Who Knows About Human Factors and Ergonomics? A Lot More ...


Who Knows About Human Factors and Ergonomics? A Lot More ...

HumanFactorsandErgonomicsSocietyBulletinVolume 48Number 11November 2005CONTENTSANNUAL MEETING ........................................3EXECUTIVE COUNCIL......................................4MEMBERSHIP ..............................................4NATIONAL ERGONOMICS MONTH .......................5SCIENCE FORUM ..........................................5STUDENT CHAPTERS .....................................6LOCAL CHAPTERS.........................................6SHORT COURSES .........................................6CALLS FOR PAPERS ......................................6PEOPLE .....................................................7Who Knows About Human Factors and Ergonomics?A Lot More People Than You Might ThinkBy Wendy Rogers, Immediate Past PresidentThis is a condensed version of Rogers’ 2005 Presidential Address,presented on September 27 during the HFES 49th Annual Meeting inOrlando, Florida.I would like to make two key points:1. A lot more people than you probably think really do know, appreciate,and respect the field of human factors and ergonomics (HF/E).2. What our members do really makes a difference in the world.We human factors specialists and ergonomists often lamentthat people do not understand what we do or that we get too littlerespect from industry or from government entities. However,once I started to pay attention to the prevalence of HF/E in societyat large, I was struck by the magnitude of the presence that thefield really has.Plenty of Evidence of HF/E ImpactThe Department of Defense, for example, has long paid attentionto the importance of matching the characteristics, capabilities,and limitations of users with the design of systems, selectionof personnel, and development of training programs. In fact, thehistory of the HF/E field in this country has its roots in the eventssurrounding World Wars I and II.A couple of years ago at the American Telemedicine Associationmeeting, the keynote speaker was General James Peake, thenSurgeon General of the Army. The entire theme of his presentationwas “It’s all about the user.” That level of recognition by ahigh-ranking officer says to me that the importance of humanfactors/ergonomics is being recognized.It is also clear that a wide range of government organizationsworldwide have recognized the importance of HF/E to their mission.Here are a few examples to illustrate my point:• The Federal Aviation Administration has long recognized theimportance of HF/E and has well-established processes andguidelines in place. It has a Human Factors Research and EngineeringDivision.• The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has a human factorsprogram plan that grew out of the Three Mile Island incident.• The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has made a commitmentto ensuring the application of human factors engineeringto the design of new products.Similar governmental recognition of human factors and ergonomicsis evident around the world. For example, Transport Canadarequires all employees with technical responsibilities to havehuman factors training. Great Britain’s Health and Safety Initiativerecognizes the broad array of human factors issues. The PetroleumSafety Authority of Norway has selected improvements related tohuman factors issues in drilling operations as one of its primaryfocus areas for the next few years.These examples are by no means exhaustive. It is difficult toclaim that “no one knows about the field of human factors and ergonomics”or why it is important when you see the range of organizationsthat have incorporated the discipline into their centraltenets. Of course, I recognize that we still have a way to go to ensurethat funds are provided to support these initiatives and toensure that qualified individuals are hired to instantiate the guidelinesand enforce the regulations. Nevertheless, being recognizedand respected does not appear to be a problem.In the courts, experts in HF/E have much to contribute to thedispute resolution process in areas such as driving accidents, productliability, and industrial accidents. Importantly, the field is increasinglybeing recognized by the courts and by lawyers who arehiring such experts to help jurors understand why events have happened.Often these cases can be explained as design-induced errors,and individuals with expertise in HF/E can help to explain thefacts of the case.Another indicator of the prevalence of HF/E is the variety ofcompanies that HFES members work for, including transportationindustries, telecommunications, health care and insurance,the computer industry broadly defined, companies that cater to thehome or to leisure activities, and so many more.In addition, the future looks bright for employment opportunities– a recent search of a popular job site revealed 337 jobs withthe keywords human factors and 257 jobs with the keyword ergonomics.continued on page 2HFES BULLETIN • NOVEMBER 2005 1

ANNUAL MEETING2005 HFES Fellowsand AwardeesAt this year’s annual meeting in Orlando,the Society recognized the 2005 award recipientsand honored the newly elected Fellowand Honorary Fellows.Glenn F. WilsonThe newly elected Fellow is Glenn F.Wilson, principal research psychologist in theCollaborative Interfaces Branch of the WarfighterInterface Division, Human EffectivenessDirectorate, Wright-Patterson Air ForceBase. The 2005 Honorary Fellows are JohnM. Carroll, Edward M. Frymoyer Chair Professorof Information Sciences and Technology,Hongwei HsaioPennsylvania State University, and HongweiHsiao, CDC Distinguished Consultant andProtective Technology Branch Chief, NationalInstitute for Occupational Safety and Health.The Arnold Small President’s DistinguishedService Award was presented toWilliam C. Howell, currently an adjunct professorat Arizona State University. Howell, aFellow and past president of HFES, was recognizedfor career-long contributions thatWilliam C. Howellhave brought honor to the profession and theSociety.The recipients of the Jerome H. Ely HumanFactors Article Award were MarcusWatson and Penelope Sanderson, both now atthe University of Queensland, for the article“Sonification Supports Eyes-Free RespiratoryMonitoring and Task Time-Sharing.” Publishedin the Fall 2004 issue of Human Factors,Penelope Sandersonthe article represents a significant contributionto the understanding of the utility and effectivenessof sonification, in this case as an adjunct tovisual monitoring in a high-workload medicalsetting.J. T. Bryant, J. M. Stevenson, L. L. Bossi,S. A. Reid, R. P. Pelot, and E. L. Morin, theauthors of “Optimizing Load Carriage Systems,”were the recipients of the 2005 BestL. L. BossiErgonomics in Design Article Award. Thearticle, which appeared in the Winter 2004issue of EID, explains how biomechanical assessmenttools have provided designers withquick feedback on design and human comforttolerances of backpacks. The authors appliedtheir research to the design of a personal load Emily Muthardcarriage system for the Canadian military.Emily Muthard of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign was the recipient of the Alphonse Chapanis StudentPaper Award for “The Contaminating Influence of Display Sizeon Flight Control, Risk Assessment, and RouteSelection.”Y. Ian Noy of Transport Canada receivedthe Distinguished International ColleagueAward. Noy is an exceptionally productiveand influential researcher on issues related totransportation, particularly highway transportation.A leader and pioneer on driver aspects ofY. Ian Noyadvanced assistive technologies, he has alsobeen very active in leadership roles both inCanada and internationally.Peter A. Hancock, a professor at the Universityof Central Florida, was recognized withthe Jack A. Kraft Innovator Award. Hancockwas honored for innovation and achievementin many areas, including the design and evaluationof human-machine systems, situationalPeter A. Hancockawareness, human stress, decision making, systemautomation, and workload assessment, andfor the integration of the multidisciplinary approacheswithin the HF/E field.Joel S. Warm from the University of Cincinnatiwas given the Paul M. Fitts EducationAward. He was honored for his numerous distinguishedscientific and academic accomplish-Joel S. Warmments and for his unfailing dedication to hisstudents and to the many professionals in thehuman factors/ergonomics field whom he hasmentored over his 40-year career.The A. R. Lauer Safety Award was presentedto Colin G. Drury from the StateUniversity of New York at Buffalo. Drury isacknowledged for a career that not only coversColin G. Drury traditional areas of safety but also extends itspractical application to such areas as consumerproducts, medical systems, nuclear materials,and transportation.The Alexander C. Williams, Jr., DesignAward was given to Bryce G. Rutter. Througha 4.5-year research, ergonomics, and designprogram that integrated the science of humanfactors with the creativity of industrial design,Bryce G. RutterBryce Rutter and his company, Metaphase DesignGroup, redesigned Bayer Healthcare DiagnosticDivision’s Ascensia BREEZE bloodglucose monitoring system.The Oliver Keith Hansen OutreachAward was given to Ronald G. Shapiro of IBMCorporation. Shapiro was honored for his untiringservice and excellence in outreach onRonald G. Shapiro behalf of the Society and the profession. Hisefforts in organizing National ErgonomicsMonth are particularly recognized, as they have extended theawareness of human factors/ergonomics to thousands of membersof the general public.HFES BULLETIN • NOVEMBER 2005 3

MEMBERSHIP, cont.HFES Technical Groups, and the system will recalculate thedues amounts for you.If you have forgotten your password, you can retrieve it via theWeb site by clicking the “Forgot your password?” link, locatedbelow the login fields. If you need assistance with your usernameand password, please contact us at membership@hfes.org or 310/394-1811.Your dues during 2006 will support a number of critical initiatives,both new and ongoing. As described on page 2 in the ExecutiveCouncil meeting report, HFES will continue to engage in asignificant outreach activity through partnership in the AmericanInstitute of Physics program, Discoveries and BreakthroughsInside Science. The Society will launch a year-long celebration ofits 50th year with many commemorations of the Society’s historyand milestones of the human factors/ergonomics discipline.Please encourage your colleagues to join HFES. This is now amuch simpler process. Applicants are no longer required to obtainthe signatures of endorsers – they merely provide their qualificationson the application form.NATIONAL ERGONOMICS MONTHNational Ergonomics Month –Awards and Special RecognitionBy Haydee M. Cuevas, NEM Committee CochairAt the HFES 49th Annual Meeting in Orlando, HFESPresident-Elect Marvin J. Dainoff kicked off National ErgonomicsMonth (NEM) 2005 at a special session by inspiring a packedroom with his vision for the future of our profession. He cited theneed to attract new, young members to the Society and to encouragethem to become actively involved in the field. He also emphasizedthe need for every Society member to get the word out tothe public on the importance of human factors and ergonomics(HF/E) through outreach initiatives such as NEM and throughmore effective efforts to translate research into practice.Keynote speaker Mark Lee Edwards, formerly managing directorfor Traffic Safety Programs at the American Automobile Associationand now working as an independent consultant, providedvaluable advice on how to work with government representatives.He recommended that you know their mission, speak their language,address an existing/known problem, stifle your scientificcuriosity about related topics, and relate your proposal to theirmission.Awards were presented for two contests designed to encourageHFES members to become more actively involved in promotingHF/E in their local communities. The NEM 2005 Best ActionPlan Contest first place award (plaque and $100) went to the HFESVirginia Tech Student Chapter. Special recognition was given toHFES student chapters at Georgia Tech and the University ofCentral Florida, and to Hugo Bertolotti from the HFES Cal StateLong Beach Student Chapter for their excellent action plans (seethe October HFES Bulletin for summaries).The NEM 2005 Best Action Plan Implementation Contestrecognized HFES members who successfully implemented the activitiesthey proposed in the previous year. First place went to theHFES University of Central Florida Student Chapter. In secondplace was the HFES Old Dominion University Student Chapter.The NEM Committee thanks the members of the selection committeefor both contests: Arnold M. Lund, Christina CostanzoMendat, Ellen M. Carpenter, and Monica Philippart.During the “Games to Explain Human Factors” session, theprize for “hardest-working volunteer” went to Linda Upham-Ellis(University of Central Florida). Beth Meyer (Semilla Consulting)came in second, and Julie Naga (George Mason University) placedthird. All attendees received a small gift for sharing their ideas andwere encouraged to take special stickers and custom bookmarks todistribute during their activities for NEM in October.SCIENCE FORUMHFES Sponsors HomelandSecurity ForumOn November 17, 2005, HFES will cosponsor a day-longScience Forum in Washington, D.C., on the topic of homelandsecurity. Recent events have demonstrated a clear and obviousneed for research in the behavioral sciences to be considered andproperly applied to policies, procedures, and technology related tothe nation’s security. However, there are many obstacles in gettingthat work funded and applied to policy.This year’s forum, “Human Factors Research and HomelandSecurity: Current and Future Applications,” will serve to informagencies such as the National Science Foundation, Department ofDefense, and Department of Homeland Security about importantwork being done by HF/E professionals.The morning session will feature a panel in which human factorsresearchers describe both the potential applications of theirresearch toward the improvement of the nation’s homeland securityand the need to increase the presence of human factors researchwithin the Department of Homeland Security and related agencies.The afternoon session will highlight a panel of federal agencyrepresentatives offering perspectives on opportunities for humanfactors research within their respective agencies. Panel membersand meeting attendees will have several opportunities for groupdiscussions, with an emphasis on the future role of human factorsresearch within those federal agencies dedicated to homelandsecurity.This forum is second in what is envisioned to be an annual collaborativeevent with the Federation of Behavioral, Psychological,and Cognitive Sciences. Such science forums are designed to raiseawareness of human factors research and applications and to educatethe human factors community about the best ways to approachfunding opportunities.If you are interested in attending the forum, please contactHFES Executive Director Lynn Strother at 310/394-1811, lynn@hfes.org.HFES BULLETIN • NOVEMBER 2005 5

STUDENT CHAPTERSLOCAL CHAPTERSCalendar Fundraiser FeaturesFamous HF/E FacesBy Jennifer Ross, HFES UCF Student Chapter Public AffairsChairLast June, members of the HFES University of Central Florida(UCF) Student Chapter were wracking their brains for an activitythat would allow them to be creative, learn more about some ofthe major players in the human factors/ergonomics field, and providea vehicle to raise money for a small student research award.In response, members dreamed up the idea of creating the firstcalendar to highlight the famous faces of human factors.Twelve big names in the field agreed to let chapter membersmanipulate photographs of them. The pictures were morphed intofamous movie stills, which slyly highlight each pioneer’s area of researchinterest. For example, in the calendar you can see Joel Warmstarring in “The Hunt for Critical Signal,” a parody of the movieThe Hunt for Red October. Other HF/E personalities in the calendarare Melody Carswell, Haydee Cuevas, Marvin Dainoff, Mica Endsley,Peter Hancock, Donald Norman, Raja Parasuraman, WendyRogers, Kay Stanney, Eduardo Salas, and Chris Wickens.The calendars were unveiled at the HFES 49th Annual Meetingand were such a success that the student chapter has increasedthe print run. All additional profits from the calendar will be sentto the Red Cross relief effort for victims affected by HurricanesKatrina and Rita. If you would like to order your very own “FamousFaces of Human Factors,” please complete the order form athttp://www.psych.ucf.edu/hfes/2006calendar.php and include a check,cash, or money order for the calendars to HFES UCF StudentChapter, c/o Jennifer Ross, University of Central Florida, 3100Technology Pkwy., Ste. 335, Orlando, FL 32826-0544.NCSU Students Plan MentoringProgram with IBMThe HFES North Carolina State University (NCSU) StudentChapter will partner with IBM to provide a professional mentoringprogram for students in both the Psychology and IndustrialEngineering Departments at NCSU.The chapter’s newly formed subgroup, NCSU Human FactorsBusiness Outreach Program, formed an alliance with IBM-Research Triangle Park. With the aid of IBM’s Linda Brown andChris Pepper, the chapter is pairing students with IBM employeesto provide a close mentoring relationship, allowing studentsinsight into the application of human factors/ergonomics principlesin an industrial setting.IBM employees taking part in the program include both humanfactors hardware and user interface software specialists. In addition,students will be invited to the IBM Research Triangle Parkcampus to take part in a number of activities, including tours offacilities otherwise inaccessible to the public.For more information on this exciting opportunity, please contactHFES NCSU Student Chapter President David Windell atdwindell@gmail.com.Puget Sound Chapter OutreachActivitiesFor the second year in a row, HFES Puget Sound Local Chaptermembers volunteered to help with the School-to-Work sessionat the Washington state governor’s Industrial Safety andHealth Conference in Tacoma, WA. Members taught ergonomicsprinciples to more than 80 local high school students throughhands-on activities that included how to set up a computer workstation,hand tool versus power tool use in a repetitive task, postureand lifting demonstrations, and how to design the control knobburnerrelationship for a stove top. The students especially seemedto enjoy being hooked up to the Pocket Ergometer, which convertsthe electrical activity associated with muscle use into sound. Studentswere able to hear the difference between neutral and awkwardpostures and between wearing a backpack with one strap or withtwo. Anyone looking for ideas about demonstrating ergonomics tostudents can get more details on these activities, as well as a copy ofan ergonomics video appropriate for high school students, bycontacting Rick Goggins at pastpresident@pshfes.org.Goggins was also the featured presenter at an HFES PugetSound Chapter dinner meeting focusing on ergonomics in schools.Topics included statistics on student injuries, current informationavailable for school ergonomics, and what teachers want to knowabout ergonomics.SHORT COURSES27th Annual Occupational Safety and Health Update, December8–9, 2005, Chapel Hill, NC. Occupational Safety and HealthEducation and Research Center, University of North Carolina,3300 Hwy. 54 West, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-8264, 888/235-3320,fax 919/966-7579, oshercww@sph.unc.edu, http://www.sph.unc.edu/osherc/.Ergonomic Interventions and Research: Preventing MusculoskeletalDisorders in Healthcare, Construction, and Other Industries,December 8–9, 2005, Berkeley, CA. COEH ContinuingEducation, U. C. Berkeley, Mailcode 5120, 2233 Fulton St., 2ndFloor, Berkeley, CA 94720-5120, 510/643-7277, fax 510/643-7291,http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~coehce/courses/ergointervention.htm.CALL FOR PAPERS2006 SID SymposiumThe Society for Information Display (SID) invites papers onall aspects of research, engineering, application, evaluation, andutilization of displays for the 2006 SID International Symposium,Seminar, and Exhibition, which will take place June 4–9, 2005, inSan Francisco, CA.Abstracts are due by December 1, 2005. For more informationabout SID 2006, go to http://www.sid2006.org.6 HFES BULLETIN • NOVEMBER 2005

PEOPLECelestine A. Ntuen was honored by North Carolina A&T StateUniversity as a Distinguished University Professor. Ntuen,director of the university’s Center for Human-Machine Studies,was cited for guiding the human factors engineering educationfrom its infancy to a full-fledged Ph.D. program. Ntuen may bereached at North Carolina A&T State University, Dept. of IndustrialEngineering, 405 McNair Hall, Greensboro, NC 27411,fax 336/334-7729, ntuen@ncat.edu.Kim J. Vicente’s latest book, The Human Factor: Revolutionizingthe Way People Live With Technology (Routledge, 2004), receivedCanada’s National Business Book Award and the Science in SocietyGeneral Audience Book Award, and was a finalist for the CanadianBooksellers Association Libris Award, Nonfiction Book of theYear. He may be contacted at the University of Toronto, Dept.of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 5 King’s College Rd.,Toronto, ON M5S 3G8, Canada, 416/978-7399, fax 416/978-3453, vicente@mie.utoronto.ca.Gavin S. Lew was selected by the Illinois Information TechnologyAssociation (ITA) to represent User Centric at a gala event inChicago honoring User Centric as one of three Rising Star awardfinalists. Lew, the managing director of User Centric, may bereached at 2 Trans Am Plaza Dr., Suite 105, Oakbrook Terrace,IL 60181, 630/376-1180, glew@usercentric.com.Jesse L. Walker, a second-year student at the University of Dayton,won the Graduate Student Sigma Xi Award for the best presentationat the University of Dayton’s Stander Symposium. Hemay be reached at Human Factors Group, University of DaytonResearch Institute, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469-0158,937/229-4083, jesse.walker@udri.udayton.edu.Larry W. Avery, Michael E. Maddox, and Barry H. Beith havelaunched a spinoff from HumanCentric Technologies called HumanCentricResearch, LLC. HumanCentric Research provideshuman factors services to government and quasi-governmentagencies. For more information, please contact Larry Avery at919/481-0565 or lavery@humancenticresearch.com.Frederick J. Diedrich was appointed a director of Aptima, Inc.’snewly formed Human Performance Division. He may be contactedat Aptima, Inc., 12 Gill St., Ste. 1400, Woburn, MA 01801,781/496-2421, fdiedrich@aptima.com.United States Postal Service Statement of Ownership, Management, and Circulation.(1) Publication Title: HFES Bulletin. (2) Publication Number: 1527-3660. (3) Filing Date10/10/05. (4) Issue frequency: Monthly, except for one combined issue. (5) Number ofissues published annually: 11. (6) Annual subscription price: $42.00. (7) CompleteMailing Address of Known Office of Publication: Human Factors and ErgonomicsSociety, P.O. Box 1369, Santa Monica, CA 90406-1369. Contact Person: Lois Smith.Telephone: (310) 394-1811. (8) Complete Mailing Address of headquarters or GeneralBusiness Office of Publisher: Same as 7. (10) Owner: Human Factors and ErgonomicsSociety P.O. Box 1369, Santa Monica, CA 90406-1369. (11) Known Bondholders,Mortgages, and Other Security Holders Owning or Holding 1 Percent or More of TotalAmount of Bonds, Mortgages, or Other Securities: None (12) Tax status: Has not changedduring preceding 12 months. (13) Publication Title: HFES Bulletin. (14) Issue date forCirculation Data Below: September 2005. (15) a) Total number of copies: Average (Ave.)4910, Single issue nearest to filing date (Sing.) 4845) Paid/Requested Outside-CountyMail Subscriptions: Ave. 501, Sing. 501. b2) Paid In-County Subscriptions: Ave. 3592,Sing. 3698. c) Total Paid and/or requested circulation: Ave. 4093, Sing. 4199. g) TotalDistribution: Ave. 4093, Sing. 4199. h) Copies Not Distributed: Ave. 817, Sing. 646. i)Total: Ave. 4910, Sing. 4845. j) Percent Paid and/or Requested Circulation: Ave. 100,Sing. 100. 16) Publication of Statement of Ownership: Publication Required, November2005. 17) Signature and Title: Lynn Strother, Executive Director, 10/11/05.HFES BULLETIN • NOVEMBER 2005 7

NEW!NEW!Volume 48, Number 11 November 2005“Extra-Ordinary”Ergonomics:How to Accommodate Small andBig Persons, The Disabled and Elderly,Expectant Mothers, and ChildrenBY KARL KROEMERVolume 4,Issues in Human Factors and ErgonomicsSupervising Editor: Jefferson M. KoonceHFES proudly announces its newest title, copublished with CRC Press, “Extra-Ordinary” Ergonomics, a comprehensive guide to designing for special populations.Underscoring the need for extraordinary ergonomics, the book illustrates variousapproaches to measuring the characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of thosewho differ from the norm. Kroemer explains how to assess and determine abilitiesand needs and demonstrates how to design tools, homes, and environments to makeworking space safe and living space easy.Researchers and students will find helpful information about measuring people’ssizes, strengths, weaknesses, and capabilities, and from this information determinethe needs for specific ergonomic accommodations. The book enables human factorsprofessionals, architects, and designers to devise work tasks, devices, tools, and environmentsfor special populations – particularly for children. Health care professionalsand employers will discover ways to help people who suffer from temporary or permanentdisabilities so they can cope with the demands at work, at home, or in acare facility.ISBN 0-8493-3668-6, 272 pages, 6 x 9”, hardcover, $70.00 for HFES members,$79.95 for nonmembers, plus shipping/handling. View the detailed table of contentsand author biography, and order online at http://www.hfes.org/Publications, orcontact HFES at P.O. Box 1369, Santa Monica, CA 90406-1369 USA, 310/394-1811,fax 310/394-2410.BulletinHF ESFeatures Editor: Pamela Savage-KnepshieldStudent Views Editor: Melanie DiezCommunications Director: Lois SmithAssistant Editor: Jeremy LoudenbackAdvertising: R. C. Bublitz & Associates,800/485-5029; dick-rcb@juno.comPOSTMASTER:Send address changes to the HFES Bulletin,Human Factors and Ergonomics Society,P.O. Box 1369, Santa Monica, CA 90406-1369 USA,310/394-1811, fax 310/394-2410, http://hfes.orgGeneral Information: info@hfes.orgEditorial/Advertising: lois@hfes.orgPlacement Service: placement@hfes.orgAnnual Meeting: lois@hfes.orgOpinions expressed in BULLETIN articles are those of the authors and should not be consideredas expressions of official policy by the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.HumanFactorsandErgonomicsSocietyP.O. Box 1369Santa Monica, CA90406-1369 USA! F L A S H!Renew for 2006!You can now renew your HFESmembership for 2006 online athfes.org. Renew by January 31, 2006to avoid the $15 postal surcharge.Member information updates receivedby that date will be includedin the 2006–2007 HFES Directory andYearbook.PERIODICALSPOSTAGE PAIDATSANTA MONICA, CAAND ADDITIONALOFFICESThis book makes a compelling argument that within the ergonomics community there needsto be a much greater emphasis on extreme variations in population attributes. It very nicelyillustrates how combinations of age, gender, and common sensory and motor impairmentsalter the performance capability of various groups. Some quantitative design recommendationsare included, though it also is made clear that much more needs to be learned about “extraordinary”populations to substantiate specific intervention strategies in the future.– Don B. Chaffin, Distinguished University Professor, University of Michigan

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