Brazil (Part VIII, English version) - Convention on Biological Diversity
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Brazil (Part VIII, English version) - Convention on Biological Diversity

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILTabela 2-37. Pilot Program to Conserve the ong>Brazilong>ian Rain Forest PPG-7 (In US$ million or equivalent).Projects RFT* Germany European United USA France Counterpart TotalCommission Kingdomong>Brazilong>Current projectsScientific institutions 9.00 0.70 3.00 2.98 15.68Directed Research 10.91 9.00 19.91Demonstrative Projects Type A 3.18 20.75 4.44 1.68 3.00 33.05Extractivist Reserves 3.00 5.55 0.90 9.45Natural Resources Policy 20.00 28.48 18.55 5.00 11.40 83.43Indigenous lands 2.10 18.41 2.20 22.71Subtotal – projects underway 37.28 67.64 39.45 5.70 12.00 1.68 20.48 184.23Management of Forest Resources-Projects approvedPROMANEJO 2.00 13.54 1.90 1.40 18.84Environmental Education-CEDUC 2.25 5.55 0.80 8.60Subtotal - projects approved 4.25 13.54 5.55 1.90 0.00 0.00 2.20 27.44New projects for evaluationAnalysis, Monitoring and Evaluation 2.00 0.20 2.20Management of Natural Resourcesof Várzeas 2.00 4.54 0.70 7.24Monitoring and Control ofDeforestation and Fires- PRODESQUE 2.00 0.90 2.90Parks and Reserves 5.00 21.15 13.00 3.00 7.00 49.15Not allocated 11.34 11.34Subtotal - new projects (estimate) 11.00 37.03 13.00 3.00 0.00 0.00 8.80 72.83Total 52.53 118.21 58.00 10.60 12.00 1.68 31.48 284.50RFT = Rain Forest Trust Fund, a multilateral fund from a number of donors, administered by The World Bank.Source: Brasil, MMA. Projeto Parques e Reservas. Brasilia: Programa Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil -PPG-7 (1997). 3 v.of computerised databases for collections. The NationalZoological Programme (Programa Nacional de Zoologia) ofCNPq recruits and trains personnel for the maintenance ofresearch teams and of the collections themselves.Of the zoology projects financed, 52% deal withvertebrates. Of these, 32% deal with fish, 25% mammals, 21%birds, 14% reptiles, and 7% amphibians. Research projectson invertebrates include insects (68%), crustaceans (32%),coelenterates (4.5%) and echinoderms (4.5%). A little over10% of the research groups in zoology maintain scientificcollections. The Tropical Database (BDT) has placed someinformation on these research groups and their collectionson the Internet - ´ong>Brazilong>ian Zoological Collections´ (Table 2-43).There are a number of initiatives involving theestablishment of computerised databases for zoologicalcollections. One of these is the Neodat Project, for fishes,involving 30 institutions world-wide, five of which areong>Brazilong>ian. The Emílio Goeldi Museum (Museu Paraense EmílioGoeldi - MPEG) in Pará is also computerising the cataloguesand registers for its collection. The National Museum (MuseuNacional) in Rio de Janeiro is using two systems: MUSEfor the ichthyological collection and SGC, for the remainder.2.4.3 Botanical Gardens and ArboretaBotanical Gardens, which maintain, introduce, and breednative and non-native plant species, have a fundamentalrole to play in both in situ and ex situ conservation, especiallyof rare and threatened species. They act as germplasm banks,maintaining as they do valuable genetic material in their livecollections.In the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity the view is giventhat it is fundamental that botanical gardens be involved incarrying out or supporting conservation in situ especially insuch areas as species, habitat and ecosystem management,forest regeneration, habitat restoration, and the conservationof rare or threatened species of the ong>Brazilong>ian flora, besidesplaying an essential role in genome preservation.Botanical gardens should also be involved in floristic andphytosociological inventories for the conservation and81

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILSTAGES IN REGULATING PROCESSIDENTIFICATIONDELIMITATIONDEMARCATIONRATIFICATIONREGISTRATIONLEGENDState CapitalsBrasiliaState limitsNational limitRegistratedDESCRIPTION OF THE STAGESIndigenous lands registered with a notary public and the Secretariat ofEstate of the UnionRatifiedDemarcated indigenous lands ratified by the UnionDemarcated Indigenous lands with their boundaries identified by means ofdemarcation.DelimitedIdentifiedTo beidentifiedIndigenous lands with their boundaries recognised by the UnionIndigenous lands with their boundaries approved by the FUNAIIndigenous lands which have yet to be studied by the FUNAI in situFigure 2.31 Status of Indigenous Lands in ong>Brazilong>.Source: Fundação Nacional do Índio (FUNAI). Brasil - Terras Indígenas. Map, scale 1:5,000,000. Brasília, 1997.Wolf Management Committee. An annual census is carriedout of all captive animals in order to formulate husbandryand breeding strategies and identify the species demandingspecific efforts for their conservation in captivity. Theinformation is compiled and made available on the Internetby the Tropical Database - BDT, Campinas, through the Webutility ´Census of ong>Brazilong>ian Zoological Gardens´. The censusincludes the scientific and common names, family, class andbreeding stock, the latter expressed as the number of males,females, indeterminate and total (Table 2-46). There is alsoan indication of the status of the species: whether they arethreatened in the wild, presumed threatened or insufficientlyknown, based on the ´Official List of Species of ong>Brazilong>ianFauna Threatened with Extinction´ of IBAMA (Edict No.1.522, 19th December 1989; Edict No. 221/90, No 45-N, 27thApril 1992; and Edict No. 062,17th June 1997) (see Box 2-1).The Tropical Database - BDT has also assisted the SZBin carrying out a survey of the Zoological Gardens to obtaininformation on their lines of research and environmentaleducation projects. This is included in the ´Directory ofZoological Gardens in ong>Brazilong>´ (Diretório dos Zoológicos doBrasil), also available on the Internet.2.4.5 Germplasm BanksThe National Centre for Research on Genetic Resourcesand Biotechnology (Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de RecursosGenéticos e Biotecnologia - CENARGEN) of EMBRAPA,was set up in 1974. It resulted in the establishment of aNational Network for the Conservation of Genetic Resources(Rede Nacional de Conservação de Recursos Genéticos) toorganise the collection, exchange, quarantine,83

Ministry of Environmentcharacterisation, evaluation, documentation and, above all,the conservation and use of germplasm.The Network is comprised of EMBRAPA and its researchunits, universities, state research institutes and privateenterprises. Germplasm banks - BaG have been set up in 27sites, all operating in strict collaboration with CENARGEN.The base collection of plant germplasm (deep-frozen at –20ºC) is maintained at CENARGEN and the active collections,together with perennial plant collections, are kept in the othergermplasm banks (Table 2-47).A recent survey of the Network listed about 200,000records of plant germplasm being conserved throughout thecountry. Of these, about 76% are non-native and 24% arenative species.Studies carried out by the Financing Agency for Researchand Projects (Financiadora de Pesquisas e Projetos - FINEP)have indicated the need for a number of measures to improvethe system of germplasm conservation in the country:• Restoration of important collections which aredeteriorating;• More space and improved safety measures;• Maintenance and upgrading of equipment;• Expansion and computerisation of the stocks;• Training, recycling and improved career stability ofresearchers and support staff;• Increase in bibliographic material and the upgradingof specialised libraries;• Incentives for, and facilitation of, the exchange ofmaterial;• Mechanisms for exchange of specialists andopportunities for training technicians within thecountry and abroad.Together, these components aim to guarantee theconservation of the existing genetic resources in the ex situcollections, as well as in situ conservation in their regions oforigin, together with the agricultural and indigenouscommunities.Twelve animal germplasm banks maintain in vivo and invitro specimens of animal populations for research,conservation and breeding, especially of domestic racesthreatened with extinction.Currently, research is concentrated on the following races:• Cattle: ´Mocho Nacional´, ´Crioulo Lageano´,´Pantaneiro´, ´Curraleiro´ or ´Pé-Duro´, ´Junqueira´and ´Caracu´;Table 2-41. Indigenous populations and societiesState Population % of Nº oftotal societiesAcre 6,610 13Amapá 6,612 6Amazonas 89,529 52Pará 15,715 28Rondônia 5,573 28Roraima 37,025 8Tocantins 6,360 8North 167,424 50.91 143Alagoas 6,611 5Bahia 8,561 10Ceará 4,650 2Maranhão 14,271 9Paraíba 6,902 1Pernambuco 19,950 7Sergipe 230 2North-east 61,175 18.60 36Espírito Santo 1,347 1Minas Gerais 6,200 3Rio de Janeiro 271 1São Paulo 1,774 3South-east 9,592 2.92 8Goiás 142 3Mato Grosso 17,329 38Mato Grosso do Sul 45,259 5Central-west 62,730 19.07 46Rio Grande do Sul 13,354 2Santa Catarina 6,667 3Paraná 7,921 2South 27,942 8.50 7TOTAL 328,863 1 100.00 215 21The number of isolated Indians has not been computed;the numbers of those who live on the outskirts of citiesare computed for the following towns/cities: 2,300 inAmambaú/MS, 3,000 in Campo Grande/MS, 1,000 inBoa Vista/RR, 10,000 in Manaus/AM, 20 in GovernadorValadares/MG, and approximately 100 in Curitiba/PR, totalling approximately 26,420 Indians.2The total for this column is higher than the real figure,due to the fact that some societies live in more than oneState of the Federation.Source: FUNAI. Brasília (1997).• Sheep: ´Crioulo Lanado´, ´Santa Inês´, ´Morada Nova´,´Sornalis Brasileiro´;• Goats: ´Moxotó´, ´Marota´, ´Canindé´, ´Gurguéia´,´Repartida´, ´Azul´ and ´Graúna´;• Pigs: ´Moura´, ´Caruncho´, ´Pirapetinga´, ´Piau´, ´Canastra´,´Canastrinha´, ´Canastrão´, ´Tatu´, ´Nilo´ and´Casco de Mula´;• Mules: ´Jumento Nordestino´ and ´Jumento Brasileiro´;84

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILTable 2-42. ong>Brazilong>ian herbaria - 1997.Acronym Name State Phanerogams Cryptogams Total *South 840,5861 FUEL Fundação Universidade Estadual de Londrina PR 25,000 100 25,1002 HUCP Herbário da Pontifícia UniversidadeCatólica do Paraná PR 7,410 3,171 10,5813 HUM Herbário da Universidade Estadual de Maringá PR — — —4 HFC Herbário Fernando Cardoso PR 3,856 x 3,8565 PKDC Herbário Per Karl Dusen PR — —6 MBM Museu Botânico Municipal de Curitiba PR 250,000 5,000 255,0007 UPCB Universidade Federal do Paraná PR — — —8 CNPO Centro de Pesquisas de Pecuária dos Camposdo Sul Brasileiros RS — — —9 HAS Herbário Alarich Schultz RS 90,000 18,300 108,30010 HASU Herbário Aloysio Sehnem – UNISINOS RS 4,000 2,500 6,50011 HERBARA Herbário Balduíno Rambo RS 7,067 500 7,56712 HUCS Herbário da Universidade de Caxias do Sul RS — — —13 RSPF Herbário da Universidade de Passo Fundo RS 5,372 369 5,74114 HURG Herbário da Universidade do Rio Grande RS 4,256 227 4,48315 PEL Herbário do Departamento de Botânica RS 17,910 1,260 19,17016 HDCF Herbário do Departamento de CiênciasFlorestais RS 5,950 20 5,97017 MPUC Herbário do Museu de Ciências RS 5,121 2,341 7,46218 SMDB Herbário Santa Maria RS 5,938 218 6,15619 URG Herbário Uruguaiana RS 5,000 500 5,50020 PACA Herbarium Anchieta RS 90,000 30,000 120,00021 SFPA Instituto de Pesquisas Agronômicas RS — — —22 IPRN Instituto de Pesquisas de Recursos NaturaisRenováveis Ataliba Paz RS — — —23 BLA Laboratório Brasileiro de Agrostologia RS 20,000 x 20,00024 ICN Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul RS 90,000 28,000 118,00025 HBR Herbário Barbosa Rodrigues SC 70,000 5,000 75,00026 FLOR Herbário do Depto, de Botânica SC 24,000 6,000 30,00027 CRI Herbário Pe. Dr, Raulino Reitz SC 6,200 x 6,20028 SRS Herbarium Gilmar Pezzopane Plá SC — — —South-Eeast 1,769,60729 MBML Museu de Biologia Mello Leitão ES — — —30 CVRD Reserva Florestal de Linhares ES 5,800 x 5,80031 VIES Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo ES 8,000 2,000 10,00032 PAMG Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuáriade Minas Gerais – EPAMIG MG 47,000 750 47,75033 GFJP Herbário “Guido Pabst” MG — — —34 BHCB Herbário da Universidade Federalde Minas Gerais MG 38,662 4,000 42,66235 VIC Herbário de Viçosa MG 15,486 829 16,31536 CESJ Herbário do Centro de Ensino Superior MG 20,000 10,000 30,00037 BHMH Herbário do Museu de História Natural MG 4,000 x 4,00038 HXBH Herbário e Xiloteca – CETEC/SAT MG 11,500 1,500 13,00039 OUPR Herbário José Badini MG 35,000 916 35,91640 UCBH Pontifícia Universidade Católica MG — — —41 ESAL Universidade Federal de Lavras MG 14,700 300 15,00042 HUFU Universidade Federal de Uberlândia MG 15,000 200 15,20043 GUA Herbário Alberto Castellanos RJ 40,000 5,000 45,00044 RUSU Herbário da Universidade Santa Úrsula RJ 7,136 843 7,97945 R Herbário do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro RJ 345,000 30,000 375,00046 TER Herbário do Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos RJ — — —47 HPNI Herbário PARNA/ITA RJ — — —48 HB Herbarium Bradeanum RJ 71,572 6,734 78,30649 FCAB Herbarium Friburguense Colégio Anchieta RJ — —50 RBE Jardim Botânico da Universidade FederalRural do Rio de Janeiro RJ 2,225 x 2,22551 RB Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro RJ 313,212 31,600 344,81252 RFA Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro RJ — — —53 RBR Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro RJ — — —54 ESA Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz SP — — —85

Ministry of EnvironmentTable 2-42 (contd). ong>Brazilong>ian Herbaria - 1997Acronym Name State Phanerogams Cryptogams Total *55 UNBA Herbário da UNESP de Bauru SP 1,500 200 1,70056 BAUR Herbário da Universidade Sagrado Coração SP 3,103 x 3,10357 HISA Herbário de Ilha Solteira SP 6,700 200 6,90058 SPFR Herbário do Departamento de Biologia – FFCL – USP SP 6,600 250 6,85059 SPSF Herbário Don Bento Pickel SP 21,100 480 21,58060 SP Herbário Maria Eneyda P, K, Fidalgo SP 230,000 87,000 317,00061 IACM Herbário Micológico SP x 8,240 8,24062 PMSP Herbário Municipal de São Paulo SP 4,117 41 4,15863 HRCB Herbarium Rioclarense SP 26,200 350 26,55064 IAC Instituto Agronômico de Campinas SP 34,600 134 34,73465 IBI Instituto Biológico SP — — —66 SPF Universidade de São Paulo SP 124,327 18,500 142,82767 UEC Universidade Estadual de Campinas SP 91,000 x 91,00068 BOTU Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho SP — — —69 SJRP Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho SP 7,500 8,500 16,000North-East 403,23370 ALCB Herbário Alexandre Leal Costa BA — — —71 BAH Herbário Antônio Nonato Marques BA 13,000 x 13,00072 CEPEC Herbário do Centro de Pesquisas do Cacau BA 75,000 2,000 77,00073 HRB Herbário RADAM-BRASIL BA 37,004 796 37,80074 HUEFS Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana BA 29,292 417 29,70975 IAL Centro Nacional de Pesquisa da Mandiocae Fruticultura – EMBRAPA BA — — —76 MAC Herbário do Instituto de Meio Ambiente AL 13,000 674 13,67477 MUFAL Herbário Honório Monteiro AL 2,494 64 2,55878 URCA Herbário Caririense Dárdano de Andrade Lima CE 343 54 39779 FORTM Herbário Micológico e Fitológico CE — — —80 EAC Herbário Prisco Bezerra CE — — —81 UVA Herbário UVA/CNPq/EMBRAPA CE — — —82 EAN Herbário Jayme Coelho de Moraes PB — —83 JPB Herbário Lauro Pires Xavier PB 18,000 5,000 23,00084 HTSA Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária TrópicoSemi-arido/EMBRAPA PE 2,500 x 2,50085 IPA Herbário Dárdano de Andrade Lima PE 57,100 x 57,10086 HST Herbário Sérgio Tavares PE 6,800 x 6,80087 PEUFR Herbário Vasconcelos Sobrinho PE 18,000 4,200 22,20088 UFP Universidade Federal de Pernambuco PE 14,908 5,000 19,90889 URM Universidade Federal de Pernambuco PE x 75,830 75,83090 TEPB Herbário Gabriel Barroso PI 9,500 430 9,93091 EFC Escola de Florestas PR — — —92 MOSS Herbário Dárdano de Andrade Lima RN 4,454 52 4,50693 UFMA Herbário Atico Seabra MA — — —94 NATAL Herbário Parque das Dunas RN 736 15 75195 HUNP Universidade Potiguar RN — — —96 ASE Herbário da Universidade Federal de Sergipe SE 6,482 88 6,570North 548,69297 FUNTAC Fundação de Tecnologia do Estado do Acre AC — — —98 HPZ Herbário do Acre AC 7,000 822 7,82299 HAMAB Herbário Amapaense AP 8,000 x 8,000100 HITAM Instituto de Tecnologia da Amazônia AM — — —101 HUAM Herbário da Universidade do Amazonas AM 6,006 86 6,092102 INPA Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia AM 200,000 x 200,000103 IAN Herbário da EMBRAPA Amazônia Oriental PA 144,000 20,000 164,000104 MG Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi PA 150,000 9,778 159,778105 HF Universidade Federal do Pará PA 3,000 x 3,000Central-West 317,489106 CEN Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de RecursosGenéticos e Biotecnologia – CENARGEN DF 27,868 93 27,961107 IBGE Herbário da Reserva Ecológica do IBGE DF 32,200 x 32,200108 UB Herbário do Departamento de Botânica - UnB DF 200,000 8,000 208,00086

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILTable 2-42 (contd). ong>Brazilong>ian Herbaria - 1997Acronym Name State Phanerogams Cryptogams Total *109 HEPH Herbário Ezechias Paulo Heringer DF 13,100 213 13,313110 UFG Universidade Federal de Goiás GO 18,278 3,723 22,001111 CPAP Centro de Pesquisas Agropecuárias doPantanal – EMBRAPA MS — — —112 CGMS Fundação Universidade Federal do MatoGrosso do Sul MS — — —113 CEUL Herbário do Centro Universitário de Três Lagoas MS — — —114 COR Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul MS — — —115 UFMT Herbário Central MT 12,818 1,196 14,014General Total 3,879,607*ong>Partong>ial totals. State, see Figure 1-1. n.a. data not available.Source: Peixoto & Barbosa (1998).• Horses: ´Lavradeiro´, ´Pantaneiro´, ´Nordestino´,´Marajoara´ and ´Campeiro´.Besides the Animal Germplasm Bank maintained byCENARGEN in Brasília and the Rio Grande do NorteAgricultural and Cattle-Breeding Research Company (Empresade Pesquisas Agropecuárias do Rio Grande do Norte -EMPARN), there are seven other germplasm banks maintainedby EMBRAPA for domestic races of buffalo, cattle, mules,horses, goats, and sheep:• Buffalo Germplasm Bank, Pará – Bubalus bubalis;• ´Pé-Duro´ Cattle Germplasm Bank, Piauí – Bos taurus;• ´Pantaneiro´ Cattle Germplasm Bank Mato Grosso doSul – Bos taurus;• ´Nordestino´ Mule Germplasm Bank, Rio Grande doNorte – Equus asinus;• ´Lavradeiro´ Horse Germplasm Bank, Rorâima – Equuscabalus;• ´Pantaneiro´ Horse Germplasm Bank, Mato Grossodo Sul – Equus cabalus;• Goat Breeds of the Northeast Germplasm Bank, Ceará– Capra hircus;• ´Marota´ Goat Germplasm Bank, Piauí – Capra hircus;• ´Crioula Lanada´ Sheep Germplasm Bank, Rio Grandedo Sul – Ovis aries;• Parasitic Wasp Germplasm Bank, CENARGEN, FederalDistrict - Trichorama spp..Regarding wild animals, conservation work in situ andthe appraisal of the effects of habitat fragmentation ongenetic variability is concentrated on three species: capybara(Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), paca (Agouti paca) and manedwolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).2.4.6 Micro-organism Culture CollectionsMost of the collections of micro-organism cultures in ong>Brazilong>come from the isolated efforts of researchers, without anyinstitutional support. Use of these cultures is restricted tothe interests of the researcher, access is limited, and they donot meet the demand for authenticated cultures available tothe public.Figure 2-32. Distribution of herbaria in ong>Brazilong>.Source: Peixoto & Barbosa (1998).87

Ministry of Environment18171616141212111088866444433322 22 2211 11110AC AL AM AP BA CE DF ES GO MA MG MS MT PA PB PE PI PR RJ RS RN SC SE SPFigure 2-33. Number of herbaria in the different states of ong>Brazilong>.Source: Peixoto & Barbosa (1998).With a view to creating a programme for this sector, in1982, the ´André Tosello´ Tropical Research and TechnologyFoundation began a survey of the stocks of micro-organismcollections of interest in terms of health, agriculture, industryand the environment, concentrated mainly in the state ofSao Paulo. The first Catalogue of Collections of MicroorganismCultures was published in 1984. From 1985 onwards,the survey was extended to the other states, and resulted inthe establishment of a Sectorial Programme of CultureCollections (Programa Setorial de Coleções de Culturas -PSCC), supported by FINEP. In 1986, the Second Catalogueof Lineages was published, and a further survey in the sameyear, sponsored by FINEP, identified 80 collections in 43institutions.A number of projects have been developed as a result ofthe PSCC. More than 40 courses and seminars, includingparticipation of specialists from abroad, have been organisedthrough the PSCCC in combination with the PersonnelTraining Program for Strategic Activities (Programa deCapacitação de Recursos Humanos para Atividades Estratégicas- RHAE) of the Ministry of Science and Technology- MCT. Also within the PSCC, in 1988 FINEP providedemergency support to 13 collections.The first volume of the 3rd Edition of the National Catalogueof Lineages/Bacteria was published in 1989. The second(Yeasts and Filamentous Fungi), and third (Cells and LiveAnimals) volumes were published in 1990. The nationalsurvey of collections has not been updated since 1990. Allthe information is available via the Tropical Data Base - BDTon the Internet.EMBRAPA co-ordinates and maintains 10 micro-organismgermplasm banks of agricultural interest, including bacteria,fungi and protozoa, in six institutions.The Collection of Tropical Cultures (Coleção de CulturasTropical - CCT) and the Rio de Janeiro Cellbank (Banco deCélulas do Rio de Janeiro - BCRJ) have both received fundingthrough the biotechnology subprogramme of the Programmefor Support of Scientific and Technological Development(Programa de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Científico eTecnológico - PADCT II), for infrastructure, expanding stocks,and the improvement of services to the scientific andtechnological community. The CCT has a stock of almost6,000 lineages of micro-organisms of industrial andenvironmental interest. Information on these cultures isavailable on the Internet through the Tropical Data Base -88

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZIL18000001600000140000012000001000000800000PhanerogamsCryptogams6000004000002000000North North-east Central-west South-east SouthFigure 2-34. Number of specimens in herbaria in the different regions of ong>Brazilong>.Source: Peixoto & Barbosa (1998).BDT. The BCRJ has a stock of around 130 lineages (animalcells) of interest to human health and tropical medicine. Theyare described in the Catálogo Nacional de Linhagens Humanase Animais of 1994, and the addendum of 1996.In view of the need for Depository Centres for BiologicalMaterial (Centros Depositários de Material Biológico), tocomply with article 24, of the Law of Industrial Property (No9.279/1996), the National Institute for Industrial Property (InstitutoNacional de Propriedade Industrial - INPI) has set upan advisory work group (GT-CREBIOT), to define legal andtechnical criteria for the selection of depository centres, tobe accredited by INPI. This is to meet the demand for depositsassociated with patent applications. Although there are 30International Depository Centres recognised by the WorldIntellectual Property Organization - WIPO, none are in LatinAmerica.2.4.7 Breeding Wild Animals forCommercial PurposesThe Faunal Protection Law (Lei de Proteção à Fauna, No.5.197/1967), which provides for the protection of wildlife,was significantly strengthened by the 1988 Constitution. TheConstitution determines that it is the duty of the State “toprotect fauna and flora, forbidding, by law, practices that putits ecological function at risk, cause the extinction of speciesor submit animals to cruelty”. The Faunal Protection Lawbanned professional hunting and deliberate trade in speciesof ong>Brazilong>ian wildlife. It allowed, however, for amateur hunting,considered as a management strategy, and encouragedespecially the establishment of breeding facilities for wildanimals for economic or industrial purposes.Breeding ong>Brazilong>ian wildlife in captivity for economicpurposesThe breeding of native animals in captivity for commercialor economic purposes is provided for by Article 6 of LawNo. 5197, 3rd January 1967 and regulated by edicts publishedby IBAMA. Edict No. 118/97 deals with the implantation ofcommercial breeding facilities for species that have no specificmanagement plan. The species most often bred under theterms of this edict are: capybara, collared peccaries, whitelippedpeccaries, quail, pacas, partridge, coypus, rheas,snakes, cayman, parrots, parakeets, and macaws. Therecommendation given to IBAMA’s state agencies is thatthe initial breeding and reproductive stock should preferablyoriginate from other registered breeding facilities or be theproduct of confiscation by the inspecting agencies. The cap-89

Ministry of EnvironmentTable 2-43. Type and location, size of collection and origins of the specimens in ong>Brazilong>ian Zoological Collections.Institution Region Taxon Total Ecosystems coveredspecimensZoology Reference Collection of CW Mollusca 3,404 Cerrado, Pantanal and continental watersthe Universidade Federal do Crustacea 835Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS) Insecta 1,571Pisces 9,655Mammalia 292Amphibia 667Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas N Porifera n.i. Amazoniada Amazonia (INPA) Platyhelminthes n.i.Rotiferan.i.Nematodan.i.Acanthocephala n.i.Mollusca 5,281Annelidan.i.Arachnidan.i.Crustacea 7,040Insecta over 200,000Chilopodan.i.Diplopodan.i.Pauropodan.i.Symphylan.i.Pisces over 100,000Coleção Mastozoológica DeoclécioGuerra, Universidade Federal dePernambuco (UFPE) NE Mammalia 1,361 Amazonia, Atlantic forest, Cerrado, Caatinga andurban ecosystemsUniversidade Federal do RioGrande do Norte (UFRN) NE Pisces 1,000 Continental watersPontifícia Universidade Católica S Amphibia 1,853 Amazonia, Araucaria pine forest, Cerrado, Caatinga,do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) Reptilia 7,058 Pantanal, Atlantic Forest, Parkland Savannahs, andArachnida 50,000 urban ecosystems.Pisces 160,000ture of wild animals may be authorised in situations wherethey are proved to be causing damage to agriculture, or wherethe species is abundant according to the demographiccharacteristics of each species, and only through a formalrequest containing a population survey of the species andinformation concerning capture>Brazilong> currently has around 120 commercial breedingfacilities registered with IBAMA. Of these, around 45% arecapybara breeders, mainly in the state of Sao Paulo. Captivemanagement plans and the norms for the breeding andmaintenance of each species are published in specific edicts.The species which may be managed and the edict whichregulates their breeding and management are as follows:Pantanal CaymanIBAMA Edict No. 126, 13th February 1990, deals theregistration of breeding facilities for Caiman crocodilusyacare in the Rio Paraguay basin. Up to 1990, the Policy forbreeding crocodilians in captivity had been based on asystem of ´Farming´, while acquiring breeding stock fromthe wild. In the late 1980s, however, viability studies werecarried out for the ´Ranching´ system, where only eggs arecollected from the wild. The research was carried out by theFederal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, at the FazendaOlhos D’água in the municipality of Aquidauna, Mato Grossodo Sul, and resulted in the edict for breeding Pantanalcaymans in the Rio Paraguay basin. The edict determinesthat eggs from up to 80% of the nests identified following asurvey of the property. Incubation is artificial and the stockis raised under cover, where temperature, humidity and foodare controlled which results in skin without osteoblasts andosteoderms, referred to by crocodile ranchers as the ´classicskin´. There are about 50 commercial breeding facilities forPantanal caymans in ong>Brazilong>, and about 30 of these work asco-operatives in the state of Mato Grosso.Butterflies90

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILTable 2-43. (contd.) Type and location, size of collection and origins of the specimens in ong>Brazilong>ian Zoological Collections.Institution Region Taxon Total Ecosystems coveredspecimensFundação Zoobotânica do Rio S Porifera 3.048 Amazonia, Cerrado, Pantanal, ParklandSavannahs,Grande do Sul (FZB) Helmynthes 88 agricultural and urban ecosystems, Atlantic forest,Annelida 280 (lots) Araucaria pine forest marine and continental waters,Arachnida 29,286 (lots) CaatingaChilopoda 480 (lots)Diplopoda 380 (lots)Insecta 81,796Echinodermata 100 (lots)Amphibia 13,400Aves 2,700Mammalia 2,700Mollusca 34,000 (lots)Pisces 12,059Federal University of Paraná S Insecta 3,000,000 Amazonia, Atlantic forest, Cerrado, Araucaria pine(UFPR)forest, Pantanal, Caatinga, Parkland Savannahs,agricultural and urban ecosystemsFederal University of Londrina S Pisces 3,700 Tibagi river valleyFederal University of Maringá S Pisces n.i. Upper Rios Paraná and IguaçuFederal University of Rio Grandedo Sul (UFRGS) S Pisces 4,694 (lots) Marine zone of Rio Grande do SulFederal University of São Carlos SE Insecta n.i. Amazonia, Atlantic forest, Cerrado, Pantanal,(UFSCar)agricultural and urban ecosystemsSanta Úrsula University (USU) SE Pisces 15,000 Amazonia, marine and continental watersFederal University of Viçosa SE Pisces 1,700 Atlantic Forest, Cerrado, Caatinga, agricultural and(UFV) Amphibia 2,500 urban ecosystemsReptilia 1,100Aves 1,300Mammalia 500Insecta 100,000Federal University of Rio deJaneiro - National Museum SE Pisces Around 500,000 n.i.Porifera 6,000 Continental and marine watersSão Paulo University (USP) SE Pisces Around 200,000 Continental (mainly) and marine watersObs.: n.i. - not informed. Region names according to Figure 1-1.Source: Base de Dados Tropical. Coleções Zoológicas Brasileiras - Neotropical FishCollections, 1997.Edict No. 2.314, 26th November 1990, regulates thecommercial breeding of Lepidoptera. The management systemfor butterflies includes their attraction to specially plantedflowers on rural estates, the collection of eggs laid on theseplants, and their transfer to net-covered sheds to completetheir metamorphosis. The caterpillars show a sex ratio stronglybiased towards males, 40:1. Females ready to fly are releasedin the ratio of 40 females to two males. The wings of thesurplus males are then used or sold for craft products. Onlytwo farms have been authorised to date, one in the state ofSanta Catarina, the other in Amazonas.Giant Amazon river turtle and tracajá turtlesEdict No. 142/92, 30th December 1992, regulates thebreeding of Podocnemis expansa (giant Amazon river turtle)and Podocnemis unifilis (tracajá) in captivity in the Amazon.For authorisation to breed these turtles in captivity, the edictdemands that a detailed management project be presentedto IBAMA. Once approved, IBAMA itself provides newbornturtles from the Amazon Chelonia Project basesadministered by the National Centre for the Conservationand Management of Amazonian Turtles (Centro Nacional deConservação e Manejo de Quelônios da Amazônia -CENAQUA). This centre monitors the activities of thebreeding stations, and the growth of the young turtles up totheir slaughter (from 2 kilos live weight upwards). Thecommercialisation of each animal is allowed only after theyare tagged, tags being supplied by IBAMA/CENAQUA.There are 20 registered turtle farms in the ong>Brazilong>ian Amazon,the majority in the state of Amazonas.The commercial breeding of animals on the Official List ofThreatened Species of ong>Brazilong>ian Fauna, (Edict No. 1.522/89,19th December 1989), has not yet not been regulated byIBAMA. The recommendation given to IBAMA’s state agenciesis refuse letters of consultation or complementaryplanning for commercial purposes which include these91

Ministry of EnvironmentTable 2-44. List of Botanical Gardens and similar institutions.1. Jardim Botânico de Belém - Bosque Rodrigues Alves, Belém, Pará2. Complexo Botânico Monjolinho, Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo3. Jardim Botânico “Irmão Teodoro Luiz”, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul4. Jardim Botânico da ALBRAS, Barcarena, Pará5. Jardim Botânico do Instituto de Tecnologia da Amazônia, Manaus, Amazonas6. Jardim Florestal da Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Aracaju, Sergipe7. Jardim Zoobotânico de Dois Irmãos, Recife, Pernambuco8. Jardim Botânico da UNICRUZ, Cruz Alta, Rio Grande do Sul9. Jardim Botânico da Universidade Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro10. Jardim Botânico de Curitiba, Curitiba, Paraná11. Jardim Botânico de Brasília, Distrito Federal12. Jardim Botânico de Goiânia, Goiânia, Goiás13. Fundação Zoobotânica de Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais14. Jardim Botânico da Cidade do Recife, Recife, Pernambuco15. Jardim Botânico de Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul16. Jardim Botânico de Lajeado, Lajeado, Rio Grande do Sul17. Jardim Botânico de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul18. Jardim Botânico de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul19. Horto Botânico do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro20. Jardim Botânico Municipal de Bauru, Bauru, São Paulo21. Jardim Botânico de Botucatu, Botucatu, São Paulo22. Jardim Botânico Hermógenes de Freitas Leitão Filho, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo23. Jardim Botânico de Paulínia, Paulínia, São Paulo24. Jardim Botânico Municipal de Santos “Chico Mendes”, Santos, São Paulo25. Jardim Botânico de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo26. Jardim Botânico ong>Partong>icular Miraponga, São Paulo27. Jardim Botânico da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso28. Jardim Botânico de Niterói, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro29. Jardim Botânico do Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária dos Trópicos Úmidos da EMBRAPA, Manaus, Amazonas30. Instituto Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro31. Museu de Biologia Mello Leitão, Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo32. Museu de História Natural e Jardim Botânico, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais33. Parque Zoobotânico do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará34. Parque Botânico do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia, Manaus, Amazonas35. Parque Zoobotânico de Teresina, Teresina, Piauí36. Sítio Roberto Burle Marx/IPHAN, Rio de JaneiroSource: Siqueira & Joly (1996).species. If the interested party insists, the breeding of suchspecies can be authorised on the basis of the edict that dealswith ´breeding facilities for conservation purposes´, but thecommercialisation of captive-bred threatened species canbe authorised only for the F2 generation onwards. To dothis, however, once it is proved that the breeding facility isself-sufficient, the interested party must then request achange in status from a ´conservationist´ to a ´commercial´breeding facility, and must meet the norms of the respectiveedict as well those of Edict No. 132/88 concerning theInternational ong>Conventionong> on Trade in Endangered Species -CITES. Only then can the animals be sold. The founder stockof such facilities cannot be wildcaught.92

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILTable 2-46. Number of Animals in Captivity inong>Brazilong>ian zoos.Taxon Males Females Sex Totalunknown*Mammals 3,354 3,317 1,938 8,609Birds 3,204 3,053 12,766 19,023Reptiles 2,606 2,628 6,374 11,608Amphibians 24 20 18 62TOTAL 9,188 9,018 21,096 39,302*Sex of the specimen was not informed.Source: Censo Anual de Animais da Sociedade deZoológicos do Brasil, 1996.Table 2-45. The number of zoological gardens inong>Brazilong> by state and the number registered withIBAMA.State and Region Zoological GardensInstitutions Registeredwith IBAMASouth-east 46 20RJ 4 4SP 42 16South 18 6PR 6 3RS 7 3SC 5North 6 2AM 3 1PA 2 1RO 1North-east 7 1BA 2CE 1PB 1PE 1 1PI 1SE 1Central-west 14 4DF 1 1GO 1 1MG 10 2MT 2Total 91 33States, see Figure 1-1.Source: Censo Anual de Animais da Sociedade deZoológicos do Brasil, 1996.Figure 2-35. Number of animals in ong>Brazilong>ian zoological gardens, 1990-1996.Source: Annual censuses carried out by the Sociedade de Zoológicos do Brasil (SZB) (1996).93

Ministry of EnvironmentTable 2-47. Germplasm Banks (BAG) comprising the ong>Brazilong>ian system of ex situ conservation of plant germplasm*.Germplasm Bank Denomination Instituição City/State** Taxon1 BaG of Wheat EMBRAPA-CNPT Passo Fundo-RS Triticum aestivum2 BaG of Barley Hordeum vulgare3 BaG of Triticum T. aestivum x S. cereale4 BaG of Rye Secale cereale5 BaG of Oats Avena sativa6 BaG of Cucurbita EMBRAPA-CPACT Pelotas-RS Cucurbita spp.7 BaG of Onion Allium cepa8 BaG of Melon Cucumis melo9 BaG of Potato Solanum spp.10 BaG of Carrot Daucus carota11 BaG of Native fruits of the SouthAraçáPsidium cattleyanumPitangaEugenia uniflora12 BaG of PrunusPeachPrunus persicaNectarineP. persica var.nucipersicaCherryPrunus cerasusApricotPrunus armeniacaPlumPrunus domesticaAlmondPrunus amygdalus13 BaG of Mountain Guava tree Feijoa sellowiana14 BaG of Grapes EMBRAPA-CNPUv Bento Gonçalves-RS Vitis vinifera15 BaG of Fodder – South Region EMBRAPA-CPPSul Bagé-RS BromusPaspalumAdesmiaTrifolium16 BaG of Paraná Pine EMBRAPA-CNPF Colombo-PR` Araucaria angustifolia17 BaG of Eucalyptus Eucalyptus benthamiiEucalyptus cloezianaEucalyptus deaneiEucalyptus maculataEucalyptus pellitaEucalyptus pilularisEucalyptus resiniferaEucalyptus salignaEucalyptus urophylaEucalyptus viminalisEucalyptus dumiiEucalyptus spp.18 BaG of Tropical Pines Pinus caribaeaPinus maximinoiPinus patulaPinus tecunumaniiPinus gregiiPinus kessicaPinus oocarpaPinus spp.19 BaG of Cypress Cupressus lusitanica20 BaG of Soybean EMBRAPA-CNPSo Londrina-PR Glycine max21 BaG of Sunflower Helianthus annuus22 BaG of Manioc EPAGRI Itajaí-SC Manihot esculenta23 BaG of Vegetables and PlantsAmazon condiments EMBRAPA-CPATU Belém-PABlack PepperPiper nigrumJambuSpilanthes oleraceaPepperCapsicum spp.94

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILTable 2-47. (contd.) Germplasm Banks (BAG) comprising the ong>Brazilong>ian system of ex situ conservation of plant germplasm*.Germplasm Bank Denomination Instituição City/State** Taxon24 BaG of Native Amazon Forests EMBRAPA-CPATU Belém-PAMahoganySwietenia macrophyllaUcuubaVirola surinamensis25 BaG of Manioc Manihot esculenta26 BaG of Palm TreesAçaíEuterpe oleraceaPupunhaBactris gassipaesPatauáOenocarpus batauaBacabaOenocarpus spp.Tucuma Astrocaryum spp.27 BaG of Medicinal, Aromatic andCondiment plantsVelameCroton cajucaraPedra hume-caaMyrcia sphaerocarpaPau-RosaAniba duckeiCrajiruArrabidaea chica28 BaG of Medicinal and Insecticide plantsJaborandiPilocarpus microphyllusTimbóDerris sp.IpecacuanhaCephaelis ipecacuanha29 BaG of Amazon Industrial CultivationAnnattoBixa orellanaGuaranáPaullinia cupanaMallowUrena lobataJuteCorchorus spp.30 BaG of Dendê EMBRAPA-CPAA Manaus-AM Elaeis guineensis31 BaG of Caiaué Elaeis oleifera32 BaG of Guaraná Paullinia cupana33 BaG of Autocthonous Amazon SpeciesRubberHevea brasiliensisCacaoTheobroma cacaoCaiauêElaeis oleiferaPupunhaBactris gasipaesJacarandáMachaerium acutifoliumJequitibáCariniana estrelensisCamu-camuMyrciaria dubiaSumaúmaCeiba pentandraAraticumRollinia mucosa34 BaG of ong>Brazilong> nut Bertholetia excelsa35 BaG of Cotton IAC Campinas-SP Gossypium spp.36 BaG of Rice Oryza sativa37 BaG of Amaryllis Amaryllis spp.38 BaG of Açucena Lilium candidum39 BaG of Ground nuts Arachis hipogea40 BaG of Avocado Persea americana41 BaG of Garlic Allium sativum42 BaG of Oats Avena sativa43 BaG of Potato Solanum tuberosum44 BaG of Banana Musa spp.45 BaG of Coffee Coffea arabica46 BaG of Sugar-cane Saccharum officinarum47 BaG of Barley Hordeum vulgare48 BaG of Citrus Fruits Citrus spp.95

Ministry of EnvironmentTable 2-47. (contd.) Germplasm Banks (BAG) comprising the ong>Brazilong>ian system of ex situ conservation of plant germplasm*.Germplasm Bank Denomination Instituição City/State** Taxon49 BaG of Cacao Theobroma cacao50 BaG of Guava Psidium guajava51 BaG of Sesame Sesamum indicum52 BaG of Papaya Carica papaya53 BaG of Mandioc Manihot esculenta54 BaG of Mango Mangifera indica55 BaG of Passion Fruit Passiflora spp.56 BaG of Herbaceous plants Diversas57 BaG of Pinhão Araucaria angustifolia58 BaG of Palm trees Diversas59 BaG of Ramie IAC Campinas-SP Boehmeria nivea60 BaG of Roses Rosa spp.61 BaG of Sisal Agave sisalana62 BaG of Tritical T. aestivum x S. cereale63 BaG of Wheat Triticum aestivum64 BaG of Fruit tree species Diversas65 BaG of Beans Phaseolus vulgaris66 BaG of Rubber EMBRAPA-CPAC Planaltina-DF Hevea brasiliensis67 BaG of Quinoa Chenopodium quinoa68 BaG of Species of Cerrado treeGonçalo-AlvesAstronium fraxinifoliumCherry treeAmburana cearensisJequitibáCariniana estrelensisCopaíbaCopaifera langsdorfiiLouro-PardoCordia trichotomaBaruDipterix alataBraúnaSchinopsis brasiliensisIpê-RoxoTabebuia impetignosaIpê Amarelo do CerradoTabebuia caraibaPau D‘Arco AmareloTabebuia serratifoliaPerobaAspidosperma polyneuron69 BaG of Cerrado Forrage ArachisStylosanthesSesbaniaBrachiariaCalopogoniumCentrosemaPanicum maximumPaspalum70 BaG of Manioc Manihot esculenta71 BaG of Pumpkins and Squash EMBRAPA-CNPH Brasília-DF Cucurbita spp.72 BaG of Garlic Allium sativum73 BaG of Sweet Potato Ipomoea batatas74 BaG of Mandioquinha-salsa Arracacia xanthorriza75 BaG of Arachis EMBRAPA-Cenargen Brasília-DF Arachis spp. ***76 BaG of Sorghum EMBRAPA-CNPMS Sete Lagoas-MG Sorghum spp.77 BaG of Maize Zea mays78 BaG of Millet Pennisetum glaucum79 BaG of Elephant Grass Pennisetum purpureum80 BaG of Alfalfa Medicago sativa81 BaG of Rice EMBRAPA-CNPAF Goiânia-GO Oryza sativa82 BaG of Beans Phaseolus vulgaris83 BaG of Caupi Vigna unguiculata84 BaG of Baru EMBRAPA-EMGOPA Goiânia-GO Dipterix alata85 BaG of Cashew and similar species EMBRAPA-CNPAT Fortaleza-CE Anacardium spp.CashewAnacardium occidentale96

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILTable 2-47. (contd.) Germplasm Banks (BAG) comprising the ong>Brazilong>ian system of ex situ conservation of plant germplasm*.Germplasm Bank Denomination Instituição City/State** Taxon86 BaG of Custard apple Annona muricata87 BaG of Hog-plum (Cajá) Spondias lutea88 BaG of Papaya EMBRAPA-CNPMF Cruz das Almas-BA Carica papaya89 BaG of Pineapple Ananas spp.90 BaG of Banana Musa spp.91 BaG of Acerola Malpighia glabra92 BaG of Castor EMBRAPA-CNPA Campina Grande-PB Ricinus communis93 BaG of Manioc EMBRAPA-CNPMF Cruz das Almas-BA Manihot esculenta94 BaG of Passion Fruit Passiflora spp.95 BaG of Cacao EMBRAPA-CEPLAC Itabuna-BA Theobroma cacao96 BaG of Native and Exotic fruit trees EMBRAPA-CNPMF Cruz das Almas-BAAvocadoPersea americanaAbiuPouteria caimitoAbricó-do-ParáMammea americanaAmeixa do PeruBunchosia armeniacaAkeeBlighia sapidaCustard apple (Araticum-do-Brejo)Annona glabraGuava (Araça)Psidium spp.Araça-boiEugenia stipitataCabeludinhaEugenia tomentosaCainitoChrysophylum cainitoHog-plum (Cajá)Spondias luteaCashewAnacardium occidentaleCanistelRichardela nervosaCarambolaAverrhoa carambolaFalse MangosteenCariniana colchighinensisGuavaPsidium guajavaCustard appleAnnona muricataGrumichamaEugenia brasiliensisGuabirobaCampomanesia sp.JabuticabaMyrciaria caulifloraLicheeLichi chinensisMacadamiaMacadamia integrifoliaPinhaAnnona squamosaSapodilla plumAchras sapota97 BaG of Guava and Acerola - Araripe EMBRAPA-CPATSA Petrolina-PEVale do Rio Moxotó RegionsGuavaPsidium guajavaAcerolaMalpighia glabra98 BaG of Umbu Spondias tuberosa99 BaG of Mango of the Semi-Arid Region Mangifera indica100BaG of North-east RegionCactaceous fodderCenchrusOpuntia spp.Nopalea spp.101BaG of Cucurbitas for the NordestePumpkin (Jerimum)Cucurbita maximaWatermelonCitrulus vulgarisMelonCucumis meloMaxixeCucumis anguria102BaG of Coconut EMBRAPA-CPATC Aracaju-SE Cocos nucifera103BaG of Mangaba EMBRAPA-CNPA Campina Grande-PB Hancornia speciosa104BaG of RamieBoehmeria nivea105BaG of SisalAgave sisalana106BaG of Herbaceous CottonGossypium spp.107BaG of Cotton treeGossypium spp.* In 1997 around 200,000 GERMPLASM entries were being conserved in these banks, approsimately 76% of them exotic speciesand 34% ong>Brazilong>ian native species. ** States, see figure 1.1. *** The Banks has some 1,000 entries, representing 75 of the 80 knownArachis species. Of these, 68 have been described and 12 are now being described. Sixty-one of them are native to ong>Brazilong>.Source: CENARGEN/Instituto Agronômico of Campinas (IAC), 1998.97

Ministry of EnvironmentMAMMALIABox 2-1Threatened Species of the ong>Brazilong>ian FaunaIBAMA Edict No. 1.522, 19th December 1989PrimatesAlouatta belzebul belzebul (Linnaeus, 1766). CEBIDAE. Red-handed howling monkey.Alouatta fusca (E. Geoffroy, 1812). CEBIDAE. Brown howling monkeyAteles belzebuth (E. Geoffroy, 1806). CEBIDAE. White-bellied spider monkeyAteles paniscus (Linnaeus, 1758). CEBIDAE. Red-faced black spider monkeyBrachyteles arachnoides (E. Geoffroy, 1806). CEBIDAE. MuriquiCacajao calvus (I. Geoffroy, 1847). CEBIDAE. Bald uakariCacajao melanocephalus (Humboldt, 1811). CEBIDAE. Black uakariCallicebus personatus (E. Geoffroy, 1812). CEBIDAE. Masked titi monkeyCallimico goeldii (Thomas, 1904). CALLIMICONIDAE. Goeldi’s monkeyCallithrix argentata leucippe (Thomas, 1922). CALLITRICHIDAE. Golden-white bare-ear marmosetCallithrix aurita (E. Geoffroy in Humboldt, 1812). CALLITRICHIDAE. Buffy tufted-ear marmosetCallithrix flaviceps (Thomas, 1903). CALLITRICHIDAE. Buffy headed marmosetCallithrix humeralifer (E. Geoffroy in Humboldt, 1812). CALLITRICHIDAE. Santarém marmosetCebus apella xanthosternos (Wied, 1820). CEBIDAE. Buffy headed capuchin monkeyChiropotes albinasus (I. Geoffroy & Deville, 1848). CEBIDAE. White-nosed sakiChiropotes satanas utahicki Hershkovitz, 1985. CEBIDAE. Uta Hick’s bearded sakiChiropotes satanas satanas (Hoffmannsegg, 1807). CEBIDAE. Guianan bearded sakiLagothrix lagotricha (Humboldt, 1812). CEBIDAE. Woolly monkeyLeontopithecus chrysomelas (Kuhl, 1820). CALLITRICHIDAE. Golden-headed lion tamarinLeontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan, 1823). CALLITRICHIDAE. Black lion tamarinLeontopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766). CALLITRICHIDAE. Golden lion tamarinPithecia albicans Gray, 1860. CEBIDAE. White saki, buffy sakiSaguinus bicolor bicolor (Spix, 1823). CALLITRICHIDAE. Pied tamarinSaguinus imperator (Goeldi, 1907). CALLITRICHIDAE. Emperor tamarinSaimiri vanzolinii Ayres, 1985. CEBIDAE. Black-crowned squirrel monkeyCarnivoraAtelocynus microtis (Sclater, 1883). CANIDAE. Short-eared dogChrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815). CANIDAE. Maned wolfLeopardus pardalis (Linneaus, 1758). FELIDAE. OcelotLeopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775). FELIDAE. OncillaLeopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821). FELIDAE. MargayLutra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818). MUSTELIDAE. Neotropical otterMustela africana (Demarest, 1818). MUSTELIDAE. Amazonian weaselOncifelis colocolo (Molina, 1810). FELIDAE.Oncifelis geoffroyi (d’Orbigny & Gervais, 1844). FELIDAE. Geoffroy’s catPanthera onca (Linneaus, 1758). FELIDAE. JaguarPteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788). MUSTELIDAE. Giant otterPuma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771). FELIDAE. PumaSpeothos venaticus (Lund, 1842). CANIDAE. Bush dogXenarthraBradypus torquatus Illiger, 1811. BRADYPODIDAE. Three-toed slothMyrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758. MYRMECOPHAGIDAE. Giant anteaterPriodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792). DASYPODIDAE. Giant armadillo98

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILTolypeutes tricinctus (Linnaeus, 1758). DASYPODIDAE. Three-banded armadilloSireniaTrichechus inunguis (Natterer, 1883). TRICHECHIDAE. Amazon manateeTrichechus manatus Linnaeus, 1758. TRICHECHIDAE. West Indian manateeCetaceaEubalaena australis (Desmoulins, 1822). BALAENIDAE. Southern right whaleMegaptera novaeangliae (Borowski, 1781). BALAENOPTERIDAE. Humpback whale/Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d’Orbigny, 1844). PLATANISTIDAE. River Plate dolphinRodentiaAbrawayaomys ruschii Cunha & Cruz, 1979. MURIDAE. Abrawaya’s spiny ratChaetomys subspinosus (Olfers, 1818). ECHIMYIDAE. Thin-spined porcupineJuscelinomys candango Moojen, 1965. MURIDAE.Kunsia tomentosus (Lichtenstein, 1830). CRICETIDAE.Phaenomys ferrugineus (Thomas, 1894). MURIDAE.Rhagomys rufescens (Thomas, 1886). MURIDAE. ong>Brazilong>ian arboreal mouseArtiodactylaBlastocerus dichotomus (Illiger, 1815). CERVIDAE. Marsh deerOdocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780). CERVIDAE. White-tailed dearOzotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758). CERVIDAE. Pampas deerAVESTinamiformesCrypturellus noctivagus (Wied, 1820). TINAMIDAE. Yellow-legged tinamouNothura minor (Spix, 1825). TINAMIDAE. Lesser nothuraTaoniscus nanus (Temminck, 1815). TINAMIDAE. Dwarf tinamouTinamus solitarius (Vieillot, 1819). TINAMIDAE. Solitary tinamouCiconiiformesEudocimus ruber (Linnaeus, 1758). THRESKIORNITHIDAE. Scarlet ibisTigrisoma fasciatum fasciatum (Such, 1825). ARDEIDAE. Fasciated tiger heronPhoenicopteriformesPhoenicopterus ruber Linnaeus, 1758. PHOENICOPTERIDAE. American flamingoAnseriformesMergus octosetaceus Vieillot, 1817. ANATIDAE. ong>Brazilong>ian merganserFalconiformesAccipiter poliogaster (Temminck, 1824). ACCIPITRIDAE. Gray-bellied hawkFalco deiroleucus Temminck, 1825. FALCONIDAE. Orange-breasted falconHarpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758). ACCIPITRIDAE. Harpy eagleHarpyhaliaetus coronatus (Vieillot, 1817). ACCIPITRIDAE. Crowned eagleLeucopternis lacernulata (Temminck, 1827). ACCIPITRIDAE. White-necked hawkLeucopternis polionota (Kaup, 1847). ACCIPITRIDAE. Mantled hawkMorphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800). ACCIPITRIDAE. Crested eagleSpizastur melanoleucus (Vieillot, 1816). ACCIPITRIDAE. Black-and-white hawk eagleGalliformesCrax blumenbachii Spix, 1825. CRACIDAE. Red-bellied curassowCrax fasciolata pinima Pelzeln, 1870. CRACIDAE. Natterer’s curassowMitu mitu mitu (Linnaeus, 1766). CRACIDAE. Razor-billed curassowPenelope jacucaca Spix, 1825. CRACIDAE. White-browed guan.99

Ministry of EnvironmentPenelope obscura bronzina Hellmayr, 1914. CRACIDAE. Dusky-legged guanPenelope ochrogaster Pelzeln,1870. CRACIDAE. Chestnut-bellied guanPepile jacutinga (Spix, 1825). CRACIDAE. Black-fronted piping guanCharadriiformesNumenius borealis (Foster, 1772). SCOLOPACIDAE. Eskimo curlewColumbiformesClaravis godefrida (Temminck, 1811). COLUMBIDAE. Purple-winged ground doveColumbina cyanopis (Pelzeln, 1870). COLUMBIDAE. Blue-eyed ground dovePsittaciformesAmazona brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1766). PSITTACIDAE. Red-tailed amazonAmazona pretrei (Temminck, 1830). PSITTACIDAE. Red-specatacled amazonAmazona rhodocorytha (Salvadori, 1890). PSITTACIDAE. Red-browed amazonAmazona vinacea (Kuhl, 1820). PSITTACIDAE. Vinaceous amazonAnodorhynchus glaucus (*) (Vieillot, 1816). PSITTACIDAE. Glaucous macawAnodorhyncus hyacinthinus (Lalham, 1720). PSITTACIDAE. Hyacinth macawAnodorhyncus leari Bonaparte, 1856. PSITTACIDAE. Lear’s macawAratinga guarouba (Gmelin, 1778). PSITTACIDAE. Golden parakeetCyanopsitta spixii (Wagler, 1832). PSITTACIDAE. Spix’s macawPyrrhura cruentata (Wied, 1820). PSITTACIDAE. Ochre-marked parakeetPyrrhura leucotis (Kuhl, 1820). PSITTACIDAE. Maroon-faced parakeetTouit melanonota (Wied, 1820). PSITTACIDAE. Black-eared parrotletTouit surda (Kuhl, 1820). PSITTACIDAE. Golden-tailed parrotletTriclaria malachitacea (Spix, 1824). PSITTACIDAE. Blue-bellied parrotCuculiformesNeomorphus geoffroyi dulcis Snethlage, 1927. CUCULIDAE. Rufous-vented ground-cuckooNeomorphus geoffroyi geoffroyi (Temminck, 1820). CUCULIDAE. Rufous-vented ground-cuckooCaprimulgiformesCaprimulgus candicans (Pelzeln, 1867). CAPRIMULGIDAE. White-winged nightjarEleothreptus anomalus (Gould, 1837). CAPRIMULGIDAE. Sickle-winged nightjarMacropsalis creagra (Bonaparte, 1850). CAPRIMULGIDAE. Long-trained nightjarNyctibius leocopterus (Wied, 1821). NYCTIBIIDAE. White-winged potooApodiformesPhaethornis superciliosus margaretae (Ruschi, 1972). TROCHILIDAE. Long-tailed hermitRamphodon dohrnii (Boucier & Mulsant, 1852). TROCHILIDAE. Hook-billed hermitPiciformesCampephilus robustus (Lichtenstein, 1819). PICIDAE. Robust woodpeckerCeleus torquatus tinnunculus (Wagler, 1829). PICIDAE Ringed woodpeckerDryocopus galeatus (Temminck, 1822). PICIDAE. Helmeted woodpeckerJacamaralcyon tridactyla (Vieillot, 1817). GALBULIDAE. Three-toed jacamarPasseriformesAmaurospiza moesta (Hartlaub, 1853). EMBERIZIDAE. Blackish-blue seedeaterAlectrurus risora (Vieillot, 1816). TYRANNIDAE. Strange-tailed tyrantAnthus nattereri (Sclater, 1878). MOTTACILLIDAE. Ochre-breasted pipitCalyptura cristata (*) (Vieillot, 1818). COTINGIDAE. Kinglet calypturaCarduelis yarrellii (Audubon, 1839). EMBERIZIDAE. Yarrell’s cardinalCarpornis melanocephalus (Wied, 1820). CONTINGIDAE. Black-headed berry-eater100

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILCercomacra carbonaria Sclater & Salvin, 1873. FORMICARIIDAE. Rio Branco antbirdClibanornis dendrocolaptoides (Pelzeln, 1859). FURNARIIDAE. Canebreak groundcreeprConothraupis mesoleuca (Berlioz, 1939). EMBERIZIDAE. Cone-billed tanagerCotinga maculata (Muller, 1776). COTINGIDAE. Banded cotingaCulicivora caudacuta (Vieillot, 1818). TYRANNIDAE. Sharp-tailed tyrantCuraeus forbesi (Sclater, 1886). ICTERIDAE. Forbes’s blackbirdDacnis nigripes Pelzeln, 1856. EMBERIZIDAE. Black-legged dacnisFormicivora erythronotos Hartlaub, 1852. FORMICARIIDAE. Black-hooded antwrenFormicivora iheringi Hellmayr, 1909. FORMICARIIDAE. Narrow-billed antwrenGubernatrix cristata (Vieillot, 1817). EMBERIZIDAE. Yellow cardinalHemitriccus aenigma (Zimmer, 1940). TYRANNIDAE. Pygmy tyrantHemitriccus furcatus (Lafresnaye, 1846). TYRANNIDAE. Fork-tailed pygmy tyrantHemitriccus kaempferi (Zimmer, 1953). TYRANNIDAE. Kaempfer’s tody tyrantHerpsilochmus pectoralis Sclater, 1857. FORMICARIIDAE. Pectoral antwrenIodopleura pipra (Lesson, 1831). COTINGIDAE. Buff-throated purpletuftLipaugus lanioides (Lesson, 1844). COTINGIDAE. Cinnamon-vented pihaMegaxenops parnaguae Reiser, 1905. FURNARIIDAE. Great xenopsMerulaxis stresemanni Sick, 1960. RHINOCHRYPTIDAE. Stresemann’s bristlefrontMyadestes leucogenys (Cabanis, 1851). TURDIDAE. Rufous-brown solitaireMyrmeciza ruficauda (Wied, 1831). FORMICARIIDAE. Scalloped antbirdMyrmeciza stictothorax (Todd, 1927). FORMICARIIDAE. Spot-breasted antbirdMymortherula minor Salvadori, 1867. FORMICARIIDAE. Salvadori’s antwrenNemosia rourei Cabanis, 1870. EMBERIZIDAE. Cherry-throated tanagerOryzoborus maximiliani Cabanis, 1851. EMBERIZIDAE. Great-billed seedfinchPhibalura flavirostris (Vieillot, 1816). COTINGIDAE. Swallow-tailed cotingaPhylloscartes ceciliae Teixeira, 1987. TYRANNIDAE. Alagoas tyrannuletPhylloscartes roquettei (Snethlage, 1928). TYRANNIDAE. Minas Gerais tyrannuletPhilydor novaesi Teixeira & Gonzaga, 1983. FURNARIIDAE. Alagoas foliage-gleanerPiprites pileatus (Temminck, 1822). COTINGIDAE. Black-capped manakinPlatyrinchus leucoryphus (Wied, 1831). TYRANNIDAE. Russet-winged spadebillPoecilurus kollari (Pelzeln, 1856). FURNARIIDAE. Hoary-throated spinetailPoospiza cinerea Bonaparte, 1850. EMBERIZIDAE. Cinereous warbling finchProcnias averano averano (Ilermann, 1783). COTINGIDAE. Bearded bellbirdPyriglena atra (Swainson, 1825). FORMICARIIDAE. Fringe-back fire-eyePyroderus scutatus scutatus (Shaw, 1792). COTINGIDAE. Red-ruffed fruitcrowRhopornis ardesiaca (Wied, 1831). FORMICARIIDAE. Slender antbirdScytalopus novacapitalis Sick, 1958. RHINOCRYPTIDAE. Brasília tapaculoSporophila falcirostris (Temminck, 1820). EMBERIZIDAE, Temminck’s seedeaterSporophila frontalis (Verreaux, 1869). EMBERIZIDAE. Buffy-fronted seedeaterSporophila palustris (Barrows, 1883). EMBERIZIDAE. Marsh seedeaterSturnella defilipii (Bonaparte, 1850). ICTERIDAE. Lesser red-breasted meadowlarkSynallaxis infuscata Pinto, 1950. FURNARIIDAE. Plain spinetailTangara fastuosa (Lesson 1831). EMBERIZIDAE. Seven-coloured tanagerTerenura sicki Teixeira & Gonzaga, 1983. FORMICARIIDAE. Orange-bellied antwrenThamnomanes plumbeus (Wied, 1831). FORMICARIIDAE. Plumbeous antshrikeThripophaga macroura (Wied, 1821). FURNARIIDAE. Striated softtailXanthopsar flavus (Gmelin, 1788). ICTERIDAE. Saffron-cowled blackbirdXiphocolaptes falcirostris Spix, 1824. DENDROCOLAPTIDAE. Moustached woodcreeperXiphocolaptes franciscanus Snethlage, 1927. DENDROCOLAPTIDAE. Snethlage’s woodcreeperXipholena atropurpurea (Wied, 1820). COTINGIDAE. White-winged cotinga.101

Ministry of EnvironmentREPTILIACheloniaCaretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758). CHELONIIDAE. Loggerhead turtleChelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758). CHELONIIDAE. Green turtleDermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus, 1766). DERMOCHELYDAE. Leatherback turtleEretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1766). CHELONIIDAE. Hawksbill turtleLepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829). CHELONIIDAE. Olive Ridley turtlePhrynops hogei Mertens, 1957. CHELIDAE. Hoge’s sideneck turtleSquamataLachesis muta rhombeata Wied, 1825. VIPERIDAECrocodyliaCaiman latirostris (Daudin, 1802). ALLIGATORIDAE. CaimanMelanosuchus niger (Spix, 1825). ALLIGATORIDAE. Black caimanAMPHIBIAParatelmatobius gaigeae (Cochran, 1938). LEPTODACTYLIDAE.INSECTALepidoptera - Butterflies and mothsDasyophthalma vertebralis (*) (Butler, 1969). NYMPHALIDAE.Eresia orysice (*) (Geyer, 1832). NYMPHALIDAE.Eurytides iphitas (*) (Hubner, 1821). PAPILIONIDAE.Eurytides lysithous harrisianus (Swainson,1822). PAPILIONIDAE.Eutresis hypereia imeriensis (Brown, 1977). NYMPHALIDAE.Heliconius nattereri Felder&Felder,1865. Família NYMPHALIDAE.Hyalyris fiammctta (*) (Hewitson, 1852). NYMPHALIDAE.Hyalyris leptalina leptalina (*) (Felder & Felder, 1865). NYMPHALIDAE.Hypoleria fallens (Haensch, 1905). NYMPHALIDAE.Hypoleria mulviana (D’Almeida, 1958). NYMPHALIDAE.Hypothiris mayi (D’Almeida, 1945). NYMPHALIDAE.Joiceya praeclara (Talbot, 1928). LYCAENIDAE.Mechanitis bipuncta (Forbes, 1948). NYMPHALIDAE.Melinaea mnasias (Hewitson, 1855). NYMPHALIDAE.Moschoneura methymna (Godart, 1819). PIERIDAE.Napeogenes cyrianassa xanthone (Bates,1862). NYMPHALIDAE.Orobrassolis ornamentalis (Stichel, 1906). NYMPHALIDAE.Papilio himeros himeros (Hopffer, 1865). PAPILIONIDAE.Papilio himeros baia (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906). PAPILIONIDAE.Papilio zagreus zagreus (Doubleday, 1847). PAPILIONIDAE.Papilio zagreus neyi (Niepelt, 1909). PAPILIONIDAE.Papilio zagreus bedoci (LeCerf, 1925). PAPILIONIDAE.Parides ascanius (Cramer, 1776). PAPILIONIDAE.Parides lysander mattogrossensis (Talbot, 1928). PAPILIONIDAE.Perrhybris flava (Oberthür, 1895). PIERIDAE.Scada karschina delicata (Talbot, 1932). NYMPHALIDAE.Odonata - DragonfliesLeptagrion dardanoi Santos, 1968. COENAGRIONIDAE.Leptagrion siqueirai Santos, 1968. COENAGRIONIDAE.Mecistogaster asticta (Selys, 1860). PSEUDOSTIGMATIDAE.Mecistogaster pronoti (*) Sjöestedt, 1918). PSEUDOSTIGMATIDAE.102

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILONYCHOPHORAPeripatus acacioi Marcus & Marcus, 1953. PERIPATIDAE.CNIDARIAMillepora nitidae (Verreill, 1868). MILLEPORIDAE. Fire coral.(*) Species probably extinct.Species included under IBAMA Edict No. 45, April 27th 1992:MAMMALIA - PrimatesLeontopithecus caissara Lorini & Persson,1990. CALLITRICHIDAE. Black-faced lion tamarinSpecies included under IBAMA Edict No. 62, June 17th 1997:MAMMALIA - ChiropteraSaccopteryx gymnura Thomas, 1901 EMBALLONURIDAE. White-lined sac-winged batVampyrum spectrum (Linnaeus, 1758) PHYLLOSTOMIDAE. False vampire batLonchophylla bokermanní Sazima et al., 1978 PHYLLOSTOMIDAE. Spear-nosed long-tongued batLichonycteris obscura Thomas, 1895 PHYLLOSTOMIDAE. Dark long-tongued batChiroderma doriae Thomas, 1901 PHYLLOSTOMIDAE. Big-eyed batPlatyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901) PHYLLOSTOMIDAE. White-lined fruit batLasiurus ebenus Fazzolari-Corrêa, 1994 VESPERTILIONIDAE. Hoary or hair-tailed batLasiurus egregius (Peters, 1870) VESPERTILIONIDAE. Hoary or hair-tailed batMyotis ruber (E. Geoffroy, 1806) VESPERTILIONIDAE. Little brown batAVES - PasseriformesStynphalornis acutirostris (Bornschein, Reinet & Teixeira, 1995). FORMICARIDAE.103

Ministry of EnvironmentBox 2-2Endangered or rare ong>Brazilong>ian plant speciesIBAMA Edict No. 06/92Species Category FamilyAcanthococos emensis Toledo R PalmaeAechmea apocalyptica Reitz R BromeliaceaeAechmea blumenavii Reitz R BromeliaceaeAechmea kleinii Reitz E BromeliaceaeAechmea pimenti-velosii Reitz R BromeliaceaeAniba rosaeodora Ducke E LauraceaeAraucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) O Kuntze V AraucariaceaeAspilia grazielae Santos I CompositaeAspilia paraensis (Huber)Santos R CompositaeAspilia pohlii Baker I CompositaeAspilia procumbens Baker R CompositaeAstronium urundeuva Engl V AnacardiaceaeBauhinia smilacina (Schott)Steudel V LeguminosaeBertholletia excelsa HBK V LecythidaceaeBillbergia alfonsi-joannis Reitz E BromeliaceaeBowdichia nitida Spruce ex Benth. V LeguminosaeBrosimum glaucum Taubert R MoraceaeBrosimum glazioui Taubert R MoraceaeBumelia obtusifolia Roem. & Schult. var. excelsa (DC)Miq. V SapotaceaeCaesalpinia echinata Lam E LeguminosaeCariniana ianeirensis Knuth R LecythidaceaeCattleya schilleriana Reichbach E OrchidaceaeCostus cuspidatus (Nees et Martius)Maas R ZingiberaceaeCostus fragilis Maas R ZingiberaceaeCostus fusiformis Maas R ZingiberaceaeCouepia schottii Fritsch V ChrysobalanaceaeDalbergia nigra (Vell.)Fr. All. V LeguminosaeDicksonia sellowiana (Presl.) Hook. E DicksoniaceaeDicypellium caryophyllatum Nees V LauraceaeDitassa arianeae Font. & Schw. E AsclepiadaceaeDitassa maricaensis Font. & Schw. V AsclepiadaceaeDorstenia arifolia Lam. V MoraceaeDorstenia cayapia Vell. E MoraceaeDorstenia elata Hook. R MoraceaeDorstenia ficus Vell. R MoraceaeDorstenia fischeri Bureau E MoraceaeDorstenia ramosa (Desv.) Car. et al. V MoraceaeDorstenia tenuis Bonpl. ex Bur. V MoraceaeDyckia cabrerae Smith & Reitz E BromeliaceaeDyckia distachya Hassler E BromeliaceaeDyckia hatschbachii L.B.Smith E BromeliaceaeDyckia ibiramensis Reitz E BromeliaceaeEuxylophora paraensis Huber V RutaceaeFernseea itatiaiae (Wawra)Baker R BromeliaceaeGonolobus dorothyanus Font. & Schw. E Asclepiadaceae104

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILBox 2-2 (continued)Endangered or rare ong>Brazilong>ian plant speciesIBAMA Edict No. 06/92Species Category FamilyHeliconia angusta Vell. V MusaceaeHeliconia citrina LEm. & Em.Santos V MusaceaeHeliconia farinosa Raddi V MusaceaeHeliconia fluminensis LEm. & Em.Santos V MusaceaeHeliconia lacletteana LEm. & Em.Santos V MusaceaeHeliconia sampaioana L Em. V MusaceaeHelosis cayennensis (Swartz) Sprengel var. cayennensis V BalanophoraceaeHirtella insignis Briquet ex Prance E ChrysobalanaceaeHirtella parviunguis Prance E ChrysobalanaceaeHirtella santosii Prance E ChrysobalanaceaeIpomoea carajaensis D.Austin E ConvolvulaceaeIpomoea cavaleantei D.Austin E ConvolvulaceaeJacquinia brasiliensis Mez V TheophrastaceaeLaelia fidelensis Pabst. K OrchidaceaeLaelia grandis Lindl. & Paxt. E OrchidaceaeLaelia jongheana Reichbach V OrchidaceaeLaelia lobata (Lindl.) Veitch E OrchidaceaeLaelia perrinii (Lindl.) Paxt. E OrchidaceaeLaelia tenebrosa Rolfe E OrchidaceaeLaelia virens Lindl. R OrchidaceaeLaelia xanthina Lindl. E OrchidaceaeLavoisiera itambana DC. R MelastomataceaeLicania aracaensis Prance R ChrysobalanaceaeLicania bellingtonii Prance E ChrysobalanaceaeLicania indurata Pilger E ChrysobalanaceaeLomatozona artemisaefolia Baker R CompositaeLychnophora ericoides Mart. V CompositaeMelanoxylon brauna Schott. V LeguminosaeMollinedia gilgiana Perkins R MonimiaceaeMollinedia glabra (Sprengel) Perkins V MonimiaceaeMollinedia lamprophylla Perkins E MonimiaceaeMollinedia longicuspidata Perkins R MonimiaceaeMollinedia stenophylla Perkins E MonimiaceaeOcotea basicordatifolia Vattimo R LauraceaeOcotea catharinenais Mez V LauraceaeOcotea cymbanam H.B.K. V LauraceaeOcotea langsdorffii Mez V LauraceaeOcotea porosa (Nees) Angely V LauraceaeOcotea pretiosa (Nees) Mez E LauraceaeParinari brasiliensis (Schott) Hook R ChrysobalanaceaePavonia alnifolia St.Kl. V MalvaceaePhyllantus gladiatus Muell.Arg. E EuphorbiaceaePilocarpus jaborandi Holmes E RutaceaePilocarpus microphyllus Stapf.ex Wardl. E RutaceaePilocarpus trachylophus Holmes E Rutaceae105

Ministry of EnvironmentBox 2-2 (continued)Endangered or rare ong>Brazilong>ian plant speciesIBAMA Edict No. 06/92Species Category FamilyPithecellobium racemosum Ducke V LeguminosaePouteria psamophila var. xestophylla (Miq. et Eichl.) Baehni V SapotaceaePrepusa hookeriana Gardner E GentianaceaeSchinopsis brasiliensis Engl. V AnacardiaceaeSimaba floribunda St.Hil. * SimaroubaceaeSimaba suaveolens St.Hil. * SimaroubaceaeSwartzia glazioviana (Taubert) Glaziou E LeguminosaeSwietenia macrophylla King E MeliaceaeTorresea aereana Ducke V LeguminosaeVirola surinamensis Warb V MyristicaceaeVouacapoua americana Aubl. E LeguminosaeVriesia biguassuensis Reitz I BromeliaceaeVriesia brusquensis Reitz R BromeliaceaeVriesia muelleri Mez R BromeliaceaeVriesia pinottii Reitz E BromeliaceaeVriesia triangularis Reitz I BromeliaceaeWorsleya rayneri (Hook.) Traub.& Moldenke E AmaryllidaceaeCATEGORIES: * = Probably extinct, E = Endangered, V = Vulnerable, R = Rare, I = Indeterminate, K = Insufficientlyknown.106

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILBox 2-3Legal framework for the establishment of different categories of Protected Areas in ong>Brazilong>.Instrument Date Article Categories envvolved Category SubjectFederal Constitution 1988 255, para. 1,clauses I, II & III All Direct and indirect use Preservation of samples of ecosystemsLaw Nº 4.771 Forest Code 15/9/65 5, line a National, State & MunicipalParks, Biological Reserves Indirect use To safeguard exceptional natural attributes and forscientific purposesLaw Nº 4.771 Forest Code 15/9/65 5, line b National, State & MunicipalForests Direct use For economic, social and technical purposesLaw Nº 5.197 30/1/67 5, line a National, State & MunicipalBiological Reserves Indirect use Prohibits hunting, use, and the introduction ofspeciesof flora and fauna, except for scientific activities.Faunal Protection Law 21/09/79 1, para. 1,2 & 3 National parks Indirect use Regulates and establishes normsDecree Nº 84.017 27/4/81 1, para. 1,2 & 3 Ecological Stations Indirect Use Establishes ESECs¹, promotes environmentalprotection, research and educationLaw Nº 6.902 27/4/81 9, lines a, b & c Environmental ProtectionAreas Direct use Establishes norms, limiting or prohibiting activitiesDecree Nº 99.274 6/6/90 30 Ecological Stations Indirect use Regulates ESECs¹, subordinates activites that mayharm the biota in the surrounding areas toCONAMA²Decree Nº 89.336 31/1/84 1 Ecological Reserves Indirect use Areas of Permanent preservation cited in Art. 18 ofLaw Nº 6.939 of 31/1/81Decree Nº 89.336 31/1/84 2 Areas of RelevantEcological Interest Direct use For the protection of rare examples of the regionalbiotaLaw Nº 7.804 18/7/89 9, clause VI Extractivist Reserves Direct use Establishes extractivist reserves and the exploitationof natural resources on a sustainable basisDecree Nº 98.897 30/1/90 1,2 & 3 Extractivist Reserves Direct use Regulates Extractivist ReservesDecree Nº 1.298 27/10/94 1, clauses I, II & III; 2, lines a, b, c & d National Forests Direct use Regulates National ForestsDecree Nº 1.922 5/6/96 Private Natural Heritage Reserves Indirect use Sets out provisions for the recognitionof RPPNs³Source: Soavinski, R.J. 1997. Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservação: Legislação e Política. IBAMA, Brasília.¹ ESEC - Ecological Station; ² CONAMA - National Council of the Environment; ³RPPN - Private Natural Heritage Reserve107

Ministry of EnvironmentBox 2-4The National System of Protected AreasThe first attempt to establish conservation areas in this country dates from 1861 with the establishment of theTijuca and Paineiras Forest by a Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture, Trade and Public Works on 11th December 1861and confirmed by Decree No. 577. The first legal protection for this forest, however, was in 1817, with a norm issuedby the Prince Regent, Dom João, which declared it “covert,” that is the woods around the sources of the Rios Cariocaand Paineiras were given a status equivalent to a protected hunting area (“couto de caça”) for the Royal Household,in order to safeguard the water sources which supplied the then capital of ong>Brazilong>, Rio de Janeiro. The decree alsodetermined indemnities for the landowners. The forest was later, in 1961, turned into a National Park, the TijucaNational Park.Another precursor to current initiatives was the creation of the first Park as a protected area in 1896, the ParqueEstadual da Cidade (State City Park) in a suburb of the city of São Paulo, now the Cantareira State Park.The first Forest Code (Código Florestal) for the country was established in 1934. In the same year, the ong>Brazilong>ianForestry Service (Serviço Florestal) was created. This was the predecessor of the ong>Brazilong>ian Forestry DevelopmentInstitute (Instituto Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento Florestal - IBDF) set up in 1965 but which was subsequentlyabsorbed by the ong>Brazilong>ian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (Instituto Brasileiro doMeio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis - IBAMA) in 1989. As a result of the Forest Code, the firstNational Parks were created, in Itatiaia in 1937, and Iguaçu and Serra dos Orgãos in 1939.Plans for a coherent national system of protected areas arose, however, only in the second half of the 1970s. Thisresulted in an important document prepared by IBDF, with technical support from the Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO), the “Analysis of Priorities for the Conservation of Nature in Amazonia,” as part of the Project for ForestryResearch and Development (Projeto de Desenvolvimento e Pesquisa Florestal - PRODEPEF). The proposals werebased on biogeographical aspects, and resulted in 1979 in the “Plan of the National System of Protected Areas.” In1982, IBDF published the “Plan of the System of Protected Areas in ong>Brazilong> - 2nd Stage,” prepared in collaboration withthe ong>Brazilong>ian Foundation for the Conservation of Nature (Fundação Brasileira para a Conservação da Natureza -FBCN); a detailed and well-grounded plan which laid the foundations for the major advances observed in ong>Brazilong> in thisrespect in the 1980s. Also in the 70s and 80s, the Programme of Ecological Stations, co-ordinated by the SpecialSecretariat for the Environment (Secretaria Especial do Meio Ambiente - SEMA) (also absorbed by IBAMA in 1989)contributed greatly to the expansion and consolidation of a system of protected areas in the country.In 1989, IBAMA requested the Fundacão Pró-Natureza (FUNATURA) to prepare the first ong>versionong> of a draft law forthe “National System of Protected Areas” (Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservação - SNUC). After long andlengthy discussions with IBAMA and the National Environment Council (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente -CONAMA), a revised ong>versionong> was sent to congress in 1992 in the form of Draft Law No. 2.892. A process of extensiveconsultation with society was subsequently co-ordinated by the Commission for the Defence of the Consumer, theEnvironment and Minorities (Comissão de Defesa do Consumidor, Meio Ambiente e Minorias) of the Chamber ofDeputies, stimulating discussion on various aspects, in particular the relations between Protected Areas and traditionaland indigenous local communities.An amended Draft Law was drawn up in 1996 in the National Congress, and is under discussion to this day. Itproposes a new paradigm for protected areas, based on four general principles:• Protected areas should be an integral part of regional socio-economic development planning;• The creation of protected areas should be preceded by studies and consultations with the communities affected;• The management of protected areas should be participative, and include all parties involved in the conservationof the national patrimony and its sustainable use;• The involvement of private enterprise, as well as the landowners surrounding protected areas, is indispensablefor the financial and administrative aspects and to ensure the viability of the protected areas.The amendment under discussion provides for a number of categories of protected areas:• Of indirect use (strict protection): Ecological Stations, National Parks, Natural Monuments, Wildlife Sanctuaries,and Private Natural Heritage Reserves;108

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILBox 2-4 (contd.)The National System of Protected Areas• Direct use: Environmental Protection Areas, National Forests, Extractivist Reserves, Wildlife Reserves, Water-Producing Reserves, Biosphere Reserves;• Provisional management (until technical and scientific studies suggest a better destination).The amendment also proposes the category of Areas of Relevant Ecological Interest (ARIE) (already regulatedunder Decree No. 89.336, 31st January 1984), Cultural Ecological Reserves and Integrated Ecological Reserves (mosaics),all of which maintain private ownership and provide for the sustainable use of resources. It proposes a mechanism forprovisional administrative interdiction for two years, (renewable for two more years) of important natural areas underthreat of degradation, in order to allow for the definition of the most appropriate measures for their protection.Coastal Zone and Atlantic ForestAmazoniaong>Brazilong>PantanalCerradoSeasonal Deciduous ForestPine ForestCaatingaExtreme-SouthTransition1.621.470.930.610.450.130.052.593.786.80 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8Figure 2-36. Percentages of the area of each of the ong>Brazilong>ian ecoysstems, and of ong>Brazilong>, inprotected areas of indirect use (strictly protected).Sources: Marino (1997), PNMA (1997).109

110Ministry of Environment

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILChapter IIIInstitutional Capacity3.1 Institutional ProgressAs early as the l970s, the ong>Brazilong>ian Governmentbegan taking steps towards a broader publicpolicy for the environment and the conservationof natural resources. This was partly due to the impact of theUnited Nations Conference on the Human Environment(Stockholm in 1973) and partly owing to environmentalproblems in various parts of the country, caused by the rapidgrowth of cities and the expansion of the agricultural frontier.The first major step was the establishment of the SpecialSecretariat for the Environment (Secretaria Especial do MeioAmbiente - SEMA) in 1973, followed by the creation of anumber of protected areas (national parks, biological reservesand ecological stations), and of studies for thestructuring of a national environment policy.3.1.1 The National Environment System -SISNAMAIn the early l980s, the National Environment System (SistemaNacional do Meio Ambiente - SISNAMA) was institutedand the main instruments of environmental policy weredefined (Law No. 6938, 31st August 1981, regulated by DecreeNo. 99.274, 6th June 1990). Environmental control agencieswere simultaneously set up in the majority of the ong>Brazilong>ianstates (Órgãos Estaduais do Meio Ambiente - OEMAs). Later,municipalities also began creating their own agencies, at firstin the state capital cities but today most ong>Brazilong>ianmunicipalities have established some sort of administrativestructure to deal with their specific environmental problems.The SISNAMA has six components of the Union, thestates, the Federal District, municipalities and foundations111

Ministry of Environmentinstituted by the State, which are responsible for the protectionand improvement of the quality of the environment. Thestructure of SISNAMA is as follows:I. Highest Organ: Government Council (Conselho doGoverno), the functions of which include advisingthe President of the Republic on the formulation ofnational policy and government guidelines for theenvironment and environmental resources. TheChamber of Natural Resource Policies (Câmara dePolíticas de Recursos Naturais), established byDecree No. 1.160, 21st June 1994, is part of theGovernment Council. It is comprised of nine StateMinisters, with provision for invited members. ThisChamber is responsible for formulating public policiesand guidelines related to natural resources, as wellas for co-ordinating their implementation. One of theimportant cases with which this Chamber wasinvolved was the co-ordination of discussions leadingto the final text of the law which established a newNational Policy for Water Resources (Política Nacionalde Recursos Hídricos, Law No. 9.433, 8th January1997). The Chamber of Natural Resource Policies alsohas the duty to pronounce on national and regionalplans for the regulation of land use and of economicdevelopment, as well as on the use of watercoursesfor the generation of energy. The Commission onPolicies for Sustainable Development and for theNational Agenda 21 (see next topic) is also connectedto the Chamber of Natural Resource Policies.II.Consultative/Deliberative Organ: the NationalEnvironment Council (Conselho Nacional do MeioAmbiente - CONAMA), gives advice, and studiesand proposes guidelines on government policies forthe environment and natural resources on behalf ofthe Government Council, and also deliberates, withinits field of competence, on norms and standardscompatible with an ecologically-balancedenvironment, essential to a healthy quality of life.III. Central Organ: the Ministry of Environment - MMA,described below;IV. Executive Organ: the ong>Brazilong>ian Institute for theEnvironment and Renewable Natural Resources -IBAMA described below among the organs linked toMMA;V. Sectorial Organs: the organs or agencies of the director indirect Federal Public Administration, thefoundations set up by the State, the activities of whichare connected with the protection of environmentalquality or regulating the use of environmentalresources; as well as state organs and agenciesresponsible for carrying out programmes and projects,and for the control and inspection of activities whichmight cause environmental degradation and;VI. Local organs: the state or municipal organs and agenciesresponsible for the control and inspection ofactivities referred to in the previous section, withintheir respective jurisdictions.A number of Collegiate Organs have been set up in recentyears with consultative or deliberative competence ondifferent questions linked to the environment and tobiological diversity (Box 3-1).3.1.2 The Policy Commission forSustainable Development and the NationalAgenda 21In 1994, two years after UNCED, the ong>Brazilong>ian Governmentfulfilled commitments it had undertaken within the scope ofthe CBD by setting up the Inter-ministerial Commission forSustainable Development (Comissão Interministerial para oDesenvolvimento Sustentável - CIDES, Decree No. 1.160,21st June 1994). As CIDES was never installed, a Commissionof Policy for Sustainable Development and the NationalAgenda 21 (Comissão de Políticas de Desenvolvimento Sustentávele da Agenda 21) was created by a Decree of 26thFebruary, 1997, which replaced CIDES in the ambit of theChamber of Policies for Natural Resources of the Presidencyof the Republic. The aims of the commission are to proposesustainable development strategies and to co-ordinate,establish and monitor the implementation of Agenda 21.The Commission is chaired by the Executive Secretary ofthe Ministry of Environment - MMA, and made up ofrepresentatives of the Ministries of Planning and Budget,External Relations, and Science and Technology, theSecretariat of Strategic Affairs (Secretaria de Assuntos Estratégicos- SAE) of the Presidency of the Republic, theSecretariat for the Co-ordination of Social Policies (Secretariade Coordenação de Políticas Sociais) and five civilianrepresentatives.The Commission has been working on the definition of amethodology for the elaboration of the National Agenda 21,which includes consultations on six critical topics in ong>Brazilong>.Among these is the management of natural resources, withstrong emphasis on the question of biological diversity.The conclusions and recommendations of thisconsultation process will give rise to the ong>Brazilong>ian Agenda21, which will be the main input for the new PluriannualDevelopment Plan (Plano Pluriannual de Desenvolvimento -PPA) for the period 1999-2003.112

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZIL3.1.3 The Ministry of Environment - MMAThe Ministry of Environment - MMA is the central organof the National Environmental System - SISNAMA. Anumber of institutional experiments within the NationalExecutive preceded its establishment.The environment was first given priority by the FederalGovernment with the establishment of the Special Secretariatfor the Environment (Secretaria Especial do Meio Ambiente- SEMA, Decree No. 73.030, 30th October 1973) within the(now disbanded) Ministry of the Interior. Decree No. 91.145,15th March 1985, gave SEMA ministerial status, through theestablishment of the Ministry of Urban Development andthe Environment (Ministério do Desenvolvimento Urbano eMeio Ambiente - MDU). The Provisional Measure No. 150and Decree No. 99.180, both of 15th March 1990, establishedthe Special Secretariat for the Environment of the Presidencyof the Republic (Secretaria do Meio Ambiente da Presidênciada República - SEMAM). In successive transformations,the institution’s mandate was widened to cover otheradministrative sectors, making its organisation more complexand diversified. On November 19th 1992, the Secretariatbecame the Ministry of Environment (Ministério do MeioAmbiente, Law No. 8.490, 19th November 1992), which laterbecame the Ministry of Environment and Amazon Region(Ministério do Meio Ambiente e da Amazônia Legal, LawNo. 8.746, 9th December l993); and the Ministry ofEnvironment, Water Resources and the Amazon Region -MMA through Provisional Measure No. 813, 1st January1995. MMA´s name was changed to Ministry of Environmentby Provisional Measure No. 1795, in January 1st, 1999. TheDecree No. 2923 defined MMA´s new structure in 1st January1999 (Box 3-2).According to Decree No. 1.205, 1st August 1994, theMMA is expected to plan, co-ordinate, supervise and controlactivities related to the National Environment Policy (PolíticaNacional do Meio Ambiente) and the preservation,conservation and rational use of renewable natural resources,and to articulate and co-ordinate the actions of the integratedpolicy for the Amazon Region, for the improvement in thequality of life of the Amazonian populations. The attributesof the MMA can be summarised as follows:I. Formulate and carry out the national policy for theenvironment and articulate actions for the integratedpolicy for the Amazon Region;II.Together with the Ministries, organs and agencies ofthe Federal Government, co-ordinate national andinternational action related to the nationalenvironmental policy and the integrated policy forthe Amazon Region;III. ong>Partong>icipate in decision-making processes, bothnational and international, by means of agreementsand negotiations addressing the management of theenvironment and the integrated policy for the AmazonRegion;IV. Implement technical, scientific and financial cooperation,in support of the national environmentalpolicy;V. Foster and promote research and scientific andtechnical studies, at all levels, related to its area ofcompetence, and to publicise the results obtained;VI. Foster environmental education and the formation ofa collective consciousness of the importance ofconservation and the natural environment, with a viewto the improvement of the quality of life;VII. Promote the integration of programmes and actionsof the Public Federal Administration, and of the states,the Federal District and municipalities, in relation tothe environment and renewable natural resources, aswell as to the integrated policy for the Amazon Region;ong>VIIIong>.Formulate, guide and regulate policy for forests,wildlife, fishing and the extraction of latex (rubber);IX. Implement programmes for the management ofwatersheds and protection of springs; including thecontrol of river pollution.The MMA has the following Specific Organs:(I) The National Environment Council (Conselho Nacionaldo Meio Ambiente - CONAMA), set up under Law No.6.938/1981, which determined the National EnvironmentPolicy, regulated by Decree No. 99.274/1990, and modifiedby Decree No. 2.120/1997, is the consultative and deliberativeorgan of the National Environment System (Sistema Nacionaldo Meio Ambiente - SISNAMA). CONAMA is chairedby the Minister of Environment, and consists of Plenary andTechnical Chambers and has an Executive Secretariat, headedby the Secretary for Integrated Development (Secretário deDesenvolvimento Integrado) of the MMA.CONAMA is responsible for deciding, whenever itconsiders it necessary, that studies should be carried out ofthe alternatives and the possible environmentalconsequences of public and private projects. To this end, ithas powers to require federal, state and municipal organs, aswell as private companies, to provide the necessaryinformation for the assessment of environmental impact andthe respective reports in the case of major public works orother activities liable to result in significant environmentaldegradation, particularly in areas considered part of thenational heritage. It is also CONAMA’s responsibility toestablish norms, criteria and standards relating to the control113

Ministry of Environmentand maintenance of the quality of the environment, with aview to the rational use of environmental resources,particularly water (Box 3-3). The Council is a collegiate body,representative of the highly varied sectors of Governmentand civil society which deal directly or indirectly with theenvironment. The Plenary is composed as follows: onerepresentative of each Ministry, of each PresidentialSecretariat and of IBAMA; one representative of each stategovernment and one of the Federal District; representativesof the following bodies - National Confederations ofIndustry, Trade and Agriculture, the ong>Brazilong>ian Iron and SteelInstitute (Instituto Brasileiro de Siderurgia), the ong>Brazilong>ianAssociation of Sanitary Engineering (Associação Brasileirade Engenharia Sanitária - ABES), the ong>Brazilong>ian Foundationfor the Conservation of Nature (Fundação Brasileira para aConservação da Natureza - FBCN), and the NationalAssociation of Municipalities and Environment (AssociaçãoNacional dos Municípios e Meio Ambiente -ANAMMA); representatives of legally constitutedassociations dealing with the defence of natural resourcesand combating pollution, freely chosen by the President ofthe Republic; and legally recognised civilian organisations,representative of each of the country’s five geographicregions, which are directly involved in the preservation ofenvironmental quality, and registered in the National Registerof Environmental Entities (Cadastro Nacional das EntidadesAmbientalistas - CNEA).CONAMA also includes 10 Permanent TechnicalChambers and eight Temporary Technical Chambers. EachTechnical Chamber is made up of seven Counsellors whoelect a President and a Secretary. The Temporary TechnicalChambers are set up as determined by the Plenary for a fixedperiod, to carry out a specific pre-determined task.The Permanent Technical Chambers are as follows: LegalAffairs; Environmental Control; Ecosystems; Energy;Coastal management; Mining and Prospecting; WaterResources and Sanitation; Renewable Natural Resources;Transport; and Use of the Soil.CONAMA meets every three months in the FederalDistrict, but may hold Extraordinary Meetings in or outsidethe Federal District, as necessary.The mandate of CONAMA is to:I. Establish guidelines for government policies for theenvironment and natural resources;II.Lay down norms necessary for the execution andimplementation of the National Environment Policy;III. Establish norms and criteria for the licensing ofactivities potentially or effectively involving pollution;IV. Determine, whenever necessary, that studies becarried out of the alternatives and the possibleenvironmental consequences of public or privateprojects. To this end, it has powers to require federal,state and municipal organs, as well as privatecompanies, to provide the necessary information forthe assessment of environmental impact and therespective reports in the case of major public or privateworks or other activities that may produce significantdegradation of the environment;V. As the last administrative court of appeal, decide,subsequent to a bank deposit, on the fines and otherpenalties imposed by IBAMA;VI. Review and authorise accords which transformmonetary penalties into the obligation to carry outmeasures of interest to environmental protection;VII. Establish national norms and standards for the controlof pollution caused by land motor vehicles, aircraftand boats/ships;ong>VIIIong>.Establish norms, criteria and standards relating to thecontrol and maintenance of the quality of theenvironment with a view to the rational use ofenvironmental resources, especially water;IX. Establish general norms in relation to ConservationUnits (protected areas), and the activities that maybe carried out in the surrounding areas; andX. Establish the criteria for declaration of areas whichare critical, saturated or in the process of saturationin terms of human activities.CONAMA decides by means of Resolutions when thesubject relates to deliberations linked to its legal competenceand by Motions for other environmental topics.(II) National Council for the Amazon Region. The principalmandate of the National Council for the Amazon Region(Conselho Nacional da Amazônia Legal - CONAMAZ),regulated by Decree No. 1541, 27th June 1995, is to advisethe President of the Republic on the formulation andmonitoring of the national integrated policy for the Amazon.It is composed of all the State Ministers, as well as the nineAmazonian State Governors (Acre, Amapá, Amazonas,Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima andTocantins). The sessions of the Council are convened andchaired by the President of the Republic in person, and itsExecutive Secretariat is the Secretariat for the Co-ordinationof Amazonia (Secretaria de Coordenação da Amazônia) ofthe MMA.Three Inter-sectorial Groups have been set up in order topermit CONAMAZ to monitor and implement the NationalIntegrated Policy for the Amazon Region (Política NacionalIntegrada da Amazônia Legal). Each deals with one of theCouncil’s three main policies: the Reorientation of EconomicGrowth; Internal and External Integration, and Human and114

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILSocial Enhancement. The Groups are composed ofrepresentatives from the various ministries and the stategovernments of the region.The Nucleus of Support for the Integrated Policies forAmazonia (Núcleo de Apoio às Políticas Integradas para aAmazônia) was established in order to advise and assist theSecretariat for the Co-ordination of Amazonia and the Inter-Sectorial Groups on matters related to the monitoring andevaluation of actions for the implementation of the NationalIntegrated Policy for Amazonia.The mandate of CONAMAZ is:I. To propose and co-ordinate the national integratedpolicy for the Amazon Region, together with the stateand municipal governments, taking into account allsocio-economic dimensions and the demands ofsustainable development, enhancement of the qualityof life for the Amazon populations, and the protectionand preservation of the Amazon environment;II.To co-ordinate policies that harmonise the action offederal organs for the benefit of the Amazonpopulations;III. To co-ordinate actions for the implementation of thesepolicies and to respond to situations that demandspecial or emergency measures;IV. To monitor the implementation of the integrated policyand initiatives co-ordinated at the federal level forthe Amazon Region;V. Give opinions on draft laws relating to the action ofthe Federal Government in the Amazon Region;VI. Deliberate on and propose measures on events andsituations connected with the Amazon Region whichdemand prompt and co-ordinated action from theFederal Government.(III) Committee of the National Environment Fund. TheNational Environment Fund (Fundo Nacional do Meio Ambiente- FNMA) is more than a mere official organ to financeenvironmental projects. It is the only organ in the federalsphere which can deal directly with any municipality in thecountry. It also represents a special interface between theplans of the public administration, NGOs and civilians.The FNMA is administered by a committee chaired by theMinister of Environment, and consists of 12 representativesof the Federal Government and civil society. Its presentcomposition is: three representatives of the MMA; threerepresentatives of IBAMA; one representative of theMinistry of Planning and the Budget; and five representativesof environmental non governmental organisations, one foreach region of the country.The FNMA was established by Law No. 7.797, 10th July1989. Its resources come from the Inter-AmericanDevelopment Bank - IDB, budgetary contributions from theUnion, donations, monetary contributions, goods and realestatereceived from individuals and companies, incomearising from its assets, and other contributions determinedby law.A fundamental element of the National EnvironmentalPolicy, and linked to the MMA, is decentralisation throughthe financing of small to medium-sized projects for thesustainable use of natural resources, or the preservation andrecovery of environmental quality.FNMA support can be given both to governmental andnon governmental, non-profit, environmental organisations.A manual is available which details the pre-requisites for thesubmission of projects to FNMA.Owing to the wide spectrum of environmental problems,guidelines have been established to cover projects with aninnovative nature and a multiplying effect within thefollowing areas: Forestry Extension; SustainableManagement and Conservation of Renewable NaturalResources; Protected Areas; Environmental Education andInformation; Environmental Control; Technological Researchand Development; and Institutional Development andStrengthening.The FNMA has already given support to 515 projectsdistributed across these thematic areas, throughout thecountry, contributing to the enhancement of the quality oflife of the ong>Brazilong>ian population.(IV) The Executive Secretariat (Secretaria Executiva -SECEX) is the organ for direct and immediate assistance tothe Minister of State for the MMA.The mandate of the Secretariat is:I. To supervise the planning, budgeting andprogramming activities of the Ministry;II.To co-ordinate and forward draft Laws, ProvisionalMeasures and Decrees of interest to the Ministry tothe Presidency of the Republic;III. To assist the Minister of Environment in theformulation and implementation of matters includedin the fields of competence of the Ministry;IV. To chair the Commission on Policies for SustainableDevelopment and the National Agenda 21.(V) The Secretariat for the Co-ordination of EnvironmentalAffairs (Secretaria de Coordenação dos Assuntos do MeioAmbiente - SMA) is directly linked to the Minister ofEnvironment. It is responsible for planning, co-ordinating,115

Ministry of Environmentsupervising, controlling and promoting the execution ofnational policy for the environment and the preservation,conservation and sustainable use of renewable naturalresources. The Department of Environmental Management(Departamento de Gestão Ambiental - DEGAM) isresponsible for planning, monitoring, supervising andevaluating the implementation of the policies and guidelinesfor the environment and renewable natural resources;promoting action in connection with commitments made inconventions, agreements and international acts, as well asmechanisms for environmental management. The Departmentof Formulation of Environmental Policies and Programmes(Departamento de Formulação de Políticas e ProgramasAmbientais - DEPAM) has two sectors: the Co-ordination ofthe Sustainable Use of Renewable Resources (Coordenaçãode Políticas de Uso Sustentável do Recursos Naturais -COREN) and the General Co-ordination of Biological Diversity(Coordenação Geral de Diversidade Biológica - COBIO).DEPAM is responsible for formulating, co-ordinating andevaluating environmental policies and programmes for theenvironment and renewable natural resources, as well asproposing guidelines for their execution, promoting measuresin connection with commitments made in conventions,MMA/SMADEPAMGeneral Coordination forBiological Diversity - COBIOSeniorSecretaryChiefSecretarialAideGeneralCo-ordinatorADMINISTRATIVE-FINANCIALMANAGEMENTAdmin. -FinancialManagerAdmin.AssistantProjectsManagerUnit for Interface with CNPq(PROBIO)FinancialSpecialistSubstituteGeneralCo-ordinatorAdvisor forInt’l SupportandCo-operationTECHNICALMANAGEMENTTechnicalAssistantSpecialist -InformationTechnologyTechnicalManagerProjectsManagerSpecialist -BiodiversityFigure 3-1. The hierarchical governmental strucutre for theimplementation of the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity.Obs.: See Box 3-3 for changes in this structure.agreements and international acts, the formulation ofenvironmental policies and programmes; and provision ofthe technical and administrative support to the NationalEnvironment Council (CONAMA).The General Co-ordination of Biological Diversity(COBIO) formulates and proposes policies and guidelines,and develops and co-ordinates a national policy for theconservation and preservation of biological diversity. It alsodefines integrated models of in situ and ex situ geneticbiodiversity conservation and manages the biologicaldiversity programmes.COBIO has a structure specially designed to carry outprogrammes in this area: a General Co-ordination (alsoresponsible for planning), an Administrative-FinancialDirectorate and a Technical Directorate. The latter deals withthe technical execution of projects related to biodiversityand information.The National Environmental Programme (Programa Nacionaldo Meio Ambiente - PNMA) and the NationalEnvironment Fund - FNMA are both linked to the SMA.(VI) The Secretariat for the Co-ordination of Affairs ofthe Amazon Region (Secretaria de Coordenação dos Assuntosda Amazônia Legal - SMA) responds directly tothe State Minister of State, and co-ordinates, supervisesand monitors action related to the national integratedpolicy for the Amazon Region, as well as co-operationbetween public organs and governmental andinternational agencies, and provides technical andadministrative support for the National Council for theAmazon Region - CONAMAZ. The Secretariat is alsoresponsible for the co-ordination of the Pilot Program forthe Conservation of the ong>Brazilong>ian Rain Forest - PPG-7, theNational Integrated Policy for the Amazon Region andthe Amazonia Agenda 21.(VII) The Secretariat for Water Resources (Secretariade Recursos Hídricos - SRH) has the task of ensuring thatthe specific legislation related to water resources and waterbodies is carried out, as well as the planning, supervision,control, execution of the National Policy for WaterResources and the Agricultural Use of Water (PolíticaNacional de Recursos Hídricos e do AproveitamentoHidroagrícola), and for guiding, encouraging and cooperatingwith public and private entities to carry outresearch and studies concerning the sustainable use ofwater resources.The National Council for Water Resources (ConselhoNacional de Recursos Hídricos) was created in 1997 (LawNo. 9,443, 8th January 1997; a Law of AdministrativeOrganisation), and the Secretariat for Water Resourcesacts as its Executive Secretariat.116

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZIL(ong>VIIIong>) The Secretariat for the Co-ordination of Affairs ofIntegrated Development (Secretaria de Coordenação dosAssuntos de Desenvolvimento Integrado - SDI) isresponsible for implementing and consolidating plans,programmes and special projects of the Ministry,accompanied and supervised by the Executive Secretariat. Italso acts as the Secretariat of CONAMA and co-ordinatesthe Policies for the Sustainable Use of Renewable NaturalResources, in particular the Forest Policy.3.1.4 The ong>Brazilong>ian Institute for theEnvironment and Renewable NaturalResources - IBAMAThe ong>Brazilong>ian Institute for the Environment and RenewableNatural Resources (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente edos Recursos Naturais Renováveis - IBAMA) was createdin 1989 by Law No. 7.735, 22nd February 1989. It is the centralexecutive agency for ong>Brazilong>ian environmental policy.IBAMA took over the functions of a number of organs,including the ong>Brazilong>ian Institute for Forest Development (InstitutoBrasileiro de Desenvolvimento Florestal - IBDF), theSuperintendency for the Development of Fisheries (Superintendênciado Desenvolvimento da Pesca - SUDEPE), theSuperintendency for the Development of Rubber (Superintendênciado Desenvolvimento da Borracha - SUDHEVEA),and the Special Secretariat for the Environment (SecretariaEspecial do Meio Ambiente - SEMA).IBAMA is an autarchy, with financial and administrativeautonomy, connected to the MMA. Its mission is to carryout national environmental policies aiming to conserve andrestore environmental quality for the present and futuregenerations. In particular, IBAMA’s mandate includes thefollowing:• Reduction of the prejudicial effects and preventaccidents arising from the use of agrotoxic chemicalsand related substances and their residues;• Promotion of the adoption of measures which controlthe production, use, commercialisation, transport andthe destination of potentially dangerous chemicalsubstances and their residues;• Environmental monitoring at national and regionallevels;• Intervention in development projects involvingsignificant environmental impacts, at national andregional levels;• The monitoring of changes in the environment andnatural resources;• The administration, protection and quality control ofwater resources;• The maintenance of the integrity of Areas ofPermanent Preservation and legal reserves;• The control and management of fisheries in ong>Brazilong>ianwaters under the dominion of the State;• The control and management of the use of forestresources;• The monitoring of the conservation status of ong>Brazilong>ianecosystems, species, and the genetic heritage of thecountry;• The promotion measures for the protection andmanagement of the ong>Brazilong>ian fauna and flora;• The promotion of research, information, and scientificand technical development in environmentaladministration and management;• The facilitation and promotion of access to, and thesustainable use of, natural resources;• The development of analytical studies, of status andfuture prospects, scenarios, and possibilities, forenvironmental planning.The basic structure of IBAMA is comprised of thePresidency of the Institute; eight advisory units (President’soffice [Gabinete], Planning Office [Coordenadoria Geral dePlanejamento], Legal Department [Procuradoria Jurídica],Auditing Department [Auditoria], Ombudsman [Ouvidoria],International Advisory Department [Assessoria Internacional],Parliamentary Advisory Department [Assessoria Parlamentar]and Social Communication Advisory Department[Assessoria de Comunicação Social]); five higher advisoryorgans (Directorate of Control and Inspection [Diretoria deControle e Fiscalização - DIRCOF], Directorate of Ecosystems[Diretoria de Ecossistemas - DIREC], Directorate ofRenewable Natural Resources [Diretoria de Recursos NaturaisRenováveis - DIREN], Directorate of Incentives toResearch and Information [Diretoria de Pesquisa e Divulgação- DIRPED] and the Directorate of Finances andAdministration [Diretoria de Administração e Financas -DIRAF]); four collegiate organs (the National Council forthe Protection of Fauna [Conselho Nacional de Proteção àFauna], the National Council for Protected Areas [ConselhoNacional de Unidades de Conservação - CNUC], Scientificand Technical Committee [Comitê Técnico-Científico] andthe Regional Co-ordination Councils [Conselhos de CoordenaçãoRegional]). The following organs also form part ofthe basic structure: the National Centre for the Developmentof Traditional Populations [Centro Nacional de Desenvolvimentodas Populações Tradicionais - CNPT], the NationalCentre for Research on Tropical Fish [Centro Nacional dePesquisas de Peixes Tropicais - CEPTA], superintendenciesin each of the 27 states, a set of Specialised Units, protected117

Ministry of Environmentareas and several Multifunctional Units, all of themdecentralised.I - Support UnitsThe direct advisory units are responsible, together withDIRAF, for supervision, internal control, support, marketing,international relations, parliamentary relations and publicrelations, legal assistance and defence as well as for theprovision of resources for Institute’s functioning.II –DirectoratesThe Directorates are responsible for the formulation anddrafting of programmes and projects, which, once approvedby the President, form part of the annual or pluriannualInstitutional Action Plan of the autarchy. They are alsoresponsible for defining, co-ordinating and supervising theactivities of local organs.The Directorate of Control and Inspection - DIRCOF isresponsible for the planning and guidance of activities ininspection, control, monitoring, licensing and themanagement of environmental quality. DIRCOF has threedepartments: Inspection (Departamento de Fiscalização -DEFIS), Records and Licensing (Departamento de Registrose Licenciamento - DEREL) and Environmental Quality (Departamentode Qualidade Ambiental - DEAMB), theresponsibilities of which are to co-ordinate nationalprogrammes within DIRCOF’s mandate, namely:1. National Programme for the Control of Pollution byMotor Vehicles [Programa Nacional de Controle daPoluição por Veículos Automotores - PROCONVE];2. National Programme for Air Quality Control [ProgramaNacional de Controle da Qualidade do Ar -PRONAR]3. National Programme for the Control of SoundPollution - Noise Abatement Programme [ProgramaNacional de Controle da Poluição Sonora - Programa´Silêncio´];4. National Programme for the Control of ChemicalSubstances [Programa Nacional de Controle das SubstânciasQuímicas];5. National Programme for the Control of MiningActivities [Programa Nacional de Controle das Atividadesde Mineração];6. National System for the Prevention and Control ofForest Fires [Sistema Nacional de Prevenção e Combateaos Incêndios Florestais - PREVFOGO];7. Programme for the Environmental Management ofWater Resources (Priority) [Programa de GestãoAmbiental dos Recursos Hídricos];8. Programme for Environmental Monitoring (Priority) [Programa de Monitoramento Ambiental];9. Programme for Environmental Control and Inspection(Priority) [Programa de Controle e FiscalizaçãoAmbiental]The Directorate of Ecosystems - DIREC is responsible forthe planning and supervision of activities related to theconservation of ecosystems and species and wildlifemanagement, aiming for the maintenance of biodiversity. Ithas two departments, one dealing with protected areas (Departamentode Unidades de Conservação - DEUC), and theother with wildlife (Departamento de Vida Silvestre - DEVIS),and both responsible for the national co-ordination ofprogrammes and projects under DIREC’s responsibility.1. Programme for the Consolidation of the System ofNational Conservation Units - SNUCPrograma de Consolidação do Sistema Nacional deUnidades de Conservação - SNUC;2. Programme for the Conservation and Managementof Ecosystems and WildlifePrograma de Conservação e Manejo de Ecossistemase Vida Silvestre.In addition to the above programmes, DIREC is therepresentative of IBAMA and responsible for developing anumber of conservation projects supported by the DeutscheGesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit - GTZ, as wellas implementing the regulations of the Internationalong>Conventionong> on Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna -CITES, of which ong>Brazilong> is a signatory. For this, DIREC countson several research centres and infrastructure specificallydesigned for developing special projects.National Centre for the Conservation and Managementof Marine Turtles - Tamar (Centro Nacional de Conservaçãoa Manejo de Tartarugas Marinhas - TAMAR): begun in 1979,the Tamar Project has its own headquarters, along withnumerous field bases on the ong>Brazilong>ian coast. Besides workingfor the protection of marine turtles, the project carries outstudies of female behaviour in the breeding season, surveysto estimate population sizes, and research on migratoryroutes.The National Centre for the Conservation andManagement of Amazonian Turtles - CENAQUA (CentroNacional de Conservação e Manejo de Quelônios da Amazônia-CENAQUA): set up in 1990, with its own headquartersand bases in all nine of the Amazonian states, CENAQUAprotects turtle nesting beaches, carries out research on thespecies, and develops socio-economic, environmentalprogrammes for local communities.118

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILNational Centre for the Conservation and Managementof Carnivore Predators - CENAP (Centro Nacional de Conservaçãoe Manejo de Carnívoros Predadores - CENAP): setup in 1994, CENAP protects ong>Brazilong>ian mammals of the OrderCarnivora, most of which are on the endangered species list,by countering clandestine hunting and the destruction ofhabitats.National Centre for Conservation and Management ofSirenia (Manatee Project) (Centro Nacional de Conservaçãoe Manejo de Sirênios - Projeto Peixe-boi): begun in 1980,with field bases in several sites where the species is foundon the north-east coast and in Amazonia, the project focusesprimarily on protecting the West Indian and Amazonmanatees, studying their biology, identifying their currentdistributions, working on proposals for conservationmeasures (especially for protected areas), and environmentaleducation projects.Research Centre for Wild Bird Conservation - CEMAVE(Centro de Pesquisas para a Conservação de Aves Silvestres- CEMAVE); set up in 1977, CEMAVE co-ordinates thecountry-wide bird-ringing programme, important especiallyfor the study of migration patterns, as well as developingand carrying out conservation and research projects.National Centre for the Study, Protection and Managementof Caves - CECAVE) (Centro Nacional de Estudos, Proteçãoe Manejo de Cavernas - CECAVE): was set up for theprotection of caves and the development of programmes toorganise their exploration and mapping, tourism, scientificexpeditions and environmental education.Other relevant projects for biodiversity conservationunder the responsibility of DIREC are:• The Otter Project (Projeto Lontra). The Neotropicalotter, Lutra longicaudis, occurs throughout ong>Brazilong>, butis considered a threatened species. Where it occursit is a bioindicator of environmental health,disappearing as it does rapidly when its habitat,especially water quality, is degraded. It is still commonalong the coast and inland in southern ong>Brazilong>, andthis project is being carried out in collaboration withthe Federal University of Santa Catarina.• The Spinner Dolphin Project (Projeto GolfinhoRotador). This project is studying the biology andreproductive behaviour of spinner dolphins, Stenellalongirostris, in the archipelago of Fernando deNoronha, one of the main breeding grounds in thesouthern Atlantic.• The Marine Mammals of the South Coast Project (ProjetoMamíferos Marinhos do Litoral Sul). This projectmonitors and studies the two known summer breedinggrounds of South American sea lions, Otariaflavescens, and the South American fur seal,Arctocephalus australis, on the coast of Rio GrandeCity, in the state Rio Grande do Sul.• The ong>Brazilong>ian Orchids Project (Projeto Orquídeas Brasileiras).This project involves the study of orchidswhich are threatened, and in some cases even believedextinct in the wild. It is based at the National OrchidCentre (Orquidário Nacional) of IBAMA.The Directorate of Natural Renewable Natural Resources- DIREN is responsible for the planning and supervision ofactivities involving the sustainable use of natural resources.It is made up of three departments: Forest Resources (Departamentode Recursos Florestais), Fishery and Aquaculture(Departamento de Pesca e Aquicultura), andcommercialisation and manufacture (Departamento deComercialização e Transformação). DIREN is also responsiblefor management of National Forests (FLONAs), for regulatingfisheries and forestry and for co-ordinating the followingpriority programmes:1. Forestry Programme2. Programme for control and commercialisation of plantresources.3. Programme for regulating fisheries.The National Centre for Developing TraditionalPopulations - CNPT, the National Centre for Research onTropical Fish - CEPTA and the Laboratory for ForestryProducts - LPF provide significant support for DIREN’sactivities.CNPT is responsible for the development of socioenvironmentalactivities with traditional populations and forthe administration of the Extractivist Reserves (RESEXs).CEPTA, set up 18 years ago, has as its main objective theproduction, adaptation and dissemination of scientificresearch and technology for fish culture. It has a modernand specialised infra-structure for developing itsprogrammes, as well as for carrying out research and training.LPF was set up in 1973, and carries out research in woodtechnology and forest products. The main emphasis is ondivulging technology by means of basic and advancedtraining of professionals, as well as teaching and researchinstitutions and companies.The Directorate for Stimulating Research and Information- DIRPED plans and supervises research, technologicaldevelopment, environmental information and education anddocumentation. It is composed of two departments: Studyand Research Advancement (Departamento de Incentivo aEstudos e Pesquisa), and Technical-Scientific Diffusion (Departamentode Divulgação Técnico-Científico). DIRPED isresponsible for co-ordinating the National System ofInformation on the Environment (Sistema Nacional de Infor-119

Ministry of Environmentmações sobre o Meio Ambiente - SINIMA) and for thefollowing priority programmes:1. Programme for Environmental Education andTechnical-Scientific Information;2. Associated Programme for Environmental Research;3. Programme of Analysis and Environmental Licensing.DIRPED is also responsible for national co-ordination ofthe activities of Centre for Fishery Research and Extensionin the North-East (Centro de Pesquisa e Extensão Pesqueirado Nordeste - CEPENE), the Centre for Fishery Research andExtension in the North (Centro de Pesquisa e Extensão Pesqueirado Norte - CEPNOR), Centre for Fishery Research andExtension in the South (Centro de Pesquisa e Extensão Pesqueirado Sul - CEPSUL) and the Centre for Remote Sensing(Centro de Sensoriamento Remoto -CSR) which are currentlybeing reorganised to align their activities with the priorityobjectives of IBAMA regarding monitoring environmentalchange, using the most modern techniques and technologyover the entire country, and the management of coastalwaters.III - Collegiate OrgansIn order to carry out its functions satisfactorily, IBAMAhas adopted a collegiate system, on the one hand usinginternal committees to advise the President in formulatingand implementing institutional directives and on the otherthrough committees with external participation to advise thePresident in the formulation and elaboration of proposals fordirectives and measures necessary for the FederalGovernment’s role in environmental policy.1 - Collegiate Advisory CommitteesBesides the Directorates which run the organ in a collegiatemanner, IBAMA maintains three Regional Co-ordinationCouncils (Conselhos de Coordenação Regional). These arecomposed of the state superintendents, and their mainfunction is to define environmental management agenda forinstitutional action within each region. The actions anddirectives of the Regional Co-ordination Councils areproactive and complementary to those of the CollegiateDirectorate. They focus on the regional context as a point ofreference for organising and establishing mechanisms forregulation, control and intervention, as well as establishingpriority measures for the environment and the institution.2 - Consultative Collegiate BodiesThe main objective of the National Council for ProtectedAreas (Conselho Nacional de Unidades de Conservação -CNUC) is to draw up general policy guidelines for thecreation, enhancement and use of protected areas. TheNational Council for Fauna Protection (Conselho Nacionalde Proteção à Fauna -CNPA) studies and proposes generaldirectives for the protection and management of fauna. TheTechnical-Scientific Committee (Comitê Técnico-Científico)sets out directives for promoting and disseminating researchand technological development, and evaluates the scientificand technological output of the IBAMA programmes andprojects. This committee reports directly to the President ofIBAMA.IV - Protected AreasThese are territorial spaces and their components,including waters under the country’s jurisdiction, which haverelevant natural characteristics, and which are legallydesignated by the Government as conservation/protectedareas with defined limits and a special administrative regimedesigned to guarantees their protection. At present, IBAMAis responsible for the administration and management of 184protected areas.V - Specialised UnitsThese are centres for regional management, research,species conservation and management, development oftechnology, monitoring, and environmental information.There are 14 of these centres linked to IBAMA, at strategiclocations throughout the country.VI - Multifunction UnitsThese are regional agencies in strategic locations tofacilitate the ongoing programs of IBAMA. At present theiractivities are restricted, but they are currently being preparedto respond in loco to a wider range of requirementsconcerning environmental policy under the responsibility ofIBAMA. There are 390 posts over the country, all beingreviewed, reorganised and substantially streamlined.3.1.5 The Rio de Janeiro Botanical GardenResearch InstituteThe Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden (Jardim Botânico doRio de Janeiro) was created by D. João VI in 1808 in order toacclimatise non-native plants. Over nearly two centuries, itsname and status were changed from the Royal Garden (RealHorto), to The Royal Botanical Garden (Real Jardim Botânico),subsequently the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden (JardimBotânico do Rio de Janeiro) and finally, by ProvisionalMeasure No. 813, 1st January 1996, to the Rio de JaneiroBotanical Garden Research Institute (Instituto de PesquisasJardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro).It has been subordinated to the Imperial FluminenseInstitute for Agriculture (Imperial Instituto Fluminense deAgricultura), the Institute for Plant Biology (Instituto de Bi-120

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILologia Vegetal), the Forest Service (Serviço Florestal), theong>Brazilong>ian Institute for Forestry Development (Instituto Brasileirode Desenvolvimento Florestal - IBDF) and IBAMA. Itis now linked directly to the Ministry of Environment (MMA).Covering about 137 ha, 67 ha of which are cultivated (theArboretum), the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden ResearchInstitute maintains a collection of considerable scientific,historical and artistic interest. Scientific research thereconcentrates on the propagation, preservation andconservation of tropical flora, besides their programmes inenvironmental education and the development andconservation of its live and preserved scientific collections.The mission of the Research Institute is to... “promote,carry out and divulge technical and scientific research onthe flora of ong>Brazilong> to know and conserve biological diversity,and maintain the reference collections under itsresponsibility.”The Botanical Garden carries out research on communityecology and phytosociology in various parts of the country,and on the biology and seed technology of native speciesand commercially important fruit trees, as well as ornamentaland medicinal plants. It also develops specific projects forenvironmental conservation and management, and promotesthe exchange of species and of information, nationally andinternationally.It has scientific collections totalling some 330,000specimens of dried plants in the herbarium, besides the livecollections in the Arboretum and greenhouses, along with aphotographic library of some 9,000 dried plants; 6,100 driedfruits; 8,000 samples of wood, and a collection of 20,000microscope slides. The Library is one of the most importantin Latin America, with 66,000 volumes and 3,000 rare works.Following the recommendations of the ong>Conventionong> onBiological Diversity, the Rio de Janeiro Botanical GardenResearch Institute is setting up a Policy for Collection andAccess to Genetic Resources (Política de Coleção e Acessoa Recursos Genéticos) to regulate the representation,acquisition and transfer of plant specimens in its scientificcollection. Together with botanical gardens in othercountries, it participates in the ´Botanic Garden Policy onAccess and Benefit-Sharing Pilot Project´, the main purposeof which is to facilitate exchanges between countries forbioprospection, including the equitable sharing of thebenefits, and considering their importance in the science,conservation and education.The Atlantic Forest Programme (Programa Mata Atlântica),begun in 1988 in collaboration with the Government,private enterprise and national and international NGOs,involves research in forest fragments, particularly protectedareas. The programme has three components: Floristic andEnvironmental Inventories (Projeto LevantamentosFlorísticos e Ambientais), Revegetation (ProjetoRevegetação), and Information and Services (Projeto Centrode Informações e Serviços). Amongst its main objectivesare: quantitative and qualitative studies of the forested areasof Rio de Janeiro; improvement of methodologies forbiodiversity inventories, the elaboration of models forrevegetation with native species, and conservation of thebiological communities. The project phase include:phenological studies of selected species and seed collectionfor research on germination and propagation; anatomicalstudies, especially of wood with respect to its potential astimber, monitoring Atlantic Forest fragments; and producingvegetation maps through surveys and inventories tomonitoring forest cover. Other important activities includemaintaining and up-dating a computer data bank,publications, and training.The broad aim of the Coastal Zone Programme (ProgramaZona Costeira), begun in 1996, is to increase our knowledgeof THE continental and marine ecosystems, and promotetheir conservation and management. It has two components.The Restinga Project (Projeto Restinga) involves studies ofthe flora of the sandy coastal plains, the structure, dynamicsand regeneration of the plant communities, the preservationof the ethno-botanical traditions of local communities,computer data banks, and the use of geographic informationsystems. The Marine Ecosystems Project (ProjetoEcossistemas Marinhos) involves research on the diversityof ong>Brazilong>’s marine flora, on the structure and dynamics of thepopulations and communities of marine plants important fortheir conservation, on natural banks of economicallyimportant species and systems important for their cultivationand management, and the selection and use of plant speciesto monitor the recovery of areas subject to adverseenvironmental impacts. The Programme is also involved intraining and qualification.The Taxonomic Diversity Programme (Programa DiversidadeTaxonômica), set up in 1996, combines all the researchon plant taxonomy traditionally carried out at the Institute.Its aim is the advancement of knowledge on the compositionand diversity of the ong>Brazilong>ian flora by taxonomic andanatomical research in representative groups, and thedocumentation of the present composition of native florasthrough its representation in the national institutionalcollections. This programme also involves training andqualification, the publication of monographs and taxonomicand geographic revisions of relevant groups, and theorganisation, maintenance and expansion of nationalcollections including herbaria, carpothecas (fruits),xylothecas (wood samples), and arboreta, and thecomputerisation of data banks. It includes three components:1. The Taxonomic Advances and Botanic CollectionsProject (Projeto Avanços Taxonômicos e Coleções121

Ministry of EnvironmentBotânicas) introduces and encourage specific linesof taxonomic research, in complex groups and/or thoserepresentative of ong>Brazilong>ian flora, as well as projectsfor inventorying regional flora. It includespostgraduate courses, expansion of the Herbarium,concentrating particularly on poorly representedspecies and groups, and training in taxonomicresearch;2. The Flora of the State of Rio de Janeiro Project (ProjetoFlora do Estado do Rio de Janeiro) is documentingthe composition and diversity of the flora of Rio deJaneiro, with special attention given to the remainingforest fragments and areas which have been underexplored to date. It involves the establishment of anucleus for the taxonomic study of the flora of thestate, co-ordinated by the Institute, in collaborationwith similar institutions, and will define the mostsignificant areas in terms of taxonomic diversity andspecies, and contribute data for a phytogeographicmap of the state, and conservation strategies for thestate’s flora.3. The Project for Anatomic and Ultra-structuralProgress (Projeto Avanços Anatômicos eUltraestruturais) involves anatomic and ultrastructuralresearch on the native plant species of ong>Brazilong>,with special attention being given to species inisolated and under explored forest fragments.The Conservation Programme (Programa Conservação)was begun in 1996 specifically to carry out research on theconservation of rare and endangered species, besidesestablishing strategies for the conservation of species inbotanical gardens. It has two components.1. The In situ Conservation Project (Projeto ConservaçãoIn situ) promotes research on the conservationof species, genetic viability, and evolutionary processesin natural habitats. In the first phase, studiesare being carried out on the genetic structure andpopulation dynamics of pau brasil trees in Rio deJaneiro for the management of the forest fragmentswhere they occur.2. The Ex situ Conservation Project (Projeto ConservaçãoEx situ) promotes research on the conservationof species in germplasm banks. In the short term,priority is being given to assays of the ecophysiologyof germination of pau brasil seeds from the Regiãodos Lagos (RJ), and also research on desiccationtolerance levels of seeds for their storage in seedbanks.The Special Collections Programme (Programa EspecialAcervo), begun in 1996, combines the scientific collectionsof the Institute (the herbarium, carpotheca, xylotheca, andthat of the Barbosa Rodrigues Library). The Herbarium,founded in 1890, has scientific documentation of internationalsignificance, especially for the ong>Brazilong>ian flora. Representedin this collection is the extraordinary diversity of species tobe found in such as the Amazon rain forest, the Atlanticforest, the Cerrado, restinga formations, and the Pantanal, aswell as rare specimens from other South American countriesand Europe. There is a data bank which is widely consultedby professionals with a broad range of interests. Scientificexchange involves some 200 institutions in ong>Brazilong> and abroad.The Herbarium, Carpotheca and Xylotheca Project (ProjetoHerbário, Carpoteca e Xiloteca) provides theinfrastructure for the organisation, maintenance,preservation and expansion of the collections, as well asinstant access to the data and information it contains, andthe basis for taxonomic, floral, phytosociological,phytogeographic, ethnobotanical and anatomical research.Specifically, it supports laboratory research, field studies andinstitutional projects, and the demands of visitingresearchers, schools, universities, postgraduate courses andthe community in general. The collections act as a repositoryof information on the composition of the flora in areas wherethe vegetation is degraded or subject to imminent or futurehuman impacts. The project makes provision for scientificinterchange (loans, donations for identification and exchangeof services) with similar institutions and includes themaintenance of a data base with information on each species.The project also involves inventories of the botanicalcollections, the photographic library and historicalcollections, as well as training in herbarium curation, inscientific exchange, cataloguing techniques, inventories andscientific nomenclature.Over the years, the Library Project (Projeto Biblioteca)has brought together works of priceless scientific, culturaland historical value. The stock is composed of collections ofbooks, periodicals, leaflets, iconography, theses andspecialised material on botany and related areas. Includedare around 3,000 rare and classic scientific publications,dating back to the 16th century.The Special Scientific Computation Programme (ProgramaEspecial de Computação Científica) covers all areas ofthe applications of computer technology to research and thecataloguing of the collections. Components include:assistance for researchers and components of otherprogrammes (Projeto de Atendimento/SuporteComputacional); and the establishment and maintenance ofa data bank and appropriate support for users in the inclusion,editing and retrieval of data (Projeto Criação e Manutençãode Banco de Dados). The data bank includes complete crossreferencedinformation on the living collections, theArboretum, Bromelarium, Insectivorous Plants, Orchidarium,and Medicinal Plants, as well as on the reference collections,including the Library, Herbarium, Xylotheca and Carpotheca.122

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILThe Co-ordination of Studies and Research(Coordenadoria de Estudos e Pesquisas) has four laboratoriesto support the research programmes:The Nursery (Horto Florestal) produces seedlings of ornamentalplants, palm trees and fruit trees, with specialemphasis on threatened species. It also serves as a supportlaboratory for programmes and research projects on ex situconservation and the cultivation of exemplars sent in by theprogrammes. In addition, it offers technical guidance for therecovery of degraded areas and urban tree-planting,maintains interchange with similar institutions, and sellsseedlings to the public.The Seed Laboratory (Laboratório de Sementes) supportsinstitutional programmes carrying out research on seedecophysiology. It includes a Seed Bank for, on average, 150tree species stocked in the short term, collected from the Riode Janeiro Botanical Gardens Arboretum (JBRJ) and protectedareas. Seed stocks are exchanged with a number of similarinstitutions, both in ong>Brazilong> and abroad through the IndexSeminum.The Laboratory of Plant Anatomy (Laboratório de AnatomiaVegetal) supports research programmes and projects,preparing permanent slides of plant and wood anatomy, usingboth optical and scanning electron microscopes. It is theonly laboratory in the state of Rio de Janeiro which has a(xylotheca) of wood samples from ong>Brazilong> and abroad.The Geoprocessing Laboratory (Laboratório deGeoprocessamento) plans, executes, evaluates, and mapsvegetation surveys using remote sensing and geoprocessingtechniques in collaboration with floristic survey projects.The Arboretum occupies an area of 67 ha (67,000 m²), andhouses native and non-native species of inestimablescientific value including plants from a number of ong>Brazilong>ianecosystems (Amazonia, tropical forest, Cerrado and Caatinga)and non-ong>Brazilong>ian species (Asian and Mexican flora). Inall, the arboretum contains some 8,200 species and 40,000specimens (July 1993) and six hothouses (Cactus,Insectivorous Plants, Orchidarium, Medicinal Plants andBromeliarium). The area cultivated extends into a forest reserveof 147.06 ha, adjacent to the Tijuca National Park.The Co-ordination of Cultural Activities (Coordenadoriade Extensão Cultural) plans, co-ordinates and executeseducational activities and environmental interpretation, andpublicises the Institute’s activities and research. There areeight components as follows.The Environmental Education Programme, the objectiveof which is to change behaviour and attitudes towardsenvironmental questions. This programme has two Projects:The ´Knowing Our Botanic Garden´ Project (Projeto ´ConhecendoNosso Jardim´): this gives specific guidance toteachers of the full educational potential available for schoolvisits the Arboretum. The ´Basic Route´, the first phase ofwhich has already been set-up, trains teachers ofkindergartens, primary and secondary schools. As they aretaken round the huge hothouses of the Arboretum theyreceive information on plant species, the history of theinstitution, and the regulations for public use, along withhints as to how to maintain the children’s attention. A videotape is available (´Stories of the Botanical Gardens´) and abooklet ´Notebook l- Basic Route´ produced by the Nucleusfor Environmental Education. The training programme alsostimulates the teacher to develop environmental educationalactivities, suited to the level of the classes they work with.The teachers receive a certificate which allows them toprogram school outings.The “Teaching Laboratory” Project (Projeto ´LaboratórioDidático´) offers schoolchildren space to develop educationaland creative games in natural history for the discussion ofideas and experimentation. Educational activities aredeveloped, based on a particular theme and presented in theappropriate environment with a children’s book on thesubject. They include: making up stories, looking at botanicalmaterial, painting and artistic activities, educational games,and the use of videotapes and books from the library. Openairactivities are also encouraged, such as the observation ofplants and specimens, workshops for recycling and re-usingmaterials, and other activities which increase the awarenessof the children.The Environmental Interpretation Programme provides fora dynamic communication between the natural and culturalresources of the Arboretum and its public; its educationalcontent enriches public visitation and stresses theimportance of the conservation of the Botanical Gardens,and consequently, conservation of the environment as awhole. It includes the following components: InterpretativeSigns Project (Projeto ´Placas Interpretativas Itinerantes´)help the visitor to identify and know the important naturaland cultural resources available in the Arboretum, whichdiffer in the four seasons of the year. The Visitors’ CentreProject (Projeto ´Centro de Visitantes´) offers the visitor animmediate broad view of the natural and cultural resourcesavailable in the Arboretum. The ´Data Bank´ Project (Projeto´Banco de Dados´) identifies and describes elements ofsignificant natural and cultural interest in the Arboretum, inlanguage appropriate to the various target audiences. The´Guided Visit´ Project (Projeto ´Visitação Guiada´) trainsuniversity students and also poor children as guides on thenatural and cultural resources of the Arboretum.123

Ministry of Environment3.1.6. Other Agencies Linked to the MMA*(I) The National Department for Combat against Drought(Departamento Nacional de Obras Contra as Secas- DNOCS)is a federal autarchy with administrative and financialautonomy. It promotes protective measures against droughtand floods, irrigation projects, and, through special supportprogrammes, the settlement of agricultural communities innewly irrigated areas and those designated for agrarianreform, especially in the semi-arid Northeast.(II) The São Francisco Valley Development Company(Companhia de Desenvolvimento do Vale do Rio São Francisco- CODEVASF) is a legal public company under privatelaw with administrative and financial autonomy. It promotesthe rational exploitation of the water resources and the soilof the São Francisco Valley for agriculture, agro-industryand cattle-ranching, either directly or through other publicor private institutions, and as such the integrateddevelopment of priority areas in the region. It co-ordinatesor executes, directly or indirectly, works of infrastructure suchas water-catchment for irrigation, primary and secondaryirrigation canals, basic sanitation, power supplies and publictransport, in accordance with a Master Plan and inconjunction with the appropriate federal organs.* Obs.: Since January 1999, DNOCS and CODESVASF do notbelong to the Ministry of Environment structure (Box 3-2).3.1.7. ong>Brazilong>ian Company for Research inAgriculture and Cattle-breeding -EMBRAPAThe ong>Brazilong>ian Company for Research in Agriculture andCattle-raising (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária- EMBRAPA) is a public company linked to the Ministry ofAgriculture and Supply (Ministério da Agricultura e doAbastecmento - MAA). Its mission is to carry out, promoteand divulge, research and technology for the sustainabledevelopment of agriculture, cattle raising, agro-industry andforestry. EMBRAPA co-ordinates the National System forAgriculture and Cattle Raising Research (Sistema Nacionalde Pesquisa Agropecuária - SNPA) comprised of stateresearch companies and co-operative institutions linked tothem. EMBRAPA’s headquarters are in Brasília and there are39 units round the country including 13 Eco-regional Centresfor Agroforestry, Agriculture and Cattle-raising (CentrosEcorregionais de Pesquisa Agroflorestal ou Agropecuária),15 National Centres for Thematic Research (Centros Nacionaisde Pesquisa Temáticos) and two of Special Services(Serviços Especiais).EMBRAPA is also involved in the conservation andsustainable use of biodiversity, especially of edible plantsand animals. In researching new alleles, it develops thetechnology for the selection and improvement of newvarieties, exploiting and promoting the sustainable use ofthe biological diversity of the country.Linked to EMBRAPA is the National Research Centre forGenetic Resources and Biotechnology (Centro Nacional dePesquisa da Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia -CENARGEN) which has the mission ”to maintain the diversityof genetic resources and develop biotechnologicalmethodologies and processes to this end”. CENARGEN is areference for the training of people throughout Latin Americaand the Caribbean, in genetic resources, biotechnology, andthe biological control of pests, weeds and diseases.CENARGEN co-ordinates 165 germplasm banks of geneticresources (see 2.4.5). It is also responsible for the exchange,collection, conservation, characterisation, evaluation and useof germplasm, as well as the inspection and quarantine ofresearch material entering the country. Basic research is carriedout on biotechnology and biological control with otherinstitutions of the National Agricultural Research System(Sistema Nacional de Pesquisa Agrícola). Projects includeaspects of molecular biology (cell, organ and tissue culture),and the biological control of pests, weeds and diseases.Research carried out at EMPRAPA has led to importantadvances in agriculture, including, for example, the biologicalcontrol of the soybean worm, using Baculovirus, developedby the National Soybean Research Centre (Centro Nacionalde Pesquisa da Soja). This breakthrough has resulted in anenormous saving in costs, and a reduction in use of chemicalproducts.In the field of biosafety, the National Research Centre forMonitoring and Environmental Impact (Centro Nacional dePesquisa de Monitoramento e de Impacto Ambiental -CNPMA) is responsible for the quarantine of insects andmicro-organisms, as well as establishing procedures for theimportation of biological-control agents. CENARGEN isresponsible for the examination and quarantine of importedplant material.Another important institution in relation to biodiversityis the National Centre for Forest Research (Centro Nacionalde Pesquisa de Florestas - CNPF). This centre developsproduction systems for the management of planted and naturalforests, agroforestry systems, and environmental andeducation programmes for, and the dissemination andtransfer of, forest technology. Some of the technologiesproduced at this Centre have direct and indirect benefits forthe conservation of biodiversity. They include: the economicproduction of seedlings of native and non-native forestspecies; development and perfection of techniques for thecollection, treatment, storage and germination of forestspecies; adaptation of seeds of eucalyptus species to the124

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILsoils and climate conditions in the country; selection ofRhizobium strains to increase productivity of Mimosa andAcacia; mass production of nematodes for biological control;ecological zoning for forest plantations; methodologies forthe use of urban and industrial waste for fertilising eucalyptus(with an increase in up to 92% in timber yield above nonfertilisedtrees); methods for the use of residues from paperand pulp factories, such as ash; use of sewage; software tohelp the producer in genetic improvement; software formanagement decisions in the timing and methods of thinningfor maximum productivity.The Centre for Agroforestry Research of the EasternAmazon (Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Agroflorestal daAmazônia Oriental - CPATU) is developing systems for forestand agroforest production specifically for the easternAmazon, alternatives for the production of food, and woodand non-wood products, taking into account theconservation and maintenance of the tropical ecosystems.Some of the key activities of this centre are:• Development of production systems for plantedforests;• Development of sustainable management for naturalforests;• Development of agroforestry systems.Forming the basis of its research programme, EMBRAPAhas 15 national programmes in the different areas ofagriculture, cattle-breeding and agroforestry. The followingare particularly important for biodiversity:The Programme for Natural Resources: Assessment,Management and Recovery (Programa de Recursos Naturais- Avaliação, Manejo e Recuperação) organises systematicinformation on natural resources pertinent to agriculture andcattle-breeding, besides promoting research on theirconservation, use and management. The Programme for theConservation and Use of Genetic Resources (Programa deConservação e Uso de Recursos Genéticos) promotes theuse, diversity and conservation of native and non-nativegenetic resources, specifically for sustainable agriculture.The Programme for the Development of Basic Research inBiotechnology provides support for basic research onbiological pest control and the application of biotechnologyin agriculture. It also supports the development of molecularmarkers in forestry, allowing for biodiversity assessment inprotected areas. The Environmental Quality Programme (Programade Qualidade Ambiental) develops methods for theevaluation and management of environmental impacts andthe sustainability of agriculture systems. Finally, the Forestand Agroforestry Production Systems Programme (ProgramaSistemas de Produção Florestal e Agroflorestal) combinesa number of projects related to the rational managementof natural forests and management systems for plantedforests, seeking, above all, to conserve forest resources.3.1.8. Profile and the Role of EnvironmentalAgencies in ong>Brazilong>Governmental and non governmental institutionsconcerned with the environment have played an importantpart in the progress obtained in the field of conservation andsustainable use of biodiversity.A clear picture of the role of these institutions wasprovided in a survey carried out in 1995 and 1996 byresearchers from the Institute of Higher Religious Studies(Instituto Superior de Estudos Religiosas - ISER), the NationalCouncil for Scientific and Technological Development (ConselhoNacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico- CNPq) and the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UniversidadeEstadual do Rio de Janeiro - UERJ).In 1992, another institution, Mater Natura, produced aregister of 1,891 environmental institutions. In the 1995/1996survey, 985 institutions of the Mater Natura registerresponded to a questionnaire, along with some institutionsestablished after 1992. Of these 725 (73.6%) were nongovernmental and the remainder (26.4%) governmental (Figure3-2).Of the institutions that answered the questionnaire, only39.2% were more than ten years-old. Most of them had beenfounded from 1991 onwards. In the years leading to the UNConference on Environment and Development (UNCED) inRio de Janeiro, as well as in 1992, there was an upsurge in thenumber of institutions being created, followed, however, bya progressive decline. Only 1.6% of the institutions had beenfounded less than two years previously (Figure 3-3). Of thegovernmental institutions, however, 35% had beenestablished before 1980 (as opposed to 9% of nongovernmental organisations).Most of the institutions are concentrated in the southeast,economically the most developed region, (Table 3-1).In terms of biomes, many governmental and nongovernmentalinstitutions are concentrated in the Atlantic Forest andassociated areas (Table 3-2). There are probably two reasonsfor this: the high human population density of the regionand the fact that, together with the Cerrado, this is ong>Brazilong>’smost threatened biome. One of the most common themes forthese institutions is biodiversity conservation (70.1% of theinstitutions, Table 3-3). When biodiversity conservation iscombined with protected areas (51.7% of institutions) andthe protection of forests (73.6%), it is evident that the majorityof these institutions work with species and natural ecosystemconservation. There is, however, also a large number ofinstitutions concerned with urban environmental problems:125

Ministry of Environment34.5% develop activities related to refuse, 39.1% are involvedwith the urban environment, 16.1% with sanitation, 42.5%with water resources and 3.4% are concerned with energy.One third of the institutions reported that they acted only ona municipal scale, 17.9% defined their field of action asnational, and 15.3% act at an international level.Governmental26.4%Figure 3-2. Environmental Institutions in ong>Brazilong>.Source: Crespo & Carneiro (1996).Nongovernmental73.6%In general, the governmental institutions have higherrevenues than the nongovernmental institutions. More than30% of the governmental institutions have annual revenuesof over R$ 500,000 (a little more than US$ 500,000), as opposedto only 3.9% of the non governmental organisations (Table3-4). Among the latter, almost 70% have revenues of up toR$ 50,000 (a little more than US$ 50,000).While the smaller organisations live on the contributionsof a limited membership, the bigger ones receive funds fromthe National Government as well as international sources,generally from NGOs in the USA, Canada and the EuropeanUnion.It was also found that 34% of the NGOs were based inprivate residences. Only 37.6% of the NGOs had paid staff,and 15% declared that they are not yet legalised. From this itwas possible to conclude that the non governmental sectorsuffers from a lack of institutionalisation (availability of paidscientific and technological staff members, legal registration,access to electronic communication networks, computers,and the like).Environmental education is the main activity on bothgovernmental and non governmental sectors (Table 3-5), with81.5% of the institutions doing some work in this area. Morethan 50% have educational activities related to theconservation of biodiversity. The priority target audience inboth sectors is local communities (Table 3-6). The secondarytarget audience of governmental organisations is thescientific community, and that of the non governmentalorganisations is young people and adolescents.Some conclusions:• The non governmental sector is active and coordinatedinternally and with other sectors;• The non governmental sector suffers from a lack ofpublic and private policies and properinstitutionalisation;350300GovernmentalNongovernmentalNongovernmental29625020015010050011987926823641710 373 10 2419278 14 81451900 1901 to 1950 1951 to 1960 1961 to 1970 1971 to 1980 1981 to 1985 1986 to 1990 1991 to 1992 1993 to 1994 1994 to 1995Figure 3-3. Number of environmental institutions created each year from 1900-1995.Source: Crespo & Carneiro (1996).126

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILTable 3-1. Number of government and nongovernmentalenvironmental organisations by state and region.Region/State Governmental Non- TotalgovernmentalNorth 32 55 87Acre 6 2 8Amapá 4 2 6Amazonas 4 4 8Pará 5 25 30Rondônia 5 17 22Roraima 4 3 7Tocantins 4 2 6North-east 54 90 144Alagoas 3 4 7Bahia 7 46 53Ceará 11 6 17Maranhão 6 6 12Paraíba 6 4 10Pernambuco 9 12 21Piauí 6 5 11Rio Grande do Norte 2 7 9Sergipe 4 0 4Central-West 35 69 104Distrito Federal 22 25 47Goiás 4 13 17Mato Grosso 5 18 23Mato Grosso do Sul 4 13 17South-east 78 346 424Espírito Santo 10 23 33Minas Gerais 16 65 81Rio de Janeiro 13 94 107São Paulo 39 164 203South 61 165 226Paraná 36 58 94Rio Grande do Sul 14 69 83Santa Catarina 11 38 49Total 260 725 985Source: Crespo & Carneiro (1996).• The number of non governmental institutionsis small or non-existent in some states where thereare serious environmental problems;• The private sector contributes little toenvironmental recovery and conservation;• Governmental and non governmentalorganisations are developing similar andcomplementary projects and activities;• There has been a tendency, in recent years forpartnerships between governmental and nongovernmental organisations.3.2 Progress in TrainingPersonnel3.2.1 PostgraduationTable 3-2. Number of government and nongovernmental environmental institutionsby ong>Brazilong>ian biome (1995-1996).Biome Governmental Non- Total % TotalgovernmentalAtlantic forest 118 45.4% 386 53.2% 504 51.2%Cerrado 81 31.2% 150 20.7% 231 23.5%Amazon 69 26.5% 119 16.4% 188 19.1%Caatinga 46 17.7% 65 9.0% 111 11.3%Araucaria pine forest 39 15.0% 67 9.2% 106 10.8%Coastal ecosystems 30 11.5% 56 7.7% 86 8.7%Pantanal of Mato Grosso 28 10.8% 53 7.3% 81 8.2%Others 34 13.1% 70 9.7% 104 10.6%Total institutionsregistered 260 725 985Source: Crespo & Carneiro (1996).According to the ong>Brazilong>ian Higher EducationAuthority (Fundação Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamentode Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES) ofthe Ministry of Education (MEC), in 1993 there were1,639 postgraduate courses in the country, 1,073 atthe Master’s level and 566 at the Doctorate level infederal, state and private higher educationinstitutions (Table 3-7). Almost 70% of these (1,156)were concentrated in the south-east, followed bythe south with 218. In the north there are only 22master’s courses and six doctoral programmes inthe local universities and the National Institute forAmazon Research (INPA) (Table 3-8).In the biological and agricultural sciences, themost pertinent to the conservation and sustainableuse of biodiversity, there are 182 Master’s coursesand 184 Doctoralprogrammes, or 11% of thetotal courses in both cases.There are 262 Master’scourses and 173 Doctoralprogrammes in the HealthSciences (Table 3-9).Considering only the toplevelpostgraduate courses(credited with grades A and Bin the evaluation of CAPES),important areas in theconservation and sustainableuse of biodiversity aredeficient. Areas such asBotany, Ecology,127

Ministry of EnvironmentTable 3-3. Number of environmental institutions, by region according to their fields of interest (1995-1996).Interest North- North- Central- South- South* % Total Totalwest* east* west* east*Fauna and flora (biodiversity) 70.1% 69.4% 74.0% 65.6% 66.4% 67.6% 666Forests 73.6% 49.3% 47.1% 55.2% 50.0% 53.9% 531Water resources 42.5% 60.4% 56.7% 53.8% 53.1% 53.9% 531Waste (solid and liquid residues) 34.5% 50.0% 41.3% 51.4% 58.8% 50.4% 496Urban environments 39.1% 54.2% 44.2% 50.9% 50.0% 49.4% 487Protected areas 51.7% 46.5% 49.0% 47.4% 48.7% 48.1% 474Environmental legislation& public policies 37.9% 48.6% 50.0% 50.0% 45.6% 47.7% 470Sanitation 16.1% 34.7% 21.2% 37.7% 35.4% 33.1% 326Agriculture and rural development 32.2% 31.3% 33.7% 29.2% 34.5% 31.5% 310Pesticides 11.5% 29.2% 29.8% 20.0% 38.5% 25.9% 255Alternative technologies 26.4% 27.1% 26.0% 28.3% 17.7% 25.3% 249Traditional & extractivistpopulations 36.8% 16.0% 23.1% 17.2% 9.3% 17.6% 173Marine resources 4.6% 29.9% 8.7% 15.3% 10.6% 14.7% 145Indigenous peoples 35.6% 11.1% 18.3% 12.7% 8.4% 14.1% 139Energy 3.4% 6.3% 13.5% 14.2% 12.8% 11.7% 115Climate change 14.9% 8.3% 11.5% 10.6% 8.0% 10.2% 100Speleology (caves) 5.7% 9.0% 16.3% 10.8% 7.1% 9.8% 97Others 14.9% 11.8% 15.4% 11.1% 6.2% 10.9% 107Total no. of institutions analysed 87 144 104 424 226 985ong>Brazilong>ian Regions are shown in Figure 1.1.Source: Crespo & Carneiro (1996).Microbiology, Physiology, Pharmacology and Parasitologylack the necessary specific support scientific andtechnological development required to meet the country’sdemands.The role of CAPES in the training of human resources forbiodiversity conservation, nationally and abroad, has,however, been exceptional: 304 courses in the 23 academicareas sustaining Master’s and Doctoral courses in thecountry, have an interface with biodiversity (Table 3-9). In1993, there were 27,535 new, registered, and qualified studentsin areas related to biodiversity (Table 3-10).Despite this, training of personnel was below the desirablelevel in some areas. In 1993, there were 2,979 people withdoctor’s degrees on the permanent staff of teachinginstitutions in the Exact and Earth Sciences, but only 57 inOceanography, 33 in Geosciences/Environmental Analysis,and 26 in the Chemistry of Natural Products (while Chemistryin general had 629). In the same year, there were 2,101permanent staff with Doctorates in the Biological Sciences(Zoology and Ecology predominated with 257 and 260,respectively).Of the 1,928 staff with doctorates in Engineering, only 52were in Sanitary Engineering and 194 in ChemicalEngineering. In Agronomy, with 1,028 PhDs in 55postgraduate courses, less than 50% were for the AgrarianSciences.These figures suggest the need for further incentives forthe training of personnel in the Biological Sciences. Thenumber of new students in 1993 was 936 in Master’sprogrammes and 461 in Doctoral programmes. The Master’scourses most in demand were those in Biochemistry, Genetics,Zoology and Botany, in that order. For Doctorates, the highestdemand was in Biochemistry, Botany and Genetics.The evolution of the numbers of students and qualifiedstaff at the doctor’s level between 1990 and 1993 was notimpressive (Table 3-11) considering the growth in thepopulation of the country and the ever-increasing regionaland national demands (Figures 3-3 and 3-4). The number ofMaster’s and Doctoral scholarships awarded by CAPES andCNPq for areas related to biodiversity grew somewhat,however, between 1991 and 1994 (Tables 3-12 and 3-13).Another government initiative for the formation, trainingand qualification of personnel has been the Programme ofHuman Resources Training for Strategic Areas (Programade Capacitação de Recursos Humanos para Atividades Estratégicas- RHAE), of the Ministry of Science andTechnology, with the National Council for Scientific andTechnological Development (CNPq) as its executing agency.The environment has been one of the priority areas since1990, under the denomination ´Social Impact Technology:the Environment´ (Tecnologia de Impacto Social: Meio Ambiente).128

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILTable 3-4. Number of environmental institutions in ong>Brazilong>, according to their revenue (1995-1996).Annual revenueRevenue/Institution Governmental Nongovernmental (NGOs) Governmental andnongovernmentalNo. % No. % No. %Up to R$ 10,000 8 3.1 147 20.3 155 15.7From R$ 11,000 to R$ 50,000 10 3.8 147 20.3 157 15.9From R$ 51,000 to R$ 100,000 7 2.7 83 11.4 90 9.1From R$ 101,000 to R$ 500,000 28 10.8 111 15.3 139 14.1More than R$ 501,000 82 31.5 28 3.9 110 11.2No reply 125 48.1 209 28.8 334 33.9Total institutions analysed 260 725 985Composition of the revenue of the 260 ong>Brazilong>ian government institutionsSource of revenue/% of total 0-10% 10-25% 25-50% 50-75% 75-100% Institutionsreceivingthe resourceNº % Nº % Nº % Nº % Nº % Nº %Financing by national governments 5 4 5 4 15 11 11 8 100 74 136 52Sale of services/ products 25 47 13 25 3 6 6 11 6 11 53 20International financing 18 39 12 26 8 17 6 13 2 4 46 18Financing by companies 14 70 2 10 2 10 1 5 1 5 20 8Financing by national NGOs 4 36 3 27 - - 1 9 3 27 11 4Individual donations 2 50 - - - - 2 50 - - 4 2Members’ contributions - - - - 1 50 - - 1 50 2 1Other sources 4 44 3 33 - - - - 2 22 9 4Composition of the revenue of 725 nongovernmental institutionsMembers’ contributions 80 21 48 13 48 13 34 9 173 45 383 53Individual donations 89 41 41 19 43 20 10 5 35 16 218 30Sale of services/ products 89 44 36 18 30 15 20 10 28 14 203 28International financing 14 12 7 6 21 18 19 17 53 47 114 16Financing by national governments40 36 22 20 31 28 7 6 12 11 112 15Financing by companies 37 35 18 17 16 15 19 18 17 16 107 15Financing by national NGOs 22 39 8 14 11 20 4 7 11 20 56 8Other sources 16 27 9 15 6 10 4 7 25 42 60 8Source: Crespo & Carneiro (1996).Between 1992 and 1994, 1,565 scholarships were awardedin Biotechnology and the Environment, for projects run bypublic and private institutions. The scholarships wereassigned to three broad themes related to biodiversity:• Taxonomy, identification and systematics;• Scientific collections, germplasm banks, data banksof natural products geared towards preservation;• The sustainable use of biodiversity.Geographically, the Biotechnology and Environmentprojects over this period were concentrated in the southeast(30 projects), the south (21) and the central-west (14).The projects approved by RHAE demonstrated a lack ofresearch institutions working with ex situ conservation(through collections or germplasm banks) particularly in thenorth of the country, where the diversity of plant and animalspecies and micro-organisms is highest. The reverse is truefor projects for the use of biodiversity, with 700 of the 1,565scholarships awarded by the programme involving this lineof research.In general, the participation of the business sector inbiodiversity research has been modest, despite the potentialand the benefits of its use for the population. The demandfor the training of personnel in Biotechnology and theEnvironment, on the other hand, is shifting from moreacademic themes to innovative projects related to thedevelopment and improvement of products, and thetechniques and processes involved.Collaborative projects between companies, researchcentres and universities have had priority for support throughthe RHAE Programme. Despite this, however, there is still alack of effective transfer of the results of research programmes129

Ministry of Environment4,5004,0003,5003,0002,5002,000Exacts and Earth SciencesBiological sciencesEngineeringHealth sciencesAgricultural sciences1,5001,00050001990 1991 1992 1993Figure 3-4. Number of university staff with doctorates in differentacademic fields in ong>Brazilong>, 1990-1993.Source: Rios et al. (1996).and the incorporation of new technologies by the productionsector.Despite the effective action of the Federal Governmentthrough CNPq and CAPES, as well as such programmesdevoted to the training and qualification of human resourcesas that of RHAE, ong>Brazilong>’s privileged position in relation tothe richness and economic potential of its biodiversity makesthe training and qualification of specialised personnel in awide range of areas a national priority.3.2.2 The National Council for Scientific andTechnological Development - CNPqThe National Council for Scientific and TechnologicalDevelopment (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Ci-Table 3-5. Number of environmental institutions in ong>Brazilong> involved in different categories of activities(1995-1996).Activities Governmental Nongovernmental Governmental andnongovernmentalNº % Nº % Nº %Environmental education 176 67.7 627 86.5 803 81.5Projects with local communities 131 50.4 424 58.5 555 56.3Campaigns to mobilise public opinion 82 31.5 450 62.1 532 54.0Conservation projects 160 61.9 367 50.6 528 53.6Environmental inspection 143 55.0 300 41.4 443 45.0Research and development 138 53.1 250 34.5 388 39.4Advice and technical consultancies 117 45.0 229 31.6 346 35.1Environmental monitoring 133 51.2 176 24.3 309 31.4Ecotourism 27 10.4 168 23.2 195 19.8Administration of natural resources 109 41.9 85 11.7 194 19.7Total institutions analysed 260 725 985Source: Crespo & Carneiro (1996).130

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILentífico e Tecnológico - CNPq) wascreated in 1951. Institutions linkeddirectly to CNPq include the EmílioGoeldi Museum (Museu ParaenseEmílio Goeldi - MPEG), theNational Observatory (ObservatórioNacional), the NationalAstrophysics Laboratory (LaboratórioNacional de Astrofísica -LNA), and the National LightSynchrotron Laboratory (LaboratórioNacional de Luz Síncrotron -LNLS), amongst others. CNPqplays an important role inpromoting research onbiodiversity and its conservation.Its objectives include:• The promotion andexecution of scientific andtechnological research andthe training of personnel inall fields of knowledge;• The promotion, implementation and maintenance ofmechanisms for the support, analysis storage,diffusion and exchange of data and information onscientific and technological development in thecountry.A number of strategies are used to achieve these ends:• In country scholarships include: quotas for Master’sand Doctoral students, for scientific initiation, forresearch productivity, technical support, visitingresearchers, regional scientific development andrecently graduated Doctors and for post-doctoralresearch;• Abroad, awards are given for senior training courses,post-doctoral studies, sandwich doctorate courses,Table 3-6. Number of environmental organizations in ong>Brazilong>, according to their targetPublic (1995-1996).Source: Crespo & Carneiro (1996).Table 3-7. Number of postgraduate courses in different academic fields(1993).Academic field Master’s Doctorate TotalExact and Earth Sciences 137 85 222Biological Sciences 109 73 182Engineering 106 54 160Health Sciences 262 173 435Agrarian Sciences 135 49 184Applied Social Sciences 98 31 129Human Sciences 156 65 221Linguistics, Languages & Arts 67 35 102Multidisciplinary 03 01 04Total 1,073 566 1,639Source:. CAPES/MEC (1995). Avaliação da Pós-Graduação. Síntese dosResultados. Brasília, 1995Target public Governmental Nongovernmental Governmentaland nongovernmentalN % % % N %Local communities 172 66.2 571 78.8 743 75.4Schools 99 38.1 435 60.0 534 54.2Children and adolescents 66 25.4 443 61.1 509 51.7Local authorities 102 39.2 325 44.8 427 43.4Community leaders 84 32.3 305 42.1 389 39.5Scientific community 108 41.5 242 33.4 350 35.5State and FederalGovernment 100 38.5 219 30.2 319 32.4Business people 75 28.8 155 21.4 230 23.4Women 229 8.8 143 19.7 166 16.9Company staff 30 11.5 79 10.9 109 11.1Others 44 16.9 101 13.9 145 14.7Total institutionsanalysed 260 725 985full doctorate courses, specialisation courses.Trends in the resources available to CNPq between 1985and 1994 are shown in Figure 3-5. A decline in 1991 and 1992was followed by a strong recovery. The Directorate ofScientific and Technological Development (Diretoria de DesenvolvimentoCientífico e Tecnológico - DCT) controls 80%of the resources available and has the majority of theresponsibility for awarding scholarships and grants. Around90% of the resources allocated to this agency are for trainingprogrammes (R$ 541,835,000 in 1996, approximately US$541,835,000, some 8% of which went to overseasscholarships). A Doctoral programme abroad costs onaverage R$ 100,000.00 over a period of four years. In 1998,around 1,645 scholars were studying abroad, of whom 1,000are studying for full doctorates.Between 1990 and 1996, the number ofscholarships went up from 26,542 to 50,967. The1996 data show that CNPq supported 8,421scholars in ong>Brazilong> and 304 abroad in differentprogrammes related to some aspect ofbiodiversity, totalling around R$ 100 million peryear. The grants awarded for research projectsand scientific events totalled some R$ 10 millionin the same year.3.2.3 The ong>Brazilong>ian HigherEducation Authority - CAPESThe ong>Brazilong>ian Higher Education Authority(Fundação Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de131

Ministry of EnvironmentTable 3-8. Number of postgraduatecourses in different regions of ong>Brazilong>(1993).Region Master’s DoctorateTotalNorth 22 6 28North-east 147 28 175South-east 697 459 1,156South 158 60 218Central-West 49 13 62ong>Brazilong> 1,073 566 1,639Source:. CAPES/MEC (1995).Avaliação da Pós-Graduação.Síntese dos Resultados. Brasília.Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES) was also created in 1951.It forms part of the Ministry of Education and Sports (Ministériode Educação e Desporto - MEC) and participates in theformulation of policies for post-graduation and training in anumber of areas, including scientific and technologicaldevelopment. It monitors and systematically evaluates (everythree years) all postgraduate courses (1,798 Master’s andDoctoral programmes), supported by 300 scientificconsultants.Its programmes include: advanced qualification ofteaching and technical training; academic development;special training programmes; postgraduate programmessensu strictu; postgraduation overseas; academic exchangeprogrammes; support for sensu latu graduation; and teachertraining for basic education (Primary and Secondary).In addition to these programmes, CAPES supports theparticipation of researchers and teaching staff in, and theorganisation of, scientific events. It also supportspostgraduate courses, and provides scholarships forMaster’s degrees and Doctoral students. In 1992, 11,013scholarships were awarded to 895 Master’s and 347 Doctoralcourses, besides 1,174 scholarships for specialisationcourses. This support went to 162 institutions throughoutthe country (59 federal, 29 state and 71 private institutions).In 1992, the Institutional Programme for Teacher Training(Programa Institucional de Capacitação de Docentes),supported the participation of 3,873 teachers from 123institutions in training programmes, with 100 grants forvisiting professors and 400 for academic studies. In theCAPES Special Training Programme (Programa Especial deTreinamento - PET), 1,650 grants were awarded to studentsand 240 to teacher/tutors.Two thousand scholarships were awarded for trainingabroad, approximately 30% of the budget. The demand inBiological and Agrarian Sciences was not compatible withtheir strategic importance to the country.Resources were invested in scholarships in a range ofacademic areas, including a number related to biodiversity(Table 3-10). There are 1,639 postgraduate courses in thecountry with 7,613 registered and qualified students andteachers in field areas related to biodiversity alone. Table 3-9 indicates the geographic distribution of the courses. Thenumber of academic staff with Ph.Ds increased from 1990 to1993. The number of postgraduate students awarded higher700,000600,000500,000400,000300,000200,000100,0001985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994Personnel & salaries Grants & scholarships Capital expenses & others Debt service TotalFigure 3-5. Disbursements of the ong>Brazilong>ian National Science Council (CNPq), 1985-1994.Source: Rios et al. (1996)132

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILdegrees also went up in all areas from 1990 to 1993, with theexception of Agrarian Sciences (Figure 3-6).3.2.4 State Foundations for the Support ofResearchThe State Foundations for the Support of Research (FundaçõesEstaduais de Apoio à Pesquisa) have played asubsidiary role in training, although their main objective is inthe financing of research projects and scientific andtechnological development.The oldest of these institutions is the Foundation for theSupport of Research in the State of São Paulo (Fundação deAmparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo - FAPESP), whichwas set up in 1947 and began functioning in 1962. It servedas a model for other similar state foundations. By law it hasan allocation of 0.5% of the ordinary revenue of the state ofSão Paulo. FAPESP has financed important initiatives inbiodiversity, such as the BIOTA/SP and the project“Phanerogamic Flora of the state of São Paulo (Projeto FloraFanerogâmica do Estado de São Paulo) described in chapterIII. These institutions have financed individual andinstitutional research projects, and covered the cost of theinstallation of new laboratories and research units, promotingacademic exchange and awarding research scholarships,besides grants for higher education. More detailedinformation on the contributions of state research supportfoundations is given below in the section covering ´Progressin Financial Mechanisms´.3.2.5 The National EnvironmentProgramme - PNMAThe establishment of IBAMA through the amalgamationof four other governmental agencies, brought with it theresponsibility of structuring the administrative organisationfor more than 7,000 staff members, only about 300 of whomhad any previous experience of dealing with environmentalproblems, and all from wide range of institutional cultures.The incorporation of IBAMA’s human resources projectinto the National Environment Programme (Programa Nacionaldo Meio Ambiente - PNMA) produced the followingresults:• The structuring and equipping of the Co-ordinationfor the Development of Human Resources(Coordenadoria de Desenvolvimento de RecursosHumanos - DIDER), through the creation andimprovement of norms and the means for training andqualification;1,8001,6001,4001,2001,000800Exacts and Earth sciencesBiological sciencesEngineeringHealth sciencesAgricultrual sciences60040020001990 1991 1992 1993Figure 3-6. Number of postgraduate students receiving their degrees in differentacademic fields in ong>Brazilong> (1990-1993).Source: Rios et al., 1996.133

Ministry of EnvironmentTable 3-9. Number of postgraduate courses related to biodiversity in differentacademic fields.Academic fieldsTotal Number of CoursesRelated to BiodiversityMaster’s Doctorate Master’s DoctorateAgronomy 55 24 43 18Biophysics 02 01 01 01General biology 06 01 05 00Biochemistry 12 10 12 08Botany 14 06 09 03Ecology 11 05 09 04Chemical engineering 12 05 06 04Sanitary engineering 03 01 03 01Pharmacy 09 04 06 02Pharmacology 11 05 08 04Physiology 08 05 06 03Genetics 12 08 09 07Immunology 06 04 03 01Medicine (infectiousand parasitic diseases) 10 06 07 05Veterinary medicine 24 09 16 07Microbiology 05 04 04 03Biological oceanography 03 02 03 01Parasitology 04 03 03 02Chemistry 34 23 24 14Forestry engineering &forest resources 08 02 05 02Fisheries & engineering 03 00 02 00Zoology 11 07 09 06Zootechnology 15 04 12 03Total 278 139 205 99Source: CAPES/MEC (1995). Avaliação da Pós-Graduação. Síntese dosResultados. Brasília, 1995.• The drafting and implementation of IBAMA’sManagerial Development Programme (Programa deDesenvolvimento Gerencial);• The drafting and execution of the Career Plan andSystem of Performance Appraisal (Plano de Carreirase Sistema de Avaliação de Desempenho);• The production of teaching material, instructions andguidelines to support the training programmes;• The establishment, implantation and extension of theIBAMA Training Centre (Centro do Treinamento doIBAMA - CENTRE);• The training of 1,739 technical specialists andmanagers from IBAMA and personnel involved inthe National Environment System (Sistema Nacionaldo Meio Ambiente - SISNAMA). Fifty-two courseswere attended in the priority areas of the programme:Environmental Management; Environmental ImpactStudies; Licensing, Control and Inspection,Administration of Protected Areas; Publicong>Partong>icipation in EnvironmentalManagement, Levelling and ManagerialFunctions.To carry out its responsibilities incontrol and supervision, IBAMA wasforced to organise, standardise and speedup its procedures, and adopt theappropriate strategies to make data,information and systems accessible to theentire Institute as well as a number of otherorganisations. To do this, a computernetwork was installed which linkedinstitutions on a nation-wide basis, withthe advantage of access to national andinternational public networks. A total of177 IBAMA technicians were trained andqualified (including the CentralAdministration, the statesuperintendencies and research centres)in the use of the standard softwareprograms, the administration of databanks, and the management and operationof networks. In addition, 700 members ofthe technical staff of the Institute weretrained in informatics.3.3 Progress in theFinancing Mechanisms3.3.1. The NationalEnvironment Fund - FNMAAn important mechanism for the conservation and thedefinition of the means for the sustainable use of ong>Brazilong>ianbiodiversity is the National Environment Fund (Fundo Nacionaldo Meio Ambiente - FNMA). It is linked to the Ministryof Environment (MMA), and invested over US$ 26 million in498 projects during the period from 1991 to September 1997.Established by Law No. 7.797, 10th July 1989, FNMAreceives funds from Inter-American Development Bank - IDBloans, from the Union budget, besides donations andcontributions from international sources and national privateenterprise, and returns on financial investments.As an instrument of the National Environment Policy, theFNMA finances small and medium-sized projects (up to $200,000) in the sustainable use of renewable resources andthe conservation or recovery of environmental qualitythroughout the country.134

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILFNMA support can go to governmental or nongovernmental organisations (so long as they are non-profitmaking and of an environmental character) for projects inthe following areas:• Forestry extension, sustainable management and theconservation of renewable natural resources;• Protected Areas;• environmental education and diffusion;• environmental control;• technological research and development;• institutional development and strengthening.Of the resources invested to date, 32% have been givenover to environmental education and publications and 19%to technological research and development. This distributionreflects the demand. The other areas have received thefollowing percentages of the resources: forestry extension,sustainable management and the conservation of renewablenatural resources 16%; environmental control 14%; ProtectedAreas 13%; and institutional development and strengthening6% (Figure 3-7). The distribution is similar in terms of thenumbers of projects financed: environmental education andpublications 30%; research and technological development25%; environment control 17%; sustainable management andTable 3-10. Numbers of students and teachers with doctorates by academic field related to biodiversity (1993).Area New New Students Students Degrees Degrees UniversitySub-area students students enrolled enrolled awarded awarded teachersMaster’s Doctorate Master’s Doctorate Master’s Doctorate Ph.D.sExact and Earth Sciences 659 338 2,088 1,479 483 130 1,204Chemistry 327 211 988 899 253 86 629Chemistry of natural products 12 13 55 68 16 0 26Geosciences 280 97 910 427 176 38 459Geosciences (environmental analysis) 17 9 45 35 5 3 33Oceanography 23 8 90 50 23 3 57Biological Sciences 883 461 2,780 1,891 673 241 2,101General Biology 63 9 123 28 34 1 116Genetics 116 65 256 253 80 36 228Botany 105 65 280 272 87 27 223Zoology 113 46 356 186 96 25 257Ecology 88 61 421 189 75 15 260Physiology 64 29 164 109 36 15 119Biochemistry 118 67 254 294 77 35 202Biophysics 44 31 142 111 35 18 72Pharmacology 63 23 218 97 42 10 157Immunology 31 10 97 60 13 14 96Microbiology 32 186 184 44 20 166Parasitology 27 6 124 31 25 6 91Morphology 51 17 159 77 29 19 114Engineering 331 108 725 294 184 27 273Biomedical Engineering 28 8 78 17 16 0 27Sanitary Engineering 80 19 214 68 45 9 52Chemical Engineering 223 81 433 209 123 18 194Health Sciences 88 29 268 73 52 20 221Pharmacy 88 29 268 73 52 20 221Agrarian Sciences 1,281 360 3,393 1,207 881 156 2,241Agronomy 592 180 1,587 641 449 87 1,028Forest Resources/ Forestry Engineering 94 30 180 61 53 14 139Zootechnology 146 33 420 97 113 15 335Veterinary Medicine 230 62 513 171 140 17 421Fishery resources / Fishery Engineering 30 0 64 7 9 0 49Food Technology 189 55 629 230 117 23 269Total 3,242 1,296 9,254 4,944 2,273 574 6,040Source: CAPES/MEC (1995). Avaliação da Pós-Graduação. Síntese dos Resultados. Brasília, 1995. (Modified from).135

Ministry of Environmentconservation of renewable natural resources 12%; ProtectedAreas 9%; institutional development and strengthening 7%(Figure 3-8).12%9%7%30%From 1991 to 1997, NGOs received more than half theresources (51%). Federal institutions received 15%, and 9%went to state agencies. Municipalities with less than 120,000inhabitants received 22%, and those with a population ofmore than 120,000 inhabitants received 3% (Figure 3-9). Interms of the number of projects supported; NGOs contributed54%; federal organs 17%; state agencies 14%; municipaldistricts with less than 120,000 inhabitants received 13% andthose with over 120,000 inhabitants 2% (Figure 3-10).Considering geographical regions, 31% of the projectswere in the south-east; 30% in the south; 14% in the centralwest;13% in the north-east and 12% in the north (Figure 3-10). In terms of the distribution of the financial resources,the south received 32%; the south-east 31%; the north-east14%; the central-west 14%; and the north 9% (Figure 3-12).In terms of both the number of projects and the amount offinancing, more than 60% of the support was concentratedin the south and south-east. The smaller participation of thenorth and north-east is attributed to difficulties in formulatingtechnically adequate proposals, and less availability ofinformation is available in these areas. Besides, there areother sources of funding available for the Amazon (northernregion). Of all the projects supported by FNMA (up to March1997), 141 were directly related to biodiversity, almost 30%and with a combined total of R$ 6,536,640.70.New resources in the order of US$ 75 million are being17%Environmental educationand disseminationExtractivism, ForestManagement/ Conservationof natural resourcesResearch & technologicaldevelopmentProtected Areas25%Environmental ControlInstitutionalstrengtheningand developmentFigure 3-8. The percentage of projects (totalling 498) in differentareas supported by the National Environment Fund (FNMA)between November 1990 and September 1997.Source: ong>Brazilong>, MMA, Secretaria de Coordenação dos Assuntosdo Meio Ambiente. 1997. O FNMA. Brasília. (Internal document).negotiated for the FNMA: US$ 45 million from a new IDBloan and US$ 30 million as the ong>Brazilong>ian Governmentcontribution. The FNMA Co-ordination has already received275 project proposals for these resources, 39% of whichinvolve biodiversity (107 proposals totalling R$ 9,940,489.63).Thirty-four per cent of these proposals are from the south,28% from the south-east, 16% from the north-east, 12% fromthe central-west and 10% from the north. Thirty-five per centare from NGOs, 29% from small municipalities, 21% from federalorgans, 10% from municipal agencies, and 5% from thelarger municipal districts.14 %13 %6 %32 %According to topic, the largest demand is in the field offorestry extension, sustainable management andconservation of renewable natural resources (37%). Nextcomes technological research and development (32%),protected areas (25%, environmental control (3%),environmental education and diffusion (2%) andtechnological development and strengthening (1%).Extractivism, Forest Management/Conservation of natural resourcesProtected areas16 % 19 %Environmental education & disseminationResearch and technological developmentEnvironmental controlInstitutional strengthening & developmentFigure 3-7. Distribution of disbursements (totallingUS$26,021,003.86) for different thematic areas by the NationalEnvironment Fund (FNMA) between November 1990 andSeptember 1997.Source: ong>Brazilong>, MMA, Secretaria de Coordenação dosAssuntos do meio Ambiente. 1997. O FNMA. Brasília.(Internal document).FNMA’s contribution to the conservation and sustainableuse of biodiversity has involved support in a number ofareas:• The implantation of protected areas and managementplans;• Restoration of degraded areas with the establishmentof agroforestry systems, the reconstitution of galleryforest, and agro-ecological programmes;• Research on biodiversity in protected areas;• Training in the administration and management ofprotected areas;136

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZIL9%3%15%51%NGOMunicipalities with less than 120,000 inhabitantsFederalStateMunicipalities with more than 120,000 inhabitants22%Figure 3-9. Distribution of disbursements (totalling US$26,021,003.86) for different categories of organisations by theNational Environment Fund (FNMA) between November 1990 and September 1997.Source: ong>Brazilong>, MMA, Secretaria de Coordenação dos Assuntos do Meio Ambiente. 1997. O FNMA. Brasília. (Internaldocument).14%2%17%54%NGOMunicipalities with less than 120,000 inhabitantsFederalStateMunicipalities with more than 120,000 inhabitants13%Figure 3-10. Distribution of projects (totalling 498) for different categories of organisations by the NationalEnvironment Fund (FNMA) between November 1990 and September 1997.Source: ong>Brazilong>, MMA, Secretaria de Coordenação dos Assuntos do Meio Ambiente. 1997. O FNMA.Brasília. (Internal document).13%14%12%30%31%South-eastSouthCentral-westNorth-eastNorthFigure 3-11. Distribution of projects (totalling 498) for different regions of the country by the National Environment Fund(FNMA) between November 1990 and September>Brazilong>ian Regions are shown in Figure 1.1.Source: ong>Brazilong>, MMA, Secretaria de Coordenação dos Assuntos do Meio Ambiente. 1997. O FNMA. Brasília. (Internaldocument).14%14%9%32%31%South-eastSouthNorth-eastCentral-westNorthFigure 3-12. Distribution of disbursements (totalling US$26,021,003.86) for different regions of the country by the NationalEnvironment Fund (FNMA) between November 1990 and September>Brazilong>ian Regions are shown in Figure 1.1.Source: ong>Brazilong>, MMA, Secretaria de Coordenação dos Assuntos do Meio Ambiente. 1997. O FNMA. Brasília. (Internaldocument).137

Ministry of EnvironmentTable 3-11. Number of teachers with doctorates and students in each academic field (1990-93).Year Academic field New students Students enrolled Degrees awarded UniversityteacherswithdoctoratesMaster’s Doctorate Master’s Doctorate Master’s Doctorate1990 Exact and Earth Sciences 1,697 563 4,053 1,871 858 214 2,655Biological Sciences 825 307 2,534 1,409 463 169 1,985Engineering 2,259 426 5,691 1,425 934 128 1,520Health Sciences 1,480 417 4,559 1,710 702 248 3,272Agrarian Sciences 1,204 206 3,325 837 712 123 2,245Total 7,465 1,919 20,162 7,252 3,669 882 11,6771991 Exact and Earth Sciences 1,670 674 4,211 2,074 1,027 266 2,793Biological Sciences 1,016 463 2,740 1,636 644 229 2,122Engineering 2,509 565 5,999 1,780 1,209 185 1,628Health Sciences 1,423 542 4,905 1,877 804 305 3,422Agrarian Sciences 1,133 258 3,416 809 936 127 2,181Total 7,751 2,502 21,271 8,176 4,620 1,112 12,1461992 Exact and Earth Sciences 1,587 666 3,874 2,249 955 292 2,908Biological Sciences 900 397 2,805 1,803 640 328 2,059Engineering 2,469 560 6,666 2,436 1,151 171 1,811Health Sciences 1,476 576 5,080 2,132 1,011 349 3,715Agrarian Sciences 1,220 388 3,485 1,158 869 137 2,319Total 7,652 2,587 20,910 9,778 4,626 1,277 12,8121993 Exact and Earth Sciences 1,533 682 3,981 2,632 962 267 2,979Biological Sciences 936 461 2,780 1,891 673 240 2,101Engineering 2,320 688 6,407 2,581 1,264 236 1,928Health Sciences 1,679 750 5,290 2,458 1,007 381 3,927Agrarian Sciences 1,466 411 3,644 1,270 941 161 2,381Total 7,934 2,992 22,102 10,832 4,847 1,285 13,316Source: CAPES/MEC (1995). Avaliação da Pós-Graduação. Síntese dos Resultados. Brasília, 1995.• Consciousness-raising and involvement inconservation and management projects forcommunities around (or within) protected areas,riverside populations, fishing communities, etc.;• Indirectly, through the control of contamination ofwater sources through programmes of selective wastecollection and alternative treatment of waste.3.3.2 Support Programme for Scientific andTechnological Development - PADCTThe Support Programme for Scientific and TechnologicalDevelopment (Programa de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Científicoe Tecnológico - PADCT) was set up in 1984 to supportpure and applied research for technological innovation inproducts and processes in the ong>Brazilong>ian industrial sector. Ithas already invested US$ 470 million, benefiting 3,000research projects, including the production of new varietiesof soybean, of biodegradable plastics and biomaterials. In1999, the third phase of the PADCT will involve six-yearprogramme of US$ 700 million; US$ 305 million from theong>Brazilong>ian Government, and an equal amount from the WorldBank, along with US$ 90 million from the private sector.PADCT III will begin with an investment of US$ 360 millionto finance projects in six areas of science and technology,including Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences. In thefirst call of projects (August-September 1997), 96 wereselected and announced publicly. A second call (December1997-January 1998) resulted in 335 research projectapplications, involving 599 institutions and more than 3,000researchers from all over the country.3.3.3 Support for Biodiversity Projects from1985 to 1996Parallel to the efforts of the ong>Brazilong>ian Government to meetthe commitments to conserve biological resources or permittheir sustainable use, undertaken in accord with the138

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILTable 3-12. Number of postgraduate scholarships awarded by the ong>Brazilong>ian National ResearchCouncil (CNPq) in fields related to biodiversity.Field Master’s Doctorate1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995Chemistry 543 430 526 435 424 264 318 407 370 375Oceanography 30 34 37 32 39 3 0 1 5 10General Biology 13 16 30 34 44 0 0 0 2 4Genetics 96 107 106 111 124 69 82 52 83 89Botany 123 125 108 217 129 44 44 52 52 51Zoology 133 104 134 140 157 44 52 64 54 66Ecology 101 96 92 109 115 25 26 29 33 44Biochemistry 148 135 166 174 178 110 149 185 170 169Pharmacology 46 530 64 64 52 31 36 36 35 34Microbiology 53 57 63 64 70 38 44 44 46 40Parasitology 39 35 44 39 39 7 4 5 9 11Chemical Engineering 222 266 320 332 303 35 90 100 115 139Pharmacy 56 67 64 55 56 0 7 7 12 7Agronomy 472 508 540 601 603 0 176 194 212 259Forest Resourcesand Forestry Engineering 53 57 48 60 61 0 14 12 18 15Multidisciplinary 11 9 6 14 17 0 0 0 4 4Total 2,139 2,099 2,348 2,481 2,411 670 1,047 1,188 1,220 1,317Source: CAPES/MEC. Avaliação da Pós-Graduação. Síntese dos Resultados. Brasília,>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity, many other and variedmechanisms with similar objectives arose shortly before andafter Rio 92.A survey of these mechanisms and experiments was carriedout in l996 by the Ministry of Environment, in collaborationwith the NGO Institute Society, Population and Nature (InstitutoSociedade, População e Natureza - ISPN). The surveyfacilitated the consolidation of a proposal for a system ofstoring information on biodiversity projects in the form of adata bank.The first phase consisted of a survey and analysis of theinformation from the principal financing or supporting agencies.Information was also collected from official governmentinstitutions and bilateral and multilateral financing agencies.The projects included in the survey were those concernedwith research, management, conservation, sustainable useand the recovery of biological diversity.The areas covered included Conservation Biology, in situand ex situ conservation, Biotechnology, Botany, Zoology,Animal and Plant Genetics, Animal and Plant Morphology,Animal and Plant Systematics, Zootechnology, inventoriesand surveys of living organisms, Physiology, Biochemistry,Microbiology, Ecology, Ethnobotany, Ethnopharmacology,Phytopathology and the sustainable use of plants andwildlife.It proved possible to systematise information relating tothe financing of biodiversity projects for 27 of the 40 fundingsources for environmental projects in ong>Brazilong> (Table 3-14).These were divided into five categories:• State foundations for the support of research (5);• Federal Government institutions: foundations,financing foundations, state banks (6);• Nongovernmental organisations and foundations (4);• Governments of other countries (8);• International financing organisations (4).The state research support foundations invest principallyin scientific and technological research projects of intereststo the development of the state where they are located, withresources from the state budget. The beneficiaries aregenerally researchers in higher education and researchinstitutions. Assistance normally takes the form ofscholarships, assistance for participation in scientific events,and support for basic and applied research.From 1985 to 96, the five state foundations surveyedfinanced 1,615 projects which involved some aspect ofbiodiversity research, totalling US$ 14,270,973 (Table 3-15).The average grant per project was US$ 9,000, varying139

Ministry of EnvironmentTable 3-13. Number of postgraduate scholarships awarded by CAPES in fields related tobiodiversity.Field Master’s Doctorate1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995Chemistry 229 224 237 291 265 83 109 151 195 202Oceanography 32 34 34 39 34 5 6 10 18 16General Biology 48 50 62 57 52 0 0 0 0 1Genetics 78 87 96 111 88 51 38 59 76 79Botany 90 94 120 129 125 20 36 45 58 63Zoology 104 120 121 146 132 17 21 33 41 44Ecology 95 109 124 134 113 23 31 52 69 68Biochemistry 116 108 12 143 130 46 50 55 92 101Pharmacology 49 46 56 66 63 22 28 32 34 38Microbiology 65 76 79 90 73 18 20 24 25 28Parasitology 30 25 17 13 17 4 7 4 5 7Chemical Engineering 231 228 261 285 279 41 41 71 90 92Pharmacy 57 59 57 55 57 1 3 11 11 15Agronomy 517 577 593 659 581 69 103 161 181 203Forest Resourcesand Forestry Engineering 34 41 50 85 88 3 6 8 10 13Multidisciplinary 4 3 3 20 31 0 0 0 8 13Total 1,779 1,881 1,922 2,313 2,128 403 499 706 913 983Source: CAPES/MEC. Avaliação da Pós-Graduação. Síntese dos Resutlados. Brasília, 1995.somewhat the different foundations. The São Paulo StateScience Research Foundation (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisado Estado de São Paulo - FAPESP) accounted for 64%of the resources in this category, and 87% of the projects. Ofthe projects supported by this foundation, 16% were carriedout in other states.The category of Federal Government institutions andorganisations grouped together funds, foundations, financingagencies, superintendencies and state banks which financedprojects connected with biodiversity. Collectively, theyfinanced 430 projects, to the amount of US$ 19,034,701, withgrants averaging US$ 44,267 (Table 3-16). These figures donot include three of the biggest federal funding agencies:CNPq, CAPES and EMBRAPA.Table 3-14. Values of biodiversity projects financed during 1985-1996.Financing institution No. of Average amount Total valueprojects /project (US$) (US$)Government organisations - foreign 37 1,997,899 73,922,269Government organisations - national* 430 44,267 19,034,701International organisations 29 653,475 18,950,764State foundations 1,579 9,038 14,270,973Nongovernmental organisations 418 21,347 8,922,948Total 2,493 54,192 135,101,655* Data from CNPq, CAPES & EMBRAPA are not included.Source: Instituto Sociedade, População e Natureza (ISPN). Levantamentoe Caracterização de Projetos de biodiversidade no Brasil: Relatório Finalde Pesquisa - Fase I e Fase II, Brasília, 1996.Two international NGOs, The World Wide Fund for Nature(WWF) and Conservation International (CI) and two nongovernmental foundations, The Ford Foundation and theBoticário Foundation (Fundação o Boticário de Proteção àNatureza), which finance biodiversity projects, supported418 projects, totalling US$ 8,922,948, with an average grantof US$ 21,347 (Table 3-17).Eight countries (Germany, United Kingdom, the USA,Japan, France, Italy, Spain and Canada) financed 37 projects,totalling US$ 73,922,269 (Table 3-18). The average grant wasUS$ 2,000,000. Forty-four per cent of these resources camefrom Germany, and 27% from the United Kingdom. The othersix countries together accounted for 29% (Figure 3-12).Overseas government policies give priority to a relativelysmall number of projects, but on a largescale with a long duration. Resources areinvested mainly in the Amazon region, andparticularly in the protection andconservation of natural resources. Thereis poor or no co-ordination between thedifferent projects, except in the case ofthose forming part of the Pilot Program toConserve the ong>Brazilong>ian Rain Forest (ProgramaPiloto para a Proteção das FlorestasTropicais do Brasil - PPG-7).Most of the projects financed byoverseas governments are carried out bystate and federal research institutes and140

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILTable 3-15. Projects financed by state research support foundations, 1985-1996.Average Average AverageNo. of no. of amount/ amount/Financing institution Period projects projects/year project (US$) year (US$) Total(US$)Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa doEstado de São Paulo (FAPESP) 85-96 1,395 113.25 6,704 759,237 9,110,844Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa doEstado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS) 92-96 81 16.2 5,217 84,515 422,576Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa doDistrito Federal (FAP-DF) 92-95 55 13.75 41,371 568,851 2,275,405Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa doEstado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) 89-95 48 6.85 45,711 313,447 2,194,128Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa doEstado de Pernambuco (FACEPE) 86-96 36 3.27 7,445 24,365 268,020Source: Instituto Sociedade, População e Natureza (ISPN). Levantamento e Caracterização de Projetos de Biodiversidadeno Brasil: Relatório Final de Pesquisa - Fase I e Fase II, Brasília (1996).government agencies. The US Agency for InternationalDevelopment (USAID), however, carries out projects inpartnership with NGOs, universities and US governmentagencies.International organisations invested in 29 biodiversityprojects totalling US$ 18,950,764 (Table 3-19). With theexception of the Small Projects Programme (PPP-GEF), which,as its name suggests, generally finances small projects carriedout by NGOs and communities, they give priority to largescaleprojects, generally costing over US$ 1.2 million.A total of 2,493 projects were supported by the five typesof funding agencies (Table 3-14), with resources totallingUS$ 135,101,655.In general, while national government organisations, stateresearch support foundations and local NGOs give priorityto a large number of projects with relatively low-level funding,overseas government agencies and internationalorganisations give priority to a relatively small number ofprojects with relatively higher costs (Table 3-14). While only2% of the projects were funded with external resources, thiscorresponded to 70% of the total funding among the 27sources surveyed.From 1985 to 1996, the 27 funding sources surveyedsupported varying numbers of projects, from one to 1,359,with amounts ranging US$ 32,540 to US$ 268,020 (Table 3-20). The number of projects financed annually varied from150 to slightly over 200 between 1985 and 1990. It increasedconsiderably from 1991/1992 onwards to reach 400 in 1995and a little less than 350 in 1996.Table 3-16. Number of biodiversity projects financed by Federal Government institutions.*No. of Average Average Averageprojects no. of amount/ amount/Financing institution Period projects/year project (US$) year (US$) Total (US$)FNMA 1 92-96 139 27.8 26,610 739,770 3,698,849FINEP 2 85-95 137 12.5 59,041 735,329 8,088,617BASA 3 89-95 70 10 33,300 333,000 2,330,998BNB 4 92-95 40 10 43,580 435,800 1,743,198SUDAM 5 89-96 26 3.3 68,298 221,969 1,775,753FBB 6 89-95 18 3 77,627 199,612 1,397,286* Data from CNPq, CAPES, EMBRAPA and IBAMA are not included.1Fundo Nacional do Meio Ambiente / National Environment Fund2Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos / Financing Agency for Studies and Projects3Banco da Amazônia / Bank of Amazonia4Banco do Nordeste do Brasil / Bank of the North-east of ong>Brazilong>5Superintendência de Desenvolvimento da Amazônia / Amazon Development Superintendency6Fundação Banco do Brasil / Bank of ong>Brazilong> FoundationSource: Instituto Sociedade, População e Natureza (ISPN). Levantamento e Caracterização de Projetos deBiodiversidade no brasil: Relatório Final de Pesquisa - Fase I e Fase II, Brasília, 1996.141

Ministry of EnvironmentAlthough the information provided by the fundinginstitutions did not always allow a precise identification ofthe geographical areas or biomes to which the resourceswere destined, it was evident that the south-east of ong>Brazilong>received the largest number of projects (45% of the total),while the north-east and the central-west received the lowestpercentage (11% each). Seventeen per cent were in the north.142Table 3-17. Number of biodiversity projects financed by nongovernmental organisations.Average Average AverageNo. of no. of amount/ amount/Financing institution Period projects projects/year project (US$) year (US$) Total (US$)World Wide Fund For Nature /World Wildlife Fund (WWF) 86-96 127 11.5 25,355 292,739 3,220,125Ford Foundation 86-96 25 2.3 104,103 236,599 2,602,585Conservation International 89-96 78 11.1 24,979 278,337 1,948,362Fundação O Boticário para aConservação da Natureza 91-96 188 31.3 6,127 191,979 1,151,876Source: Instituto Sociedade, População e Natureza (ISPN). Levantamento e Caracterização de Projetosde Biodiversidade no Brasil: relatório Final de Pesquisa - Fase I e Fase II, Brasília, 1996.Table 3-18. Number of projects financed by foreign governments.AverageNo. of amount/ Total amountCountry Period projects project (US$) (US$)Germany 92-95 5 6,508,000 32,540,000United Kingdom 89-95 9 2,202,000 19,818,000USA 89-95 7 1,490,467 10,433,269Japan 92-95 4 1,349,000 5,396,000France 92-95 9 514,000 4,626,000Italy 92-95 1 377,000 377,000Spain 92-95 1 374,000 374,000Canada 92-95 1 358,000 358,000Source: Instituto Sociedade, População e Natureza (ISPN). Levantamento eCaracterização de Projetos de Biodiversidade no Brail: Relatório Final dePesquisa - Fase I e Fase II, Brasília, 1996.Table 3-19. Number of projects financed by international organisations and multilateralagencies.AverageNo. of amount/ Total amountOrganisation Period projects project (US$) (US$)IDB 1 92-95 7 1,098,000 7,686,000ITTO 2 89-95 7 884,000 6,188,000UNDP 3 92-95 3 1,601,967 4,805,901GEF 4 92-96 12 22,572 270,8631Interamerican Development Bank (IDB)2International Tropical Timber Organisation (ITTO)3United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)4Small Projects Programme/Global Environment Facility (GEF)Source: Instituto Sociedade, População e Natureza (ISPN). Levantamento eCaracterização de Projetos de Biodiversidade no Brail: Relatório Final de Pesquisa -Fase I e Fase II, Brasília, 1996.This unequal distribution of the number of projects perregion in part reflects the contributions of the state researchfunding foundations which vary according the resourcesavailable to each. It also reflects the availability of researchscientists in each region. The state of São Paulo contributedone-third of the projects financed, having as it does therichest state research support foundation and the mostscientists. The five states with themost projects contributed 62% of thetotal (Table 3-21).The distribution is unequalbetween the states comprising eachregion. For example, in the south, 49%of the projects were in Paraná. In thesouth-east, 72% were in São Paulo. Inthe central-west, 68% were in the FederalDistrict. Projects are concentratedin the wealthiest areas and with norelation to their importance in terms ofbiodiversity. States such as MatoGrosso and Roraima, with highlydiversified ecosystems of greatsignificance in terms of the country’sbiodiversity, contributed with less than1% of projects.However, when considering theamount of funding, the larger-scaleprojects are mainly concentrated inthe north, on account of projectsrelated to the Amazon rain forest. Inrelation to the number of projectsfunded, the Amazon rain forest, theCerrado and the Atlantic foresttogether accounted for 49% ofprojects dealing with terrestrialbiomes. The biodiversity of aquaticand fluvial, coastal and marinesystems accounted for about onethirdof the projects financed. TheCaatinga (4%) and the Pantanal

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILTable 3-20. Total value of biodiversity projects financed, according to funding source (1985-1996).*SourceAmount(US$)1) Germany 32,540,0002) United Kingdom 19,818,0003) United States of America 10,433,2694) FAPESP 1 9,110,8445) FINEP 2 8,088,6176) IDB 3 7,686,0007) ITTO 4 6,188,0008) Japan 5,396,0009) UNDP 5 4,805,90110) France 4,626,00011) FNMA 6 3,698,84912) WWF 7 3,220,12513) Ford Foundation 2,602,58514) BASA 8 2,330,99815) FAP-DF 9 2,275,40516) FAPEMIG 10 2,194,12817) CI 11 1,948,36218) SUDAM 12 1,775,75319) BNB 13 1,743,19820) FBB 14 1,397,28621) Boticário Foundation 1,151,87622) FAPERGS 15 422,57623) Italy 377,00024) Spain 374,00025) Canada 358,00026) PPP-GEF 16 270,86327) FACEPE 17 268,020SourceNº of projects1) FAPESP 1 1,3592) O Boticário Foundation 1883) FNMA 6 1394) FINEP 2 1375) WWF 7 1276) FAPERGS 15 817) CI 11 788) BASA 8 709) FAP-DF 9 5510) FAPEMIG 10 4811) BNB 13 4012) FACEPE 17 3613) SUDAM 12 2614) Ford Foundation 2515) FBB 14 1816) PPP-GEF 16 1217) United Kingdom 918) France 919) United States of America 720) IDB 3 721) ITTO 4 722) Germany 523) Japan 424) UNDP 5 325) Italy 126) Spain 127) Canada 1* Data on CNPq, CAPES and EMBRAPA not included.1 Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) - São Paulo State ScienceResearch Foundation2 Financiadora de Pesquisas e Projetos (FINEP) - Financing Agency for Research and Projects3 Interamerican Development Bank (IDB)4 International Tropical Timber Organisation (ITTO)5 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)6 Fundo Nacional do Meio Ambiente (FNMA) National Environment Fund7 World Wildlife Fund / World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)8 Banco da Amazônia (BASA) Bank of Amazonia9 Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Distrito Federal (FAP-DF) - Federal District Research SupportFoundation10 Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) - Minas Gerais StateResearch Support Foundation11 Conservation International (CI)12 Superintendência de Desenvolvimento da Amazônia (SUDAM) - Superintendency for AmazonDevelopment13 Banco do Nordeste do Brasil (BNB) - Bank of the North-East of ong>Brazilong>14 Fundação Banco do Brasil (FBB) - Bank of ong>Brazilong> Foundation15 Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS) - Rio Grande doSul State Research Support Foundation16 Small Projects Programme/Global Environment Facility (GEF)17 Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Estado de Pernambuco (FACEPE) - Pernambuco StateResearch Support FoundationSource: Instituto Sociedade, População e Natureza (ISPN). Levantamento e Caracterização deProjetos de Biodiversidade no Brail: Relatório Final de Pesquisa - Fase I e Fase II, Brasília, 1996.143

Ministry of EnvironmentTable 3-21. Number of biodiversity projects financed by state(1985-1996).*No. ofState projects % Region1) São Paulo 522 33.5 South-east2) Minas Gerais 113 7.3 South-east3) Distrito Federal 111 7.1 Central-west4) Amazonas 106 6.9 North5) Paraná 92 5.9 South6) Pará 73 4.7 North7) Rio de Janeiro 67 4.3 South-east8) Acre 61 3.9 North9) Rio Grande do Sul 59 3.8 South10)Pernambuco 51 3.3 North-east11)Bahia 47 3.0 North-east12)Santa Catarina 37 2.4 South13)Espírito Santo 20 1.3 South-east14)Goiás 20 1.3 Central-west15)Rondônia 19 1.2 North16)Mato Grosso do Sul 18 1.1 Central-west17)Piauí 16 1.0 North-east18)Ceará 15 0.9 North-east19)Mato Grosso 15 0.9 Central-west20)Paraíba 13 0.8 North-east21)Rio Grande do Norte 13 0.8 North-east22)Amapá 11 0.7 North23)Sergipe 7 0.4 North-east24)Maranhão 6 0.4 North-east25)Alagoas 5 0.3 North-east26)Roraima 4 0.3 North27)Tocantins 3 0.2 North*Data from CNPq, CAPES and EMBRAPA not included.Source: Instituto Sociedade, População e Natureza (ISPN).Levantamento e Caracterização de Projetos de Biodiversidade noBrail: Relatório Final de Pesquisa - Fase I e Fase II, Brasília,1996.USA14%Japan7%Spain 1%Italy 1%France6%Germany44%Table 3-22. Number of biodiversity projectsfinanced by biome (1985-1996).*Biome/ Ecosystem Nº of Projects %Amazon rain forest 260 22Aquatic and fluvial systems 251 21Cerrado 159 14Coastal and marine systems 154 13Atlantic forest 148 13Other Woods and Forests 82 7Caatinga 42 4Mangroves 24 2Pantanal of Mato Grosso 22 2Others (caves, restingas,urban systems) 22 2* Data from CNPq, CAPES and EMBRAPAnot included.Source: Instituto Sociedade, População eNatureza (ISPN). Levantamento e Caracterizaçãode Projetos de Biodiversidade no Brail:Relatório Final de Pesquisa - Fase I e Fase II,Brasília, 1996.Table 3-23. Number of biodiversity projectsfinanced by topic (1985-1996).*Topic %Ecology 28Zoology 17Botany 10Sustainable management of biodiversity resources10Conservation biology in situ and ex situ 6Systematics and Taxonomy 4Inventory and surveys of biodiversity 4Environmental education 3Genetics 2Oceanography 2Others 14*Data from CNPq, CAPES and EMBRAPA notincluded.United Kingdom27%Figure 3-13. Financial resources provided on biodiversity projectsby foreign governments, 1989-1995.Source: Instituto Sociedade, População e Natureza - ISPN. 1996.Levantamento e Caracterização de Projetos de Biodiversidade noBrasil: Relatório Final de Pesquisa - Fase I e Fase II. Brasília.Source: Instituto Sociedade, População e Natureza(ISPN). Levantamento e Caracterização de Projetosde Biodiversidade no Brail: Relatório Final dePesquisa - Fase I e Fase II, Brasília, 1996.(wetlands) (2%), both biologically rich biomes, were not giventheir due (Table 3-22 and Figure 3-13).Analysis of the biodiversity projects by theme duringthis period demonstrated considerable concentration on justa few areas. Three of these, Ecology, Zoology and Botany,144

First national report for the ong>Conventionong> on Biological Diversity - BRAZILrepresented 55% of the projects financed (Table 3-23), andten of the principal areas accounted for 86% of the projects.Besides these ten main topics, projects in Agronomy,Biotechnology, Museology, and Animal and PlantPhysiology came to between one and 2% of the total. Another5% went to congresses, seminars and workshops, as well aspublications. The remaining 4% went to: Anthropology;Health Sciences; Soil Conservation; Biological Control;Demography; Law, Political Science and Sociology; SanitaryEngineering; Ethnobiology; Pharmacology; Plant Genetics;Phytopathology; Geography; Geology; Informatics;Limnology; Microbiology; Palynology; Fish-farming;Chemistry/Biochemistry; Remote Sensing; and VeterinaryScience/Zootechnology.Public agencies carried out most of the projects. Takentogether, public universities, public agencies (state and municipalenvironmental secretariats) and public researchinstitutions represented 84% of the total (Table 3-24).Universities represented 70%, owing principally to theprojects funded by FAPESP, 1,233 of which were carried outby universities. Even so, universities received only 5% ofthe total financing, since each grant was small. NGOs wereresponsible for 11% of the projects.The distribution of these projects over time (Figure 3-15)shows that from 1991 on there was an increase in the numberof projects financed, probably as a consequence of theTable 3-24. Number of biodiversityprojects by different agencies.*Agency Nº of ProjectsUniversities 1,490NGOs 228Public agencies 209Research Institutes 92Individuals 71Private companies 12Others 27Total 2,129* Data from CNPq, CAPES andEMBRAPA not includedSource: Instituto Sociedade,População e Natureza (ISPN).Levantamento e Caracterização deProjetos de Biodiversidade no Brail:Relatório Final de Pesquisa - Fase Ie Fase II, Brasília, 1996.Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) heldin Rio de Janeiro in 1992, when the ong>Conventionong> on BiologicalDiversity was ratified. The highest total in terms ofdisbursement, however, was in 1995.Although only five agencies gave information on unmetdemand, the data indicate that little more than 13% of theAtlanticforest13%Other forests7%Pantanal2%Mangroves2%Caatinga4%Others (caves, restings,urban systems)2%Amazon forest22%Marine and coastalsystems13%Cerrado14%Lakes andrivers21%Figure 3-14. Distribution of projects on biodiversity by biome from 27 funding sources during1985-1996.Source: Instituto Sociedade, População e Natureza - ISPN. 1996. Levantamento e Caracterizaçãode Projetos de Biodiversidade no Brasil: Relatório Final de Pesquisa - Fase I e Fase II. Brasília.145

Ministry of Environmentprojects submitted actually received funding (Table 3-25). Infinancial terms, only 3.5% was met (US$ 8.355 million), while96.5% failed obtain the resources requested (US$ 233.67million). The average budgets of the proposals not acceptedwas some 60% higher than that of the projects that wereaccepted.One of the problems in this first phase of the researchsurvey was that some funding sources, both public andprivate, preferred not to disclose the information requested.Importantly, this survey led to a system of storing andorganising information on the funding, distribution and typesof biodiversity projects.3.3.4 Other Financial MechanismsBesides these sources of funding, there are otherprogrammes and institutions which have been mentioned inthe course of this chapter on the implementation of Article 6of the CBD. They include, such as PROBIO, FUNBIO, PNMA,PADCT, PPG-7 and FNMA. The Kreditanstalt fürWiederaufbau - KfW of the Federal Republic of Germany,provides financial support for two important projects in thestates of São Paulo and Paraná.The first is the Atlantic Forest Preservation Project (Projetode Preservação da Mata Atlântica), which covers anarea of 17,300 km², from the Vale do Ribeira to the north of thestate of São Paulo, passing through the Serra do Mar StatePark, and including 39 municipalities. The project involves:1) Inspection and monitoring; 2) Consolidation of protectedareas; 3) Zoning and community participation and 4)Management co-ordination.The total expected cost of the project is equivalent to US$35,485,526. US$ 19,736,842 comes from KfW and US$15,748,684 from the São Paulo State Government. R$ 1,296,524has already been invested in the project.The second project seeks to create the necessaryorganisational conditions for the conservation, preservationand recovery of remaining areas of Atlantic forest andassociated ecosystems, including promoting socio-economicactivities of local communities which are sustainable andcompatible with conservation and the rational use of naturalresources. It covers areas of dense rain forest and associatedecosystems in 15 municipalities of the state of Paraná, and atotal area of 11,390 km². The total funding provided for theprogramme is R$ 19,596,838. US$ 7,746,978 of this is from thestate of Paraná, and US$ 11,849,860 from KfW.Table 3-25. Demand for biodiversity projects, met and unmet(1992 -1996)* by funding source.Source Met Unmet TotalNo. % No. %FACEPE 1 36 84 7 16 43FAPERGS 2 81 19 354 81 435PPP-GEF 3 12 7 151 93 163FUNBIO 4 10 1 1,073 99 1,083SUDAM 5 26 50 26 50 52WWF 6 127 12 277 78 404Total 292 13.4 1,888 86.6 2,180*Data from CNPq, CAPES and EMBRAPA not included.1 Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Estado de Pernambuco - FACEPEPernambuco State Research Support Foundation2 Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul(FAPERGS)Rio Grande do Sul State Research Support Foundation3 Small Projects Programme/Global Environment Facility (GEF)4 Fundo Brasileiro para a Biodiversidade (FUNBIO)ong>Brazilong>ian Fund for Biodiversity5 Superintendência de Desenvolvimento da Amazônia (SUDAM)Superintendency for Amazon Development6 World Wildlife Fund / World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)Source: Instituto Sociedade, População e Natureza (ISPN). Levantamentoe Caracterização de Projetos de Biodiversidade no Brail:Relatório Final de Pesquisa - Fase I e Fase II, Brasília, 1996.146

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