The ARCHITECTURE of INTELLIGENT CITIESIntegrating human, collective and artificial intelligenceto enhance knowledge and innovationProf. Nicos KomninosURENIO Research Unit – Aristotle Universitywww.urenio.org2 nd International Conference on Intelligent EnvironmentsAthens, 5-6 July 2006
Urban and Regional Innovation Research Unit (URENIO)Aristotle University Lab 20 researchers: 1/3 Planning, Architecture andEngineering - 1/3 Information technology - 1/3 Social sciences, applied maths
OutlineI. Intelligent cities: Concept and casesII. Core processes: Innovation systemsIII. Core processes: Digital citiesIV. Emerging structure: Innovation + digital citiesV. Building blocks of intelligent cities
I. Intelligent Cities: The conceptAt least four different descriptions of what an intelligent city is can befound in the literature:1. Digital representation of cities: Metaphorical use of the term tocharacterize cyber cities, virtual cities, digital cities, information cities,wired cities, telecities, etc. (various authors + MIMOS)2. Smart Growth for creating wealth and employment: A SmartCommunity is a community that has made a conscious effort to useinformation technology to transform life and work within its region insignificant and fundamental ways (World Foundation for SmartCommunities, California Institute at San Diego State University)3. Environments with embedded information and communicationtechnologies: Physical environments in which information andcommunication technologies and sensor systems disappear as theybecome embedded into physical objects and the surroundings inwhich we live, travel, and work (IE)4. ICT supported territorial innovation systems: Territories that bringinnovation, knowledge work force and ICTs within the same locality(Intelligent Community Forum)
I. Intelligent Cities: The conceptThe latest concept correspond to a literal than metaphorical use of the term,since it highlights a fundamental character of intelligence: novelty.„Intelligence bears on doing something one has never done before……intelligence is what you use when you don‟t know what to do. Thiscaptures the element of novelty, the coping and groping ability neededwhen there is no „right‟ answer, when business as usual isn‟t likely tosuffice‟ (Calvin, W. H. 1998, How Brains Think. Evolving Intelligence,Then and Now).Consequently, speaking literally and not metaphorically, the term 'intelligentcity' should be given to a territory:‣ with developed knowledge-intensive and innovation-based activities;‣ with embedded routines of social co-operation allowing knowledge andknow-how to be acquired and adapted;‣ with a developed information and communication infrastructure, digitalspaces, and knowledge management tools; and‣ with a proven performance to innovate,(Oslo M., EIS) manage andresolve problems that appear for the first time, since the capacity toinnovate and manage uncertainty are the critical factors forcharacterizing intelligence.
I. ICF: Innovation and Broadband for characterizingIntelligent Communities: It takes more than being wiredFive assessment criteria for selection intelligent communities:• Significant deployment of broadband communications to businesses,government facilities and residence of a community.• Government and private-sector programs that promote digitaldemocracy by bridging the Digital Divide.• Effective economic development marketing that leverages thecommunity’s broadband to attract new employers.• Effective education, training and workforce development that builds alabor force able to perform “knowledge work.”• Innovation in the public and private sectors, ranging from e-government initiatives and efforts to create economic “clusters”.
I. Selected cities as ‘Intelligent Communities’ by the ICF2001-06Asia – Australia North & South AmericaEurope(11)(9)(3)Bario, MalaysiaSingaporeBangalore, IndiaSeoul, S. KoreaTaipei, TaiwanVictoria, AustraliaYokosuka, JapanMitaka, JapanTianjin, ChinaLaGrange, Georgia USNevada, Missouri, USNew York, UACalgary, Alberta, CAFlorida, high techcorridor, USSpokane, Washington,USPirai, BrazilToronto, CAEnnis, IrelandSunderland, UKIssy-les-Moulineux, FRGangnam District SeoulIchikawa, JapanCleveland, Ohio USWaterloo, Ontario, CA
I. ICF top Intelligent Community 2006: On June 9,Taipei was chosen as Intel Community of the yearAmong the achievements cited by ICFwere Taipei's 88 technology incubators, which continue to produce new businesses,products and technologies for the global market. Last year, over 2,000 new businesseshave been launched. In addition, the community has 45 R&D centers, including theTaipei Technology Corridor, which consists of two major science and technology parks,with a third one in development, that currently employ more than 85,000 knowledgeworkers in 2,200 companies. The most significant industry continues to be ICTs andnearly 400,000 jobs have been created in the past 24 months in telecommunicationsand science and technology services.Taipei is also one of the world's top three cities for broadband deployment, with PCsin 88% of homes and 77% of households connected to ADSL service. 90% of all wirelessaccess points are made in and around Taipei. The government's M-Taipei initiativecontinues to stimulate all important applications for mobile phones, laptops andother devices. It has successfully reinforced a 'culture of use' among citizens. Taipeialso has focused on areas of human service, where modernized health care, mediaand banking systems sustain an increasingly prosperous citizenry. It is providing freeInternet training and service to 2,000 students affected by the Tsunami disaster. Withthe support of broadband policies that ICF calls "Digital Democracy" has continued toemerge. The "Mayor's Mailbox," provides citizens with a direct voice to theirgovernment. Nearly 5,000 cases are handled on-line each month.
I. Intelligent Cities: The conceptDefinition:Intelligent cities and regions are territories with high capacity forlearning and innovation, which is built-in the creativity of theirpopulation, their institutions of knowledge creation, and theirdigital infrastructure for communication and knowledgemanagement.Two contemporary movements converge in the making ofintelligent cities and regions:Innovation, systems of innovation, clusters, technologydistricts, andDigital community spaces, digital cities, broadbanddeployment.which we will discuss in the next sections:
II. Core processes: Innovation systemsThe ground of intelligent cities and regions is made by systems ofknowledge-intensive and innovative organizations forming districts,poles, zones, and clusters.‘Innovation is the implementation of a new significantly improvedproduct (good or service), or process, a new marketing method, or anew organizational method in business practices, workplaceorganization or external relations’ (Oslo Manual, Third Edition, 2005)Today, the mainstream view for innovation is that it is systemic:the traditional Schumpeterian model, regarding innovation as aninternal activity of the firm, andthe linear innovation model of stages-gates have been foundinadequate.Innovation is increasingly regarded as a collaborative andevolutionary process taking place within clusters enhancingdiscovery and idea generation and selecting the most plausibleinnovations.
II. Core processes: Innovation systemsTwo sets of causes explain the trend of innovation towardsclustering:(a) The regional embeddedness of innovation. Kaufmann andTodtling identified five major mechanisms of path-dependence:Many of the preconditions of innovation, such as qualifications ofthe labor force, education, research institutions, knowledgeexternalities and spillovers, are immobile.Industrial clusters are localized giving rise to specificinnovation patterns within networks and industry sectors.A common technical culture may develop through collectivelearning taking place into a regional productive system.University-industry links and knowledge spillovers are regionspecific.Regional policy is playing an active role in innovation providingsupport through institutions and agencies.
II. Core processes: Innovation systems(b) The conversion of tacit to explicit knowledge.Nonaka and Takeuchi draw on the Japanese corporateexperience in new product development (Nonaka and Takeuchi,1995) and attribute innovation to the transformation of tacitknowledge (knowledge which has a personal dimension thatmakes it hard to formalize and transmit in other ways thanpersonal communication) into explicit knowledge (that istransmittable in formal languages, codified and captured inlibraries, archives and databases).Because tacit knowledge circuits demand person-to-personcommunication, clustering becomes a precondition of innovation.Path-dependence and tacit knowledge networks explain whyinnovation appears mainly within communities, clusters, localsystems, technology districts, and other forms of agglomeration.
II. Core processes: Innovation systems‣Clusters of knowledge networks in product innovationTECHNOLOGYPRODUCERSTRAINING CENTRESR&D CENTRESTECH TRANSFERSUPPLIERSIPR LAWYERSINNOVATING COMPANYDeveloping a new productCONSULTANTSSUPPLIERSCUSTOMERSCUSTOMERSGOVERNMENTAGENCIESFUNDINGORGANIZATIONSMONITORINGAGENCIES
II. Core processes: Innovation systems‣Clusters of knowledge networks in process innovationTECHNOLOGYPRODUCERSTRAINING CENTRESR&D CENTRESTECH TRANSFERORGANIZATIONSIPR LAWYERSCONSULTANTSSUPPLIERSINNOVATING COMPANYIntroducing a new technologyCUSTOMERSSUPPLIERSCUSTOMERSGOVERNMENTAGENCIESFUNDINGORGANIZATIONSMONITORINGAGENCIES
III. Core processes: Digital citiesThe digital city is the dominant form of community space corresponding to aterritory.Digital cities cover a very wide range of digital networks and softwareapplications facilitating multiple aspects of the social and economic life ofcities: commerce, transactions, health, education, work, leisure, transport.Information• Targeting residents and businesses• Selected sectors of interest• Users’ personal distribution channels(blogs)Digital Governance• Information about services and procedures• Οn-line certificates`Digital Democracy• Information about activities &projects• Council’s meetings live and ondemand through the Internet• On-line discussion forum• On-line pollsPromotion and Culture• Digital map• Virtual tour• Cultural informationBroadband City’s NetworkFiber Optics, 3G, WiMAX, WiFi Mess, Cable/DSL, WiFiDigitalEntrepreneurship• On-line business tools• e-marketplace
III. Core processes: Digital citiesA metaphor?Two very important publications:Digital Cities: Experiences, Technologies and Future Perspectives (2000)Digital cities (2002)consider that a digital city is a metaphor:„As a platform for community networks, information spaces using the city metaphorare being developed in worldwide‟„It is evident that “digital city” is a metaphor. Metaphors (from Greek metaphora –transfer) serve to create new meanings by transferring the semantics of oneconcept into the semantics of another concept. Metaphors are habitually used tointerpret an unknown “world” (perception, experience, etc.) – the target – in terms ofa familiar world – the source.‟„digital city is a metaphor called to denote a complex digital product with propertiesstructurally similar to the ones of physical cities‟How accurate is this description?
III. Core processes: Digital citiesIt is common knowledge that a digital city is structurally different fromthe physical city of reference.Not all elements of the physical city have their equivalent digitalrepresentation. Imaginary elements may also take part in the digitalconstruction.Proximity in terms of distance and time is deformed.Even in simulations, 2D in the case of urban transport applicationsand 3D in the case of reconstruction of historical spaces and citybuildings, similarity does not go beyond the form of the city.The functional aspects of the city are poorly represented throughextreme simplification; social and economic relations are notrepresented at all.
III. Core processes: Digital citiesA digital community spaceInstead of considering the digital city as metaphor we would arguethat digital cities are community / collaborative spaces build asnetworks of distorted representations of the city.The digital representation of the city is distorted for two reasons.First, it represents a city partially and not accurately; and second, itmay include virtual elements non-existent in the physical space.The community space is network-based because each element ofthe digital city is linked to an element of the physical city, and toother digital elements of the community space. Limitlessrelationships and dynamic combinations between its constitutingdigital elements are possible.
III. Core processes: Digital citiesA digital city is not a web site!A digital city (New York) as sum of websites of the city organizationsSource: http://search.mapstan.net/en/splan.jsp?planId=&q=New+York&Resu
IV. Emerging structure: Innovation + digital citiesIntelligent cities emerge from collective and uncoordinatedaction: from the union of innovative clusters and digitalcommunity spaces (digital cities) with the purpose toenhance knowledge application and innovation.The connection is based on two objective conditions:(1) innovation and digital cities are both cluster-basedprocesses, and(2) innovation and digital cities are both knowledge-basedprocesses.Innovative clusters make the core of intelligent cities, whiledigital community spaces and digital cities act asfacilitators of innovation processes.Collaborative digital spaces enhance all stages of theinnovation process, from conception to commercialization.Lets describe four important stages of this connection.
IV. Emerging structure: Innovation + digital citiesStrategic intelligenceA field of innovation whichhas enormously profited fromcollaborative digital spaces isstrategic intelligence.Digital cities may provide aparticular form of strategicintelligence, „collectivestrategic intelligence‟, inwhich information collectionis based on a network of„authors‟, informationassessment is based on anetwork of „evaluator‟, anddissemination focuses on adefined target group.Digital space for cluster intelligence
IV. Emerging structure: Innovation + digital citiesTechnology transfer,acquisition of technologiesKnowledge networks intechnology transfer aresubstantially enhanced by digitalcommunity spaces.Technologies are stored intodatabases and onlinemarketplaces of technology forlicense are created.Technology marketplaces arecoupled with online services :consulting services assessing aportfolio of intellectual property;evaluation; legal assistancethrough the deal-making process.Collaborative space for tech transfer
IV. Emerging structure: Innovation + digital citiesCollaborative innovationis another field ofintegrationCollaborative environmentsfor innovation based oncommunity spaces, areexpert systems that maylead to problem resolutionstep-by-step, for instancethrough the stages ofproblem solving;may also include advancedNPD methodologies andtools;Virtual Technology Parkas well as learning andexperimentation throughsimulation.
IV. Emerging structure: Innovation + digital citiesPromotion of clusters,products and servicesMarketing, promotion and e-commerce are mainstreamfunctions of digital cities. It isthe area that most digitalcities are active.Digital promotion takemultiple forms: directmarketing, attraction ofpeople and investments,procurement andpurchasing, auctions,community and e-government services.Digital City of Parma
V. Building blocks of intelligent citiesRes. Inst.ClusterThe integration of innovativeclusters and digital citiesdetermine the building blocks ofan intelligent city.e-Intelligencee-TechnologiesAn intelligent city is amultiplayer territorial innovationsystem, integratingknowledge-intensive activities,institutions for cooperation anddistributed innovation, anddigital communicationinfrastructure and tools tomaximize the innovation andknowledge managementcapability.Technology TransferOrganisationsTech Parks, Tech Networks,Brokers, Consultantse-InnovationInnovation FinancingBanks, Business Angels,Venture Capital, RegionalIncentivesCLUSTERSGroup of companies in cooperationVertical / HorizontalUniversities /ResearchInstitutesPublic R&DLaboratoriesPrivate R&DDepartmentsand CentresTechnology Information SystemPatents, Standards, TechnicalPublications, Emerging Markets,ForesightDev. Org. Univ. LabsClusterTech Parke-MarketsIt is a 3-level structure:
V. Building blocks of intelligent citiesL1: The basic level of an intelligent city is the city‟s innovative clusters, inmanufacturing and services. This level gathers the creative class of the citymade by knowledgeable and talented people, scientists, artists,entrepreneurs, venture capitalists and other creative people, determininghow the workplace is organized and how the city is developing.L2: A second level is made of institutional mechanisms regulatingknowledge flows and co-operation in learning and innovation. This levelgathers institutions enhancing innovation: R&D, venture capital funds,technology transfer and training centers, intellectual property, spin-offincubators, technology and marketing consultants.L3: The third level is made up by information technology andcommunication infrastructures, digital tools and spaces for learning andinnovation. These technologies create a virtual innovation environment,based on multimedia tools, expert systems, and interactive technologies,which facilitate market and technology intelligence, technology transfer, spinoffcreation, collaborative new product development, and process innovation.
V. Building blocks of intelligent citiesThe first level relates to people in the city: the intelligence,inventiveness and creativity of the individuals who live and workin the city.The second, relates to the collective intelligence of a city‟spopulation. Collective intelligence is defined as “the capacity ofhuman communities to co-operate intellectually in creation,innovation and invention” This is the institutional dimension of thecity that creates wealth and prosperity through cooperation inknowledge and innovation.The level relates to artificial intelligence embedded into thephysical environment of the city and available to the city‟spopulation. This is a public communication infrastructure, digitalspaces, and public problem-solving tools available to the city'spopulation.
V. Building blocks of intelligent citiesFour functions emerge out of the integration of human creativity, institutionalcapacity, and digital networking:F1: Intelligence: Systematic collection, analysis, understanding and diffusionof information concerning new product announcement, technologies,industrial statistics, performance indicators, market shares, price trends, etc.F2: Technology absorption, based on licensing agreements for the transferof intellectual property rights, cooperative R&D or contract R&D, and spin-offscreation.F3: Collaborative innovation: bridging separate technology fields andenhancing complementary roles and skills along the innovation chain.F4: Promotion of clusters and localities, reducing costs in all forms oftransactions: logistics in the supply chain; marketing and advertising;information on policies, regulations, technical standards, and incentives;finding partners, buyers, sellers, and services.
V. Building blocks of intelligent citiesIntelligent cities are still in their early days.To date, most applications are being developed with respect toinnovative clusters and technology parks, as intelligent clusters,intelligent technology districts, and technology parks. In these islandsof innovation, the innovation system is being enriched bycommunication infrastructure, expert systems, and knowledgemanagement tools, creating an integrated physico-virtual innovationsystem.Their architecture, as described, includes three levels (physical,institutional, digital) and four functions (intelligence, technologytransfer, innovation, and promotion). Within the physico-digitalinnovation environment, human and institutional factors predominate.Digital spaces and the online expert tools act as facilitators ofhuman and collective intelligence.
Thank you very much for your attention