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In situ and Ex situ Conservation of Commercial Tropical Trees - ITTO

In situ and Ex situ Conservation of Commercial Tropical Trees - ITTO

In situ and Ex situ Conservation of Commercial Tropical Trees -

  • Page 2 and 3: In situ and Ex situ Conservation of
  • Page 4 and 5: ContentsForeword 1Report of The Int
  • Page 6: Establishment of Meranti Trial Plan
  • Page 9 and 10: 2as discussed earlier, dominant for
  • Page 14 and 15: particularly true of those forest s
  • Page 16: In situ Conservation9
  • Page 19: 12Background - the world’s forest
  • Page 23 and 24: 16Box 2. IUCN Protected Area Catego
  • Page 25 and 26: 18to cover the degree to which the
  • Page 27 and 28: 20Regional Forest Assessment proces
  • Page 29 and 30: 22ecosystem, seldom protect forests
  • Page 31 and 32: 24resources, are the key actions ne
  • Page 33 and 34: 26Engagement between public and pri
  • Page 35 and 36: 28has been made with other storage
  • Page 37 and 38: 30The scale of a bioregion will ref
  • Page 39 and 40: 32ConclusionsRecent advances in our
  • Page 41 and 42: 34Cambridge University Press, Cambr
  • Page 43 and 44: 36Ten Kate, K. 1995. Biopiracy or G
  • Page 45 and 46: 38IntroductionFor more than 30 year
  • Page 47 and 48: 406. Maluku: lowland and montane fo
  • Page 49 and 50: 42in national development are consi
  • Page 51 and 52: 44focus of these conservation effor
  • Page 53 and 54:

    46Anticipating a worsening conditio

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    48Forestry official could reach the

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    50moment, Indonesia is preparing a

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    53Status of In Situ Conservation of

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    55Table 2. PRFs by forest types in

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    Table 4. Areas under National Parks

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    Annual Report 1999). The VJRs repre

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    61Seed Production AreasNatural fore

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    appropriate method and time for see

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    65Genetic Resource Area (GRA)As par

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    Kendawang (1992) reported that rese

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    70sub-marginal forest (includes the

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    72Table 2. Summary of dipterocarp s

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    74Government policy initiatives and

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    76Seed orchardsThe Ecosystems Resea

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    78In situ conservationThis conserva

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    80biodiversity conservation measure

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    82Bureau of Forest Development. 197

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    84losses of forestlands in Thailand

  • Page 93 and 94:

    86In Situ Conservation of Forest Ge

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    88- relative humidity = 85.8 %Site

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    90A species area curve index was co

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    92The ecologically- important tree

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    94Table 3 Dominant tree species in

  • Page 104 and 105:

    97Table 6 Dominant tree species in

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    frequency, and basal area of each s

  • Page 108 and 109:

    101Conserving Tropical Forests:Braz

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    103With approximately US$340 millio

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    105Demonstration Projects (PD/A)Obj

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    107• Stimulate subprojects to ana

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    109in close partnership with severa

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    111Current StatusThe completion of

  • Page 120 and 121:

    113Rain Forest Corridors ProjectThe

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    115However, they should be more str

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    117RFT for MMA to cover a six-month

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    119Projects and ComponentsThe subpr

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    121established pre-conditions (sele

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    123Sub-program), indicating the adv

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    Ex situ Conservation125

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    Ex situ Conservation of Commercial

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    Table 1.General advantages and disa

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    131It is a resource because it poss

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    133• The trees reproduce themselv

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    135species. This is obviously a ser

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    137between species. Loss of genetic

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    139Figure 1. Conceptual presentatio

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    141basis for future domestication o

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    143must also be considered.• If t

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    145FSIV, 1996. List of native Vietn

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    147The Status of Ex Situ Conservati

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    149therefore, conservation of some

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    151The specific objectives of the p

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    153most important step in tree intr

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    155in 1932, the large-scale tree im

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    157the samples depend on the breedi

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    159Site selectionIn selecting sites

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    161The Status of ex situ Conservati

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    163establishment of a system of nat

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    165After a while, all these plantin

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    167planting activities were not ini

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    1691993. pp: 72-77.Moura-Costa, P.

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    171The Status of In situ and Ex sit

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    173conducted, particularly on roote

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    175Table 1. D. alatus plantation ar

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    177Plantation of D. alatus by priva

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    179Many attempts have been made to

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    181ConclusionThe total area of D. a

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    183Ex situ Conservation of Dipteroc

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    185Figure 1. Location of FNCRDC dem

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    187A total of 41 species of diptero

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    189FNCRDC); forest protection (held

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    Appendix 1. Dipterocarps collection

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    193Practical Experience with Ex sit

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    195The Ex situ Programme on Tropica

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    197Isolation from contaminating pol

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    199clear where dead trees were loca

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    201What is the Conservation Value o

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    2031/2 to 1/3 of the original numbe

  • Page 212 and 213:

    205Faulkner, R. 1975. Seed Orchards

  • Page 214 and 215:

    207Genetical Studies for Conservati

  • Page 216 and 217:

    209mating or reproductive system, o

  • Page 218 and 219:

    211collections of several natural p

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    Genetic Conservation to ServeBreedi

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    215Genetic Conservation in AppliedT

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    Population size and the conservatio

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    219One needs to start with large nu

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    221very little resistance is eviden

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    223Maintenance of genetic diversity

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    225used to establish a gene resourc

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    227Selection and mating proceduresG

  • Page 236 and 237:

    229Systematics and Evolutionary Bio

  • Page 238 and 239:

    231Current Status of Tree Improveme

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    233(1) determine genetic variation

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    235Production Forests, Large-Scale

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    237Genetic Tree ImprovementActiviti

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    239SpeciesBased on species/group of

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    241of progeny tests, clone banks, c

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    243First Generation Breeding Strate

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    245Table 5. Individual and Family H

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    247full-sib mating (single or doubl

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    Table 8. Tree Growth Performance of

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    251Eucalyptus urophylla (Ampupu)Amp

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    253in traditional medicine. The bar

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    255Education, TrainingTraining is a

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    257The Faculty of Forestry, Gadjah

  • Page 266 and 267:

    259Prospect and ProgressForest tree

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    261to Indonesia, June 29 to July 9.

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    263Ex situ Conservation of Pinus me

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    265and Kerinci populations were 0.2

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    267per subpopulation has been recom

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    269Eriksson, G; Namkoong. G. & Robe

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    271The Benefits of Tree Improvement

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    273forest of Thailand in 1994 (Dona

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    275σ 2 F(P)Family heritability ( h

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    277Financial ParametersPlanting obj

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    279Tree improvement costs include a

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    281inbreeding. There is improved ga

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    283that one is often faced in an ap

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    285In order to quantify the effecti

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    287Suitable Tropical Hardwoods from

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    Ex Situ Genetic Conservation of Aca

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    291can neither rely solely upon see

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    293Infusions of fresh genetic mater

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    295Potential for Combining a Tree I

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    297Progeny Trial And Conservation B

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    299Molecular Approaches to Conservi

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    301dispersal within populations. Mi

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    303The outcrossing rate varied grea

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    305and some dipterocarpous species

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    307regions in chloroplast DNA. TROP

  • Page 316 and 317:

    309Genetic Structure of Natural Pop

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    311Kapur is one of several local sp

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    313Table 1. Microsatellite loci all

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    315Table 3. Fixation index (F) in t

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    317and Ulu Sedili was low, that is

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    319ratios that deviated from Hardy-

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    321Genetic differentiation and gene

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    323morphological and physiological

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    A Study of Genetic Variation Using

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    327CAG, E-AAC/M-CTG, where E and M

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    329Figure 1.KiireTanegashimaKumejim

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    331Genetic Structure of Shorea lepr

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    333Microsatellite markersFour micro

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    335Table 2. Genetic diversity based

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    337Sampling strategyThe objective o

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    339Genetic Variation of Lophopetalu

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    341Enzyme extractionPolyacrylamide

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    343clear band observed. These resul

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    345S17, S20, S29, S37, S62, S64, S7

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    347Guiana tropical forest. American

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    Evaluating Genetic Diversity of Dip

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    351Isoenzyme AnalysisEmbryos were e

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    353Table 4. Matrix of Nei (1978) un

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    355Genetic Markers for Assessing Ge

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    357determining mating systems and p

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    359Eusideroxylon zwagerii, locally

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    Results361and maintained at 4 o C.

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    363manan indicated that there were

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    365apparently not encountered. The

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    367and one site of Silvagama in Kua

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    369Mating System Parameters of Dryo

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    371Materials and MethodsSamplingThi

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    373* Inbreeding coefficients of see

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    375In conclusion, D. oblongifolia p

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    Estimation of Genetic Variation of

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    379RAPD analysisTwenty-six arbitrar

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    381Figure 1. Allele frequency of fo

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    383The genetic diversity (mean expe

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    Forest Plantation385

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    Commercial Plantation Strategy to R

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    389The forests in the continental r

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    391Table 5.Area of natural forest a

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    393Besides damage to vegetation, th

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    395services and biodiversity, may n

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    397forest and agriculture on the sa

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    399If forest reserves are ever to p

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    401d. Inadequate Supply of Quality

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    403Conclusion - The Way ForwardGive

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    405Dipterocarp Plantation:the Strat

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    407Seed (whenever available, mostly

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    409Gmelina arborea. Current activit

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    411Planting Meranti (Shorea sp.) Tr

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    413the replanting areas are signifi

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    415As a comparison, the following d

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    417with natural replanting. Also, o

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    419Establishment of Meranti Trial P

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    421and 3 (seedlings only for 4 x 4

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    423Overall, growth and survival of

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    425Shorea leprosula and S. selanica

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    427Potential of Carbon Sequestratio

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    429significant portion of the world

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    431(Page et al. 1982). Soil organic

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    433Table 3. Mean soil organic carbo

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    435this study suggests that the val

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    437McNeely, J.A., Miller, K.R., Rei

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    Possibility of Timber Estate Develo

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    441three weeks prior to transplanti

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    443Table 3. Effects of endomycorrhi

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    445Biological properties of the soi

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    447ReferencesGrandt, A.F, 1988. Pro

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    449Strengthening Tree Farming Activ

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    451On Farm Tree Cultivation - Genet

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    453Table 1. Species identified by I

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    455seed available from national or

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    Miscellaneous(Posters and Voluntary

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    459Conservation of Soil Microbial D

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    461preliminary study using an unive

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    463Nevertheless, inability to form

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    465Box 1Structure of vegetation and

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    467Nucleic Acid Based-methodsThe th

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    469sequences. DGGE and TGGE detect

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    471What is the meaning of diversity

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    473Sharing the OutcomesData collect

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    475Evidence of interest in internat

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    477the entire ecosystem, including

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    479Lie, A.T., Goktan, D., Engin, M.

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    481Additional Activities to Ex situ

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    483Results and DiscussionA hundred

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    485Figure 3. Root nodules formed by

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    Figure 5. Interaction between prove

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    489Suggestion and Future Plan1. Due

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    491Mycorrhizal Fungal Population in

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    493including polyphosphate, glycoge

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    495Honrubia (1997). By following fr

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    497Similar to the pattern found for

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    Figure 3. Arbuscules (arrow) formed

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    501109-152. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

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    503Population Genetic Study of Shor

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    505screening. Finally, 16 primers w

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    507DiscussionThe genetic diversity

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    Study on Reproductive Phenology of

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    511Considering the difficulty of E.

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    513Table 1. Developmental phase of

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    5152g 2h 2i2j2kEach single flower c

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    517During 65 days of enlargement pr

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    519Figure 6. The value of Fruit/Flo

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    521temperature stimulated floral in

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    5231989). Such foraging behavior al

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    Revolving Cutting Technique (RCT) f

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    527Results and DiscussionRooting pe

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    Evaluation of a Progeny Test of Euc

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    531These h 2 estimates ranged from

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    533Notes:*) Means with some letter

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    535Plantations in Experimental Fore

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    537Ex situ Conservation in Experime

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    539Table 1. Growth of six dipteroca

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    541faced by FORIS. Illegal tree cut

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    543Plantation Forests in East Kalim

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    545of protected forestlands, includ

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    547from Tanjung Redeb Hutani shows

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    549• The establishment of planted

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    551In Situ Conservation of Ebony(Di

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    553Ebony CharacteristicsEbony is a

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    5554. The Rubiaceae family was the

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    557Figure 7. Shallow Soil Layer of

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    Appendix559

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    International Conference onex situ

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    563Suchitra ChangtragoonRoyal Fores

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    Endang SuhendangEnny SudarmonowatiS

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    567PriyatnaPuslit BPTHPhone: 0274-8

  • Page 576 and 577:

    569Untung IskandarVivi YuskiantiBap

  • Page 578:

    571Project Executing Agency (PEA)Fa

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