OMM13400 Firesafe Issue3_V5.pdf - OneSteel

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OMM13400 Firesafe Issue3_V5.pdf - OneSteel

Welcome to FireSafe Solutions Issue 3, showcasing steel framed retail projects thatbenefited from the application of performance based Fire Safety Engineering assessments,to provide alternative solutions using bare steel construction that can offer benefits such as:Increased Safety LevelsArchitectural FlexibilityReduced Building CostsFaster ConstructionWould you like tofind out more?TALK IN CONFIDENCE TOYOUR ONESTEEL STATEMARKET ENGINEERNSW/ACT David BellPhone: (02) 9792 9075Fax: (02) 9792 9093Mobile: 0407 357 120belld@onesteel.comQLD Nick van der KreekPhone: (07)3845 5603Fax: (07) 3845 5609Mobile: 0417 145 199vanderkreekn@onesteel.comVIC/TAS Gary OldfieldPhone: (03) 8312 2639Fax: (03) 8312 2650oldfieldg@onesteel.comWA/SA/NT Spiros DallasPhone: (03) 8312 2633Fax: (03) 8312 2650Mobile: 0419 587 951dallass@onesteel.comREFERENCES1. Fire Code Reform Centre,“Fire Safety in ShoppingCentres”, Final ResearchReport, Project 62. OneSteel/BHP SpecialPublication, “Design ofSprinklered ShoppingCentres for FireSafety”, 20013. Bennetts, I. D.and Thomas, I. R., Design ofSprinklered Shopping CentreBuildings, Journal of FireProtection Engineering, Vol12 No. 4, 2002, Society ofFire Protection EngineersFocus on Shoppingand Retail CentresModern shopping centres arecomplex buildings for which it issometimes difficult to satisfy theBuilding Code of Australia’s (BCA)prescriptive deemed-to-satisfyprovisions and achieve the desiredfunctionality. Access between levelsis important and this, combinedwith the desire to have buildingsthat are more open and connected,means that substantial openings areprovided between levels. Traditional“compartmentation” therefore has littlemeaning and is unlikely to offer muchassistance in containing the effectsof a major fire. This, combined withthe fact that these buildings containmassive quantities of combustibles,means that extremely severe firescould develop within these buildings.Such fires could have disastrouseffects due to the associated smokeand heat.A significant amount of researchhas been undertaken over the lasteight years and supported by fundingfrom OneSteel (and previously BHPSteel) and the Building Commissionof Victoria. The original work wasundertaken under the guidance ofthe Fire Code Reform Centre (FCRC)and the results were published in asummary report prepared for thatorganisation [1]. This report and otherdetailed reports prepared for theFCRC dealing with aspects of thefire safety of shopping centres areavailable directly from the website ofthe Australian Building Codes Board(ABCB). This work was extendedfollowing further testing and slightlyrevised but more complete designand management recommendationswere given in the OneSteel publication“Design of Sprinklered ShoppingCentres for Fire Safety”, 2001 [2].The essential content of the approachhas been described in the technicalpaper by Bennetts and Thomas [3]. Theadvocated design and managementapproach only applies to low-rise(typically 4 storeys or less), sprinkleredshopping centres.It is important to note that shoppingcentre buildings are examples ofbuildings for which there are strongeconomic motives to avoid a significantfire, and management practices withinthese buildings are often conducive toachieving this outcome. Examples ofthese practices are:Avoiding fire starts• house-keeping audits• audits of electrical cabinets(e.g. infrared evaluation)• residual current protection• regular replacement of oldelectrical (light) installations• maintenance of electricalequipmentMinimising fire size• camera surveillance within centre(security)• fire awareness and fire-fightingtraining for all staff• sprinkler management policiesNone of the above factors areconsidered in building codes orregulations, yet it is possible thatthese may have a bigger impact onfire safety than the specific mattersaddressed by the regulations. Inreality, the fire safety of thesebuildings is a complex function ofbuilding management, the reliability ofsystems, occupant behaviour, smokemanagement, building layout, firefightingfacilities and personnel, andthe behaviour of the building structure.It has been found that theachievement of high levels of firesafety will be almost totally dependenton limiting the fire size and providingalternative paths for occupants tomove to safer places within thebuilding. Although it can be argued thatsuch a philosophy could be appliedto every building it is particularlycritical with such buildings becauseof their size and interconnectedness.Current deemed-to-satisfy regulationsare confused on this matter as theyfrequently allow smoke exhaustsystems to be designed for relativelysmall fires but the structure (whichis only affected locally) is required tohave very high levels of fire resistance,suggesting a much more severe fire.The reality is that it will be impossibleto design a smoke exhaust systemfor a major unsprinklered fire - yettesting undertaken as part of the aboveresearch has illustrated the fact thatsuch fires are quite possible.The achievement of high levels ofsafety in these buildings is actuallya risk management exercise wherethe objective could be taken aseliminating the occurrence of amajor unsprinklered fire. This will beachieved through appropriate designand through proper management ofthe fire-safety systems. Thereforefire-safety practitioners must have asignificant input into developing andmaintaining appropriate managementpractices and procedures. Under thesecircumstances it can be argued thatthe design fires appropriate to all firesafetysystems (including the buildingstructure) should be sprinklered fires.The buildings described in thisbooklet have been mostly based onthe recommendations of the abovepublications. These buildings includetwo shopping centre complexesin Adelaide – West Lakes Mallredevelopment and Norwood shoppingplaza, Adelaide airport redevelopmentsince this building contains significantretail and Rhodes Shopping Centrein NSW.FireSafe : Fire Safety Engineering by Design | Page 2


This building consists of threelevels and includes retail outlets; adeparture lounge, an arrival lounge,baggage handling, and baggagereclaim areas. There are alsoadministration areas and gatelounges. According to the BCA, thebuilding is a mixture of Class 9 andClass 6 and would be required to beconstructed as Type A construction.A section through the building isshown below.Steel-framed construction waschosen to allow ease of constructionand to deliver the desired architecturalfeatures.OneSteel’s fire engineers CesareVU assessed the fire safety aspects ofthis building relating to the structuralsteel. Their report indicated thatthe building should be designed inaccordance with reference [2] (seeIntroduction). It was agreed by thestakeholders in the fire engineeringprocess that the building need onlybe generally designed to resistthe range of possible sprinkleredfires. This design assumption wasconsidered to be satisfactory on thebasis that sprinkler managementand maintenance procedures weredeveloped and implemented tominimise the frequency, extent andduration of sprinkler isolations andto ensure that during such isolations,particular fire-safety measuresare put into place to minimise thelikelihood of a significant fire.It was recognised that airportterminal buildings are highlysupervised buildings where occupantsare likely to detect fires relativelyrapidly. Most fires will be extinguishedbefore the sprinklers are activatedand will be assisted by the availabilityof portable extinguishers andappropriate training of airport staff.The airport fire brigade was alsonoted as being close at hand. Theisolation management procedure isto be aimed at managing sprinklerisolations so as to minimise the likelihoodof a serious non-sprinklered fire.On the basis of extensive sprinklertesting it was established thatsprinklered fires would not result ina significant increase in temperatureof exposed structural steel members.In several areas it was noted thatcolumns pass through parts of thebuilding with high ceilings whereactivation of sprinklers on the ceilingswould be likely to be delayed. Partsof the building where such situationsmay occur include areas such as thedeparture and arrival areas. It wasnoted that the fire load in these areaswas localised and given the exposedsurface area-to-mass ratio of the300PLUS® columns passing throughthese areas would not result incolumn failure if subject to a localisedfire before sprinkler activation.OWNER/DEVELOPERAdelaide AirportLimitedPROJECT MANAGERBarry Phillis &AssociatesARCHITECTHassellADELAIDE AIRPORT TERMINAL – FIRE RESISTANCE REQUIREMENTS SUMMARYBUILDING ELEMENTDTSELEMENT REQUIREMENTAlternative Solutioncolumns FRL 180/-/- (retail) generally no requirement; inFRL 120/-/- (other areas) high roof areas sufficiently lowk sm* to survive localised firebeams FRL 180/-/- (retail) no requirementFRL 120/-/- (other areas)floors 180/180/180 (retail) 60/60/60120/120/120 (other areas)sprinklers YES YESSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERWallbridge & GilbertD & C CONTRACTORHansen YunckenBUILDING SERVICESENGINEERBestecBUILDING CERTIFIERAirport BuildingController*k sm is the exposed surface area-to-mass ratioFireSafe : Fire Safety Engineering by Design | Page 5


OneSteel FireSafe GuidesONESTEEL’S FIRESAFE DESIGN GUIDES ARE AVAILABLETO VIEW OR DOWNLOAD FROM THE ONESTEEL WEBSITEwww.onesteel.com/publications.aspALTERNATIVELY, THE FIRESAFE DESIGN GUIDES AREALSO AVAILABLE ON CD AS PART OF THE ONESTEELDESIGN COMPENDIUM. TO ORDER SIMPLYPHOTOCOPY THIS PAGE AND FAX OR MAIL TO:ONESTEEL DIRECTFAX: 1800 626 919MAIL:LOCKED BAG 8825 WOLLONGONG DCNSW 2500 AUSTRALIAYES, please send me the OneSteel Design CompendiumCustomer ID (please refer to fly sheet)Given Name*(s) Dr/Mr/Mrs/MsSurname*Occupation*Company*Company Address*Suburb* State* Postcode*Email AddressTelephone ( ) Fax ( )Please add me to your mailing list*Required Fields9 3 2 0 0 7 5 0 4 5 6 3 0This publication has been prepared by OneSteel Market Mills an operating business group of which OneSteel Manufacturing Pty Limited ABN 42 004 651 325, OneSteel NSW Pty Limited ABN 59 003 312 892,OneSteel Wire Pty Limited ABN 59 000 010 873, OneSteel Trading Pty Limited ABN 50 007 519 646, OneSteel MBS Pty Limited ABN 76 096 273 979 are a part. Please note that any specifications or technicaldata referred to in this publication are subject to change and/or variation or improvement without notice and no warranty as to their suitability for any use is made. Users of this publication - to ensure accuracyand adequacy for their purposes - are requested to check the information provided in this publication to satisfy themselves as to its appropriateness and not to rely on the information without first doing so.Unless required by law, the company cannot accept any responsibility for any loss, damage or consequence resulting from the use of this publication. Photographs shown are representative only of typical applications,current at March 2006. This publication is not an offer to trade and shall not form any part of the trading terms in any transaction. © Copyright 2002-2006. OneSteel Market Mills. Registered Trademarks ofOneSteel Market Mills: 300PLUS®. IKEA® is a registered trademark of IKEA® International Pty Ltd. Coles® and Bi-Lo® are registered trademarks of Coles Myer Ltd. Issue 3. Printed February 2006.© C o p y r i g h t 2 0 0 2 - 2 0 0 6 . O n e S t e e l M a n u f a c t u r i n g P t y L i m i t e d A B N 4 2 0 0 4 6 5 1 3 2 5 . e 1 3 4 0 0www.onesteel.com

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