfcontained luxury getaway in the heart of the Waipara Valley, NorthCanterbury, New Zealand. If you are looking for a luxury accommodationexperience that is private and fully self contained, then Dry Paddocks is foryou.http://www.aatravel.co.nz/newzealand/Waipara_Accommodation.htmlhttp://www.claremontestate.co.nz/activities/nearclaremont/wineries-newzealand/waiparawineries.htmlhttp://www.drypaddocks.co.nz/Accomm Holiday accommodation to rent http://www.holidayhouses.co.nz/Waipara.aspAccommManaged by one of the world’s most prestigious Hotel Groups, the WaiparaWine Village and Day Spa will include a Greg Turner designed golf course,luxury day spa, a restaurant, wine bar, international ale house, wine tastingand full conferences facilities.http://www.waiparawineandspa.co.nz/Accomm Showing Waipara Bed & Breakfast (2 options) http://www.aatravel.co.nz/newzealand/Waipara_Bed-Breakfast.htmlAccommThe Waipara sleepers is one of the most interesting places to stay in thisbeautiful country .No visit to NZ is complete without stopping there. BudgetAccommodation in Unique Historic Railway Wagons. Where the only thingbudget about the place is the price. Enjoy a relaxing stay amongst a countrygarden setting. Take time out to tour the Vineyards by bike car or horsedrawn wagon. Hunt for Fossils or Ride on the Weka Pass Steam train.http://www.waiparasleepers.co.nz/Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 43Rob Greenaway & Associates


Make Waipara Sleepers your home base and explore the region that offersWhale Watching, Skiing, Bungy Jumping, Jet Boat Rides, Horse Riding, orthe quieter things in life such as Fishing, Tramping, Fossil Hunting,Swimming, Hot Pools, Golf and much much more.EventEventEventEventEventCanterbury Wine Tours - Half Day - Three Winery Tour just $ 65 per person- Visit 3 popular Waipara Wineries including wine tastingClaremont is an inspirational wedding venue for smaller, more intimateweddings with facilities for receptions and private celebrations for up to fortyguests. Larger groups can be accommodated, during the summer months,with a garden function within our lovely grounds.As a corporate and meeting venue, Claremont offers a relaxed environmentto rejuvenate and stimulate participants and so make a success of anysmall corporate retreat, meeting, team building or private event. Exclusiveuse assures total privacy for that special meeting or conference.Our Waipara Tour will take you to four award-winning wineries, such asPegasus Bay, Mud House, Waipara Springs, Torlesse, Mt Cass, MuddyWater, Danny Schuster or Sherwoods. (all wineries subject to availability).You will be able taste the wine, view the vineyards and, if you wish, buysome wine. On our wine trail we are usually able to show you where thewine is made and you are often able to meet the winemakers. A lunchplatter at one of the wineries is also included.The region’s producers come together annually at the Waipara Valley Wineand Food Festival in the historic Glenmark Church grounds, providing anopportunity to savour a selection of local wines and foods.The Waipara Valley Farmers' Market is held every Saturday, 9 - 12, rain orshine from early November until April/May. It is held in front of the HurunuiCouncil Chambers, Carters Road, Amberley. There is an excellent range oflocal produce, from lamb through to vegetables, olive oils, eggs, honey,preserves and bread and lots in between including fabulous coffee.Stallholders come from the region between the Waimakariri and ConwayRivers.Event The Waipara Vintage Festival will be held September 26th and 27th 2009.A fun day of all the things associated with a vintage country fair. Tractionengines, clydesdale horses, vintage cars and tractors and ploughing,stationery engines, variety of stalls, military vehicles, aerial top dressingdisplay, fertiliser spreading with a truck blower, Weka Pass Railway trainrides, dog trial and sheep shearing demonstrations. Run by the Friends ofGlenmark Church to assist in the preservation of our historic communitychurchEventEventEventThere’s a time and a place for bluegrass music and the Waipara ValleyWine & Food Celebration is definitely it. From the back of a truck the banjopinks and harmonica wails through the fuggy summer air to the crowdedgrass amphitheatre. Tots dance maniacally – arms in the air - as mums anddads sip at plastic wine glasses and absentmindedly nod their heads to therhythm. From their makeshift stage, Johnny Possum and his GoodtimeHootin’ Band holler and fiddle, coaxing their audience into a toe-tappin’,thigh slappin’ frenzy.Waipara Wine Village & Day Spa will be built on almost 16 acres of primewinegrowing land in the heart of Waipara, North Canterbury. Waipara is thefastest growing wine region in New Zealand, with over 80 vineyardscovering more than 800 hectares of plantings, in a very popular tourismarea within the Alpine Pacific Triangle and close to Hanmer Springs.The Waipara Wine Village & Day Spa will be a total visitor, hospitality,conferencing, event and spa experience. It will also provide a focus forWaipara winegrowers to showcase their locally produced wines.Mud House Events:24 April 2010 The MudRide . . . event details11 December 2009 'a day on the green' . . . event detailshttp://www.waiparavalley.co.nz/index.htmlhttp://www.claremontestate.co.nz/activities/nearclaremont/wineries-newzealand/waiparawineries.htmlhttp://www.discoverytravel.co.nz/waipara-wine-tourxidc3463.htmlhttp://www.alpinepacifictourism.co.nz/Information/Waipara/http://www.waiparawine.co.nz/things_to_do/waipara_valley_farmers_markethttp://www.nzlive.com/nzlivecom/waipara-vintagefestivalhttp://www.3news.co.nz/Waipara-Wine--Food-Cause-for-Celebration/tabid/420/articleID/92317/cat/440/Default.aspxhttp://www.latitudegroup.co.nz/Properties/Waipara+Wine+Village+Day+Spa.htmlhttp://www.mudhousewineryandcafe.co.nz/events/Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 44Rob Greenaway & Associates


GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneralGeneralHighlights - Waipara valley wine trails, Weka Pass vintage railway, Bushand mountain walkways, Wetlands & native forests, Coastal cliffs &secluded beach.At the southern gateway to the Alpine Pacific Triangle is one of NewZealand’s finest wine regions - Waipara Valley. A pleasant 45 minute drivefrom Christchurch, Waipara’s wineries are currently producing in excess of250,000 cases of wine in an average year. …….The fascinating diversity oflocal terroir not only contributes to an abundance of award-winning winesbut is also ideal for olive farms, nut farms, lavender and flower growing.In recent years, the Waipara Valley has become a popular stop fortravellers who appreciate good wine. Waipara is one of New Zealand'snewest and most rapidly expanding wine areas - Pinot Noir and Rieslinggrapes do very well here. Some of the wineries have restaurants.Interesting forms of accommodation can be found in the area – you caneven stay in a converted railway carriage. To add to your gourmetexperience, there are olive groves, nut farms and fields of lavender.Waipara is home to the historic Weka Pass Railway, which runs onspecified Sundays. The train travels over 14 kilometres of the originalHurunui-Bluff Main Trunk line, built in 1882.Other things to do:Fishing - Many rivers are popular for trout and salmon fishing.Iron Ridge Quarry 707 Ram Paddock Rd, Waipara Valley, ph: 03-314 9198,www.raymondherber.com Here, in an old limestone quarry, RaymondHerber has his iron sculpture studio. Group visits by appointment.Karikaas Natural Dairy Products 156 Whiterock Rd, Loburn, Rangiora, ph:03-312 8708, www.karikaas.co.nz Taste and buy excellent cheeses andbutter at the factory shop.Limestone Hills Ram Paddock Rd, Amberley, ph: 03-314 9921,www.limestonehills.co.nz A chance to join the owners on French blacktruffle hunts in season. A charming, two-bedroom cottage overlooks theWaipara River Gorge.Waipara Gardens General Store 63 Glenmark Drive, Waipara Village Thislocal landmark is run by Sarah Hughes-Games, who also sells her quality,fresh vegetables and seedlings here.Waipara Valley Farmers’ Market Held each Saturday morning (LabourWeekend to April), at Pegasus Bay Winery.Waipara Wine Trail Most wineries are clustered close to a 10km stretch ofSH1. See www.waiparawine.co.nzWeka Pass Railway ph: 03-962 2999, www.wekapassrailway.co.nz On thefirst and third Sundays of the month, restored steam locomotive A428 chugsout of the Glenmark station on a return trip to Waikari at the other side ofWeka Pass. A great way to see Frog Rock and other limestone formations.Take an idyllic road trip and tour the flavours of Waipara Valley's NorthCanterbury Food and Wine Trail. Just 45 minutes from Christchurch,choose from over 20 wineries, 15 cellar doors and three specialised wineryrestaurants. Sample innovative menus at local cafes, visit farm gate andartisan producers, and if you can spare a night, enjoy the generoushospitality of a top-class country retreat. The Waipara Valley is one of NewZealand's finest wine regions. Commercial grape growing began in 1982and there are now over 20 wineries producing over 250,000 cases annually.……….. The Waipara Valley is an enjoyable half or full day trip, and youhave the appealing option of joining an organised wine tour.The Waipara Valley is New Zealand's most rapidly expanding wine areaand is home to award winning winery cafes and internationally acclaimedwines. The long narrow Waipara Valley is only 65km's from Christchurchcity and is home to award winning wines. Pinot Noir, Riesling, Chardonnayand Sauvignon Blanc dominate local planting’s, however a number of othergrape varieties are also grown. Wine lovers will enjoy the fabulous selectionof wineries open to the public along with winery restaurants serving localcuisine. Wine tours in the Waipara Valley are available and highlyrecommended for anyone considering trying a few wines as drinking andhttp://www.alpinepacifictourism.co.nz/Information/Waipara/http://www.newzealand.com/travel/destinations/regions/christchurchcanterbury/towns.cfm/nodeid/274.htmlhttp://www.cuisine.co.nz/index.cfm?pageId=57598http://www.christchurchnz.com/explore/waiparavalley.aspxhttp://www.newzealandnz.co.nz/hurunui/waiparavalley.htmlProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 45Rob Greenaway & Associates


GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneralTrainTraindriving don't mix! Professional wine tour companies are located inChristchurch and the Hurunui areaThe Waipara Valley is situated only 40 minutes drive north of ChristchurchInternational Airport and Christchurch city, the capital of the South Island. Itis the fastest growing wine region in New Zealand with around 80 vineyardsin the Waipara Valley covering more than 1,500 hectares of plantings.The Waipara Valley is snuggled in the lee of the Teviotdale hills that provideprotection from cool easterly winds but open to warming north west winds.The valley has three general sites, valley floor, hill slopes or river terraces.The soil types include; gravely deposits on flats and terraces in the centraland west of the valley, limestone derived clays on hillsides and valley floorto the eastern side and gravely loams over alluvial subsoil in the southernpart of the region. The north facing moderately sloping terrain provides anideal sun trap for fruiting vines.This gives each vineyard unique characters that contribute to a range ofwine styles that demand a visit to each winery to fully appreciate Waipara.The “Terroir” combined with the long hot autumn period helps produceunique richer, spicier pinot noirs and rieslings – regional specialties. Othervarieties of note include Pinot Gris, Chardonnay and Sauvignon BlancWaipara is in the Waipara road district and in the Kowai riding of the Ashleycounty. The township is on the banks of the Waipara river, close to therailway traffic bridge. There is a post office at the flag railway station, mailsare received and despatched daily, and there is telephonic connection withAmberley. The railway station is forty-one miles from Christchurch, andstands 231 feet above the level of the sea. Glenmark homestead is not faraway from the settlement. There is a hotel at Waipara, and coaches plydaily between the township and Cheviot. At the census of 1901 thepopulation of the township was eighteen, at Upper Waipara twenty-five, atWaipara Downs also twenty-five, and the railway co-operative workmennumbered 163. These men were, at the date of the census, engaged on theconstruction of the Waipara-Cheviot branch railway, and were, in themajority of cases, living in tents.Waipara’s reputation as a respected wine region is well-established.Although compact, the Waipara Valley is home to around 24 wineproducers, including 11 cellar door operations and three vineyard-basedrestaurants. The standard of wine produced in the Waipara Valley is worldclass - with the awards to prove it! Rich, spicy Pinot Noir and aromatic, dryRieslings are specialties of the region, but every varietal, from CabernetSauvignon to Chardonnay and Gewürtztraminer, can be grown, tasted andpurchased here. Organised vineyard tours are a perfect way to maximiseyour time in Waipara, seeing (and tasting) the best of the region. Choosefrom a package tour or personalised tour and enjoy all this region has tooffer.Welcome to the Alpine Pacific Triangle - One of New Zealand's moststunning and spectacular touring routes located on the rugged east coast ofthe South Island. Experience the irresistible charm of Hanmer Springs -New Zealand's alpine spa village, the superb wine and food at the wineriesof the Waipara Valley and the magnificent marine mammals of Kaikoura alllocated just north of Christchurch……The Weka Pass Railway is based at Waipara. This historic rural railwayuses both vintage steam and diesel-electric locomotives on 12.5km ofscenic rail line. Waipara Valley accommodation is diverse, from luxuryhomestay to winery cottages to budget accommodation in unique historicrailway wagons! From Waipara it is only a 40 minute drive to HanmerSprings Thermal Pools or just over 1 hour from whale watching in Kaikoura.Weka Pass Railway - Trains run between Waipara and Waikari on 14kms ofthe original Hurunui-Bluff Main Trunk line built in 1882, destined never toreach the planned Nelson/Marlborough terminus. The station at Waipara isnamed Glenmark for the district. Train hire is available for groups any dayother than the public running days which are the first and third Sunday ofeach month, every Sunday during January and February and most publicholidays. Hire rates vary to satisfy individual requirements…. There is heaps to see and do! Take a picnic or use Waikari's hotel ortearooms for a snack or lunch. Make sure you have a camera handy forhttp://www.waiparawine.co.nz/http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-Cyc03Cycl-t1-body1-d4-d30.htmlhttp://www.fourcorners.co.nz/newzealand/waipara/http://www.alpinepacifictourism.co.nz/http://www.newzealandnz.co.nz/hurunui/waiparavalley.htmlhttp://www.fourcorners.co.nz/newzealand/product/?product=wekapass-railwayProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 46Rob Greenaway & Associates


TrainWalkingWineWineWineWineplenty of uphill photo stop opportunities. There are two 'open' cars for openair viewing. You will see vineyards, olive groves, cattle, sheep, irrigationdam and wild bird life as the view expands during your climb into the passitself. Watch out for fossil seashells, narrow cuttings with wild flowers andthe named limestone rocks such as the Frog, Seal, Finger and Thumb. Seethe old coach road tracks, the toll gate site and the once high viaduct beforeyou arrive to the magnificent view of the Hurunui Basin with its mountainbackdrop.Weka Pass Railway, Waipara, New Zealand. This is a historic rural railwayusing both vintage steam and diesel-electric locomotives on 12.8 km ofscenic line through the unique limestone beauty of the Weka Pass out ofWaipara where superior weather patterns provide crystal clear air and highsunshine hours. The Weka Pass Railway is a totally voluntary organisation,whose members are dedicated to the preservation of New Zealand's railheritage. Initially the railway runs across flat farm land and passes a largeirrigation reservoir and vineyards, before climbing grades as steep as l:50 (2% ) as it winds through the cuttings in the Pass. One can only marvel atthe achievements of the workers who in the 1880's moved tons of clay andlimestone by hand to form all the cuttings and large embankments. TheWeka Pass section was completed in just over two years. The land wasonce under the sea and some of the surrounding limestone rocks haveweathered into unusual shapes. Most notable are Frog Rock and SealRock, in the middle of the Weka Pass. Sea shells and fossils may be seenin the walls of many cuttings.Waipara Valley Area Walks:1. Advanced Search Tiromoana Bush Walk - Update from TranswasteCanterbury August 09. The Tiromoana Bush Walkway is now closed forAugust and September for lambing. For all enquiries please phone 0800664 433.2. Mt Cass Walkway - Update from Transwaste Canterbury August 2009.The Mt Cass Walkway is now closed during August and September forlambing. For all enquiries please phone 0800 644 433Pegasus Bay Special viticultural region. The Waipara Valley is in the SouthIsland of New Zealand, 30 minutes drive north of Christchurch. To the eastWaipara Valley is separated from the ocean (Pegasus Bay) by a range ofhills which protect it from the cooling winds of the Pacific.Within the Waipara Valley Pegasus Bay vineyard gets maximum protectionfrom the Pacific's easterly breezes by being tucked up under the lee of theTeviotdale Range. Heat summation during the day is promoted by smoothstones and gravels left behind by an ice age glacierBlack Estate is a remarkable place for wine. A family owned vineyard on thewarm, sunny slopes of the Waipara Valley, where the vines grow throughclay and limestone soils to produce intense wines completely expressive ofthis site. Our wines are hand crafted using artisan techniques and adedication to creating exceptional Waipara Pinot Noir, Chardonnay andRieslingCanterbury’s iconic winery located in the Waipara Wine district, 45 minutesnorth of Christchurch on State Highway 1, where there is now the “shop,taste, dine, buy wine” experience. The Mud House has become a popularvenue destination and facility for events, concerts and conferences as wellas the home of our award winning wines and wild new menu.Recently remodelled our Winery & Café provides both local and overseasvisitors with a quality experience by combining superb wines and the verybest of New Zealand productsEstablished in 1986, Daniel Schuster Wines Ltd is a small, quality-focusedproducer of classically structured wines with individual character thatreflects the unique growing conditions of our Estate Vineyards. Thecompany is jointly owned by the Schuster and Hull families, who share acommon interest in grape growing, winemaking and the appreciation of finewine with food.The winery is located in the fast emerging wine producing district ofWaipara in North Canterbury and our wines are produced entirely fromhttp://www.wekapassrailway.co.nz/http://www.alpinepacifictourism.co.nz/Information/WaiparaWalks/http://www.pegasusbay.com/abouthttp://blackestate.co.nz/http://www.mudhousewineryandcafe.co.nz/https://secure.danielschusterwines.com/about.htmlProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 47Rob Greenaway & Associates


WineWineWineWineWineWineWineWinegrapes grown on our three estate/ managed vineyards; the Omihi HillsVineyard and Hull Vineyards in Waipara and the Petrie Vineyard in Rakaia.Greystone Wines. Our cellar door is open for the season! Come and visit usfrom Friday to Sunday, 11am to 5pm here in the Waipara Valley, only 50minutes north of Christchurch.50 minutes north of Christchurch on the east coast of the South Island ofNew Zealand sits the Waipara Valley which experiences the long drygrowing season found in the most famous wine regions of the world. On thenorthwest facing slopes of these limestone-studded hills and in the rainshadow of the Southern Alps you’ll find the home of Greystone Wines.If you are one of our many regular lovers of Whitestone wines welcome toour new website. If you are new to the brand of Whitestone wines, welcometo our wonderful range of wines that we love, from the sunny WaiparaValley.Max & Velda Smith created Whitestone Wines in a river bed. Max movedthe river to create the ideal site for the vineyard. To find out more about Maxand Whitestone Vineyard look at HISTORY. Please visit our parent websiteat Waipara Wine Cellars to purchase our wine.Kim Crawford Wines. Canterbury consists of two major wine areas; theplains around the city of Christchurch, where grapes were first planted in thelate 1970s, and the more recently developed valley area of Waipara, anhour's drive north of Christchurch.In the southern area the soils are mainly alluvial silt loams over gravelsubsoils while in Waipara they are chalky loams that are often rich inlimestone. Long, dry summers, abundant sunshine and relatively coolgrowing conditions are a feature in both areas although Waipara, which issheltered from the coast by a low range of hills, can be significantly warmer.Kings Road Waipara Pinot Noir. Kings Road runs west from the mainhighway south as you cross North Canterbury into the Waipara region. Thisarea is reputed to have the highest sunshine intensity in the country. In2001 we planted our vineyard with a range of different Pinot Noir clones.Row spacing is very narrow–only 2 metres apart as we wanted to ensuregood ripening potential.Situated in the Waipara area of North Canterbury, New Zealand, MuddyWater is a direct translation from the Maori place name - wai (water) para(sediment, mud). Just as our name reflects the place, our wines reflect ourvineyards. Our vineyards are situated on sunny slopes above the WaiparaValley in North Canterbury, on the South Island of New Zealand. Protectedfrom cool sea breezes by a range of coastal hills, the Waipara area has aclimate distinct from the rest of CanterburyThe Waipara wine region is located 40 minutes' drive north of Christchurchand is home to over 1400ha of vines. Waipara's global reputation ofexcellence has developed rapidly over the region's short history, as morevineyards, wineries and cellar door operations have been establishedamongst the surrounding hills.The broad range of soil types, coupled with the natural sun-trap of thevalley have seen an expansive, award-winning range of wine varietiesemerge from Waipara.This tour explores four of North Canterbury's boutique vineyards,Canterbury House, Mark Rattray, Pegasus Bay and Waipara Springs allproducing a fine selection of both white and red wines.This tour explores four of North Canterbury's boutique vineyards,Canterbury House, Mark Rattray, Pegasus Bay and Waipara Springs allproducing a fine selection of both white and red wines.Torlesse Wines Limited is based at Waipara Village, adjacent to StateHighway 1, 60 kilometres north of Christchurch. The company takes itsname from an early Canterbury resident, surveyor and farmer, EnglishmanCharles Torlesse. He gave his name to the Torlesse mountain range whichpart circles the Canterbury Plains and was at one time the largest landowner and farmer in North Canterbury and founder of the nearby town ofRangiora. Interestingly, the name Torlesse is given to the underlyinghttp://www.greystonewines.co.nz/Homehttp://whitestonewines.co.nz/http://www.kimcrawfordwines.co.nz/wineregions/canterbury-waipara.phphttp://www.boundaryvineyards.co.nz/kings.htmlhttp://www.muddywater.co.nz/Homehttp://www.fourcorners.co.nz/newzealand/waiparawine/http://www.nz.com/newzealand/activities/christchurch/waipara-wine-trailfromchristchurch.aspxhttp://www.torlesse.co.nz/index.cfm/About_Torlesse_WinesProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 48Rob Greenaway & Associates


WineWineWineWineWineWineWineOmihibedrock from which most New Zealand soils are derived – Torlesse, theterroir of New Zealand!Waipara Downs, a vineyard of 4 ha lying on the limestone-rich slopes of theWaipara Valley, produces hand picked, 100% oak-aged quality wines, fromthe estate grown grapes. Under management of Keith, Ruth and Scott BerryWaipara Hills has experienced spectacular success and growth since it waslaunched as a small public wine company in 2001.To facilitate the risingproduction a purpose-built 2000 tonne state-of-the-art winemaking facilitywas leased in Marlborough. Known as South Pacific Cellars the facilityoffers the company's winemaking team a high tech platform from which tocreate the best quality award winning wines. Waipara Hills also has animpressive winery at Waipara, where the winery restaurant is based onState Highway One.Waipara Hills vineyard. By day, intense sunshine and dry winds challengeour vines to survive. By night temperatures drop dramatically, and thevineyard rows shiver under the pale light of the Southern Cross.The South Island of New Zealand is a land of extremes. Hot days, coolnights; high mountains, low river flats; bright sunshine, heavy snow clouds.It's these contrasts that give Waipara Hills wines their famous intensity,character and complexity.Waipara is located on the east coast of the South Island, about an hour'sdrive north of Christchurch and a winding half day drive south ofMarlborough. At the northern end of the Canterbury plain, the topographyturns to gentle slopes with a group of hills along the coast.Unlike the relative bustle of some other regions, Hastings at Hawke's Bay,Blenheim in Marlborough, and the Christchurch area of Canterbury,Waipara is a quiet, isolated village on the Christchurch-Picton highway. Withthe potential Waipara has for growing top-quality grapes, it won't be asleepy village much longer. Evidence the recent investment in theimpressive Canterbury House Winery. Evidence too in the reviews beinggarnered by Mountford Vineyard and Pegasus Bay.Waipara Valley, one of the fastest growing wine regions in New Zealand, isseeing a big jump in tourism to the area as a result of the interest in localwine, Alpine Pacific general manager Scott Pearson said todayWaipara Wine Cellars promotes and distributes Exclusive Boutique Winesfrom the Waipara and Marlborough wine growing regions of New Zealand.All wines are from the single vineyards of Waipara Downs Wines,Whitestone Vineyard Waipara, and Rapaura Estate, Marlborough and arecrafted by winemaker Scott Berry of Waipara Downs Wines, Waipara, NorthCanterbury.When the Waipara Winegrowers invited me to the 2002 Waipara ValleyWine and Food Celebration as the 'guest winewriter' for the weekend, Ifound an exciting and expanding wine region with dedicated and passionatewine producers.Waipara is part of rural Canterbury just 40 minutes drive north ofChristchurch. While there was an unsuccessful foray with grapes in the1960's most historians record the first grapes in the region as being plantedin 1981. Sheep farmers chose grapes to trial as a diversification cropbecause grapes don't eat grass.From those testy beginnings, the region has burgeoned to 17 producerswho own their own vineyards (see map). Other producers, e.g. WaiparaHills, use contract growers.The natural 'Y'-shaped valley with its free draining river gravels andlimestone-rich clay and sandy soils is only a few kilometres from the SouthPacific Ocean to the east but is well sheltered by the intervening TeviotdaleHills. The peaks of the "Three Deans" dominate the vista to the west.http://www.madefromnewzealand.com/businesses/waipara-downswineshttp://www.glengarry.co.nz/brand.jsp?name=Waipara%20Hillshttp://www.waiparahills.co.nz/?http://www.kiwiwineries.com/waipara.htmhttp://www.infonews.co.nz/news.cfm?l=1&t=0&id=23108http://www.waiparawinecellars.co.nz/http://www.wineoftheweek.com/regions/waipara.htmlProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 49Rob Greenaway & Associates


MotorbikingWineMountainbikingScargillPioneer Motor Cycle Club Omihi Valley March 2009 Club resultsOmihi Waipara New Zealand Wine. Black Estate Top Vineyard WinesStockists….. a remarkable place for wine.The Vulcaniser course is located in very picturesque countrysideoverlooking the coast with views across Pegasus Bay towards BanksPeninsula, to the Southern Alps and along the North Canterbury coasttowards Motunau Island. … The race is being held at Mt Vulcan Station.Head north from Christchurch. Turn right off SH1 into Reeces Rd (by theschool) at Omihi about 10km north of the Waipara junction. Travel up thisroad for 11km to where you will be directed up a white gravel farm road tothe parking area (approx. 3km). This road is NOT SUITABLE for cars withlow ground clearance. There may be a walk or bike of 700m of relativelyeasy gradient 4WD track to the start/finish area if the access road is slipperyon race day. Allow approx. 1hr 15min from the north edge of ChristchurchGolf Course is located in the Scargill Valley, only 1 hour from Christchurch and 4km from SH 1 at Greta Valley. Only 20 minutes from Motunau Beach.….Come and enjoy the tranquillity of this nine-hole course that is situated inthe Scargill Valley. Tree lined fairways, a few hills and target greens makethis a picturesque and challenging course to play. The clubhouse will beopened for visiting groups by prior arrangement.HorsetrekkingandaccommGlenmarkAccommAccommEventLilburn Farm, 172 Stewarts Run Road, Scargill ValleyLilburn is a 2000 acre, moderate to steep hill country, beef breeding farm,located 80km North of Belfast, about 1hour by car (allow extra for towing).The road up here is shingle and we would recommend 4WD if you aretowing two horses.We are a beef breeding farm so you will be riding amongst bulls, cows &calves at times and you will need to ride quietly at a walk through them.As you trek you will need to be able to stop and look at the map providedand work out your direction, paddocks are numbered on gateposts.If you assess your group as to how long you wish to ride for each day andat what speed, I can help you determine the best direction to go prior toyour arrival. On request I may be available to guide treks.We recommend your horse to be shod & fit, a breastplate is fitted for goingup hills, you ride in footwear with some grip so you can get off and walkyour horse down steep areas of hill, provision to carry some water & a coat,to wear your hardhat, and to carry a cell phone (coverage is good onhilltops)Welcome to The Old Glenmark Vicarage, a historic New Zealand landmarkin the heart of the Waipara Wine Valley. Built in 1907, The Vicarage is abeautiful example of late 19th century architecture set amongst 100 year oldtrees and established grounds. The house overlooks our boutique vineyard,the Vicarage’s wines are made by a neighbouring winery, offering wines ofquality and distinction.The Old Glenmark Vicarage is an historic landmark in the heart of theWaipara Wine Valley. Built in 1907, The Vicarage is a beautiful example oflate 19th century architecture set amongst 100 year old trees, establishedgardens and our boutique vineyard.Waipara Wine and Food Celebration - The Biggest, Little, Best Wine andFood Celebration in the Country is Back! Date: Saturday 6th March 2010.Venue: Glenmark Church, Church Rd, Waiparahttp://www.pioneertrials.co.nz/post/Omihi-Valley-March-2009.aspxhttp://blackestate.co.nz/http://www.mountainbike.orconhosting.net.nz/http://www.canterburygolf.co.nz/page/canterbury+clubs/?club=14http://www.lilburnfarm.com/index.htmlhttp://www.glenmarkvicarage.co.nz/http://www.alpinepacifictourism.co.nz/Information/product/?product=the-old-glenmarkvicarage-thevicarage-barnhttp://www.waiparawine.co.nz/events/waipara_valley_wine_and_food_cProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 50Rob Greenaway & Associates


GeneralTrainWineWineSpyeGeneralWildlifeGlenmark was probably the most valuable station in Canterbury. Roughlyspeaking it ran from the east side of the Omihi Valley to the west side of theWeka Pass, and included the Doctor's Hills and the Deans, page 272and itran from the Hurunui to the Waipara. The freehold and leasehold covered ahundred and fifty thousand acres. At one time it contained eighty-onethousand acres of freehold and carried 90,000 sheep.Weka Pass Railway - The Railway Experience of Yester-Year - Just a shortwalk up the road to the Weka Pass railway that offers an opportunity toexperience Rail Travel 1950's style. Departing Waipara's Glenmark stationthe train leaves the North Canterbury plains to climb up a series of gracefulcurves. Though limestone cuttings of the Weka Pass and beyond PassingFrog Rock and ending up at the Waikari station. Visit the craft shops atWaikari and enjoy a picnic lunch then catch the train back to Waipara. Theoriginal 1930 carriages and open air observation wagons are hauled byperiod diesel locomotive or restored steam engine. Plenty of photographicopportunities and on train commentary on the history and locations duringthe trip.Glenmark Wines, 169 Mackenzies Rd, WaiparaGlenmark Wines takes its name from the huge Glenmark sheep stationowned by the 19th-century pastoralist George Henry Moore. The WekaPlains property farmed by the McCaskeys was originally part of that estateand the old Glenmark homestead, which was burned down in 1890, ispictured on the Glenmark label.The Old Glenmark Vicarage Wines. Hand-crafted Boutique Wines. Situatedin the heart of the Waipara Valley Wine District, the Vicarage has a smallboutique vineyard planted with Pinot Noir, Riesling and Chardonnay vines. .The Vicarage's wines are made by a neighbouring winery, one of the first inthe region with a strong reputation for quality craftsmanship and wines ofdistinction.Spye is an historic and highly regarded 1,012 hectare sheep and beefbreeding and finishing property. An easy 50 minute drive north ofChristchurch with frontage to the State Highway, the property is located inthe Waipara/Omihi wine growing district.Back at Kaikoura township, our route south takes us along State Highway1. The hills now are much reduced after the soaring peaks behind Kaikoura,and it is not until you reach Spye, some 111 kilometres further south, thatthe Canterbury Plains open out before you. This wide expanse is thecountry's most distinctive and easily defined geographical area by far thelargest, contiguous area of lowland we have.elebrationhttp://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-AclEarl-t1-body-d10-d7.htmlhttp://www.inet.net.nz/~waipara.sleepers/weka_pass_railway.htmhttp://www.cuisine.co.nz/index.cfm?pageID=7443&r=0http://www.glenmarkvicarage.co.nz/wines.htmlhttp://www.bayleys.co.nz/55750http://www.ecotours.co.nz/wildlife/kaikoura/canterbury.htmProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 51Rob Greenaway & Associates


8 Appendix 2: International research: wind farms, tourism andrecreationThis section reviews the findings of international research into the effects of wind farmdevelopment on tourism. This review provides an important foundation for this assessment,due to the influence on tourism and recreation of the operation of the proposed wind farmbeing limited to visual effects.8.1 United KingdomIt is appropriate to reference studies completed in Scotland and England for the reason thatthey have included members of the same European tourism market that New Zealand relieson, in part, and have been carried out in an area which bases much of its tourism product onrelatively natural landscape settings. The equivocal and contingent responses to the surveysin Scotland also match the little research that has been completed in New Zealand. There is amix of reactions to wind farms from a tourism perspective, but the trend is generally neutral,and there are often positive elements.In a survey of 307 visitors to Argyll in Scotland (MORI, 2002) – where 83% of respondentsnoted the landscape and countryside of the area as ‘of particular interest’ – of the 49% whohad seen a wind farm in the area, 15% reported they had a ‘completely positive effect’, 28%reported a ‘generally positive effect’, 43% reported an ‘equally positive and negative effect’,7% reported a ‘generally negative effect’, and 1% a ‘completely negative effect’. Four percentnoted that the wind farms would make them more likely to visit again, 91% reported that theywould make no difference and 2% reported that the wind farms meant it was less likely thatthey would visit again.Similarly, a 2004 study by the University of West England into a proposed wind farm in NorthDevon (Aithchison, 2004), based on interviews with 379 ‘day visitors and tourists’, reportedthat the majority of respondents (58%) thought that wind farms had no overall impact on thetourism experience, a further 18% reported that they had a positive effect on the tourismexperience, and 15% reported a negative effect. The report conclusion was no overallnegative impact on tourism numbers, no overall detrimental effect on the tourist experience,and no overall decline in tourism expenditure.NFO System Three (2002) completed a meta-data analysis, and a survey of 180 domestic,national and international tourists to Scotland for VisitScotland into the potential impact ofwind farms on tourism in Scotland, and in 2003 a similar study for the Wales Tourism Board(NFO System Three, 2003). Findings for the Scotland study included: The Scottish research identified the emotive nature of the whole issue of wind farmdevelopment. Amongst the trade bodies interviewed, the majority were either positivelydisposed towards wind farm development, or at least conditionally so. Trade bodies whowere more negative tended to have very strong reasons for this opinion. In Wales, most trade body representatives were, in principle, supportive of renewableenergy and the development of wind farms. However, the general view was that windfarms should be very carefully sited and not in areas which were deemed to beparticularly ‘sensitive’ to their development. There were variations in the explanation ofwhat constituted a ‘no-go area’ with some organisations more explicit than others in theirdefinition. Nevertheless, there was general consensus that they should be locatedoutside of designated areas (e.g. National Parks and Areas of Outstanding NaturalBeauty, Sites of Special Scientific Interest) and in areas in which the visual andenvironmental impacts would be minimised. In the absence of any research in Wales thathas attempted to quantify the impacts of wind farms on tourists, most respondents foundit difficult to assess these types of impacts. Amongst those who did provide an opinionmost believed that the impacts on tourism were negligible although these views werebased on anecdotal evidence.Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 52Rob Greenaway & Associates


Welsh tourism operators did not report any adverse effects from existing wind farms, butsome were worried about their development would may impact on those returning to thearea in the future. Amongst visitors to Scotland, the picture was mixed with a large proportion commentingon the visual intrusion on the landscape. The visual impact represented the mainconcern with 38% of visitor respondents reporting that wind farms ‘spoiled the scenery’.Most other respondents felt that the visual intrusion of wind farms needed to be takenaccount when they were being sited. When asked for their overall views on wind farmdevelopment, the majority of visitor respondents – over three quarters – were eitherpositive or at least neutral towards wind farm development. At the same time, asignificant minority (21%) of visitors held much more negative views towards wind farmdevelopment. These figures were almost identical in the Welsh study. The majority of visitors respondents were at least ‘conditionally positive’ towards windfarm development from a tourism perspective. The use of the term ‘conditionally positive’was considered important in terms of wind farm development and its impact on tourism.Only a relatively small proportion of visitors were positive towards wind farmdevelopment without any conditions. A much larger proportion were more likely to qualifytheir acceptance using phrases such as ‘it depends’, ‘so long as’, and ‘provided that’ intheir responses. Most of these conditions related to the siting of the wind farms and a recognition that, formost people, they are seen as being visually intrusive. Consequently, a common themeamongst both the trade and visitors was that wind farms should not be sited in or neardesignated areas of outstanding scenery. In addition, there was a consensus amongstvisitors that, wherever possible, wind turbines should not be located in or near popular‘tourist areas’. There was a feeling amongst visitors that wind farms held some appeal at the timebecause of their ‘novelty value’. For most visitors, it was fairly unusual to see a turbine ora wind farm in the countryside (as it is currently in New Zealand) and therefore whenthey were seen, they held a degree of curiosity. This suggests that there could be adanger of cumulative development of wind farms throughout the countryside where oneof their present appeals – uniqueness and the fact that they are unusual, is lost. Theissue of the preferred sizes and scales of individual wind farm developments from thetourism industry point of view more difficult to determine. Whilst the trade were morelikely to prefer the idea of a smaller number of larger wind farm developments, visitorswere rather more likely to choose the option of a larger number of smaller scaledevelopments. It would appear however that the largest proportion of visitors wouldprefer to not see any wind farms at all when in the Scottish countryside. A preference for a larger number of small scale developments rather than a smallernumber of large scale developments was considered to probably be based on the feelingthat if they had to see any wind farms at all, the smaller and less intrusive thedevelopment, the better. Attitudes towards wind farms tended to be slightly more positive amongst those who hadactually seen and experienced them than amongst those who had not done so Seventypercent of those in the Scottish study who had seen wind farms thought they made nodifference to their experience, versus 54% for those who had not seen them. Thissuggested that the perceived negative associations with wind farms – visual and noisepollution – are less problematic amongst those respondents who have actually seenthem in situ. Many opinions were reported to have been based on, “rumour and oftenmisinformation”. In the Scottish study as many as 26% of visitors claimed that they would be less likely tovisit a specific site, based on mock-ups of wind farm developments, if a wind farm wasdeveloped there in future. One percent would be more likely to return, and 70% claimedthat it would make no difference. The report authors noted that it would be difficult todetermine the extent to which this would actually be the outcome of a wind farmdevelopment, although it offers evidence that specific developments would be likely toresult in a reduction in the number of visits made by the existing visitor markets. ThisProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 53Rob Greenaway & Associates


again illustrates that from a tourism perspective, the siting of wind farms is particularlycrucial. In the Welsh study the largest proportion of respondents claimed that it would make nodifference to their likelihood to take holidays in the Welsh countryside if the number ofwind farms increased (68%). A further 9% claimed that any impact would be minimal. Onthe other hand, a significant minority would be affected: 11% would ‘steer clear of thearea’ and 2% would be ‘less likely to come back’. This would tend to suggest that a windfarm development could have a negative impact on future visits – none of therespondents replied that they would be more likely to return for exampleThe NFO System Three report authors (2002) stated that their research had highlighted a mixof different messages and conditions related to wind farm development in relation to tourism.This made a:general, all-encompassing tourism policy fairly impractical. Most respondents, both onthe trade and consumer sides, felt that each case should be judged on its own meritsrather than attempting to define an overall policy which suggested that VisitScotlandwas either ‘for’ or ‘against’ wind farm development. Therefore, our recommendationwould be to devise a policy which was set within the overall context of the recognitionof the importance of sustainability and renewable energies but which would allowjudgement on individual wind farm applications, taking account of all of the key factorsand elements indicated.An important finding of the NFO System Three surveys was respondents’ identification offacilities which detracted or enhanced their visitor experience. The value in this question setwas that it was asked before respondents were aware that the survey was targeted at windfarms. Table 4 summarises the results:Table 4: Proportion of Respondents claiming that each facility/development detracted orenhanced the experience (% of n=180). NFO System Three (2002 and 2003)Scotland % of n=180 Wales % of n=266Facility or development Detracted Enhanced Detracted EnhancedElectricity pylons and wires 51 1 48 1Mobile telephone masts 35 2 37 2Quarries 33 7 30 15Planted, geometric forestry 32 32 28 29Wind farms and turbines 29 18 23 17Telephone wires and poles 29 2 25 3Hydro electric and other power stations 22 19 24 9Fish farms 20 21 6 18Hydro electric dams 12 7 6 40Electricity pylons rated well above wind turbines as adverse features, and had very fewrespondents citing them as enhancing the experience. Wind turbines were more equivocal, ofless concern than geometric forestry and as much a detraction as telephone poles and wires.Research carried out by QA Research (2005) of 449 visitors to Cumbria into the potential todevelop additional wind farms in the area, reported that to 86% of visitors, more wind farms inCumbria would make no difference to their visit frequency. Ten percent would visit less oftenand 1% would not visit at all. With regard to the statement, ‘I would avoid an area ofcountryside if I knew there was a wind farm there’, 77% disagreed or strongly disagreed and19% agreed or strongly agreed. However, 71% indicated an extra wind farm would make noProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 54Rob Greenaway & Associates


difference when visiting the district; 28% thought it would be an additional attraction; 79%indicated it would not reduce their enjoyment on visits; and 91% indicated it would notdiscourage them from visiting. Seventy-five percent of respondents had prior experience ofwind farms in Cumbria, and unfortunately the study report does not indicate the responsedifferences between those who had and had not experienced a wind farm.RBA Research (2002) completed 234 face-to-face interviews with residents near theLambrigg Fell wind farm in Cumbria. They found that 71% of respondents thought that thewind farm had no effect on the number of people visiting the area, 14% said they didn’t knowwhat the impact had been and 11% believed that the number of visitors to the area hadincreased. Three percent thought that visitor numbers had declined.Star Consultants (2003) – a group of undergraduate students from Leeds MetropolitanUniversity – completed face-to-face interviews with 147 visitors to the Lake District for Friendsof the Lake District. In relation to visits to Kirby Moor in the Lakes District, 79% of respondentswere neither encouraged nor discouraged to visit that area as a result of the wind farm, andequal numbers of respondents (7.5%) were encouraged and discouraged. In relation toLambrigg Fell – another wind farm area – the neutral group was even larger – 84%. Inresponse to the potential for increasing the number of wind farms in the Lake District, 75% ofrespondents stated it would make no difference to their visit frequency, 22% stated theywould visit less frequently and 2% would be encouraged to visit.The students also interviewed 30 ‘tourism organisations’ in the Lakes District, including theRamblers Association. Their report includes analysis of the results by subgroup (such asB&Bs and museums), but as each subgroup was quite small (three B&Bs for example), thisdetailed analysis is unlikely to be representative. In relation to the Kirby Moor wind farm, allbusinesses noted that it had had no effect on their operations (only the Ramblers consideredit a negative effect). The same results applied to Lambrigg Fell and the proposed wind farm atWharrels Hill. Almost three-quarters of businesses supported the concept of wind farm visitorcentres, and those who did not felt they would be competition for their businesses.In 2008 the Scottish Government released an analysis of the economic impacts of wind farmson Scottish tourism undertaken by Glasgow Caledonian University (2008). This study wasbased on international literature review, intercept surveys with almost 400 visitors to areas inScotland with wind farms, and an internet-base response survey.The literature review found: There is often strong hostility to developments at the planning stage on the grounds ofthe scenic impact and the perceived knock-on effect on tourism. However developmentsin the most sensitive locations [which is taken to mean, locations where tourism valuesare directly dependent on existing visual amenity values] do not appear to have beengiven approval so that where negative impacts on tourism might have been a realoutcome there is, in practice, little evidence of a negative effect. There is a loss of value to a significant number of individuals but there are also somewho believe that wind turbines enhance the scene. An established wind farm can be a tourist attraction in the same way as a hydro-electricpower station. This was considered to be only true whilst a visit remains a noveloccurrence. In Denmark, a majority of tourists regard wind turbines as a positive feature of thelandscape. Over time hostility to wind farms lessens and they become an accepted even valued partof the scenery. Those closest seem to like them most. Overall there is no evidence to suggest a significant negative economic impact of windfarms on tourists.In relation to the effects of wind farms on visitor intentions to return to Scotland, the interceptsurvey by Glasgow Caledonia University (2008) found:Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 55Rob Greenaway & Associates


Under all circumstances [the respondent having seen a real wind farm, having seen aphoto-montage of a local landscape before and after the creation of an existing windfarm, and seeing a photo-simulation of an expanded existing wind farm] the vastmajority (93-99%) of those who had seen a wind farm suggested that the experiencewould not have any effect. Indeed there were some tourists for whom the experienceincreased the likelihood of return rather than decreasing it. The assessed change inlikelihood combines both decreases (negative impacts) and increases (positiveimpacts). In the second case (no farm to current levels [that is, when viewing a ‘beforeand after’ photo-montage of an existing wind farm]) the net result of these changes inintentions at both the area level and nationally is relatively small, and in almost allcases is not significantly different from zero in a statistical sense.However when the farm was extended respondents became significantly morenegative. The extended development scenario at the area level shows a small butstatistically significant (at the 10% level) fall of 2.5% in the likelihood of revisiting anarea and just under 0.5% fall in the likelihood of revisiting Scotland.The result at first sight seems to stand at odds to the result from the internet survey,where it appeared that once there was an intrusion into the scenery, the effect on thevalue of the landscape of expanding the size is relatively small. It is believed that thisdiscrepancy may be explained by the difference between stated and revealed actions.The extended photos used in the intercept study were theoretical developments.Again those who did not like the idea of wind farms were given the opportunity toregister a “protest vote” by threatening to withdraw if it proceeded. Because of thecontext this protest was far lower than in some other studies but it would appear toexist. Consequently it is our view that the identified change should be viewed as themaximum response that might be expected.The report concluded a reduction in ‘general tourism expenditure’ at four study areas ofbetween 1.3% and 1.7% as a result of wind farm development. The total loss for Scotlandwas estimated at 0.1%. However, this was considered a ‘worst case scenario’ as it was basedon responses to extending existing wind farms where a statistically significant result wasnoted, and did not include the potential positive effects of wind farm tourism. The authors alsoreported:The intercept study possibly overstates the likely negative responses because theywere based on hypothetical extensions and were out of line with the marginalityfindings of the internet study. It is believed that there is an inherent possibility of aprotest vote against wind farms which is not matched by similar responses fromsupporters.andThe development will happen over a number of years and both the market andtourists are likely to in part adjust to meet the new challenges.In 2008 four researchers from the Centre for the Study of Environmental Change andSustainability and the School of Engineering and Electronics at the University of Edinburgh(Eltham et al 2008) compared residents’ perceptions of a Cornish wind farm (Carland Cross)based on their recall of the their opinions prior to its construction in 1991 and after living nearthe farm up to 2006. Figure 9 shows an example of the proximity to residences. A sample sizeof 100 respondents was sought and achieved.Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 56Rob Greenaway & Associates


Figure 9: “Carland Cross wind farm viewed from St. Newlyn East. Manyresidents can see the turbines from their property.” Source: Eltham et al2008.Findings included: The overall proportion of the population of St. Newlyn East finding the wind farm visuallyattractive changed from 6% to 40%. A total of 10% (±5.9%) of the population thought thatthe visual intrusion of the wind turbines was greater after the wind farm was constructedthan they had expected while 8% (±5.3%) thought that the visual impact was lessintrusive. A total of 59% of the population recalled anticipating that, in 1991, the wind farm wouldbring no positive environmental, social or economic impact to St. Newlyn East. By 2006this proportion reduced by 37% (±16%) to 22%. There was no statistically reliable change in the perception about the positive or negativeeffects of the wind farm on tourism. The authors noted: “If socio-institutional factorsinstigated the lower levels of acceptance seen in 1991 compared with 2006, it isinteresting that the number of residents remembering being concerned about the impactof Carland Cross on local tourism is negligible. This is despite the prominence of tourismwithin the Cornish economy (Lang, 2004) and the importance of the promotion of the‘‘unique and beautiful natural environment’’ (South West Tourism, 2007) as a pull factorfor potential visitors. St. Newlyn East, however, has no significant tourist accommodationor facilities, which Toke (2005) 14 found to be animportant requirement in a settlement forsignificant concern to arise about impacts ontourism from local wind farms.In 1997 Robertson Bell Associates (RBA) wascommissioned by National Wind Power Limited toconduct an independent survey among the residentsliving near to the 20 turbine Welsh Taff Ely windfarm, Mid Glamorgan, with 336 interviews completedamong people living within a two mile radius of theturbines. 15More than three in five local people supported thewind farm, which could be seen by more than 70%of the people questioned. More thought it made thescenery more interesting than spoilt the scenery.Findings of the survey included: More than three in five (63%) said theysupported the Taff Ely wind farm, including 28%who say they strongly support it. Only 4% saidthey opposed the wind farm. The remainderTaff-Ely14Toke (2005) offers a review of English and Welsh planning outcomes in relation to wind farms.15See: http://www.bwea.com/ref/taffely.htmlProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 57Rob Greenaway & Associates


(32%) said 'no opinion either way'. More than three in four (78%) were able to mention at least one way in which the Taff Elywind farm had benefited the local area, with 8% saying there were no benefits. Seven in ten residents (71%) identified no drawbacks with the wind farm, (49% said TaffEly wind farm had no negative effects on the local area and a further 22% said 'don'tknow'). Of those who identified drawbacks, the most commonly mentioned was the visualimpact of the wind farm, spontaneously mentioned by 18%. Other than visual impact, nofurther drawbacks were mentioned by more than 4% of respondents. On being asked how they thought the wind farm fitted into the countryside, moreresidents said 'it makes the scenery more interesting' (29%) than said 'it spoils thescenery' (17%). Half (51%) described it as 'all right'. Of the turbines themselves, moredescribed them as 'graceful' (20%) than described them as 'ugly' (14%) with most (63%)saying they are 'all right'. In terms of the number of people visiting the area, a majority (68%) said the wind farmhad no effect. Many more respondents said visitor numbers had increased, however,than said they had decreased (15% and 1% respectively).8.2 SpainThe following is drawn from NFO System Three (2003):“Consultations with representatives from organisations in Spain were undertaken to gatherknowledge and experiences from a country with a substantial amount of wind farmdevelopment. There are around 40.2 million people living in Spain in an area of 504,782 square km. InDecember 2002 there were 261 wind farms in Spain. These developments produce5,060 MW electricity, which is ca 0.5% of the total amount of energy produced in Spain.The aim is to increase the production to 5% in 2011. Spain has the largest wind power capacity and market in the world, after Germany andthe United States. The three countries, together with Denmark account for more than80% of total installed wind power capacity. The development of wind farms in Spain has grown rapidly and yet several independentstudies have shown that wind farms have not had any effect on tourism in Spain, neitherfor inland nor coastal tourism. However there are certain places in Spain that are neartheir saturation point in terms of wind farm development, but those are not areas ofparticular importance for tourism. There have been a few examples of positive effects on tourism from wind farms, where anew type of tourism, so called ‘green tourism’ is being established when an area ispromoted by sustainable energy sources. This involves, amongst other things, hotels runonly by renewable energy and examples of this kind of development can be found on theCanary Islands. Generally, there seems to be a lack of knowledge and misinformation about the effects ofwind farms on tourism businesses. This is especially thought to be the case in Catalonia,where a larger number of businesses and residents are opposing wind farms, althoughthey are situated in very remote parts of the area. Therefore, the Spanish organisationsconsulted, stressed the importance of education and information about wind farms andtheir impact on businesses as well as for local communities. The example of Navarra was also mentioned, where a large proportion of Spain’s windfarms are located. Wind farms have been developed in the area but in places far awayfrom communities, where they are thought to cause little disturbance. At the same time,the number of houses in the rural part of the region has increased and local people areeducated about wind farms and other types of renewable energy sources. The aim is tomake as many rural communities as possible self-sustainable with renewable energiesand thus facilitate the development of tourism and other industries. This process isProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 58Rob Greenaway & Associates


thought to minimize the abandoning of rural areas, especially of young people, which is asignificant social problem in Spain.”8.3 AustraliaAt the close of 2008, there were 50 wind farms in Australia, with a total of 756 operating windturbines. The total operating wind generating capacity at the end of 2008 was 1,300megawatts (MW) providing 1.3% of Australia's national electricity demand. South Australiahas more than half of the nation's wind power capacity, providing about 15% of the State’selectricity needs. Victoria also has a sizeable system, with large proposals for expansion. 16The Australian Wind Energy Association has released severalpapers on wind farms and tourism. 17 In these papers, it is clearthat many wind farms receive high visitor numbers, and that someoperators have benefited from running commercial tours.Codrington, for example, attracts an estimated 50,000 visitors peryear (not all on commercial tours). Likewise, other wind farms –including those at Esperance (Ten Mile Lagoon), Albany, theAtherton Tablelands, Woolnorth in Tasmania, Crookwell in NewCodringtonSouth Wales and Toora in NSW – all attract high numbers ofvisitors. The novelty factor of the turbines appears to have been evident at all sites, with thenumber of visitors reported to be dropping off over time.The Windy Hill wind farm in Atherton was reported by the Association to have been visited by30,000 cars in the first three months of operation. The Albany farm was reported to have100,000 visitors in 2003. All sites are reported to be part of commercial tourism itineraries.The Ten Mile Lagoon wind farm in Western Australia with nine turbines was reported to havehad 50,000 visitors in 2001. The Albany wind farm, also in WA, with 12 turbines was reportedto have had 100,000 visitors in 2004.In 2001, an AusPoll study in Victoria and reported by the Australian Wind EnergyAssociation 18 showed that 94% of respondents described wind generators as “interesting” and74% as “graceful”. A subsequent survey showed that 36% of respondents were more likely tovisit a coastal area if it had a wind farm, while 55% said it would make no difference. Only 8%said it would deter them from visiting. The survey also showed that 95% of respondentssupported the construction of more wind farms. This result was again backed up in a nationalpoll in 2003 which found that 95% support (27%) or strongly support (68%) building windfarms to meet Australia’s rapidly increasing demand for electricity.The National Trust of South Australia has worked with the Australian Wind EnergyAssociation to come up with an Energy Infrastructure (wind farms) Policy. With respect tocultural heritage, the policy states:‘State heritage places and areas, and local heritage places, zones or areas should beprotected from undesirable visual intrusion by energy infrastructure, including windfarms. Significant landscapes, scenic tourist routes, character streetscapes, vistas orpanorama, regardless of whether the view is from public or private land, must beidentified and protected from visually intrusive energy infrastructure.’The industry recognises the difficulties in developing sensitive areas. Pacific Blue (developerof the Codrington and Portland wind farm projects), for example, reports that they avoid publicland altogether for wind farm developments, given the associated difficulties.Key lessons with regard to the Australian cases include: The ‘novelty’ factor is significant, with many visitors wanting to ‘take a look’ at the newtechnology, but numbers are reported to be declining over time;16http://www.westwind-energy.com.au/downloads/CFS4Tourism.pdf17See: http://www.auswind.org/auswea/index.html18http://www.westwind-energy.com.au/downloads/CFS4Tourism.pdfProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 59Rob Greenaway & Associates


Even within the tourism industry, views on the effects of wind farms on tourism differ. Forexample, while the Western Australia Tourism Commission supports wind farms,Tourism Victoria is concerned about the potential impacts of the wind farm developmentsat Portland and other areas; The majority of visitors to wind farms are ‘low yield’ sightseers who offer little income tothe commercial tourism industry.Albany 19The Albany wind farm opened in2001 with 12 turbines is locatedon public recreational land inWestern Australia on a coastalreserve, through which runs partof the well-known multi-day trek,the Bibbulmun Track.About a century ago the site waszoned for a pine plantation, buttrees were never planted. Toallow a wind farm development,the land was rezoned to allow forrecreation, conservation and windenergy development. The windfarm is listed as an attraction onwww.Australia.com,and is on anestablished scenicdrive route. Thoseintending to surf andfish pass through thereserve on the way tothe sea, and walkerson the BibbulmunTrack pass by it. Thereserve is also usedfor other activitiesincluding hang gliding.AlbanyAlbanyThe Bibbulmun Track is Western Australia’s only long distance walking trail. It has importantAboriginal heritage, natural and scenic values. In 1999/2000, an estimated 215,000 walkingdays were recorded on the track, the majority being short-term hikers undertaking one tothree days of hiking.An employee of the Western Australia State Tourism Organisation reports that the wind farmhas benefited tourism. The area is now visited more frequently and provides better access forusers of the reserve. The wind farm is not, however, the main focus of any commercialtourism operation.Western Power, the Albany Wind farm developers, had to ensure impact on the track-walkerswas minimal. The track was improved and moved to accommodate the additional walkerswho were expected to visit this section (given improved road access). The turbines wereplaced in positions that had the least visible impact on walkers. A study completed by SinclairKnight Mertz suggested that the opinions of track-walkers differed significantly, with someseeing a complimentary connection between the track and ‘natural’ energy production, andothers being absolutely opposed.19See: http://www.westernpower.com.au/about_us/environment/renewable_energy/wind/renewable_wind_albany.htmlProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 60Rob Greenaway & Associates


The Department of Conservation and Land Management, the organisation that manages thetrack, has stated that apart from an increase in tourist numbers directly at Albany to view thewind farm, they did not expect numbers to significantly change on the whole of the track.A Wind Discovery Centre at the wind farm was opened in 2004. According to the city’seconomic development manager, John Berry, traffic counters suggest about 100,000 peoplevisited the wind farm in 2003. The site has “the potential to be a premier WA tourism iconbased on the sheer size of the structures and magnificent coastal setting…”. 20A national tourism promotional website states: 21This day trip to Albany is all about natural elements, and a trip to Albany's Wind Farmis a perfect way the end the day. Opened in October 2001, this wind farm is biggest ofits kind in the southern hemisphere. Many huge turbines are perched on the hillside,spinning vigorously in order to create electricity for 15 000 Albany homes with clean,green electricity. It's an impressive sight to see.Esperance wind farmsAlso in Western Australia is the Ten Mile Lagoon wind farm and Nine Mile Beach wind farm atEsperance, consisting of nine and six turbines respectively and developed in 1993. Thesefarms generate 22% of Esperance’s electricity supply. The nearby Salmon Beach wind farmwas closed in 2002 due to urban encroachment. The Ten Mile Lagoon site is located on anarea zoned as a flora reserve. To gain consent for the development, Western Power wasrequired to rehabilitate other areas and become a vestee of the land with certainresponsibilities in regard to conservation and land management on behalf of the Crown. 22 Thedeveloper, Western Power, states:The remaining two Salmon Beach wind turbines, the Ten Mile Lagoon Wind Farm andthe new Nine Mile Beach Wind Farm are symbols of the town, which thousands oftourists visit every year.A 2001 study completed by Sinclair Knight Mertz, and reported on by the Australian WindEnergy Association, 23 suggested the Salmon Beach and Ten Mile Lagoon wind farms werevisited by 50,000 people per year, with road counters to Ten Mile Lagoon registering 80 carsper day.Walkaway Wind FarmAlinta’s Walkaway Wind Farm, justsouth of Geraldton in Western Australiawas opened in August 2005 with 54 ofthe world’s largest turbines. The projectis promoted by the developer (Alinta)as:Aside from being a major boost tocleaner and cheaper electricity forthe Mid-West and South-Westregions of Western Australia, theAlinta Wind Farm is alreadyproving to be a major touristattraction. A car park and visitors'information booth is beingconstructed alongside one of thewind turbines to give visitors a close-up look at one of Australia's largest wind energyWalkaway20Albany Advertiser 31/1/0321http://thegreatoutdoors.com.au/display.php?location=WA&ID=296122See: http://www.horizonpower.com.au/environment/renewable_energy/wind/wind_nine_mile.html23See: http://www.thewind.info/downloads/tourism.pdfProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 61Rob Greenaway & Associates


facilities. 24Geraldton is a town of 100,000, with a backdrop of a range of hills that are operated as aprivately-owned sheep station. The land owner is a partner in the development proposes torevegetate the range and create a recreational park, owned by the community.The Northern Agricultural Catchments Council’s 2005 Regional Natural ResourceManagement Strategy described ‘industrial tourism’ in the area as a growth area:Tours of crayfish factories, Geraldton port, mines, farms, aquaculture ventures,technological sites (like the new Walkaway and Emu Downs wind farms) and otherworksites are growing in popularity and will continue to attract more visitors. 258.4 New ZealandManawatuThe Tararua and Te Apiti wind farms are bothsited on private farmland in areas that originallyhad no public access. The sites are still notopen to the general public, although people dovisit as far as public roads allow and, in the caseof the Tararua wind farm, on commercial tours.The wind farm developments have reportedlyboosted the Manawatu District’s economy byover $4 million per year through additionaltourism revenues 26 . Views of the wind farm havebecome part of the region’s core image set andbranding, and it is believed the wind farm hashad a positive effect on the region’s positioningas a tourism destination. The region’s tourisminformation website leads with the statement: 27The Tararua region stretches from theridges of the Ruahine and Tararua ranges,to the shores of the Pacific. Discover arelaxed lifestyle conveniently close to maincentres. Great fishing, eco-tourism andadventure opportunities. Visit the worldfamous National Wildlife Centre at MountBruce, view the majestic turbines ofTararua Wind Power and Te Apiti,experience the tranquillity of a walk throughstunning native forests.Te ApitiIncreased tourism has also been reported in theTararua District, especially in the smallsettlement of Balance. However, interviewees suggest the benefits are not thought to beanywhere near as high as in the Manawatu.TararuaAt this stage, only the Tararua wind farm is toured commercially (by three operators). Taxidrivers are also reported to take visitors to the farm, but infrequently. Based on discussionswith the operators and the Palmerston North Visitor Information Office, it is unlikely that thenumber of visitors joining a commercial tour visiting the wind farm is more than 2,500 peryear.24See: http://www.alinta.net.au/organisation/energy/windFarm.aspx25See: http://www.nacc.com.au/default.asp?documentid=226Destination Manawatu data27http://www.tararua.com/Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 62Rob Greenaway & Associates


Almost half of these are on tours that have the wind farm as a secondary focus (the primaryfocus being an alternative activity, such as horse trekking or quad biking).Of note is group tourism to the Tararua wind farm. It is apparent that groups make up thelargest share of the commercial tours market to the wind farm – mainly domestic, and thoseorganised by education providers, student and Rotary bodies and special interest groups.From a tourism business viewpoint, the size of the commercial tourism opportunity createddirectly by the wind farms is small. Indirectly, however, many people visit the wind farms on aself-drive basis and these self-drivers do generate significant tourism revenue to the region inthe way of indirect expenditure.Soon after opening, the Te Apiti wind farm was visited by 170 cars on Sunday 15 August2004. Estimates are that about 400 cars were visiting the site in the first few weeks ofcommissioning. Approximately 1200 vehicles visited the site in one weekend over the 2004Christmas period. Meridian Energy was surprised by the interest in the wind farm from thecommunity, and as a result, developed a large site for viewing and parking, with signage,reducing the hazard created by people stopping and looking from the public road. Localcommunities, such as Ashhurst and Woodville have adopted imagery of the wind farm intocafes and school projects, and it appears on the cover of the 2006 Telecom white pagesdirectory.Brooklyn wind turbineMeridian’s Brooklyn wind turbine, located on a high pointof Wellington, is comparatively small with an output of225 kilowatts.The turbine includes an interpretation facility, a large carpark and excellent views of the city, harbour and sea. Itreceives many visitors (estimates vary butconservatively, over 50,000 visitors per year – some sayover 200,000) and is included in some sightseeing toursof the city.Members of the Wellington tourism industry interviewedfor the West Wind wind farm consent application notedthat the wind turbine is, in itself, not the key attraction ofthe site, but only an ‘identifier’ or a point of interest (TRC2007). The real attraction is believed to be the viewsoffered from the site, which is very convenient and hasexcellent car parking. After commissioning, the site washeavily patronised by locals. However, recent indicationsthat the turbine should be removed were generallyopposed, as reported in The Dominion Post (7.5.2010):Brooklyn turbine to stayThe people have spoken and the result is in – Brooklyn's original wind turbine willstay.The future of the country's first turbine was uncertain when machinery gave out aboutfive months ago, but public response as to what should happen was clear – almost.Last month, Meridian Energy asked Wellingtonians whether the turbine should bescrapped, repaired or replaced. Of 2600 votes in a Dominion Post poll, 44.4 per centwanted the turbine repaired, 40.4 per cent wanted it replaced and 15.2 per centwanted it scrapped.Spokeswoman Claire Shaw said the decision on the 17-year-old turbine, the country'soldest, had been warmly received at the Meridian office, where 90 per cent of staffProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 63Rob Greenaway & Associates


wanted it repaired or replaced.The 225-kilowatt experimental turbine, which cost $700,000, was erected byElectricorp. It generated enough power for about 80 homes.Feedback had come from "far and wide", and showed overwhelming support forrenewable energy, and wind energy in particular.Ms Shaw said the repair bill of about $100,000 was cheaper than replacing theturbine. "It's been a win all round."The Brooklyn turbine shows that the Wellington community will use an interpretation site, anddoes have an interest in wind energy.New Zealand electricity generation and tourismVisitor centres and tours of some hydro and geothermal stations in New Zealand illustrate thatdemand for educational information and tours exist, albeit on a small scale. Over time, thelevel of interest has stabilised, providing demand that makes the current services sustainable.Examples include Meridian’s Benmore Centre, visited by over 6,000 people a year; andMeridian’s underground Lake Manapouri Power Station with 45,000 visitors per year. Bothtours are contracted out to independent tourism companies.In the Manawatu, Destination Manawatu reports a positive effect of the turbines east ofPalmerston North, and a car park count showed 1200 vehicles at the Te Apiti wind farm visitorarea in one weekend in 2004. In comparison, the Manapouri Power Station has around40,000 visitors annually, and Benmore Power Station 4000 – which is only a little fewer thanthe number of people who walk the Heaphy Track each year.A ‘Construction Open Day’ for the White Hill wind farm in Southland organised by the localcommunity in February 2007 gained 5000 visitors to see construction underway. This raised$60,000. The combined population of the small nearby towns of Mossburn, Dipton andLumsden is 750, so the patronage figures indicate that people were willing to travel to see thedevelopment. From a recreational event perspective, the inaugural White Hill WindfarmClassic Bike Ride & Run 28 in 2009 attracted some 540 competitors. As a result the organisersof this event are intending to make this an annual event.A UMR Research study (UMR 2007) completed for Meridian Energy in 2007, based on atelephone survey of 500 Otago residents, found: When asked to respond to the statement, ‘Wind farms can be tourist attractions’, 36%agreed, 26% disagreed and the remainder were neutral. When asked to respond to the statement with regard to the Project Hayes proposal, ‘Itwould adversely impact the recreational value of the area’, 24% agreed and 27%disagreed. When asked to respond to the statement with regard to the Project Hayes Proposal, ‘Itwould be a new attraction for locals and visitors to the region’, 33% agreed and 26%disagreed.In that same study, 14% of respondents were found to be opposed to the Project Hayesproposal, and 2.9% of that group (two people) based that opposition on, ‘adverse impacts onrecreational use of land.28See: http://www.whitehillclassic.co.nz/Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 64Rob Greenaway & Associates


8.5 United StatesFlint Hills Region, KansasTallgrass prairie once covered more than 140 million acres of the United States. Now onlyabout four percent remains, much of it in Kansas and the Flint Hills Region. Away from theroads and buildings, Flint Hills looks much like it did 10,000 years ago.A single major wind farm operates in Kansas, southwest of Dodge City, and another isplanned for east of Dodge City. Flint Hills remains attractive to developers due to existingtransmission lines, and any development would not be in the most sensitive and pristinesections of Flint Hills, and some of the turbines would be on private land.FERMATA Inc, an international nature consulting group, was engaged to evaluate theeconomic importance of the Tallgrass Prairie Region as a tourism attraction, and how thiswould be affected by wind farm developments (FERMATA 2005). 29 Key points of the casestudy included: Kansas’s public lands are important to the communities in terms of nature, culture andhistorical resources; The Tallgrass Prairie Region is one of the last ecosystems of its type; The Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve is 10,894 acres of rolling grassland located in theheart of the Flint Hills region; The General Management Plan of the Tallgrass National Preserve has the objective ofmaintaining open and unobstructed views; Kansas lacks powerful tourist attractions; the Flint Hills area is not yet a significanttourism attraction, but holds strong potential for ecotourism; The Flint Hills Byway is a scenic driving route through part of the Flint Hills region,passing the Tallgrass National Preserve. The Byway Corridor Management Plan seeksto conserve the intrinsic resources of the route, and to increase accessibility to recreationareas; A comparison of economic projects of tourism versus wind farm development,suggesting in the long term, a sustainable tourism economy will exceed the value of theshort term revenues realised for turbine development; Other highly developed landscapes are more suitable to wind farm development.Development in the Flint Hills area would ‘forever destroy or diminish’ the attributes thatmake the area special.FERMATA’s ‘compromise’ recommendations were (p31):Placement of wind turbines should be restricted so as to not detract from places ofimportant scenic beauty and heritage value. Potential areas that should be excludedfrom turbine placement consideration are: National Parks State Parks National Forest and Grasslands Heritage Areas View shed buffers along recreational trails View shed buffer zones along scenic bywayUntilled Tallgrass Prairie (one of the most unique and endangered ecosystems inthe Kansas Flint Hills region)29http://www.fermatainc.com/kansas/index.htmlProject Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 65Rob Greenaway & Associates


Once areas of important scenic and heritage value have been identified, windturbines should be located where there are: Existing communication towers Existing transmission lines Existing industrial installations Other forms of existing structuresNorth CarolinaThe following are guidelines provided by the North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association.These guidelines were also referred to in the FERMATA (2005) study of tourism in the FlintHills: 30Placement of wind turbines should be restricted so as to not detract from places ofimportant scenic beauty. Potential areas that should be excluded from turbineplacement consideration are: National Parks State Parks National Forest lands View shed buffers along the Appalachian Trail View shed buffer zones along the Blue Ridge Parkway Spruce-Fir Forest lands (one of the most unique and endangered ecosystems inthe Appalachian region)Wind turbines should be located where there are: Existing communication towers Existing transmission lines Other forms of existing structuresIn relation to tourism, the North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association reported on anumber of data sources common to this review:Large turbines have been found more often to be a positive influence on tourism. TheBritish Wind Energy Association notes that wind farms in the UK are popular touristattractions, with thousands of people each year flocking to visit them. In Australia, thewind farms are highlighted as one of the attractions for visitors amongst otherhistorical and scenic points of interest. A Scottish study found that nine out of tentourists visiting some of Scotland's top beauty spots say the presence of wind farmsmakes no difference to the enjoyment of their holiday, and twice as many peoplewould return to an area because of the presence of a wind farm than would stayaway. Yet another survey of more than 300 visitors to Argyll, Scotland found that 91%of visitors said the presence of wind farms in the area made no difference to whetherthey would return.VermontVermont currently has only one small wind farm consisting of 11 turbines at Searsburg, butplans are underway for further development in wind energy, potentially to supply up to 10% ofVermont’s electricity requirements.One such development is in the Glebe Mountain area near Londonderry, an area known forits scenic beauty. The land is privately owned and the project faces considerable opposition.The Catamount Energy Corporation carried out an economic impact for the project in January30See: http://www.ncsustainableenergy.org/resources/Why_Wind_and_Myths.pdf.Why Wind Power for North Carolina? A 2003 publication.Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 66Rob Greenaway & Associates


2004, which has relevant reference to tourism and recreation. Key points include: The project will not adversely affect in any way the ability of the public to use these landsin a manner similar to the past. It is currently anticipated that in respect to the ski area,the project will in no way impact the ski area’s ability to operate in any way it sees fit. There is strong anecdotal evidence that wind energy projects attract tourism. Accordingto Renewable Energy Vermont, the Mount Snow-Haystack Regional Chamber ofCommerce, for example, estimates that 10% of all enquiries it receives asked forinformation about the Searsburg Wind Project. Green Mountain Power reports steadyinterest for tours of this facility. Catamount has not conducted a study of effects on travel and tourism.Since the project is highly localised, the only type of adverse effect that one could expect isdirect displacement: tourists that come to Glebe Mountain (or the Magic Mountain Resort) nolonger would if the wind farm was built. Because the wind farm accommodates therecreational use of the Glebe Mountain ridge as well as Magic Mountain, such an effect is notexpected. Catamount has also not conducted a study regarding positive tourism effects, butstrong anecdotal evidence suggests such effects.Project Hurunui Wind | Recreation and Tourism AEE 67Rob Greenaway & Associates

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