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BeyondEasyProfessor Jeff FrenchFrom easy choices todesired & demandedhealthy choices:

ContentMy thesisMaking it hardMaking it easyMaking it desirableSummary

My thesis:We are at acritical point inassessing whatgovernmentscan and shoulddo to promotesocial good.


Making iteasy isgrabbing theattention ofPolicy Makers

Fear of Loss (Prospect theory)We are optimistic but risk averseWe over value small, sure, shortterm gainsWe underestimate uncertain longterm lossesWe are very loss averseDaniel Kahneman,a psychologist won theNobel Prize for pointing outthat economic choices arenot so rational

We have to use more thanLogic & Rationality.This means making easy

“nudge” Olympics, where localsand visitors have been coaxedrather than coerced

The common social policy mantraChoiceArchitecture

Easy is goodbut notsufficient

People don’t do things just becausethey are easy

The sociallygood choice /behaviour =Easy, Demandedand Valued

No Magic Bulletbutthere is aSystematic Processthat delivers a biggerimpact …


The Social Marketing Customer TriangleBehaviourBehaviour Theory & Behavioural GoalsINSIGHTCustomerMethod MixIntervention mix & Marketing mixAudienceSegmentationFrench & Blair Stevens 2006


Overstated death of capitalism andthe market

You can trustme I work inSocialMarketing

How can we collectively create policy,systems, environments, products andservices that make the positive socialchoice the easy, desirable and valuedchoice?

My thesisMarketing is apowerful toolfor social goodespecially atthis point inhistory.

Our Big Problem:The on-goingmisrepresentationand misapplicationof marketing in manyparts of the not forprofit sector andsocial sector

Success will come from:Embedding Marketingprinciples in Socialprogrammes, Policy,Strategy and Operationaldelivery

What we know

Our world is changing fast

Wicked social drag factors:Chronic and acute diseaseMental healthLack of educationInformation asymmetryDegradation of social capitalEnvironmental changePovertyInequality

Small behaviours Big Difference


Are you listening orlecturing?28

S.A.P.Spray and PrayS.P.L.A.T.Some PostersLeaflets App’s & TV(Thanks Alan Tapp and Co)

Better useof publicfundsServe thepeoplebetter

We should be optimisticPositive Change is Possible

From Poor and Sickto Rich and Healthy in 200 years

Generallytrusted to tellthe truth?

INCENTIVESGovernment should provide incentives…Tend to support/strongly supportAverage over all four policy areasChinaRussiaSaudi ArabiaSouth AfricaMexicoTurkeyIndiaIndonesiaPolandBrazilHungaryArgentinaAustraliaItalySouth KoreaCanadaSpainBelgiumGreat BritainGermanyFranceJapanUnited StatesSweden95%94%93%92%92%91%91%90%90%89%88%88%88%87%87%86%84%83%82%80%80%78%74%73%Base: c.500 - 1,000 residents aged 16-64 (18-64 in the US and Canada) in each country, November 2010Source: Ipsos Global @dvisor

OPTIONAL LEG.Government should make it more expensive/more difficult…% Tend to support/strongly support (average over all four policy areas)ChinaIndiaIndonesiaS ArabiaTurkeyRussiaSouth KoreaBrazilMexicoPolandArgentinaItalySouth AfricaHungaryJapanCanadaBelgiumSpainAustraliaGreatSwedenFranceGermanyUSA46%88%87%86%82%79%78%72%71%70%70%70%68%68%67%67%64%63%62%62%61%60%59%55%Base: c.500 - 1,000 residents aged 16-64 (18-64 in the US and Canada) in each country, November 2010Source: Ipsos Global @dvisor

MANDATORY LEG.Government should ban…Tend to support/strongly supportSaudi ArabiaIndiaIndonesiaChinaRussiaTurkeyMexicoItalySouth KoreaPolandArgentinaBrazilJapanSouth AfricaHungaryCanadaSpainAustraliaFranceBelgiumGermanyGreat BritainSwedenUSA33%75%72%69%68%66%64%63%63%62%60%56%53%53%52%52%51%49%49%43%87%87%86%84%Base: c.500 - 1,000 residents aged 16-64 (18-64 in the US and Canada)in each country, November 2010Source: Ipsos Global @dvisor

Strongly support/tend to supportThe wealthier the nation the less likely they are tofavour government interventionThe government should make the behaviour more difficult/more expensive (optional legislation)90%85%80%75%70%65%60%55%50%45%40%IndiaChinaIndonesiaBrazilSouth AfricaTurkeyMexicoArgentinaRussiaPolandHungarySaudi ArabiaSouth KoreaBelgiumSpainAustraliaUnitedFrance KingdomR 2 = 0.7030 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000ItalyJapanGDP per capita (PPP) (current int'l $)GermanyCanadaSwedenUnitedStatesIpsos Global @dvisor;World Bank 2009Base: c.500 - 1,000 residents aged 16-64 (18-64 in the US and Canada) in each country, November 2010

MICHAEL SANDELNEW CITIZENSHIPA new politics of thecommon goodmore scrupulouspoliticiansmore demandingidea of what it meansto be a citizen

The rise of thedemandingscepticalcitizen/consumerJohn Clarke et alPine Forest Press 2007

Citizens want to be part of thesolution. They are saying to us:I do not believe youI do not trust youListen to meI am in control nowHelp me solve the problems

Citizens are demanding•Co-production•Co- design•Co-delivery•Social media marketing•Viral marketing•Permission Marketing•Prosumers•Relationship Marketing•Joint value creation•Etc:

Many of ourinstitutionsare nowstruggling toadapt to amore complexworld.

The New Landscape of successNew (And not so new) ThinkingComplex systems thinkingSocial DesignSustainable DevelopmentLiberal PaternalismBehavioural economicsSocial NetworkingInequality / Spirit LevelGenetic markers for behaviourSocial NormingSocial CapitalSocial MathsUrban designCrowd behaviourNeural science, behaviour info processingDuel Systems theoryPublic ValueCorporate Social ValueEvolutionary psychologyCo creationProcess ReengineeringBehavioural GeographyCommunications scienceNeo Materialism V Psycho social theory ofinequality and harmNew (And not so new) InterventionsHealth coalition buildingSocial DesignIntegrated approaches to inequality reductionSolutogenic analysisDefault options solutionsPolicy integration, whole systems solutionsAssets Mapping and community asset buildingCommunity planning and designPROMSCorporate Social Value CreationPeer support interventionsVFM, ROSI, CBA and Social Return on Investment SORICritical thinking trainingSocial mediaDemarketing (Anti Marketing)Social ProofingSocial FranchisingCo creationSocial designResilience developmentMindless choice solutionsIncentives and conditional cash paymentsNeural MarketingViral Marketing

We need to use afull mix ofForms and Types ofintervention

The 5 domain clustersControlde-CIDES influencing behaviour framework©Rules Requirements Monitoring EnforcementPolice Regulate LegislateTreat Screen Incentives Dis-incentivise,InformCommunicateMake awareAdvise Highlight SignalRemind TriggerDesignPhysical environment Systems, Policy, ServiceTechnology ProductsEducateEngageMobiliseMotivate Inspire Critical consciousnesBuild skills (analytical & practical) TeachSupportAssist Provide service Care SupportAdvice Advocate Nurture

The value/cost exchange matrix© $ Primary Forms of interventioneg: a coffee fortaking a restActiveDecisionConscious / Consideredeg: A FineIncentiveHugSmackDisincentiveNudgeShoveeg: A default savingschemeAutomatic / UnconsciousPassiveDecisione.g: Carbon Tax


Making itHard

New York ban on large-size sugary drinks beingsold in restaurants and other eateries.• Violate the law and facea $200 (£124) fine.• 60% of New Yorkers wereagainst the measure. NewYork Times poll in August 2012DesignShove

Gold coast public toiletDesignShove




Minimum pricingUsing PriceSignalsShoveControl45pper unitNicola SturgeonScotland's health secretary,

Shove Inform

Making itEasy

ClearDisplayPrimedIdeaRepeatedExperienceEASEGoodMoodFeelsFamiliarFeels TrueFeels GoodFeelseffortless

Great design can promptthe right behaviourDesignNudge

Move the broccoli tothe start of the queueRename the foodHide the ice cream.Close the lidShrink the bowlUse fruit bowls notstainless steelOffer a saladPay cash for desert notaccepted on cardsMove salad bar awayfrom wallNudgeSupportMake an express line thatemphasis on healthy products

Creating supportive environmentsNudgeSupport

Commit to clearlabelling andinformationHugInform



Making itDesirable

PerceivedAdvantageValued byothersAdmirationDESIREExcitementNoveltySelf EsteemPleasure Joy French SSM

Rest and Revive Queensland Bruce HighwayHugSupport

Lower price forlow alcoholcontent beerDesignHugNicola SturgeonScotland's health secretary,

The targetaudience?HugInform

Lazy TownSporticus andStephanie makingexercise fun andthe norm foryoung childrenaround the worldHugEducate

GIVE IT UP FOR BABY£12.50 per week is paid for every week awoman demonstrates she is smoke-free.Incentive is redeemed via a NationalEntitlement Card at local ASDAsupermarkets.Year one, 55 mothers had quit in Dundeeand a total of 140 had quit across Tayside.SupportHug


What Social Marketing Delivers:

How can we collectively create policy,systems, environments, products andservices that make the positive socialchoice the easy, desirable and valuedchoice?

Lets work withpolicycolleagues andcitizens to builda moreresponsivemodel of socialdevelopment


HugSmackShoveNudgeControlInformDesignEducateSupportDefault PolicyPreferenceDriven by:EvidenceA neutral stance to selection ofappropriate mixDataInsightEthics

To succeed we need to move from:‘Expert defined Product / Service’Model of social programmes‘Value to Citizen’Model

Social Marketing can helpdevelop more effective social policy

Many ThanksHope to see you in:Lisbon November 2012Toronto April

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