Peter-Olson Chapter 4
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Peter-Olson Chapter 4

6/1/2010Chapter 4Customers’ ProductKnowledge andInvolvementMcGraw-Hill/IrwinCopyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Levels of Product Knowledge• Consumers use different levels of productknowledge to interpret new information andmake purchase choices• Product knowledge can be at four levels:– Brands– Model– Product form– Product class4-2Levels of Product Knowledge cont.4-31

6/1/2010Consumers’ Product Knowledge• Consumers can have three types of productknowledge:– Knowledge about the attributes orcharacteristics of products– The positive consequences or benefits of usingproducts– The values the product helps consumers satisfyor achieve4-4Consumers’ Product Knowledge cont.• Three types of product knowledge4-5Products as Bundles of Attributes• Consumers often think about products and brandsas bundles of attributes, and have knowledgeabout different types of product attributes– Concrete attributes– Abstract attributes• Marketers need to know:– Which product attributes are most important toconsumers– What those attributes mean to consumers– How consumers use this knowledge in cognitiveprocesses4-62

6/1/2010Products as Bundles of Benefits• Consumers think about products and brandsin terms of consequences– Types of product consequences:• Functional• Psychosocial• Consumers think about products and brandsas bundles of benefits– Consumers can be divided through a processcalled benefit segmentation4-7Products as Bundles of Benefits cont.• Perceived risks concern the undesirableconsequences that consumers want to avoidwhen they buy and use products• Risks can be:– Physical– Financial– Functional– Psychosocial4-8Products as Bundles of Benefits cont.• Amount of perceived risk is influenced by:– Degree of unpleasantness of the negativeconsequences– Likelihood that these negative consequenceswill occur4-93

6/1/2010Products as Value Satisfiers• Values are people’s broad life goals.• Types of values:– Instrumental– Terminal– Core• Form key elements in a self-schema4-10Instrumental and Terminal Values ofAmericansMeans-End Chains of Product Knowledge• Links consumers’ knowledge about productattributes with their knowledge aboutconsequences and values• Four levels of means-end chain– Attributes– Functional consequences– Psychosocial consequences– Values4-124

6/1/2010Common Representation of theMeans-End ChainMeans–End Chain Model of Consumers’Product Knowledge4-14Examples of Means–End Chains4-155

6/1/2010Gillette and the Formation of theFollowing Means-End ChainIdentifying Consumers’ Means-End Chains• Measured by one-on-one personalinterviews• Involves two steps:– Researcher must identify/ elicit the productattributes most important to each consumer– Laddering – interview process designed toreveal how the consumer links productattributes to more abstract consequences andvalues4-17Identification Key AttributesConsidered by Consumers6

6/1/2010Example of a Laddering InterviewMeans-end Chains–Marketing Implications• Provide a deeper understanding ofconsumers’ product knowledge• Identify the basic ends consumers seekwhen they buy and use certain products andbrands• Gives insight into consumers’ deeperpurchase motivations• Identify the consumer-product relationshipHypothetical Representation ofMeans-End Chain7

6/1/2010Digging for DeeperConsumer Understanding• Use of qualitative research methods:– Focus groups– Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET)– ZMET interview involves the following steps:• The pre-interview instruction• Storytelling• Expand the frame• Sensory images• Vignette• Digital imageZMET– Marketing Implications• Can stimulate managers’ imaginations andguide their strategic thinkingInvolvement• Consumers’ perceptions of importance orpersonal relevance for an object, event, oractivity– A motivational state that energizes and directsconsumers’ cognitive and affective processesand behaviors as decisions are made– Felt involvement emphasizes that involvementis a psychological state that consumersexperience only at certain times4-248

6/1/2010Focus of involvement• Products and brands• Physical objects• People• Activities or behaviors4-25The Means-End Basis for Involvement• A consumers’ level of involvement or selfrelevancedepends on two aspects of themeans-end chains that are activated– Importance of self-relevance of the ends– Strength of connections between the productknowledge level and the self-knowledge level4-26Graphic Representation of Means-End Chain for Involvement9

6/1/2010Factors Influencing Involvement• Person’s level of involvement influenced bytwo sources of self-relevance– Intrinsic– Situational• What marketers need to understand– Focus of consumers’ involvement– Sources that create itAdvertisement Seeking to EnhanceIntrinsic InvolvementBasic Model of Consumer ProductInvolvement4-3010

6/1/2010Marketing Implications• Understanding the key reasons forpurchases• Understanding the consumer-productrelationship4-31Marketing Implications cont.• Four market segments with different levelsof intrinsic self-relevance for a productcategory and brand– Brand loyalists– Routine brand buyers– Information seekers– Brand switchers• Influencing intrinsic self-relevance• Influencing situational self-relevance4-32Varying Levels of Brand Loyalty inDifferent Product Categories11

6/1/2010Summary• Discussed the fact that consumers don’t buyproducts to get attributes• Learned that consumers think aboutproducts in terms of their desirable andundesirable consequences, benefits, andperceived risks• Described how consumers form knowledgestructures called means-end chains4-34Summary cont.• Learned that consumers’ feelings ofinvolvement are determined by intrinsic selfrelevance– the means-end knowledgestored in memory• Discussed situational factors in theenvironment and how they influence thecontent of activated means-end chains andthereby affect the involvement consumersexperience when choosing which productsand brands to buy4-3512

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