Teacher's Notes and Links to the National Curriculum

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Teacher's Notes and Links to the National Curriculum

if they give an odd one out that is not the obvious choice, they may still give a correct reason andthis is to be encouraged.Task 2This task gives the opportunity to link the Iguaçu Falls to other falls around the world, rankingthem in order and looking at similarities and differences. It also gives the opportunity to study othercountries in relation to Brazil, comparing and contrasting at all times.Task 3To test a student’s understanding of waterfall formation, the statements need to be put intochronological order. The task can be extended by asking students to draw a picture with eachstatement. The final result could take a storyboard format, with the statement providing anexplanation of the picture.Links to the National CurriculumThe following concepts from the 2008 Geography Programme of Study are addressed in this chapter:Place (a) Understanding the physical and human characteristics of real places.(b) Developing “geographical imaginations” of places.Space (b) Knowing where places and landscapes are located, why they are there, the patterns anddistributions they create, how and why these are changing and the implications for people.Scale (a) Appreciating different scales – from personal and local to national, international and global.Physical and human processes (a) Understanding how sequences of events and activities in thephysical and human worlds lead to change in places, landscapes and societies.Chapter 3: The Natural EnvironmentStarterPlay a power point you have constructed from web images. It has a series of slides on each ofthe main natural environments: equatorial rain forest, tropical grassland (savanna), semi-desert,swamplands. Play the power point and give pupils a matrix of 2 columns divided into 4 rows. Putthe 4 environments into the boxes in the first column. Pupils write down all the natural features theysee in the correct empty boxes.Pictures could be:Swamp: Tourists on horseback in the swamp; blue parrot; caiman; tourists canoeing;Http://www.opendoortur.com.brRain Forest: vegetation, wild lifeSavanna: grasslands, a farmSemi-desert: cactus; boy on donkey with dad; (Google images). They need to show the range fromgreen vegetation to desert and good farms to poor farms.3 Schools’ Pack – Brazil 2009


As a follow up activity to the role play and to check on pupil understanding you can organise adiscussion in pairs as follows: Have two rings of pupils – an inner ring and an outer ring. Theinner ring of pupils faces the outer ring so that each pupil is facing another. The topic to discussis: “Should the Brazilian Government continue to sell or lease land to developers?” The outer ringargues “yes” and the inner ring “no”. After a minute or two all pupils in the inner ring move 2 placesto the right. Repeat the process – the aim being that all pupils should be refining and developingtheir arguments based on the previous discussion. Repeat if you wish. Then change roles.Task 9 - DominoesOpenhttp://www.sln.org.uk/geography/Documents/Thinking/rainforests%20dominoes.docfrom the SLN (Staffordshire Learning Network) site. Issue cards to the class. The pupil who hasthe “Start” card reads the definition. The pupil with the correct term reads it out followed by thedefinition on their card…and so on.Good websites:http://www.amazonia.org.br/english/http://www.wri.orghttp://www.rain-tree.comhttp://library.thinkquest.org … and search for medicinal plants of the Amazon rainforest.http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/apr/27/amazon-rainforest-medicineand more about the medicinal plants, Brazilian explorers search “medicine factory” in the rainforest.http://news.mongabay.com/2007/1204-amazon_whrc.html This describes what the governmentis doing in terms of the carbon market and carbon offsetshttp://www.sln.org.uk/geography/enquiry/we26.htm a web enquiry based on whether or notto manage rainforest clearing.http://www.planetark.org/dailynewsstory.cfm?newsid=46723&newsdate=01-Feb-2008 Findthe article from this site looking at pros and cons of deforestation.http://www.nature.org/rainforests/explore/video.html two short video clips of Amazonforest and Atlantic foresthttp://stockfootage.bahatiproductions.com/stockfootage/Aerial several video clips of flyover in Pantanal regionhttp://www.videoclipscristianos.com/videos/index.php?en=youtube&q=Rainforest acollection of clips – up to 10 minutes – including rainforest sounds. Other clips set to music.http://www.pbs.org/journeyintoamazonia/web.html site that has links to other sites eg Yanomami,http://www.geographyatthemovies.co.uk/environment.html from Geography at the Moviessite. Scroll down the page to “Rainforests” with picture of meanders.http://www.mongabay.com/brazil.html Detailed article from 2006 about deforestation. Alsoloads of pictures. Links to excellent current articles about deforestation.Links to the National CurriculumThe following concepts from the 2008 Geography Programme of Study are addressed in this chapter:Place (a) understanding the physical and human characteristics of real places. (b) developing“geographical imaginations” of places.Space (b) Knowing where places and landscapes are located, why they are there, the patterns anddistributions they create, how and why these are changing and the implications for people.5 Schools’ Pack – Brazil 2009


Physical and human processes (a) Understanding how sequences of events and activities in thephysical and human worlds lead to changes in places, landscapes and societies.Environmental interaction and sustainable development (a) Understanding that the physicaland human dimensions of the environment are interrelated and together influence environmentalchange. (b) Exploring sustainable development and its impact on environmental interaction andclimate change.Chapter 4: Meet the peopleTask 1 urges students to view the table as more than just a set of figures. They are encouragedto think about the rate of increase through Brazil’s history and consider how the rate of populationincrease has increased and decreased over time. By producing the graph it will bring the figures tolife, and the follow-up paragraph will ensure that they think about what the figures mean rather thansimply copying. There is a cross-curricular link here with maths and the possibility of asking mathsteachers to use geographical data when covering graphs. Adding the labels encourages studentsto think about the reasons and this could be developed into a living graph.Task 2 encourages students to use geographical skills to analyse a photograph and answer the5W questions to fully understand the content. Not only are they to say what it is, but also to thinkabout why it’s there, who it’s important to, when it was built and where it is. Extension work couldexplore the part of the statue on a tourist trip to Brazil. Websites such ashttp://www.lonelyplanet.co.uk and htto://www.tripadvisor.co.uk give information aboutRio and reviews about people’s trips to the city and the statue. Students could be given the task towrite a tourist guide to Rio that features the statue.Task 3The website has a wealth of Brazilian recipes to try out. These could be given as an optionalhomework for those who wish to sample the taste of Brazil. There is also the option for crosscurricularlinks with food science departments. Perhaps there is the opportunity for studentsto spend a couple of weeks cooking Brazilian dishes at the same time as they are having theirgeography lessons on Brazil.Task 4This task gets students working in pairs to try and rank the reasons for choosing to settle near thecoast. It is designed to help students talk through the reasons for choice of settlement, get involvedin a discussion and reach shared conclusions. Following the pair work, students have the chanceto work on their own to justify why they have chosen the statement at the top (most important) andthe statement at the bottom (least important).Task 5The website features a range of Brazilian music that gives students the chance to sample whatthey are like. This gives them the chance to contrast it to their own musical choices. Brazilianmusic CDs are available from http://www.amazon.co.uk and provide a good backdrop to lessonson Brazil. Try playing them while students are completing tasks on Brazilian themes to stimulateaudio-learners.6 Teacher's Notes - KS3


Links to the National CurriculumThe following concepts from the 2008 Geography Programme of Study are addressed in this chapter:Place (a) Understanding the physical and human characteristics of real places.(b) Developing “geographical imaginations” of places.Scale (b) Making links between scales to develop understanding of geographical ideas.Interdependence (a) Exploring the social, economic, environmental and political connectionsbetween places.Cultural understanding and diversity (a) Appreciating the differences and similarities betweenpeople, places, environments and cultures to inform their understanding of societies andeconomies. (b) Appreciating how people’s values and attitudes differ and may influence social,environmental, economic and political issues, and developing their own values and attitudes aboutsuch issues.Chapter 5: Urban - Rural ContrastsTeacher notesTask 1You could play “Should I stay or Should I Go” by The Clash. There are plenty of cards in thisexercise. You could simplify it by taking out cards that are barriers to movement or just call themreasons not to moveTask 2In introducing the comparison alley there are many reasons you could raise with the pupils.Perhaps they themselves have moved as their parents have moved for jobs. They could thinkabout older relations leaving education to go for their first job. If they have connections like thisthen they can ask them the reasons and the problems. Will there be as many “push” factors as inBrazil? What about the barriers – house prices, journey to work etc?Task 3Read the following story to the pupils. There are six paragraphs. After each paragraph ask thepupils to draw a picture/symbols of what they think is being said. Each pupil divides a piece ofpaper into 6 squares and by the end of the story has constructed a story board.Romualdo, Maria and their four children live in a small farmhouse in a village 100 miles from Recifein the North East region of Brazil. They don’t own their farm and have to pay a share of what theyearn to the owner who lives in Recife. Therefore they don’t really feel like they want to put a lot ofeffort into making their farm better. The farm house is one storey high and hasn’t been looked afterwell. They own some chickens, a donkey, a small herd of goats for milk and curd cheese and twopigs. They grow crops like yams (a sweet potato), sweetcorn and cassava (a root crop) and somecotton to sell at the nearest town co-operative. But this year is the second without much rainfalland given the high temperatures in this semi-arid area they have struggled to get the crops to7 Schools’ Pack – Brazil 2009


grow well. The weather is very unstable: it is dry but every few years it rains too much, bursting theriver’s banks and flooding all the area. The money from the government they get to help them runthe farm is not enough to make ends meet for the whole family.The family decides to move to Recife. It is a six-hour bus ride because it stops at every village onthe way. It is all they can afford. Romualdo gets a job painting walls and cleaning cars. The childrenjoin a school straightaway but they only go in the mornings so play in the streets in the afternoon.Maria has to look after them, so she finds it hard to get a job.After six months Maria still hasn’t found a job so Romualdo goes to Rio de Janeiro to get a betterjob and send money back to the family. It is a 48-hour bus ride for him. He can’t afford the air fareeven though this would only take 2 hrs 45 minutes.Romualdo finds a job on a building site and lives at first in a house in the favela that is owned by afriend who used to be his neighbour back on the farm. It is very crowded and he wants to move outas quickly as he can. In a few months, he manages to get a small house of bricks in the favela andwants his family to join him.Six months later Maria has enough money sent by Romualdo and she and the children arrive inRio de Janeiro. The favela where they live is on a steep slope close to the city centre from wherethey can see lots of tall skyscrapers. Maria is a good cook. She meets a doctor on the beach wholikes her cooking. She offers her a job as a maid, cooking and helping to look after her elderlyparents, while she works in a hospital. Maria is happy as a maid. The wage is not great, but shehas a proper contract, which means she has paid holidays, weekends off, access to medical carefor her and the children and even the reassurance of a state pension when she gets old.Romualdo carries on working on the building site and they get enough money together to improvetheir house. As the houses in the favela are built close together he is building a second floor toget more space for his family. He says it is a start and as long as he works really hard and keepshis job then their life will get better. The children now go to school where they are given a goodmeal which is free and stay in the crèche until Maria or Romualdo pick them up. Maria likes thestability of their life in Rio and wants to stay. Romualdo misses working on the land and wants tobe his own boss again. He wants to save money to get back to the North East now that the regionis getting more prosperous. They decide to wait for the children to finish their education beforedeciding what to do.Links to the National CurriculumThe following concepts from the 2008 Geography Programme of Study are addressed in this chapter:Place (a) Understanding the physical and human characteristics of real places (b)Developing“geographical imaginations” of places.Space (a) Understanding the interactions between places and the networks created by flows ofinformation, people and goodsScale (a) Appreciating different scales – from personal and local to national…8 Teacher's Notes - KS3


Web Linkshttp://www.ft.com/reports/brazil-2009 the Financial Times reports on agriculture in Braziland other mattershttp://www.abiove.com.br/english/menu_us.html Brazilian Association of Vegetable Oil IndustriesLinks to National CurriculumThe following concepts from the 2008 Geography Programme of Study are addressed in this chapter:Place (a) Understanding the physical and human characteristics of real places.(b) Developing “geographical imaginations” of places.Space (b) Knowing where places and landscapes are located, why they are there, the patterns anddistributions they create, how and why these are changing and the implications for people.Interdependence (a) Exploring the social, economic, environmental and political connectionsbetween places. (b) Understanding the significance of interdependence in change, at all scales.Environmental interaction and sustainable development (a) Understand that the physicaland human dimensions of the environment are interrelated and together influence environmentalchange. (b) Exploring sustainable development and its impact on environmental interaction andclimate change.Chapter 9: Energy in BrazilTask 1The “Odd one out” has possible alternative answers – let pupils come up with alternatives.First line of my odd one out is HEP as it is the only renewable oneSecond line my odd one out is ethanol as it is the only one from living plants.Task 2Anagrams:Web leaner – renewableBeside oil - biodieselAcorn beasts – castor beansGran sauce – sugar caneAnt earing – ArgentinaI adore joiner – Rio de Janeiro12 Teacher's Notes - KS3


Task 3Heads and TailsRenewable resourceNon renewable resourceBiodieselHEPSolar powerEthanolThis resource can be replaced and used againOnce used, this resource cannot be replacedFuel used in cars that is made from crops that have seedsElectricity produced from running waterElectricity produced from energy from the sunFuel used in cars that is made from sugar caneTask 43 2 1 review: use boxes in the hierarchy. This is a plenary activity that can be used to assess thepupils’ understanding and asks them to look for links and connections.Web Linkshttp://www.biodiesel.gov.br/docs/cartilha_ingles.pdf report on the use of biodiesel.http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4581955.stm 2006 BBC news report about biofuelshttp://www.tompaine.com/articles/2007/03/19/burdening_brazil_with_biofuels.php Thebiofuel debate in Brazil. March 2007.http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/ba46f4c2-db47-11dc-9fdd-0000779fd2ac.html 2008 article aboutBolivian gas.http://www.latinbusinesschronicle.com/app/article.aspx?id=1282 nuclear planshttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6290234.stm nuclear BBC reporthttp://english.unica.com.br/ main Brazilian Association of Sugarcane and Ethanol Producershttp://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/175fb94c-6a39-11de-ad04-00144feabdc0.html Financial Timesreport with an interactive map for modern energy13 Schools’ Pack – Brazil 2009


Task 2As well as fact file task, this will also develop the student’s knowledge for the countries withinSouth America. This task provides teachers with a great opportunity for display work. The newlydesigned flags of the UNASUR could be displayed with the 12 nation flags in a celebration of theBrazil unit.Task 3A written task with clear literacy links, this task also gives teachers the chance to draw severalsections of the Brazilian website together with one piece of work. As well as looking at Brazil’sconnections with other countries, it also important for students to look at farming, tourism andindustry to write this letter. This task, then, could be set as a revision exercise or as a finale to aunit which has considered all of the sections.Links to the National CurriculumThe following concepts from the 2008 Geography Programme of Study are addressed in this chapter:Place (a) Understanding the physical and human characteristics of real places.(b) Developing “geographical imaginations” of places.Space (a) Understanding the interactions between places and the networks created by flows ofinformation, people and goods.Scale (a) Appreciating different scales – from personal and local to national, international and global.Interdependence (a) Exploring the social, economic, environmental and political connectionsbetween places. (b) Understanding the significance of interdependence in change, at all scales.Environmental interaction and sustainable development (a) Understand that thephysical and human dimensions of the environment are interrelated and together influenceenvironmental change.Cultural understanding and diversity (a) Appreciating the differences and similarities betweenpeople, places, environments and cultures to inform their understanding of societies and economies.Chapter 12: Globalisation - how Brazil is making connections with the rest of the world.Task 1This is a small webquest to enable pupils to appreciate the links between Brazil and othercountries – globalisation. Another aspect of globalisation is political geography. Arguably Brazil isnow a political heavyweight and is certainly a developing world leader. Maybe it is no longer anunderperforming giant. The other rapidly expanding countries in the BRIC collection (Russia, Indiaand China) are burdened with security concerns.16 Teacher's Notes - KS3


Task 3The story board is where you divide your paper into 6 or 8 boxes which you number. Then thepupils decide what picture and writing they will put in each box to illustrate the order of the process.Task 4This exercise makes the lesson on orange juice far more memorable. It also aims to encourage theuse of descriptive writing. You will have to decide whether to use carton orange juice that is with orwithout juicy bits!Task 5The unusual amount for Belgium is because it has 3 huge frozen orange distributing firms egTropicana in Zeebrugge who then send it to other EU countries.Links:http://www.sln.org.uk/geography/globalisation.htm for an A level essay on the pros andcons of globalisationhttp://www.geographyatthemovies.co.uk/development.html is a movie maker presentation.Scroll down the page to “Globalisation” movie by Liz Cowans. NB this is general world scale anddoes not focus on Brazil but defines globalisation nicely and asks questions of the process.Links to the National CurriculumThe following concepts from the 2008 Geography Programme of Study are addressed in this chapter:Place (a) Understanding the physical and human characteristics of real places.(b) Developing “geographical imaginations” of places.Space (a) Understanding the interactions between places and the networks created by flows ofinformation, people and goods.Scale (a) Appreciating different scales – from personal and local to national, international and global.Interdependence (a) Exploring the social, economic, environmental and political connectionsbetween places. (b) Understanding the significance of interdependence in change, at all scales.Chapter 13 - Recent changes and the futureTask 1This can be displayed in the classroom and peer assessed. Make sure the pupils know theassessment criteria you want to use.Task 2This task can be quite short if you just do the first part, or it can stretch over a few lessons if youchoose the longer option. You could ask pupils to role play the actual TV programme. This couldhave a studio presenter and a reporter in Brazil interviewing Brazilians. The script must show theconflict that exists in each of the topics of choice. The aim will be to show that there are no easy,simplistic answers to the issues.Task 317 Schools’ Pack – Brazil 2009

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