2012-2013 School Year 1 Semester Final Exam Study ... - Period 1

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2012-2013 School Year 1 Semester Final Exam Study ... - Period 1

Biology I: MacawExam Date: ___________________2012-2013 School Year1 st Semester Final Exam Study Guide Test Date/Time: _______________The final exam will be a comprehensive multiple choice Scantron exam. All the topics we havecovered during the first semester will be fair game. You are expected to know the informationcovered in the lecture outlines (notes), vocabulary worksheets, diagrams, labs, quizzes andreviews. Try to concentrate on learning the main points that were stressed when we coveredeach of these topics. There will be approximately 150 questions on the exam. Therefore, it isimportant that you know the information in order to finish the exam in the 90-minute classperiod.Semester Grade CalculatorSemester Grade Points1 st Quarter % X 4 = _____________ A = 900 - 1000 points2 nd Quarter % X 4 = _____________ B = 800 - 899 pointsSemester Exam % X 2 = _____________ C = 700 - 799 pointsTopics CoveredTotal = _____________ D = 600 - 699 pointsF = 0 - 599 pointsUnit I: Cell Biology – Chapters 1, 2.4, 7, Parts of 8.1-8.2, Parts of 9.1-9.3, 10 and 11 Microscope parts, function, uses, types Cell structure and function (animal vs. plant), all organelles, be able to label diagrams Diffusion and osmosis Mitosis and Meiosis, be able to label and recognize diagramsUnit II: Genetics – Chapters 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 DNA & RNA – structure and function, label diagrams, DNA replication Gene expression – transcription and translation Mendelian genetics (laws, 1 & 2 trait problems, sex-linked problems, pedigrees,incomplete dominance problems, codominance problems) Genetic engineering and biotechnology, mutations (types/effects), genetic disorders,ethical issuesUnit III: Evolution – Chapters 16, 17, 19 and 18 Darwin vs. Lamarck, natural selection and speciation Origins of Life – theories, experimental evidence, traits of early Earth Classification – importance, binomial nomenclature, kingdoms vs. domains-1-


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Unit 1 – Cellular Biology1. The information gathered from observation is called evidence or _______________________________.2. What is a hypothesis? _________________________________________________________________.3. In science, a hypothesis is useful only if it can be _________________________________.4. The idea that life can arise from nonliving matter is called ____________________________________.5. What are variables in an experiment? _____________________________________________________.6. When a variable is kept unchanged in an experiment, it is said to be __________________________.7. How did Pasteur settle the spontaneous generation argument? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.8. The theory that new organisms come from existing organisms is called __________________________.9. What is biology? _____________________________________________________________________10. What is a cell? _______________________________________________________________________11. What is homeostasis? __________________________________________________________________12. When collecting data and doing experiments, what system of measurements do most scientists use?_____________________________13. What are compound light microscopes? _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________14. What did the German botanist Matthias Schleiden conclude? __________________________________15. What did the German scientist Theodor Schwann conclude? ___________________________________16. How did Rudolph Virchow summarize his years of work? _____________________________________17. What are the three components that make up the cell theory?a.b.c.18. Complete the table about structures that are common to most cells.Structure Description / FunctionCell MembraneCell WallNucleusCytoplasm-3-


19. Complete the table about the two categories of cells.Term Definition ExamplesOrganism whose cell lack nucleiOrganism whose cells contain nuclei20. What is an organelle? __________________________________________________________________21. What are most plant cell walls made of? ___________________________________________________22. What important molecules does the nucleus contain? _________________________________________23. The visible material within the nucleus is called ____________________________________________.24. What are chromosomes? _______________________________________________________________25. What is the cytoskeleton? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________26. What is the difference between rough ER and smooth ER? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________27. Complete the table by writing the name of the cell part beside its structure/function. Cell parts may beused more than once.Structure/FunctionCell PartClosely stacked, flattened membrane sacsSites of protein synthesisFolded membrane that forms a network of interconnected compartments in the cytoplasmClear fluid inside the cellOrganelle that manages cell functions in eukaryotic cellsContains chlorophyll, a green pigment that traps energy from sunlightDigests excess or worn-out cell parts, food particles, and invading viruses or bacteriaSmall bumps located on the endoplasmic reticulumProvides temporary storage of food, enzymes and waste productsFirm, protective structure that gives the cell its shape in plants, fungi, most bacteria & protistsProduce a usable form of energy for the cell; uses energy from food to form high energycompoundsModifies proteins chemically, then repackages themContains inner membranes arranged in stacks of membranous sacs called granaPlant organelles that store starches or lipids or that contain pigments28. What is an enzyme and what is the function? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________29. What is ATP used for? _____________________________________________________________-4-


30. Complete the concept map on transport of materials through membranes. Use the words or phrases once:simple diffusion, energy, higher concentration, lower concentration, osmosis, passive, facilitateddiffusion.31. Complete the table by checking the correct column for each statement.Causes a cell to swellStatementDoesn’t change the shape of a cellCauses osmosisCauses a cell to shrinkIsotonicSolutionHypotonicSolutionHypertonicSolution-5-


32. Complete the table.Type of Solution Isotonic Hypertonic HypotonicEffect on cell placed insolution:33. Complete the following table by writing Yes or No in each square.Requires energy inputMoves molecules against their concentrationgradientsRequires a membrane proteinSodium-potassium pump is an exampleEndocytosis is a type ofExocytosis is a type ofActive Transport Facilitated Transport Diffusion34. The process that occurs in the chloroplasts is called _____________________________________.35. Label the structures on the illustration of the plant cell.36. What structures do only animal cells contain? ______________________________________________-6-


37. What structures do only plant cells contain? ________________________________________________38. What is diffusion? ____________________________________________________________________39. What is important about a selectively permeable membrane? _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________40. What is osmosis? _____________________________________________________________________41. What is facilitated diffusion? ____________________________________________________________42. The energy-requiring process that moves molecules and ions across a cell membrane against theconcentration gradient is called ____________________________________________.43. Complete the concept map below.Cellsinclude1.Animal Cellsincludeinclude2. 3. 4. 5.NucleusPhotosynthesisSupport &Protection6.Releasing usableenergy for the cellProducingProteins44. Identify the phases of mitosis. Use these choices: telophase, metaphase, anaphase, prophase-7-


65. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.nucleus genetic material chromosomes packedidentical chromatin vanish cell divisionThe process by which two cells are produced from one cell is call __________________________. Thetwo cells are _____________________ to the original cell. Early biologists observed that just before celldivision, several short, stringy structures appear in the _____________________. These structures seemedto ______________________ soon after cell division. These structures, which contain DNA and becamedarkly colored when stained, are now called _____________________. Scientists eventually learned thatchromosomes carry _________________________, which is copied and passed on from generation togeneration. Chromosomes normally exist as ________________________, long strands of DNA wrappedaround proteins. However, before a cell divides, the chromatic becomes tightly _____________________.66. Complete the following concept map using the following words:Anaphase Cytokinesis G 1 G 2M phase Prophase Metaphase1.5.6.S phaseThe CellCycle2.Mitosis7.3.Telophase4.-9-


67. What is meiosis? _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________68. When does crossing over occur? _________________________69. Draw an example of crossing-over:BeforeAfterUnit II - Genetics70. Label the diagram using these choices: nucleotide, deoxyribose, phosphate group, nitrogen base,hydrogen bonds, base pair.71. Complete the table below comparing DNA to RNA.# of Strand(s) Sugar Bases ShapeDNARNA72. Complete the pairs found in DNA and RNA:DNAAdenine pairs withThymine pairs withGuanine pairs withCytosine pairs withRNAAdenine pairs withUracil pairs withGuanine pairs withCytosine pairs with-10-


structurestructureContains sugar Contains sugarBases BasesFound inFound inDifferent types? Different types?73. Complete the concept map to show how DNA and RNA are similar and different. Use the followingwords only once: ACGT, ACGU, DNA, deoxyribose, double chain, mRNA, ribose, yes, no, nucleus,nucleus and cytoplasm, RNA, rRNA, tRNA.NucleicAcidssinglechain74. Complete the following concept map showing the chain of events that occur as DNA codes forRNA, which guides the synthesis of proteins, the central dogma of biology. Use the termsbelow: cytoplasm, mRNA, ribosome, rRNA, helicase, stop codon, template, uracil,transcription-in nucleus, translation-in cytoplasmDNA is unzipped in the nucleus by (1)__________________.RNA polymerase moves down the (2)___________________ DNA strand as the DNAunwinds.As the mRNA is made, (3)_________________ is incorporated instead of thymine.(9)_________________Processed mRNA moves out of the nucleus and into the (4)_________________.The mRNA connects to the (5)__________________, and tRNA carries the amino acidmethionine to the start codon. More tRNA carries the amino acids to the ribosomeaccording to the codons on the mRNA.The (6) _________________ in the ribosome catalyzes the bonds between amino acids.(10)_________________The ribosome moves along the mRNA until it reaches a(7)________________________.The (8)____________________ is released from the tRNA, and the ribosome subunitsdisassemble.-11-


Write the letter from the pedigree below that describes each phrase.92. ___________ A person that has the trait93. ___________ A male94. ___________ A carrier of the trait95. ___________ Represents marriage96. ___________ A female97. ___________ Connects parents to their children98. Study the diagram until you understand the procedure. Put the number of the steps in thediagram by its description in the list of steps, which are not in the correct order. Then answerthe questions below.Steps in the Procedure (Not in order)______ Human gene is spliced into plasmid.______ Bacteria cell with new gene divides.______ Plasmid is removed from bacteria cell and cut open.______ Gene is cut from human DNA.______ Bacteria cell division continues.______ Plasma is put back into bacteria cell.-13-


Complete the following statements by writing the correct term or phrase in the space99. A new strand of DNA is formed when DNA fragments from different species of organisms arespliced together is called ____________________________________.100. __________________________________ are used in the laboratory to cut strands of DNA betweenspecific nucleotides into fragments.101. Small circular forms of bacterial DNA are called __________________________.102. The process of allowing cells to reproduce in order to obtain a large number of identical cells iscalled ___________________________.103. The process by which certain bacteria can absorb nitrogen from the atmosphere and convert it to aform that may be used by plants is called ____________________________________.104. Manipulation of the genomes of plants, animals or people with the goal of increasing their health orproductivity is known as _______________________________________.Unit III - EvolutionMultiple Choice: Choose the best answer for the following statements.105. _____The scientific name of an organism is made up ofa. family and species.b. order and genus.c. genus and species.d. phylum and species.106. _____Bacteria do NOT belong to what domaina. Archeabacteriab. Eubacteriac. Eukaryad. None of the above107. _____Eukaryotic, multi-cellular heterotrophic organisms that may or may not have backbones aremembers of the kingdoma. Protistac. Planteb. Fungid. Animalia108. _____When members of a species are separated to where they cannot interbreed isa. genetic driftc. gradualismb. convergent evolutiond. reproductive isolation109. _____A new species will have an increased chance of survival if ita. occupies a new nichec. has no specific nicheb. shares a niched. punctuated equilibrium110. _____Darwin’s finches are an excellent example ofa. speciation.b. genetic recombination.c. artificial selection.d. convergent evolution.-14-


111. _____According to the fossil record, at several times in the past, huge numbers of organisms havedisappeared suddenly, this is explained by a phenomenon known asa. mass extinctionc. genetic driftb. gradualismd. punctuated equilibrium112. _____A group of similar looking organisms that breed with each other and produce fertile offspringmake up aa. nichec. populationb. gene poold. species113. _____The genetic equilibrium of any population may be upset by each of the following excepta. isolationc. genetic driftb. gene frequencyd. mass extinction114. _____Related organisms may become less alike bya. adaptationb. convergent evolutionc. divergent evolutiond. artificial selection115. _____Each of the following is part of Darwinian theory of evolution excepta. survival of the fittestc. natural selectionb. struggle for existenced. artificial selection116. _____Lamarck’s assumption that organs that are used increase in size while organs that are notused decrease in size is summarized asa. desire to changec. use and disuseb. analogous structuresd. passing on acquired traits117. _____Occasionally, brief periods of rapid change occur between long periods of stability accordingto the theory ofa. punctuated equilibriumc. convergent evolutionb. gradualismd. genetic drift118. _____Lyell’s work affected Darwin’s thinking by presenting new information abouta. the passing of acquired traitsc. overpopulationb. Earth’s aged. artificial selection119. _____The success an organism has in passing on its genes isa. reproductionb. fitnessc. speciationd. evolution120. _____A genetic change in a population will remain if the changea. decreases speciationc. increases fitnessb. decreases fitnessd. increases speciation121. _____To demonstrate that microorganisms entered the flasks along with dust particles from the air,Pasteura. broke off the necks of the flasks.c. added more broth to the flasks.b. sealed the necks of the flasks.d. removed the broth from the flasks.-15-


122. _____The change in species over timea. fitness.b. adaptation.c. evolution.d. diversity.123. _____The theory that organisms with the best adaptations and fitness will survive and reproduce isa. natural selectionc. common descentb. homologous structuresd. competition124. _____The first major change in life on Earth occurred with the development of a modern form ofa. asexual reproductionc. photosynthesisb. sexual reproductiond. respiration125. _____Compared with earlier forms of photosynthesis, today’s plants substitutea. H 2 O for H 2 Sc. O 2 for CO 2b. H 2 S for H 2 Od. CO 2 for O 2126. _____The sum of all chemical reactions that occur in a living organism isa. cellular respirationc. anaerobic respirationb. aerobic respirationd. metabolismChoose the answer from the word bank that best completes each statement or phrase.adaptive radiationartificial selectionbiogenesisconvergent evolutioneukaryotefitnessgenetic driftgeographic isolationgradualismnatural selectionnicheprokaryoterelative frequencyreproductive isolationspontaneous generation127. Adaptations are genetically controlled characteristics that increase an organism’s _________________.128. Divergent evolution is also known as _______________________.129. If an organism contains organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplast it must be a(n) ____________.130. When organisms are separated by physical barriers they are experiencing _____________________.131. The hypothesis that life arose from non-life is called _______________________.132. Different species produce organisms with similar appearances and behavior during _______________.133. ___________________ states that evolutionary change occurs over a long time.134. How often an allele occurs in a population relative to other alleles is the _______________________.135. Survival of the fittest is also known as ______________________________.136. People allow only organisms with desired traits to reproduce in _______________________.137. The random change in the frequency of a gene in a population is known as ______________________.138. An organism’s role and place in the environment is its ______________________________.-16-

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