Islam & the United States during the Cold War

Islam & the United States during the Cold War

Constitutional Movement (1906) The Pahlavi Dynasty◦ Reza Shah (1921-41): Occupation of 1941◦ Muhammad Reza Shah (1941-1979)• Mossadegh as PM (1951-3) & The US-sponsored coup Opposition to the Shah◦ The Ayatollah: Ruhollah Khomeini (1902-89)• Mandate of the Jurist (Vilayet-e faqih)◦ The Sociologist: Ali Shari„ati (1933-77)• Marxism & Other Western Fallacies◦ Communists◦ Bazaaris◦ Demonstrations, 1977-8• Shah fled January 1979 & Khomeini returns

After Vietnam: CIA & Covert Operations “Good” Regimes: Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan,Morocco, Shah of Iran, Turkey, Indonesia, Iraq(under Saddam Hussein), Pakistan, AfghaniMujahideen “Bad” Regimes/Organizations: Syria, Libya, Iran(after 1979), Palestinian Liberation Organization(PLO)

Lack of Democracy—kings & dictators Flagrant human rights abuses Torture Massive corruption Radicalization of Islam & Islamic groups◦ CIA, ISI, Saudi Arabia + “Afghan-Arabs” vs. USSR Drug Trade & Drug Lords◦ No local production of heroin in Afghanistan/Pakistanprior to 1979◦ 71% of world‟s opium by the time of the Soviet retreat◦ Gulbuddin Hikmatyar: ½ of CIA funding; oversaw 6heroin factories on Afghani/Pakistani border

Two models◦ Territorial liberation movements• HAMAS• Hizbollah• Hizb al-Da„wa• Taliban◦ Cosmic, non-territorial ideologies• Al-Qaeda Muslims condemning terrorism◦

Military Occupation◦ Afghanistan: 2001-present◦ Iraq: 2003-2011 Rendition/kidnapping Guantanamo Bay Covert drone strikes◦ Pakistan◦ Yemen War on Terror/Axis of Evil◦ “Islamofascism” “Culture Talk”: Islam is the problem

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