Involving the Public Resource Pack - Wolverhampton Partnership

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Involving the Public Resource Pack - Wolverhampton Partnership

Involving the Public Resource Packdesigned and printed by central reprographics CE 507 10/03


Involving the Public Resource PackContents1. IntroductionWho is it for?Why do we need a Resource Pack?How this pack has been developed.2. BackgroundThe importance of involving the public in decision makingLadder of participationApproachesLink to the Community and Public Involvement StrategyContents3. TechniquesCitizens’ JuriesCitizens’ PanelsCommunity and Stakeholders PanelsFocus GroupsSurveys (including questionnaires)Use of the Web SiteWhole Systems4. Community Initiatives- working with communities and neighbourhood groupsPlanning for RealAction PlanningCommunity ArtsOther TechniquesCommunity Researchers/Evaluators5. Working with specific groupsInvolving Children & Young PeopleInvolving Older PeopleInvolving People with DisabilitiesInvolving Non-UsersInvolving Black & Minority Ethnic Communities


Involving the Public Resource PackContentsAppendices• Community and Public Involvement Strategy• Commissioning Consultants• Community Profiling• Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis• References• Contacts• Acknowledgments


Involving the Public Resource PackIntroductionWho is it for?This is the Second stage in developing resource materials on public involvement for use bystaff and colleagues in public agencies and the voluntary sector.Why do we need a Resource Pack?• To provide information about the range of methods that can be used for publicinvolvement in decision making.• To develop our work with communities by improving the mechanisms we use to listen totheir views and ideas.• To identify people within the public agencies and the voluntary sector who haveexperience of the different techniques and are able to advise on how to use themeffectively.• To help staff find the most appropriate method for the work they are engaged in.• To provide an outline of the stages of using the main techniques.• To provide relevant reading materials about the different techniques.How this pack has been developedThis Resource Pack is the latest publication by the Council's City Wide Involvement Network.The work on identifying the different techniques began in 1998 in the publication 'Involvingthe Public - Building New Partnerships’. This publication takes the process a stage further byexamining the key techniques and strategies in more detail.The sections have been written by members of the group and colleagues from otherorganisations who have experience of using the different techniques.It does not provide details about all the methods of involving the public because this wouldduplicate existing publications that already provide this information very effectively (and areidentified in this Pack).What we hope you will find is that the Pack provides details of the techniques from theperspective of colleagues who have tested them out and are able to present the steps theyrecognise are required to achieve the best results.Introduction


Involving the Public Resource PackIntroductionWe have not been able to include all the details about each technique. We would suggestyou supplement the information in the Pack by contacting people who have relevantexperience.We do not see this Pack as the end process but the next stage in providing staff and otherswho are involved with residents in the City with useful information. We intend to revise thePack and update it. You can assist us with this by providing feedback on the usefulness of thispublication and additional information that would be helpful.In addition, if you try one of the techniques and feel there are additions that should be madeto the information in the Pack please let us know by contacting the City Wide InvolvementNetwork on Tel: (01902) 551885/554918.Introduction


Involving the Public Resource PackBackgroundThe importance of involving the public in decision makingPublic involvement and participation is based on the principle that local people should beable to influence and be involved in the decisions and policies that affect their lives.The following have been identified as the benefits that have been derived from involvingpeople:• Residents of a neighbourhood have detailed knowledge and experience of living in thatcommunity and are therefore in a position to make valuable contributions todevelopments affecting their area.• Members of marginalised or excluded groups are able to explain the effects of thoseexperiences and the ways their disengagement might be tackled.• More effective decisions about change within communities can be reached by listening tothe views and ideas of local people.• Local people are in the best position to engage other relevant people in a process ofchange within a community.• Developments within communities are more likely to be sustained if local people areinvolved.Background


Involving the Public Resource PackBackgroundApproachesThe following are the key elements that should be included in any involvement process:• A purpose that can be clearly explained;• A plan for the process;• Discussion with colleagues and potential participants about the plan;• Honesty about the boundaries, limitations and constraints to the process;• Identify the strategies for including marginalised sections of the community;• Ensuring that the process builds on, and contributes to, existing community networks andinitiatives;• Consistency of approach to all sections of the community;• Respecting the contribution of local people by listening and recording their views, ideasand opinions;• Identifying ways of improving the involvement process by monitoring, review andevaluation;• Feedback to the participants.Link to the Community and Public Involvement Strategy forWolverhamptonColleagues from local public agencies and voluntary organisations have developed the aboveStrategy (see appendices). It sets out a shared view about the importance of involving thepublic in decision - making and in influencing the ways that services are delivered. As well asa shared action plan to implement this strategy, each organisation will develop their actionplan to improve their consultation and community involvement activities.Representatives from local public agencies and voluntary organisations have formed a CityWide Involvement Network to ensure implementation of the Community and PublicInvolvement Strategy. It is also proposed that each organisation establishes their ownnetwork group, or similar, to co-ordinate and develop their own activities.Background


Involving the Public Resource PackBackgroundLadder of ParticipationInvolving the public and communities can mean different things to different people. It canrange from informing people about what is going on, consulting about services ordevelopments through to local people's participation in decision making either in partnershiparrangements or independent community initiatives in which they have no responsibility orcontrol. The levels of involvement are often summarised in a ladder that shows the variety ofways in which local people can be involved.Ladder of participationResidents’ ControlDelegated PowerPartnership in Decision MakingDialogueConsultationListeningSeeking InformationProviding InformationBackground


Involving the Public Resource PackCitizens’ JuriesWhat are Citizens’ Juries?Citizens’ Juries are a structured approach to obtaining citizens' views on an issue of localimportance. The participants, or jurors, obtain evidence from a variety of sources andpresent their views to the commissioning organisation. This technique has, been used byWolverhampton Council.They are good forexploring ‘live’ issues in depth when the organisation concerned required informed andconsidered views on which they are prepared to act. They should be issues that require theviews of ‘citizens’ and not a specific group of people e.g. service users.They are not suitable forproviding quantitative information or in situations where the organisation has already decidedon an issue or are not able to act on the recommendations. They are relatively expensive interms of time and resources.StaffCitizens’ Juries require at least one independent facilitator, access to key personnel (aswitnesses) and a recorder.EquipmentFlip chart stand, paper and markers. In some cases site visits are necessary which requireaccess to transport. Overhead projector and/or video may be required forpresentation/illustration purposes.TimeA jury will sit for anywhere between three to five days depending on the complexity of thequestion and subject matter.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackCitizens’ JuriesThe TopicSelecting the right issue is the most important factor governing the effectiveness of aCitizen’s Jury:It should be of sufficient importance to justify the cost and effort involved and on a topic thatthe jurors can grasp in the time available. However, the capacity of the citizens who offer theirservices to grasp complex matters should not be underestimated.It must be an issue about which the organisation is open to ideas and suggestions on how toproceed and will therefore be receptive to the recommendations of the jury.The participants will not want to simply confirm the decisions that have already been taken.If the topic involves agencies outside the control of the commissioning organisation then thejury's recommendations may be sidelined.RecruitmentA Citizens’ Jury normally comprises about 12 - 15 (although some have been up to 25)members of the public. It is better to recruit slightly more people than is required on thebasis that some may be unable to attend due to unforeseen circumstances. Alternatively,some people may be prepared to be on a reserve list is they are in a position to take partat short notice.Ideally the participants should represent the profile of the local community. Variousrecruitment methods can be used:• As with some of the other techniques in this guide, some of the best results are achievedthrough 'active recruitment' when we (or a recruitment agency) involve people based on aprofile of the community or survey data such as the Census.• Similarly, the organisation can write to a random sample from the Electoral Registeradvising them of the jury process and inviting their participation.• Less effective is using people known to the organisation through existing networks orpeople who volunteer themselves. This may result in participants who are not typical ofthe local community.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackCitizens’ Juries• Some groups are difficult to recruit, such as young people or unemployed people.Special efforts may be required to contact them and consideration of factors such astimes and locations for the sessions.• The times of sessions may also need to be considered in relation to people who areinterested and in full time employment.• Support in the form of child care or signers for the deaf may be required by someparticipants. This needs to be identified at an early stage to make the necessaryarrangements.• Sufficient time needs to be allowed for effective recruitment - particularly of those groupsthat have historically had little or no contact with the Council and other similarorganisations.• Reminder letters should be sent to participants a week before the Jury is due to beginwork and followed up with a phone call to identify who is going to attend and if any of thereserves need to be contacted.Costs• Payments to jurors range from mileage and expenses only to payments of up to £50 a dayby some organisations. Wolverhampton Council has no policy on payments but expensesof £10 have been paid when using other public involvement methods which provides anincentive and some recognition of a person's contribution.• Paying jurors in receipt of benefits is a significant problem. Discussions should be held withthe local office of the Benefits Agency prior to jury recruitment to obtain clarificationabout this issue. Failure to do so may result in people facing withdrawal of benefit.• Paying fees to external facilitators. The organisation needs to ensure that their contractincludes attending planning meetings, a briefing session for the jurors and any separateevaluation sessions. The facilitators may also be involved in work on the final report of thejury which will add to the costs involved.• If the Jury wish to consult external experts there may be an additional cost to cover theirtime and expenses.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackCitizens’ Juries• The time required by the commissioning organisation in the form of support staff andwitnesses.• Venue and refreshment costs.Venue• It is important that the jurors do not feel that they are being influenced by thecommissioning organisation. For this reason Citizens’ Juries are often held at neutral sites.• This needs to be balanced against the accessibility of the venue for jurors and witnesses(including people with disabilities) and the availability of refreshments.• Another consideration is whether the venue is available for the duration of the Jury.This is important to enable the jurors to leave on display material they generate oracquire (e.g. flip chart sheets, maps, diagrams, reports etc.).• If meetings are held in the evening, people's feelings about personal safety need to betaken into account. You may need to consider providing transport for some participantssuch as young people or wheel chair users.• Clear instructions, a map and public transport information should be sent to all theparticipants.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackCitizens’ JuriesWelcoming/BriefingParticipants may feel uncertain about what is going to happen, what they may be asked to door how they will get on with other members of the group. For these reasons it is importantfor the commissioning officers and external facilitator to organise a briefing session for jurorsat least a week prior to the jury sessions.The briefing session should include:• Opportunities for jurors to be introduced to each other• Introductions to the commissioning officers and facilitator• Clarification of the issue for discussion• An outline of what is going to happen during the session• Clarification of the role of the jurors• An outline timetable to enable arrangements to be made with witnesses• The reporting process for the recommendations.This session should be well organised but informal.The Jury SessionsThe key to the effectiveness of the Citizens’ Juries is that the participants have an opportunityto explore and examine the issue as fully as possible.• The process will normally begin with an outline of the issue by staff from thecommissioning body. They may well supply documents either as briefing or referencematerial for the jurors,• There are likely to be a number of people who hold key positions in relation to the issueor who have views which are important for the jurors to consider. These are likely toform the main witnesses.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackCitizens’ Juries• In addition, the jurors may identify other people they would like to call as witnesses oftheir own.• Each session will normally involve questions to the witnesses and discussions by the jurorsas a full group, in small groups, pairs or individuals. It may be decided that sub-groupsshould concentrate on particular aspects of the topic.• With some issues such as the natural environment of an area, site visits may be beneficial.• At the end of the process the jurors draw together their views and ideas intorecommendations.Facilitator/ModeratorThis person holds a key position in the proceedings. The commissioning organisation employsthe facilitator to enable the Citizens’ Jury to operate in a way that provides the organisationwith information they can use.The role of the moderator therefore is to assist the jurors to fully examine the issue andmake recommendations. This may include a number of activities:• Assisting the commissioners and jurors to identify an appropriate timetable for thesessions to enable witnesses to be organised and allowing sufficient time for discussion bythe jurors.• Chairing sessions and facilitating small groups.• Keeping the process on schedule.• Identifying/suggesting appropriate formats for examining topics, e.g. small groups etc.• Helping to frame questions to witnesses.• Keeping witnesses to the questions they are asked by the jurors.• Help the jurors to cover all the main points and record the main findings of theproceedings.• Where possible, a co-facilitator should be involved to assist with the process, to assistwith the facilitation of small or sub-groups and ensuring the accurate recording of thetopics discussed.The moderator should remain impartial, listen to responses and ensure everyone has theopportunity to contribute.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackCitizens’ JuriesRecordingRecording the proceedings of a Citizens’ Jury is a difficult task and relies on goodcommunications between all concerned.The organisation should provide an administrator/recorder/note taker for the sessions.This person should work closely with the facilitator to ensure key points are noted.Wherever possible the jurors should be asked to record their ideas either on flipchart sheetsor notes.The facilitator should try to organise a summary session at the end of each day to enable theadministrator to record the ideas effectively. Whenever possible the notes should be typedup for the following day so that a record is built up as the process moves forward.ReportAt the end of the Citizens’ Jury the jurors draw together their ideas and proposals andformulate them into a series of recommendations. While there is no formula for the reportsit is beneficial for jurors to provide the evidence from the proceedings that have led them tothe recommendations.The jurors are not forced to reach a unanimous verdict. Minority views should be recordedand presented alongside those that have consensus. There is some evidence in areas wherethis technique has been used that the dynamics of several days working together on an issueresults in a high level of agreement amongst jurors.The final report should be completed quickly and circulated to the jurors to enable them tofeedback any modifications that might be required.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackCitizens’ JuriesFeedbackFor commissioning organisations it is advisable to identify a reporting process that followsreasonably closely to the end of the Citizens’ Jury so that the information is still clear in thejurors minds and the agency is seen to be listening and responding to the ideas presented.Any subsequent reports should be invited to attend any relevant meetings. Also they shouldbe informed about any action resulting from their contributions. Some organisations haveinvited jurors back to a meeting after a twelve month period to assess what happened as aresult of their involvement.Contact for further information: Angela Spence,Tel: 554026Steve Taplin, Tel: 424232Reading:‘Panels and Juries’Social Research Association‘Citizens’ Juries inLocal Government’The Local Government ManagementTechniques


Involving the Public Resource PackCitizens’ PanelsWhat are Citizens’ Panels?Citizens’ Panels are made up of people from an area who have agreed to be consulted on aregular basis about public service issues.They are good for• Undertaking short surveys• Informing policy development and setting priorities• Testing issues arising from Government legislation and initiatives such as political decisionmaking processes• Testing people's views and knowledge of an issue prior to a campaign• As a vehicle to examine issues that relate to services provided jointly by two or moreorganisations.They are not suitable for• Engaging people actively in decision making, e.g. developing neighbourhood involvement• Consulting people about a neighbourhood development• Obtaining the opinions of young people who have difficulties with basic skills.StaffThe panel is administered by the Council or other agency. They can be resource intensive interms of recruitment, administration and the analysis of responses.EquipmentMost communication with Panel members is undertaken by post and telephone.The information being sent out needs to be designed in a clear and interesting format.Wolverhampton Council try to engender a feeling of ownership and belonging through anewsletter.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackCitizens’ PanelsTimePanel members are replaced on a regular basis (typically every three years) to provideopportunities for a wide range of people to take part and guard against the development of'professional' consultees. In Wolverhampton a third of the panel members are replaced onan annual basis (after being involved for up to three years).RecruitmentCitizens’ Panels vary in size. In most instances they involve a large number of people from500 upwards. Wolverhampton's Panel comprises 1200 people aged 16 or over. As far aspossible, the panel should reflect the population of an area.• As with some of the other techniques in this guide, some of the best results are achievedthrough 'active recruitment' when the authority or recruitment agency involve peoplebased on a profile of the community or survey data such as the Census.• Similarly, the organisation can write to a random sample from the electoral Registeradvising them about the Panel and inviting their participation..• Recruiting people known to the Council through existing networks or people whovolunteer themselves. This may result in participants who are not typical of the localcommunity.• Some groups are more difficult to recruit, such as young people, unemployed people andminority ethnic groups. Special efforts may be required to contact them and considerationof factors such as the use of plain English and translations into community languages, tapeor Braille.It may be appropriate to undertake a variety of the above activities to obtain the appropriatebalance within the Panel. It may be necessary to use incentives to recruit members ofcommunities that are traditionally under-represented.Sufficient time needs to be allowed for effective recruitment - particularly of those groupswhich are harder to contact or involve.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackCitizens’ PanelsOne of the difficulties related to Citizens’ Panels is that they may not reflect the wholecommunity due to the self-selecting nature of the process and because of the difficulties inrecruiting and maintaining the involvement of under-represented groups.There are a number of maintenance issues, i.e. people leaving or not responding due tomoving away from the area, illness or death, apathy or boredom.In Wolverhampton panel members are recruited by various techniques:• random mailing to people on the Council Tax Register• application forms located in doctors surgeries, libraries and supermarkets• poster campaigns particularly targeted at groups that are under-represented.The Consultation ProcessThere are a variety of ways in which councils and other agencies can use Citizens’ Panels.In Wolverhampton there are four main questionnaires per year which include a wide range ofissues from across the Council and other public agency partners.Panel members are sent questionnaires by post and the internet. Assistance is available topanel members who experience difficulties in completing the questionnaires. With surveyson particular issues the process may be undertaken by telephone.They complete and return the forms and the information is inputted and analysed.In addition smaller targeted research exercises take place on an ad hoc basis:• Specialist samples - focusing on particular sub-groups within the Panel, e.g. people withdisabilities or issues in which panel members have indicated an interest.• Focus Groups - panel members may be invited to take part in small discussion groups toaddress specific issues (see the section on 'Focus Groups' in this Pack).• Consultation events - panel members might be invited to discuss and respond toparticular issues.• Service testing - panel members can be asked to comment on a specific service, strategydocument or publication.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackCitizens’ PanelsThe key elements of this process are:• That all panel members offer to take part and therefore this method provides a relativelyhigh response rate.• That members are consulted regularly and in this way become a knowledgeable soundingboard for the Council and other agencies.• That it provides an opportunity for tracking the changes in people's views over time.CostsMost of the costs relate to the administration of the process which include recruitment,managing the database, drafting questionnaires, printing & postage, organising input andanalysis of data and arranging feedback to panel members. The may be covered in-houseunless outside agencies are commissioned to undertake recruitment or inputting, for example.The cost of incentives paid to assist the recruitment of people from sections of thepopulation who traditionally have had little or no contact.Partner organisations that wish to make use of Citizens’ Panels will often be charged to coverthe costs involved.Report• The outcomes from the panel process are reported to the various service areas oragencies that submit questions.• Reports will also be submitted to elected members when appropriate.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackCitizens’ PanelsFeedbackAs with all the public involvement strategies identified in this resource pack, in order tomaintain the interest of the panel members it is important to provide feedback both inrelation to the findings and any resulting changes or improvements that may be undertakento the services of the Council or other agency.This might be achieved through a Newsletter for panel members, providing information on awebsite and providing access to the full information for those who are interested in thedetails.Contact for further information: Debbie Turner, Tel: 554042Reading:‘Panels and Juries’ a conference report published by the Social Research Association.‘Citizens’ Panels - A New Approach to Community Consultation’ published by theLocal Government Information Unit,Tel: 0207 608 1051Website: www.lgiu.gov.ukTechniques


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity & Stakeholder PanelsWhat are Community & Stakeholder Panels?Panels composed of interested local people and stakeholders who are invited to becomeinvolved with a council or other public agency in identifying the key matters in relation tolong term planning initiatives.They are good forobtaining the informed opinions of local people and stakeholders on issues about which theCouncil or agency has to make decisions that have long term implications. They are mosteffective when the information about which decisions are required can be divided into subsectionssuch as the Local Plan, e.g. town centre, leisure facilities, built environment.They are not suitable forissues that require quick responses or where the issues that have to be considered are notclear. Also when decisions about the topics have already been made.Equipment/ResourcesA large room that can hold groups of up to 40 people with space for small group work,display equipment, flip chart equipment, the facility to make large scale copies of maps, plans,etc.The process required the involvement of the members of staff who are responsible for theplan/sections of the plan.It is advisable to use an external facilitator and someone to record the group discussions.Recruitment• It is important to identify the topics that the panels will be discussing because it is beneficialto include people with particular interests and knowledge in the process. In addition topromoting the panels through the local media it is also important to ensure keyorganisations are informed about the topics that may be of particular interest to theirmembers.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity & Stakeholder Panels• It is also important to work out the timescale for discussions prior to recruitment and thelogical linkages between the topics so that the participants are able to use the informationthey are gaining to the best effect.• In order to include groups such as young people, working people and older people,consideration needs to be given to the time of day for the panels.• Some business and agencies are willing to allow members of staff to attend if the sessionsare not too frequent, e.g. once a month.• Transport may be needed to enable access for people with mobility difficulties and theappropriate support facilities for parents of young children, people whose chosen languageis not English and people with sight or hearing impairment.• Incentives should be considered to encourage people to attend to contribute their ideas.This should include expenses as a minimum.Method• The agency produces discussion documents on the different topics about which the viewsof the public and stakeholders are being sought. In some cases these include questions thepanellists are asked to consider.• Wide ranging recruitment is undertaken both with the general public and stakeholdersusing information about the topics and providing a timetable of dates for the sessions.• All the people expressing interest are invited to a briefing session to clarify the purpose ofthe panels, the scope for including the ideas of the public and stakeholders and how thesessions will be organised. It is also important to establish the ground rules at this sessionbecause it might also be the only time everyone is together. The mechanism for recording,feedback and the use of information gained from the panel sessions should also bediscussed at this meeting.• Participants sign up for the panels they are interested in attending. It is advisable, from anorganisational point of view, to hold the community and stakeholder panels on consecutivedays. This means the workers and facilitators are able to focus on the topic and completethe recording of ideas in a short period of time.• The discussion papers are sent out in advance and, depending on the topic, it may beimportant to organise site visits for the participants.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity & Stakeholder Panels• The Panel process will normally include the following elements:- Welcome and introductions - this is important because the membership may changefor each session.- Introduction of the discussion paper by the relevant member(s) of staff.- Small groups or discussions in pairs about the topics. The agency workers are notinvolved in these discussions except by invitation by the panel members to provideclarification.- Feedback.- Full group discussion of key issues.• Participants should be asked to record their ideas, with main points flip charted for the fullgroup feedback. They should be asked to record their names on any written material theyproduce to enable the staff to identify and contact people who might have proposed newideas or to clarify the points they have made.• As with focus groups, it is important that participants feel able to contribute their ideaswithout having to reach a consensus.• It is important that there is a secondary mechanism for people to contribute their ideassuch as a phone number, postal address, e-mail address, website, either for those who areunable to attend or who have additional ideas after the session.The role of facilitatorIt is important that the commissioning agency involves the facilitator at all stages of theprocess. The facilitator will often have a key role in identifying the most effective ways oforganising sessions based on the information the authors of the discussion papers are tryingto convey and the topics about which they require the participants' views.Although the facilitator is employed by the agency, his/her role is to ensure the panelmembers have sufficient opportunity to express their views without being influenced by theorganising agency.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity & Stakeholder Panels• The facilitator's role is to co-ordinate the sessions ensuring they run to time and that theparticipants receive the support they require and that everyone has the opportunity tocontribute. He/she will facilitate the full group discussions and try to ensure clarity inrelation to the points made by the panel members for the benefit of the recorder.• The facilitator should be included in the evaluation at the end of the panel process.Recordings• In addition to the recordings providing information for the agency, they are also importantas minutes for the group members. If the mechanism is used with the Local Plan forexample, some of the topics are likely to be inter-related. For this reason it is importantthat the panel members obtain copies of the recordings to enable them to identify thelinkages and avoid unnecessary repetition. It is important that panel members receiverecordings of the sessions they did not opt to attend for the same reasons.• The recordings should, depending on the organisation, eventually result in the productionof a report. The format of this will depend on the organisation. It is important that theinput of the panel members is acknowledged and that they receive a copy.• If the report is presented to a Council meeting, the participants should be invited toattend to see how their input has influenced the process.Contacts: Redditch Council have used these panels for developing their Local Plan.Contact Ruth Bamford Tel: 01527 64252 Ext: 3219Policy Team: Sam Axtell, Tel: 554918/551885We are not aware of any references for this technique.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackFocus GroupsWhat are Focus Groups?Focus groups are facilitated group discussions on a particular topic. The participants areasked a series of mostly open ended questions, e.g. What do you think of topic X?What did you feel when ....? etc.They are intended to encourage people to give their own views and feelings.They are good forexploring issues in depth. They are particularly useful during the initial stages of research orconsultation because they can help us to identify some of the key issues.They are not suitable forproviding quantitative or statistical information about a community, e.g. X% thought ...Staff- Focus groups require at least one independent facilitator/moderator and a notetaker/recorderEquipment- Flipchart stand, paper and markers. Tape recorder or note taker(see section on Recording below).Time- Varies, depending on the topic. Maximum 1 1 /2 Hours.Recruitment• A focus Group should comprise between 6 - 10 people.• The participants should have factors they share in common - residents of the particularcommunity or members of the group we are interested in. This may be in terms ofgeographical area, interest group, age or cultural group.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackFocus Groups• The best results are achieved through 'active recruitment' when we (or a recruitmentagency) involve people based on a profile of the community or survey data such as theCensus.• Less effective is using people known to us through existing networks or people whovolunteer themselves. This may result in participants who are not typical of the communityor groups we are interested in.• Some groups are more difficult to recruit such as young unemployed people. Specialefforts may be required to contact them and consideration of factors such as times andlocations of the sessions.• Support in the form of child care or signers for the deaf may be required by someparticipants. This needs to be identified at an early stage to make the necessaryarrangements.• You need to allow sufficient time for effective recruitment - particularly of those groupsthat are harder to contact or involve. It is advisable to have a reserve list in case peopleare unable to attend.• Reminder letters should be sent to participants a week before the group is due to takeplace and follow up with a phone call.Incentives• Market Research companies currently pay £25 for a Focus Group Session. At present theCouncil has no policy on payments but expenses of £10 have been paid which provides anincentive and some recognition of a person's contribution.• Refreshments should always be provided.Developing Questions for Focus Groups• Drawing up appropriate questions is an important part of the process. Start with a clearidea of what you want to know. From this develop no more than six key 'open' questionsfor a 1 1 /2 hour group session expressed in straight forward language.• Keep the questions simple. Avoid those that contain more than one question.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackFocus GroupsTry out the questions with members of the target group or colleagues and plan enough timefor several revisions.Do not ask the question “Why” as it puts people on the spot.Do have suitable probes and follow-up questions. These might include “Could you giveexamples of ...?” or “You feel very strongly about this ..?”VenueThe group sessions should be held in a neutral place where participants feel comfortable.A community venue may be appropriate provided that it is not seen as the territory of aparticular group.The venue should be easily accessible and clear instructions and a map should be sent to allparticipants. Try to avoid dates and venues that might be affected by major events such ashome football matches.If meetings are held in the evening, people's feelings about personal safety need to beconsidered. You may need to consider providing transport for some participants such asyoung people or wheelchair users.WelcomeParticipants may feel uncertain about what is going to happen, what they may be asked to door how they will get on with the other members of the group.At the start of the session:• Outline what is going to happen• Give reassurances about confidentiality• Say that you expect people to have different views and that there are no right or wronganswers• Be organised but informalTechniques


Involving the Public Resource PackFocus GroupsModerator/Facilitator• The role of the moderator is to facilitate the group.• The attitude the moderator should convey is that he/she is there to learn from theparticipants.• The moderator should remain impartial, listen to response and ensure everyone has theopportunity to contribute.• Their own input should be minimal - focusing on the questions and ensuring sufficient timeis allocated to each one.• If the focus group is with a distinctive cultural group then the best choice of moderatorwill be someone who comes from the same cultural group - particularly if theunderstanding of a community language is important for some or all of the participants.• If an organisation is trying to obtain the views of people about the way it operates it maybe advised to engage a moderator who is not associated with the organisation.• Where possible, a co-facilitator should be present to assist with the process because it isdifficult for one person to keep track of everything happening in a group.RecordingFocus groups can be recorded either manually or by tape recorder.If the session is to be recorded by hand then a note taker is essential. Notes should bewritten up in full immediately or as soon as possible after the group. Wherever possible theactual words used should be recorded. In some cases tape recordings are used as back upfor manual recording.Tape recording focus groups can provide the most accurate method of data collection.However, information can be lost if people talk over each other or do not speak clearly.In addition, the equipment needs to be appropriate and set correctly. For long discussionsensure you have sufficient tape. The participants will be asked if the use of a tape recorder isacceptable. Usually people will agree but their wishes must be respected. It is important tobe aware that transcribing information from tape recordings takes along time.However, the group session is recorded the moderator should keep brief notes of key points.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackFocus GroupsGroup DynamicsThe first role of the moderator is to make people feel at ease and to get them workingtogether.This should include the following:• Seating should be in a circle so that people are able to see everyone in the group.• An 'icebreaker' question or self-introduction that ensures everyone speaks in the first fewminutes.• people's first names should be used. Name cards or badges assist both the moderatorand group members to refer to people by name.• The timing of the session should be clarified so participants are sure about start andfinishing times.• The questions should start from the least difficult/controversial.• The questions should be displayed on a flip chart so that people can refer to them duringthe discussion.• Everyone should be given the opportunity to speak. If participants are reluctant themoderator can address questions to them by name but should not pressurise them.• Some people will feel more confident and contribute a lot to the discussion. This is OKbut if they start to dominate a group the moderator may need to intervene to give otherpeople a chance. This can be done by saying 'That is an interesting point, What doeseveryone else think?î If necessary this can be reinforced by body language - turning awayfrom the dominant person/avoiding eye contact with him/her and focusing on the othermembers of the group.• It is important that the group discusses the prearranged questions but has the opportunityto explore new issues that arise provided they are relevant and can be managed withinthe time.• If the moderator is not sure about what someone has said he/she should clarify the pointwith the person concerned.• Silences, provided they don't go on for too long, are OK because it might mean that somepeople need time to think or that it is a sensitive topic.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackFocus GroupsIf people show emotion when saying something (by their tone of voice, posture etc.) it is asign that it is important to them and the moderator should be prepared to follow this up, e.g.“You seem to feel strongly about that?”.Having established the finishing time of the Focus Group session it is important to stick to itbecause participants will have made arrangements on that basis and will be distracted if thesession over-runs.EndingTowards the end of a Focus Group the moderator should summarise what has been said andask if this reflects their views. The participants should be asked if there is anything else theywant to say. A flip chart can be useful for this purpose.The moderator should check that the participants are OK and try to ensure that they don'tgo away feeling angry or upset. Focus groups can be intense experiences so time should beallowed at the end for informal chat.At the end of the group the participants should be thanked for their contribution andinformed that they will receive a summary of the findings of the group.AnalysisIt is important to try to represent how Focus Group members see things. This needs to bedone effectively and requires studying the similarities and differences of issues raised inrecordings of the focus group sessions.By assessing the data, the things people say will fall into categories.Examining the detail of the responses, the language used and the emotion attached toparticular issues will reveal the strength of feeling about the topic.A more detailed guide on Analysing Qualitative Data is available (see references).Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackFocus GroupsReportThe report of a Focus Group should include anonymous quotes, summaries of what was saidand an interpretation.FeedbackThe report should be circulated to the participants and any subsequent action resulting fromtheir contributions.Contacts for further information: Angela Spence,Tel: 554026Reading:Focus Groups, 3rd Edition, Richard A Krueger and Mary Anne Casey, sage, London, 2000.ISBN 0-7619-2070-6Using Focus Groups (handouts from training sessions)Liz Ross at Birmingham University can be contacted via Sam Axtell, 551885/554918Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackSurveysWhat are Surveys?Surveys are used to collect information in a standard format (e.g. a questionnaire) from arelatively large number of people. Surveys use a variety of open and closed questions thebalance of which depends on the topic and the method of collecting information.They are good for• Providing a snap shot at a point in time• Providing reliable statistical information• Tracking trends over time• Analysing large samples relatively quickly• Obtaining the views of non-users of services• Collecting information from large numbers and/or samples which reflect particular groupsof people in the community or the population of an area• Obtaining information relevant to an issue• Adaptability to a large number of issues• Comparisons within/between organisations.They are not suitable for• In depth views and ideas• Obtaining qualitative information• Exploring attitudes and complex needs and preferences• Obtaining information from people who have difficulties with literacy and people withspecific communication needs• Obtaining the views of groups who are marginalised or excluded.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackSurveysEquipmentSurvey/questionnaire forms. A tape recorder may be required for some one to oneinterviews.TimeCareful consideration needs to be given to the length of the survey or questionnaire. If ittakes a long time to complete the response rate will be reduced whichever method is used.PlanningSurveys need to be planned in advance. Think through the various stages outlined in thefollowing pages, allocate time to each, and match up the resource against the method(s) youare going to use.The QuestionDecide what you want to find out before writing questions.This may include:-What do people in the community think of our service?What do current users think of our services?What do current users think of aspects of our service?What would users (or potential users) like to see provided?Each of these would lead to a very different set of questionsTechniques


Involving the Public Resource PackSurveysThe SampleWho are you going to ask?• The point of doing a survey is to be able to generalise from a sample (those you ask) to awider group you are interested in (the 'population').• The most rigorous way of selecting a sample is 'randomly' this means using a table ofrandom numbers to identify addresses for e.g. a postal questionnaire. This means thateveryone in the group we are interested in has an equal chance of being selected. For acommunity survey a list of names and/or addresses can be obtained from the ElectoralRegister or Postcode Address File. However, neither is complete and 100% accurate.• For a community survey certain groups will be under represented in the sense that fewindividuals will be selected. For example, only 4.1% of the population of Wolverhamptonat the time of the 1991 Census described themselves as Black Caribbean. This means thatin a community sample of 1,000 only around 41 Black Caribbeans would be selected - toofew to make meaningful comparisons with other ethnic groups.• Provided this is recognised in advance it is possible to compensate. For example, you cando additional sampling in districts where there are known to be higher numbers of BlackCaribbean individuals.• Non-random sampling will inevitably exclude certain parts of the community. A streetsurvey conducted during the daytime, for example, will exclude those who are at work,involved in education and those restricted to their homes.• If you select a group of interviewees to match the specified characteristics of thepopulation in the area, e.g. age, gender or ethnicity, you will be using what is known as'quota' or 'stratified sampling'. The sample will probably differ from the population in otherways, depending on how the sample is selected.• The least satisfactory type of sample is a self-selection, e.g. when people pick up feedbackforms from a reception desk. Only the most strongly motivated will take part.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackSurveysIdentify a Sample Size• Generally the larger the sample size, the more likely the sample is to be representative ofthe population you are interested in, provided there is not a systematic bias in those whorespond (response error).• For a random sample of 1,100 we can be 95% sure that responses are plus or minus 3%of the true value. For example, if 65% of those questioned said they were in favour ofplans to increase recycling of domestic refuse, then the true figure would lie between 62%and 68%.• For a sample of 400 the margin of error would be plus or minus 5%. for one of 200 itwould be plus or minus 7%.• To look at sub-groups in the sample (e.g. people from different parts of Wolverhampton),it would not be practical to have a sample size of 1,000 for each of them . As a roughworking rule, there should be a minimum of 50 in each sub-group you are interested in.Design the QuestionnaireContent• Good questionnaire design requires a great deal of effort and revisions based on piloting(trying out) the questionnaires - preferably with people from the target group butcolleagues may provide a starting point. They should be asked what they understand byeach question.• The wording needs to be unambiguous, clear and appropriate for the particular targetgroup.• Ready made questionnaires, found on some software packages, are not usually appropriateas they have not been designed with particular issues or target groups in mind.• Common words may have different meanings for different groups of people.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackSurveysBasic Guidelines• With each question ask yourself “Why do we want to know this?”• Use simple precise words. e.g.Not How many incidents of that kind have you been involved in?Better How many times has that happened to you?• Avoid jargon e.g. “Civic amenity site” - most people will refer to it as “the tip” or “rubbishdisposal site”.• If jargon is thought to be essential, provide an explanation, then give the jargon in brackets.• Keep questions relatively easy to fill in. Questions that involve recalling events over a longperiod of time will tend to be ignored.• Keep open-ended questions to a minimum for the same reason. (Open-ended questionsare where the person responding is free to write their own response. Closed questionsgive a choice between a number of alternatives).• Keep categories mutually exclusive, e.g.Age groups 11 to 16 17 to 22Not 11 to 16 16 to 22Avoid asking two questions in one.LayoutGood layout is essential:• The questionnaire should be clear, uncluttered, not overcrowded. Ensure that therespondent has the space to answer the questions.• Use the full facilities of a word processor package or specialised questionnaire designsoftware.• Use spacing, boxes, lines, arrows, fonts etc., to guide respondents through the questionnaire.Select a method for conducting the surveyThere are a variety of different ways in which surveys can be carried out:- self-completion, i.e. postal, internet or 'drop and collect' surveys;- interview, i.e. face to face, telephone.Each method has advantages and disadvantages.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackSurveysPostal/Drop and CollectAdvantages- Cheap- with follow up letters can achieve reasonable response rates.Things to consider:- Not appropriate for those who have difficulties with literacy (an estimated 20% of adultsin Britain). In a community survey, people with educational difficulties will be less likely torespond- The needs of people with visual impairment- Translating the form into community languages (but do not assume literacy in thelanguage);- There is no control over who actually completes the form, regardless of who it isaddressed to- People need to be highly motivated. They are less likely to respond on issues they don'tcare about or if they think their views will be ignored.Internet surveySimilar issues as the postal survey. In addition, not everyone has a computer or is liable toaccess the internet.Face-to-Face or Interviewer administeredAdvantages- Interviewers can explain reasons for the survey and develop a 'rapport' with the personresponding- The interviewer can explain the question if necessary- This approach ensures that the questionnaire is completed by the person it is intendedfor.Things to consider- Time consuming- Expensive - needs trained staff- May not be appropriate for sensitive topics- Some of the interviewers must have relevant community language skills.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackSurveysTelephone PollMost of the considerations are the same as for the interviewer-administered survey, althoughit is cheaper to carry out. In addition, not everyone has a phone.Data EntryOnce the survey has been completed the data needs to be entered onto a computer.Accurate data entry is unglamorous but crucial. Options exist in relation to who shouldundertake the work:- Using a specialist agency to enter the closed question data. Prices range from about£200 to £2,000 per 1,000 questionnaires including 30 questions.- Using in-house administrations staff after suitable training.Using a specialist agency is likely to be quicker, because it is part of their regular work andmore accurate.Unless they are involved in this type of work on a regular basis, in-house staff are likely to feelless confident about what they are doing. This is likely to be exacerbated if this is verydifferent or additional to their normal work. In these situations error checking may suffer.Data AnalysisResponse RateThis is a basic check on the representativeness of the survey. If the response rate is high(70%+) it is likely that the response error will be low.Other checks of the level of response error are:- Comparing the demographic profile of the sample with Census data (age groups, gender,ethnicity)- Comparing the late respondents (those who sent in postal questionnaires after 2 or 3reminders) with the rest of the sample. Late respondents are likely to be similar to nonrespondents.Statistics Software PackagesThese are essential for analysing large quantities of data. Well known packages (in order ofsophistication) are SPSS, SNAP and Pinpoint. Facilities include simplified data entry, statisticalanalysis and manipulation and graphics.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackSurveysDescriptive StatisticsThese will include:-- Frequency counts, i.e. the numbers (and percentages) of the whole sample who gavespecific replies to each questions.- Cross tabulations, these enable the responses of particular sub-groups of the sample tobe looked at, e.g. age groups, ethnic groups, males and females.‘Inductive Statistics’ and ‘Hypothesis Testing’You can use the information to build up a picture of the wider population from the sample,e.g. ethnicity in relation to area of residence.Report WritingThis will normally include:• The question• The design and conduct of the survey• The response rate and the response error• The findings, including those for any sub-groups• Pie charts and graphs to illustrate findings• Conclusions• Implications.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackSurveysFeedbackA summary of the findings and any action taken in response should be made available tothose who took part in the survey. This can be done by displaying a poster of the findings incommunity venues such as libraries, community centres and shops. A copy of the reportshould be sent to the local press via the press office.For further information contact: Debbie Turner,Tel: 554042Reading:There are a series of detailed guides which can be obtained from the Policy Team onTel: 554918Analysing Qualitative Data - Bob Willis (See above).Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackUse of the Web SiteThis note describes experience so far with using the Web as a means of consultation inWolverhampton, and possible future directions.What have we tried so far?Consultation about the site itselfAs part of a Best Value review of the Wolverhampton City Council Web site, simple feedbackforms were placed at the bottom of a number of the most heavily used information pages onthe site. They ask "Did you find the information you were looking for on this page?î withbuttons for "Yes" or "No". If the user selects "No", a second form is presented asking whatthey were looking for. A reasonable level of response was received (although only a minorityof the visitors to the page responded). Initial results showed a majority of "No" responses -we have identified some of the reasons for this, made some changes, and continuedmonitoring shows an improvement in satisfaction. This is a very simple mechanism to use andwe will probably extend it to other pages.We also receive some unprompted feedback about the site from users via e-mail. People areprobably more inclined to offer informal comments in this way than by writing a letter, and itis easier to capture them centrally than it would be for informal comments at a receptiondesk or on the telephone.Consultation about other issuesSeveral major consultation exercises - e.g. for the Crime Reduction and Community SafetyStrategy, the Education Development Plan and "Your Council is Changing" - have publishedtheir documents on the site and invited comments through that medium as well as on paper.The response in these cases has been very low. We suspect that most users of the Websiteat present see it as a source of information rather than a consultation medium and do notlook for, or want to respond to, these major consultations.The standard Complaints and Compliments form is available on the site but is not muchused,We can also offer members of the citizens' Panel the option to respond by e-mail or fill in aform on the Website rather than completing a paper questionnaire, and some do take upthese options.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackUse of the Web SiteWhat have others tried?Brent has conducted several high-profile public consultation exercises using the Web as oneof the means pf participation, and claims worthwhile levels of response. They now publishCabinet papers on their site and offer means to comment on them to your Councillor..Suffolk has a "graffiti wall" on their site where people can leave any comments they wish,although they are encouraged to respond to particular questions. In practice, however, thelevel of discussion seems low.Poole allows Website users to register interest in any of a list of topics and e-mails themwhen something new on that topic appears on the site - which might be a consultationexercise.Lewisham has used on-line "chat" facilities to hold a form of focus group involving membersof their citizens' Panel, and found this effective - even those unfamiliar with ICT enjoyed thismeans of discussion.Issues for the futureConcern is often expressed about the limited coverage of the Web. It is true that as yetonly a minority of the population has Internet access, particularly amongst older people andthose on low incomes, although the proportion is increasing fast and public access is widelyavailable at libraries and UK Online Centres. At present it would be unwise to use the Webas the only means of involving people, except perhaps in special cases where you know that ahigh proportion of the target group will have access (e.g. students). However, it can be usefulas a support to other methods.To achieve better results from general consultation than those we have achieved so far, wewill need to identify pages that the target audience for a consultation is likely to visit, and findways to persuade them to take the time to respond. Developing the ethos of the sitetowards more participation and consultation, as well as information provision, would help toattract this sort of audience.We will increasingly be offering electronic service delivery through the site, working towardsthe target of making all services available electronically by 2005. We will, therefore, be in aposition to consult service users about these new facilities, and we should be developing thisconsultation as part of the added value of electronic delivery.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackUse of the Web SiteAs yet we have not used the site to publish comments from citizens. This would clearlyraise concerns about whether and how to control the content of what we enable people topublish -still more so if we invite them to focus on current issues or their opinions of specificservices.We need to remember that the Web is not the only electronic option. There are othertechnologies that should be considered - for instance keypads to vote in public meetings,video boxes, local digital TV - which will have different strengths and weaknesses.We also need to remember that the Web is a very open medium that business, communityand lobbying groups cans adopt for themselves. Even if we choose not to use it to consulton a particular issue, someone else may do it and present us with apparently convincingresults that we will have to be prepared to evaluate.If you are interested in using the Council's Website to consult or involve the public,contact Debbie Turner,Tel: 554042, or e-mail www.wton-partnership.co.uk.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackWhole SystemsWhat Is Whole Systems?It is a process of bringing together all the people who are involved in, and affected by, a'system' in society (such as Council service) to share perspectives on a problem and adopt acollective approach to finding solutions.It is good forusing when the organisations, groups and users who comprise a 'system' have a commonunderstanding that there is a problem, are aware of some of the difficulties and have acommon desire to find a solution.It is not suitable forusing when people are unclear about what the problem is or when people involved inimportant part/parts of the system are unwilling or unable to change.BackgroundThe process is based on describing how organisations relate to one another in a complexenvironment. when one part of the organisation changes its behaviour this affects the wholesystem. Therefore, if there is a problem within the system then finding a solution requires theinvolvement of all parts of the system. Within a Council service this might include electedmembers, employees (both managers and workers), other organisations involved (such asprivate contractors) and service users. For a specific topic, e.g. discharge from hospital, thiscould include hospital staff, GPs, social workers and voluntary organisations.ResourcesThe process requires the involvement of key staff at all levels within the system together withstakeholders. Suitable venues are required that provide sufficient space for both large andsmall groupings of people.Whole systems activities are usually facilitated by external consultants who specialise in thisapproach.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackWhole SystemsTimeWhole systems involves activities during several days which may be organised together orseparately.PlanningThe use of a whole systems approach requires considerable planning. The organisers need toidentify an appropriate planning group that includes representatives of all the elements of thesystem together with the external facilitators. The whole systems process needs to bedevised that:- includes all the appropriate people;- formulates the questions that will identify the problem(s);- enables the participants to develop solutions.MethodsUsing a whole system approach usually involves a variety of techniques such as future search,appreciative inquiry and open space (see the section on Community Initiatives). Thetechniques selected will be those that most effectively focus on identifying the issues andproblems and provide the means of generating ideas for resolving problems, removingbarriers and creating action plans.The events may involve different combinations of people - at times, those in some of theparts of the system and at others, everyone together.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackWhole SystemsWho Needs To Be Involved?Whole system relies on the direct participation of people from the system itself, to enabledifferent perspectives to be heard including senior management, front-line staff and usersfrom different organisations. This means some events are large, from around one hundredparticipants to several thousand (for events that affect a large organisations, towns and cities).What Can It Achieve?It can help find solutions to complex problems crossing organisational boundaries, and do somore quickly than traditional planning methods. It can also find solutions which no oneorganisation could find by itself.At the time of writing a Whole System process has been initiated through the Health ActionZone to begin to explore the way that services can be more responsive to the people forwhom they are provided.For further information contact Sam Axtell on Tel: 554918/551885.Reading:‘Large Group Interventions’ by B Alban and B Bunker,‘Working Whole Systems’ by Pratt, Plamping and Gordon.There are also many internet sites, particularly in America, devoted to whole systems andlarge group interventions.Techniques


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity InitiativesAs mentioned in the introduction to this resource pack it is critical that any work undertakenat a community or neighbourhood level should be carried out in partnership with localpeople. Initiatives should be linked with existing community organisations and offeropportunities for non-participants to become involved.New developments might be initiated by local people themselves, a voluntary organisation, bya section of the Council, a partnership regeneration initiative such as New Deal forCommunities or a programme such as the Health Action Zone.Community involvement provides a means of empowering people to examine the needs andrequirements of their own communities. This is important because local people have moreknowledge, experience and awareness of the needs of their communities than serviceproviders. By working in partnership with people in communities, organisations are morelikely to implement appropriate and sustainable changes than if they undertake the work inisolation.Outlined below are a number of formal techniques usually carried out because funding hasbeen secured for significant redevelopment of an area or a site within it. However, thedevelopment of less formal means of dialogue with local people to test opinions or discusschanges in provision or new initiatives, is worth the investment in time.Staff from the Council and other agencies who do not have previous experience of workingwith communities, should contact the Community, Development section of Regeneration andEnvironment to discuss initiatives with community workers who may be involved withresidents in areas where developments are to take place.There are a range of techniques for involving the public at a community or neighbourhoodlevel. Most processes involve local people in identifying issues of interest or concern anddeveloping appropriate solutions through a plan of action.There are too many methods to cover in a resource pack and many are well documented inother publications. The following section identifies two of the techniques in detail and othersin summary form with reference material to be found at the end of the section and in thebibliography.Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity Initiatives - Planning for Real©©What is Planning for Real ?It is a technique for promoting community involvement in plans and proposals for an area ordesigning buildings. It involves the creation of a 3-D scale model of the designatedarea/building that is used as the focus for people to input their ideas and priorities forchanges or developments. The technique is the copyright of a national charity the'Neighbourhood Initiatives Foundation' (NIF) and anyone wishing to use the technique mustcontact them at the address at the end of this section.It is good forusing when structural changes are going to be made to an area or a community building isgoing to be constructed or re-designed. It is a method for enabling local people to expresstheir ideas.It is not suitable forthe discussion of issues that are not related to the physical design of a neighbourhood orcommunity building.Equipment3-D scale model that is a replica of the area or building under consideration, preference/ideascards and a method of recording the ideas that are expressed.TimeThe process needs time to be effective. It can take several weeks of planning. This includesthe building of the model, events in community venues and the involvement of 'expert'advisors.Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity Initiatives - Planning for Real ©RecruitmentThe aim of the process is to be as open and inclusive as possible, therefore some or all ofthe following might be considered:• The building of the model could include school children, which raises their awareness oftheir own neighbourhood and attracts the interest of parents.• The involvement of local community groups from the start of the process may encouragepeople to participate, enable access to a greater number of venues and therefore morefrequent use of the model.• The extent of the involvement is limited only by the number of locations that can bevisited (see next section) and the time scale identified for the process.Venue• Need to make the model available in a range of venues chosen to make people feel atease in making their views known or to ensure the involvement of the target groups. Thismight include community buildings, schools, social venues, cultural centres, libraries andcommunity meeting rooms in housing blocks. It mighty also be taken to sheltered housingschemes and residential or day care units to involve a wide range of participants.• The key requirement is a room large enough to accommodate the model and allowpeople to move around and view it from different angles and place comment cards on it.• The event(s) that bring together the comments and 'advisors' should be well located andaccessible to everyone.The height of the model needs to be considered to enable childrenand wheelchair users to contribute effectively.Process• Identification of an area or building to be developed. It is preferable for the funding for thedevelopments to have been identified prior to the exercise because the interest itgenerates is likely to raise expectations. There are times when this technique is used toidentify the ideas people have for change to contribute to funding bids. If this is the casethis must be clearly stated to prevent people being misled.• Develop partnership with local community organisations.Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity Initiatives - Planning for Real ©• Make the model.• Make suggestion cards (e.g. 'play areas', 're-cycling containers', etc.) and blank cards forpeople to place their own ideas on the model. The suggestion cards should includepictures to assist those with literacy difficulties or whose chosen language is not English.• Book venues.• Recruit and 'book' technical experts as advisors for the events.• Publicise the timetable of events when people can view/contribute their ideas by placingsuggestions on the section of the model where they would like the development to besituated. Professional/technical experts can be asked for their advice but do not run thesessions.• The names of all the participants must be recorded for feedback purposes.• Working parties for the different proposals are created from volunteers who suggestedthem and who are prepared to devote some time to trying to get the ideas implemented.• Secondary techniques are often used to identify priorities, i.e. which of the proposalsshould be initiated 'Now', 'Soon' or 'Later' (with each given a projected time span).Analysis• Care needs to be taken to record the suggestions made and the number of people whoagree with each proposal at each viewing of the model.• The suggestions and comments are sorted to identify where there is consensus aboutwhat people want.• As mentioned above, follow up groups of local people are formed to develop the ideas.This may involve obtaining more technical advice on what is feasible and further publicconsultation about specific developments.• Support needs to be given to each of the working groups as they attempt to translatethe ideas into action.Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity Initiatives - Planning for Real ©Feedback• The results of the exercise should be sent to all the people who took part in the exercise.The working groups should be identified with a contact person to enable other people tobecome involved (particularly those who were unable to attend the events).• As the working groups are local people they are likely to use additional local networks topublicise the work of their group.‘Neighbourhood Initiatives Foundation’,The Poplars, Lightmoor,Telford, Shropshire TF4 3QNTel: (01952) 590777Fax: (01952) 591771E-mail: info@nif.co.ukWeb: www.nif.co.ukNiF undertake training, produce a series of guides and provide support material to assistanyone using their techniques.For further information contact; Mary Jacobs Tel: 551783Wednesday,Thursday and Friday onlyCommunity Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity Initiatives - Action PlanningWhat is Action Planning?It is a community planning technique which involves identifying strategies for action which aregenerated by getting all interested parties together at carefully structured 4 - 5 day eventsguided by a multi-disciplinary team of independent specialists.It is good formaking changes within an area, for example through regeneration programmes or whenstructural problems affecting a community need to be resolved. It is important that there is afunding commitment to undertake the programme identified by an action planning event.It is not suitable forissues that are not related to community planning and where there are nor funds to supportthe initiative.OutcomesAction Planning events can be costly in both time and resources but are capable of achievinga range of important objectives:• heightening public awareness of development issues;• sharing visions for a community;• bringing together different interest groups;• resolving complex problems;• revitalising community development;• promoting urban design.A scaled down version of the process may be used for initiatives involving single site issues.Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity Initiatives - Action PlanningEquipmentThe events require a full range of office equipment with effective back up services. (theequipment lists are identified in the standard text on Action Planning by Nick Wates. Seedetails at the end of this section).VenueThe events require large premises with a variety of different sized workspaces available 24hours during the 4 - 5 days of the event. (Again see the requirement identified in the NickWates publication).TimeThe events need to be well planned to be successful. Experience from previous eventsindicates about 4 - 6 months preparation, depending on the level of development of localnetworks, for a 4 - 5 day event. The process will be shorter if a single site is beingconsidered.Other resourcesThe process is facilitated by a multidisciplinary team for whom fees and accommodation willbe required. These costs can be reduced if the people with the appropriate skills are availablelocally (possibly in universities etc.) and are prepared to provide their services for a limitedcost to the community organisations.Who is involved?This is dependant on the issue but might include a range of local interests including residents,public agencies, voluntary organisations, housing providers, developers, local business peopleetc.Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity Initiatives - Action PlanningOrganisation prior to the event• A Steering Group should be established which involves all the key interests andstakeholders.• Existing participation mechanisms should be built on, but the Steering Group should initiatea new organisation to focus on the action planning process free from the constraints ofthe existing organisations. This body should take on the formal responsibility of hosting theprocess.• A team of independent specialists should be appointed with responsibility for facilitatingthe event and making recommendations. Their independence provides the validity to theprocess. They might be a consultancy team who have worked together previously onaction planning events. They might be experts from within the locality but must not havebeen involved in the issue under discussion. The areas of expertise might include urbandesign, planning, community development, ecology etc. (again, a full list can be found in theNick Wates publication).• The team leader should be selected with care (i.e. with experience of managing similarevents) because s/he will have ultimate responsibility for the action planning process duringthe event.Prior to the event the following tasks need to be completed:• Establish a good administration system and timetable for the stages prior to and during theevent.• Get people motivated/involved through active promotion.• Identify practical/technical support possibly by engaging local students.• Information gathering related to the issues under discussion.• Production of a briefing pack of background information and the Action Planning process.• Publicity - media publicity is required to generate interest and debate.• Identify and secure an appropriate venue.• Fittings and services identified.• Equipment and supplies obtained and installed.Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity Initiatives - Action PlanningThe process of the event1. Briefing and VisitsThe team need to be provided with an overview of the locality and issues. These shouldbe provided through presentations by all the main stakeholders and visits (both bytransport and on foot with high vantage points being particularly useful).2. Topic WorkshopsThe issue is broken down into the constituent topics. Participants are allocated or join thetopic groups and discuss the situation in more detail. The discussions are recorded andthe key points are identified and shared at a plenary session.3. Design WorkshopsParticipants work together in groups on design ideas for different sections of the areaunder discussion. Again the ideas are recorded and shared at a plenary session.Food breaks and leisure activities are also used as informal discussion opportunities.The consultancy team members are involved throughout the event in the various workshopsand informal groupings as well as listening to the feedback.4. Report ProductionThe Team use all the information to draw up a report which contains proposals and theevidence to support the recommendations. Other participants in the event are involvedin proof reading. The report is edited and agreed by all members of the consultancyteam.5. Report PresentationThe presentation by the consultancy team should be a public event that uses interestingand varied display techniques.- The team present their ideas and respond to questions.- An exit survey can be used to gauge the participants immediate responses.- The presentation should include a programme for implementation of the proposals.Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity Initiatives - Action Planning6. Follow up to the Event- The plan should be publicised through the media.- The Steering Group should be involved in seeing that the proposals are implemented.- The progress of the work should be evaluated on a regular basis.Reference:‘Action Planning’ by Nick Wates 1996 published by The Prince of Wales' Institute ofArchitecture.Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity ArtsWhat is Community Arts?Community Arts is a term describing activities that involve groups of people doing creativethings together. What makes Community Arts different from other forms of activity such asamateur arts or the professional or commercial arts, is that:It promotes participation, regardless of the existing level of skill or 'talent'.Groups that take part normally have something in common and often want to achievesomething more than just the activity itself.It is developed primarily to provide opportunities for people who through economic or socialcircumstances have little access to the means to participate in the Arts.The activities are usually in the form of workshops that lead to an end event or end product.This could be anything from a community festival to a book, a video to a dance, a mosaic to amural, or even a combination of any or all of these and more.The Power of the ArtsCommunity Arts grew in Britain as a movement to try to re-establish the link betweenpeople and culture, to stimulate and inspire the new types of activity and to value andpromote skills and talents in communities. It attempts to give people the tools to be active,confident participators and creators, to help communities and individuals to discover, developand use their ability to express themselves through creativity.Community Arts and Participatory ArtsCommunity Arts is about doing rather than just watching. For this reason it is often referredto as Participatory Arts. Usually it involves people working with an arts worker or an artcompany, to create something new or original around a theme or issue which everyoneagrees beforehand. Historically, Community Arts has been used to help local peoplecelebrate things worth celebrating; setting up a local carnival or organising a colourfulprocession.Often Community Arts has been at the centre of local campaigns helping challenge thingsthat need challenging, such as racism, unemployment, attacks on local services or theenvironment. It is not surprising, therefore, that there has always been a close link betweenCommunity Activism, Community Development and Community Arts since, in general, theyshare the same values.Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity ArtsExample 1. Community Celebration and Community development:Whitmore Reans Unity FestivalWhitmore Reans Unity Festival was originally set up in 1993 by local people to try to breakdown some of the barriers between communities in the area by bringing people together ina festive, colourful celebration. After 9 years,The Unity Festival is now an annual eventbringing together groups from across the whole community and across generations. Inpreparation for the festival every year, local people are involved in every aspect of theorganisation from funding to making costumes. Artists work with local people in workshops,in mask making, costume, music and every aspect of carnival arts. During the festival thereare processions, performances, workshops and food and drink from across different cultures.“Our aim is to bring people together to celebrate in harmony; it’s a celebration of Black Artsin all its forms” - Moreene Bennett, Local Resident and Organiser.For more information about this project, contact Moreene Bennett.Tel. (01902) 422803Empowerment, Participation and ChangeCommunity Arts' starting point is the idea that art is something everyone can do and that itshould be accessible, fun and non-threatening. Community Arts projects often use activitiesthat people already feel familiar with as a starting point. Perhaps there is already a regularcommunity festival or even to link into, or a daily activity in which people feel comfortableparticipating. A consultation with Bosnian refugees in Nottingham started by documentingtheir work on their allotments; by its end it had involved members from across thecommunity working with an artist to document their histories and their aspirations.This resulted in an exhibition at a local art gallery.By valuing people, their skills and their cultures, community arts projects enable participantsto make strides from a strong base, and as confidence grows, to challenge and encourageparticipants to take the activity or issue further. The community arts approach is a verypotent tool to engage the imagination of a community group and by building self-esteem andself-confidence it can enable people to take more of a role in their local communities andencourage greater participation at all levels.Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity ArtsExample 2. Valuing Local People: Intergenerational ProjectsThe Community, Play and Youth Division working with Social Services decided they wanted tobring young and older people together to value and compare their experiences of growingup. The project involved artists working with groups of older people and young people intheir own venues using music and visual arts. The groups came together to present theirwork to each other and then created a performance which took place in Wolverhampton'sArena theatre. The project helped to forge many real links between generations and workhas continued to be developed since the project finished.“Using the Arts is something that can relate to all ages. It’s something everyone enjoys doingand it works”.For more information about this project or other intergenerational work, contact AnnWood, Community Development Manager. Tel: (01902) 552162.Arts in Public ConsultationIn recent years Participatory Art has been adopted as an important tool in regenerationstrategies and especially as a tool in Community Consultation.People have always used the Arts to express what they want to say and communicate this toother people. Through music and song, news used to be carried across continents.The printed word, theatre and cinema have all been important means for communicatingmessages and ideas. Surprisingly it is only in recent years that public bodies trying topromote involvement in local services and consultation in the development of local strategiesand action plans have seen potential for using the arts.Why Use the Arts?Community Consultation involves choosing the method appropriate for the job. Sometimesa questionnaire or a focus group are absolutely appropriate methods. Arts basedconsultation does not replace other consultation approaches but is a complementary tool. Itis most useful in those situations where you wish to gain in-depth qualitative information fromgroups of people who may be difficult to reach in other ways, and in this, as an approach, ithas much in common with other methods of Participatory Action research such asParticipatory Appraisal (For more details about Participatory Action Research andParticipatory Appraisal see Participatory Learning and Action by Jules N Pretty, Irene Guijit,John Thompson and Ian Scoones. See resource list).Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity ArtsAn arts consultation workshop can:• Be run with a group in one session or over a series of sessions.• Be adapted to form a series of one-off sessions with a number of groups around the sameissue.• Enable groups to consider and explore a range of issues.• Produce results that can be acted-out, recorded, written-up, videoed or displayed.• Lead to outcomes that can be analysed like any other research data.Many arts workers have perfected techniques in this way of working and have workshopsthat can be adapted to suit the needs of a wide range of groups. This kind of approach isparticularly suitable for gaining instant feedback about services or getting agreement aboutbroad aims or priorities. The process engages the imagination, gets people to talk about lotsof ideas and often involves them making quick decisions or priorities based on discussion.The end product might be preserved for posterity, but more likely the results have atemporary quality; a short drama piece, a video snippet, drawings, statements, photographs.Longer ProjectsSome projects may be longer than a few sessions and the results have more tangible or longtermresults. This may be a community play expressing local people's aspirations for theirarea, or perhaps an exhibition profiling the need of a community. Often longer consultationsresult in participants extending the scope of their involvement beyond the initial consultation.In Walsall, local residents were asked about their ideas for the regeneration of a small publicsquare at a road intersection. The resulting development, called Dreaming The Green,involved artists working with a range of local groups to design the layout of the square andmake a mosaic, sculptures, street furniture and lamp posts. The steering group of localresidents have stayed together since the project and continue to be an advisory group forenvironmental improvements in the area. (For more information about this project seeChapter 6 of Finding Voices Making Choices edited by Mark Webster. See resource list).While the Arts provide a set of powerful tools, it cannot do everything. You may find anotherapproach more suitable or choose to complement a community arts consultation with otherresearch methods to validate or strengthen results. Discussion around some of the following issuesmay help you decide if the arts approach will help you achieve the results you intend.Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity ArtsWill the Arts Approach Work For My Group?1. Qualitative Versus QuantitativeAlthough arts-based consultation does result in quantitative, objective data, its strength liesin collecting more qualitative information. The results of arts activities demand a differenttype of analysis and interpretation, but this does not in any way reduce their impact. Quiteoften the results speak for themselves. For example, as part of the Children's Fund ArtsConsultation in Wolverhampton a group of Traveller children produced a quilt - A PocketFull of Dreams - as their contribution to the play strategy.The commitment the participants feel as a result of their involvement through the arts, thepride they feel for the results and the boost they receive to their confidence, often meanthat they want to continue to be involved in the longer term.2. Difficult to Reach Groups and Social ExclusionThe Arts are a particularly good tool in involving groups who are often missed out fromother approaches to public involvement. The advantage the Arts has over other methodsis that it is an adaptable approach that can fit almost any eventuality and can be matchedto the skills and interests of the group.For example:• Storytelling may be the best way of working with groups who do not feel confident usingthe written word.• People who do not speak English as their first language may feel more confident aboutmaking a quilt than filling in a questionnaire.• A rap poetry evening in the local community centre could be a very direct way ofattracting young people to participate in consultation where an invitation to a publicmeeting may not.3. Process Versus ProductAll arts projects have an end result. Careful thought needs to go into what this end resultis and what will happen to it. Clearly for the researcher the end result is information andit is the process of getting there that is the most important. For the participants the artsproduct may have far more significance and represent a high level of emotional investment.The longer the project, usually, the greater the investment. The balance between theprocess and product is very important and with some thought and discussion beforehandyou can get it just right.Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity Arts4. Consultation, Feedback and ChangeBy engaging imaginations and offering a glimpse of how the world may be better,community arts activities often create a high expectation for change. The same rules applyfor arts consultations, therefore, that apply to all other methods of consultation.People need to know beforehand:• Why they are being consulted.• What the potential scope of the changes are that might happen as a result of theconsultation.• How you are going to feed back the practical changes that take place.After the project finishes people need to be kept informed, updated and if possible involved.Example 3.Arts as a Tool in Consultation;The Children's Fund Arts ConsultationChildren across the City were given a voice during the development of the Children's FundProgramme. A multi-agency steering group was formed who decided that using the Artswould be an effective way to engage children of all ages, especially those normally notinvolved in mainstream provision. A range of arts workers across a variety of art forms werecontracted and approaches were tailored to the needs of specific groups. Arts outcomeswhich included photographs, mobiles, a giant 'listening ear' and two quilts, were displayed at anumber of community information forums.The Children's Fund Arts Consultation has raised awareness about the needs of childrenacross a wide range of organisations. Information gathered has been used to inform the playstrategy and its findings have already been fed into Wolverhampton's Community Plan.Ongoing dialogue is now being kept up through the Children's Parliament.Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity ArtsHow to Set Up Successful Arts ProjectsThe secret to setting up and managing community arts projects is no different to that ofsetting up any successful project. It can be summed up in one word - planning. From basicthings like who to involve in the planning, to the little details like who is responsible for therefreshments; a project properly planned at the beginning will save lots of problems later on.1. What Do You Aim to Achieve?The starting point is to think what it is that you wish to achieve.You will probably have toinvolve other people in drawing up the list of aspirations for the workshop or project.Make sure you all agree on a list of aims and outcomes that are both realistic andachievable. At this point you have to decide what is most important to you, theappearance of the finished product or the process of achieving it. Some decisions madenow cannot be changed later on. If you intend to put the results on public displayafterwards you need to be clear at the beginning that this is what you intend to do. It mayinfluence how the group feel about participating or effect how they participate. It is certainto have an influence on what the artist does with the group and will have all sorts ofimplications for many things like the materials and the appearance of the finished work.2. Working in PartnershipThe people you need to involve in the planning at the beginning of the project willprobably be the partners you need to involve at various stages in the project and in theevaluation. Having regular get-togethers at key points in the project is a really good way ofmaking sure things get done, but getting feedback and going through checklists as a groupis a sure way of both spotting problems before they occur and dealing with them beforethey get out of control.3. Budgets and MoneyThe most expensive item in an arts project is usually the fee for the artist. Arts workersare normally freelance, self-employed people and receive no public subsidy for their work.Equally most arts companies have to charge for their services when they work on otherpeople's projects. Apart from the cost of contracting an arts worker, there will be othercosts such as materials, equipment, travel etc. You need to make sure you negotiate at thebeginning of the project how much you will have to pay and what exactly the fee covers.Remember you may also have to budget for room hire, transport for the group,refreshments etc. Many organisations make funding bids or apply for grants to cover thecosts of arts projects.Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity Arts➯ For more information about artists fees and funding contact the Regional Arts Board,West Midlands Arts, or visit their Web site. (See contacts).➯ For general background information and step-by-step advice on managing arts projectsTaking Part: A Handbook for The Voluntary Arts produced by the Voluntary Arts Networkis a mine of information and helpful hints. (See resources list).4. Appointing Arts WorkersFinding the right arts worker is a job in itself. All arts workers have different skills andapproaches and like everyone they have their strengths and weaknesses. You need todecide what qualities are the most important to help you achieve what you want toachieve. For example the ability to work effectively with your group may be moreimportant to you than their type of art form specialism.• Do not just rely on recommendations; talk to as many art workers as possible and alwaysask potential arts workers for references.• Where possible interview potential arts workers with members of your client and/orplanning group.• Larger projects are better advertised - either in a relevant publication or by direct mail.• For more involved projects you should write a brief that describes what you want toachieve and ask potential workers to submit proposals.To help locate potential arts workers a good start is the very useful on-line directoryproduced by Sandwell Arts (See resources list). West Midlands Arts also have lists ofpotential arts workers in different art forms and recent knowledge of successful projects inthe region. They also produce a monthly bulletin where it is possible to advertiseopportunities for arts workers.There is no substitute for direct experience so try to talk to other organisations that haveworked successfully with arts workers in similar context to your own. The Consultation andCommunity Involvement Officer in the Chief Executives Department may know of recentsuccessful arts projects in the area. (Contact details below).All appointed workers should have a Criminal Records Bureaux (CRB) Check. Phone Nos:Helpline 0870 9090811, Applications 0870 9090844. The purpose of the Check is to ensurethat anyone with a history of abuse or violence or suspected abuse or violence will not beplaced to work with vulnerable people.➯ For information on commissioning outside contractors see the Commissioning Consultantssection in the appendix section of this pack.Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity Arts5. Working With Arts WorkersThe key to success of your project depends on having a positive and constructive workingrelationship with your arts worker. The thought you put into how you will manage thisrelationship at the beginning of the project will more than pay dividends later on. You willneed to have an agreed set of aims and objectives and an agreement about what shouldbe achieved and by when. The arts worker will need to know who to report to and whatinformation they need to collect and pass on. You will need to be clear if you expect thearts worker to attend meetings during the project and the role you expect them to havein the evaluation. Writing all of this down at the beginning of the project and includingdetails of when and how they will be paid and by whom, will avoid many potentialmisunderstandings later - you may even consider writing a formal contract. (See point 7Contracts, Health and Safety and Legal Obligations)6. Monitoring and EvaluationMany Funders require project evaluations and most insist on receiving some sort ofmonitoring information. Evaluation does not have to be difficult and done properly it caneven be useful. If you put a little thought into how you are going to collect information atthe beginning of the project it is usually possible to find quick and painless ways to gathermonitoring information. Equally, meeting regularly during the project not only helps yougather evaluation data, it can also help divert disasters before they occur. Timetabling asession for reflection after the project can mean that everyone has a chance to feed in hisor her ideas, not only about what worked and what did not, but it might help you decideas a group where you want to go next. Do not be afraid of using creative evaluation tools,these are often a lot of fun and enable people to participate fully.➯ For a guide to evaluating participatory arts projects see Partnerships for Learning byFelicity Wolf. (See resources list)➯ For some fun participative evaluation exercises see Participation Learning and Action byJules N Pretty, Irene Guijit, John Thompson and Ian Scoones. (See resources list).7. Contracts, Health and Safety and Legal ObligationsAs with all projects you need to think about the legal side. If you work for a largeorganisation or a constituted group it is more than likely that there will already beprotocols in place for working with outside contractors and members of the public.Many arts workers and organisations also have Public Liability insurance or standardcontracts and some even have training in Health and Safety. If you are in any doubt, ask forsupport. Never start a project without a written agreement between your organisationand your chosen arts worker that clearly outlines responsibilities within the project andwhere relevant codes of conduct.For further information about the legalities of setting up arts projects see Taking Part, AHandbook for the Voluntary Arts in the West Midlands. (See resources list).Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity ArtsA Final WordThe bad news is that there is no absolute checklist for success. The good news is that with alittle thought and good planning it is possible to set up arts projects that achieve your goalsand meet the aspirations of the groups you work with. One thing to remember above allelse - make it fun!This section of the Involving the Public Resource Pack was written by Mark Webster who hasworked in both the Voluntary and the Statutory Sector as a Community Arts DevelopmentWorker. Mark is now a freelance Arts and Regeneration Consultant who works primarily inthe West Midlands.ResourcesFurther ReadingCommunity Arts Methods and PracticeFinding Voices Making Choices, ISBN No: 1-900219-22-0, cost £10.00, edited byMark Webster (1997) Educational Heretics Press.Available from bookshops or directly from the publisher at:Educational Heretics Press113 Arundel Drive, Bramcote HillsBeeston, Nottingham NG9 3FQTel: 0115 9257261Web: www.edheretics.gn.apc.orgArts and Social InclusionSocial Exclusion Unit's Policy Action Team 10 - The PAT 10 Report (1998) Department ofCulture, Media and Sport.The report that started the present debate.Download from their website www.culture.gov.ukArts and HealthArts and Healthcare, a CD Rom and Video pack produced byThe Arts Council of England (2002)Available from:The Arts Council of England14 Great Peter Street, London SW1P 3NQTel: 020 73330100Web: www.artscouncil.org.ukCommunity Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity ArtsArts and Community DevelopmentCommunity development and the Arts by Lola Clinton (1996) Community DevelopmentFoundation. Now a little out of date but still an important resource.Available from:Community Development Foundation60 Highbury Grove, London N5 2AGTel: 020 73330100Evaluating Participatory Arts ProjectsPartnerships for Learning by Felicity Wolf. (1999) Arts Council for England.The best guide there is to evaluating participatory arts projects.Available from:The Arts Council of England14 Great Peter Street London SW1P 3NQTel: 020 79736551Web: www.artscouncil.org.ukParticipatory Learning and Action by Jules N Pretty, Irene Guijit, John Thompson and IanScoones. (1995) International Institute for Environment and Development. A great practicalguide for participatory research methods with a particularly good evaluation section.Available from:IIED3 Endsleigh StreetLondon WC1H 0DDTe: 020 73882117Web: www.IIED/org.ukThe Arts Council for England Publications is: Marston Books, 01235 465500Artist Databases and GuidesWest Midlands Arts has lists of Artists and example projects available on line from theirWebsite (see below), but the most easily available comprehensive list is Artist Directproduced by Arts in Sandwell.Artist DirectPublished by Arts in Sandwell and now available free on line at: www.sandwellartsfocus.co.ukCommunity Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity ArtsThe other general handbook worth consulting is:Taking Part: A Handbook For The Voluntary ArtsProduced by the Voluntary Arts Network and geared to the West Midlands with localinformation. A simple, informative guide on the setting up of all kinds of art projects. Aimedprimarily at voluntary sector organisations and groups. Available from the Voluntary ArtsNetwork. (Contact details below)JournalsMailoutProduced every 6 - 8 weeks. The only national journal for Community and ParticipatoryArts. For more information E-mail them at info@e-mail or visit their website www.emailout.orgVoluntary Arts Network NewsletterPublished quarterly. To subscribe call their national office on 029 20395395 orE-mail them info@voluntaryarts.orgWebsitesWalsall Community Arts Team - www.communityartswalsall.orgThe Website of Walsall Community Arts Team; it has lots of good practice examples andmany useful links.Contact Deb Slade, 12th Floor,Tameway Tower, 48 Bridge Street, Walsall WS1 1JZTel: 01922 653114E-mail sladed@walsall.gov.ukCreative Remedies - www.creative-remedies.org.ukwest Midlands based regional website for Arts and Health, with examples and useful Arts andHeath links from across the UK.Arts Council for England (West Midlands Section) - see contracts at the end of this sectionfor detailsThe Voluntary Arts Network - www.voluntaryarts.orgAn excellent site with lots of up to date information for voluntary arts projects.Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity ArtsContactsThe Arts Council for England82 Granville StreetBirmingham B1 2LHTel: 0121 6313121E-mail: enquiries@artscouncil.org.ukWeb: www.artscouncil.org.ukVoluntary Arts NetworkPO Box 200Cardiff CF5 1YHTel: 029 20395395E-mail: info@voluntary arts.orgCommunity Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity Initiatives - Other TechniquesSeveral other techniques are based on the same process with modifications depending onthe topic under discussion, the urgency of the decision and the numbers of people involved.The following are brief summaries of some of these techniques. Further advice andinformation can be obtained from the publications or contacts identified at the end of thissection.Some approaches involve participants in visioning, i.e. developing images of the future of anarea and then translating the ideas into an action plan. Another related approach is toprovide participants with three different 'visions' for an area or facility and identify the aspectsthat they like and those they dislike. They then draw up a composite vision for the future andaction plan.Other techniques include stakeholders identifying the influences in a community throughsharing stories and experiences from the past and exploring present trends. The positivesand difficulties affecting a community are shared and identified in this way. Small groups thendevelop visions for the future and identify the barriers to achieving those aims. The visionsare shared and the whole group work at identifying projects to achieve a collective view ofthe future. Action groups then form to work at implementing the action plan. examples ofthis approach are Future Search Conference and Appreciative Enquiry.Appraisal is also a method of community participation in producing action plans.Some approaches (Community Appraisal for example) involve an initial household surveyand the development of action plans from the findings. Others involve participants in aprocess of collecting data based on their perceptions of their area and reflecting on whatneeds to be done to bring about change and the barriers to progress. The participantspropose solutions and learn about the impact of various proposals before identifying anaction plan (Participatory Appraisal).Open Space is a very flexible technique and requires minimal planning. The techniqueinvolves people in a community coming together at an event and identifying issues that areimportant to them. The participants then organise themselves on the basis of the topics theywish to discuss. The sessions take place and the results are recorded in order to draw upproposals for action.Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity Initiatives - Other TechniquesThese and a wide range of other techniques are explained in two publications:‘The Community Planning Handbook’ by Nick Wates 2000 published by EarthscanPublications Ltd. London Tel: Littlehampton Book Services on (01903) 828800.Web: www.LBSLTD.co.uk‘Participation Works’ produced by the New economics Foundation, First Floor,Vine Court, 112 - 116 Whitechapel Road, London E1 1JETel: 0207 3775696Fax: 0207 377 5720Contacts for further information:Ann Wood (Community, Play and Youth)Tel: 552162E-mail ann-wood@dial.pipex.comJan Hickman (Co-ordinator for Local and Neighbourhood Arrangements)Tel: 556043.Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity Researchers/EvaluatorsIn the 'Background' section and at various points throughout this Resource Pack, we haveidentified the importance of involving local people in decision making because of their firsthand knowledge of their communities. It is also recognised that decisions which involve localpeople are more likely to be sustained.The Ladder of Participation (see background section) also places a high value on councilsworking in partnership with local people.One practical way in which these aspects have been explored in a variety of situations inrecent years is by engaging local people - both adults and young people - as communityresearchers or evaluators. Throughout the rest of this section the term 'communityresearchers' will be used.Who are community researchers?Local people who have been trained in basic research techniques and use these skills toundertake research into community needs or evaluate services provided whether bystatutory services or voluntary/community organisations.Why use community researchers rather than external experts?As mentioned in other sections of this pack, there are occasions when it is appropriate andbeneficial to engage external researchers and consultants. However, there are a number ofpotential benefits that can be derived from local people becoming community researchersand researching their own area, for example:• They are known and therefore interviewees may feel more at ease in sharing their views.• The researchers and interviewees have a common understanding of the social and builtenvironment.• They may share a common local dialect or community language.• The researchers have a commitment to completing the research effectively because it mayresult in improvements to their neighbourhood or a service provision within their area.• It enables people to gain a greater understanding of their own community and/or serviceprovision.• The researchers have a commitment to completing the research effectively because it mayresult in improvements to their neighbourhood or a service provision within their area.Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity Researchers/Evaluators• It enables people to gain a greater understanding of their own community and/or serviceprovision.• Researchers can provide a channel of communication between service providers andservice users.• Undertaking the training may encourage the researchers (and people in their socialnetwork) to continue in/return to education.• The training and research experience (particularly if they are employed on a temporarybasis, e.g. Wolverhampton Health Action Zone - see the 'Payment' section below) mayincrease work opportunities for people who are seeking employment.• For young people it may result in greater understanding and improved relationshipsbetween themselves and adults in a community.What are the difficulties?There are a number of potential difficulties:• Local people may not want to share their views and opinions with a neighbour.• The community researcher may be known to hold opinions about the topic they areresearching.• The expectations of the community might be raised unrealistically.• Official organisations may feel the researchers will be biased or only obtain the opinions ofpeople they know.• Community researchers may feel exploited as 'cheap labour'.Some of these issues can be resolved by establishing a steering group containing anindependent research adviser who is able to assist with the research process, check on themethods being used, help to analyse the data and validate the findings. This person may be aresearcher with the local authority, a University or another public sector organisation such asthe Health Service.Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity Researchers/EvaluatorsTrainingTraining is an important element in providing the participants with basic research skills and anawareness of the issues related to carrying out the work in their own communities.The following examples have all used courses accredited by the Open College Network forthe West Midlands:• Community Evaluators have been evaluating the work of the Wolverhampton HealthAction Zone.• Sandwell Health Authority have engaged community researchers to identify communityneeds - particularly related to the Asian population.• The Capehill and Windmill Development Trust in Smethwick have trained communityresearchers in a number of localities both within Smethwick and West Bromwich.PaymentIn all the above examples, the authorities identified funding to pay the communityresearchers. This either took the form of a training allowance or, in the case ofWolverhampton Health Action Zone, a wage paid through an Intermediate Labour Market(ILM).For further information contact:Open College Network for the West MidlandsTel: (01902) 824212www.ocnwm@wlv.ac.ukFirst People,Training and ConsultancySteve Taplin/Tricia GarnerTel: 424232E-mail Steve@people1.demon.co.ukManjit Cheema/Sarah Underhill atNeighbourhood Management,18 The Haymarket, Dovecotes,Wolverhampton WV8 1ZETel: (01902) 551779Community Initiatives


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving Children & Young PeopleIn what follows “children” are taken to be aged 6 - 11 and “young people” 12 - 18.Why is the involvement of children and young people important?Children• Involving children as fully as possible is good for their social and educational development.• Children are part of the community and have views on the services that affect them.• Children are experts on some issues of provision, such as what is interesting playequipment.• They have knowledge of their neighbourhood such as arrears that can be used forinformal play and dangerous places to avoid.• UN Declaration on the Rights of the Child require their views to be considered.Young People• Young people have the experience of what it is like to be young now.• They are part of the community and have their views on the services that affect them.• Are active members of their communities - particularly during evenings, weekends andholiday periods - and therefore knowledgeable.• Many of them make regular use of the City centre as shoppers, to meet friends, as parttime workers and for recreation.• They are service users - schools, colleges, health services, training providers, youth clubs,parks, concert venues, public transport, libraries, sports & leisure facilities and public events.• Young people generally want to be treated with respect rather than classed as a problem.They often have a keen sense of justice but feel their views are ignored.Examples• Children provided workers with information about the effectiveness of community playfacilities.• In the New Deal for Communities Area young people are involving members of their peergroup about what they would like to see developed in the area. They are supported byyouth workers.Working With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving Children & Young PeopleWhat motivates them to become involved?Getting the willing/active participation of children and young people is similar to the way inwhich we work with adults:• By focusing on issues that are important to them.• Treating them with respect.• Providing a safe, welcoming environment where they feel at ease.• When appropriate, providing incentives e.g. in the form of outings, or gift vouchers -music or Mobile Phone vouchers etc.(Note: check with parents on the appropriateness of any incentives)How is it different to consulting and involving adults?Special considerations include the kind of interaction children and young people usually havewith adults, and ethical and safety issues. You will need to use specific methods to contactchildren and young people.InteractionChildren and young people do not usually have unstructured interactions with adults, apartfrom close family. Their expectations will often be in terms of school, where the teacher is incharge and 'knows the right answer'.Adults do not usually ask for the opinions of, or listen to the views of, young people.Young people are very sensitive when adults 'pull ranks' or talk down to them.To communicate effectively with children and young people, try and imagine what they arethinking and feeling, and take account of this.Ethics & SafetyThere are a number of child protection considerations when working with children andyoung people.If you want to work with children under the age of 16 parental permission in writing mayhave to be obtained (depending on the setting).Staff involved in carrying out unsupervised consultation with children must have been policechecked.Working With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving Children & Young PeopleConcerns for child safety should include the venue where consultation takes place, howchildren travel to and from the venue, and time of day.In addition you should respect children’s right to play, and not unduly infringe upon this.Recruitment - How do you contact children and young people?Different contact methods are needed than those used with adults:• Children and young people will not be reached through conventional methods. A door todoor survey or a mail out questionnaire will not be effective.• Some groups of young people present greater challenges than others when we are tryingto contact and include them in consultation (e.g. homeless or unemployed youngpeople).You need to carefully plan how you will do this.Possible methods include:Through the facilities they attend• Schools• Supervised Play Areas e.g. Adventure Playgrounds• Youth clubs• Youth groups at mosques, churches, and temples.• Colleges• HostelsBe aware that:• Access will have to be negotiated (via headteacher, youth worker etc)• The children and young people must be given the chance to decline being involved.Parental permission may be required when interviewing children. You need to allow timefor this to be obtained.• This approach is good for issues directly related to the organisation or activity but will missnon-users who may have very useful things to say.• The groups consulted cannot be taken as typical of all children/young people.Working With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving Children & Young PeopleOther methods -Young PeopleOther places to contact young people are social facilities where young people meet - leisureand recreation facilities, fast food outlets, shopping centres etc.Recruiting young people as interviewers of other members of their peer group.NB You may need to obtain permission to conduct interviews in commercial premises orshopping centres, particularly if the researchers are young people. Security staff getconcerned if they see people being approached by young people or adults (particularlywhere CCTV is in use) if they do not know in advance. You are strongly advised to contactpeople who have expertise at this kind of work (outreach or detached youth workers).Theinterviewers will also need official identification.The views of ex-users of a service may be particularly useful. They may have stopped usingthe service because of some aspect of the service they did not like. For young people it isalso desirable to find out what are the important issues for particular groups of young peoplee.g. young men, Asian young women etc.• Community organisations may provide links with local groups of young people.• Contact may be obtained with young people through voluntary organisations. Particularlyimportant for obtaining the views of homeless young people (e.g.YMCA) or young peoplefrom specific cultural groups (e.g. AWAAZ).• For younger children, access may be possible via parents. Be clear that, although you mayalso be interested in the parent’s views, you want to ask the children separately.How do you make sure that those you consult reflect of the wider group you are interestedin?• Use a variety of ways of consulting children/young people• Compare your sample with the demographic profile of the community (gender, differentethnic groups etc)• Use a school sample.How do you work with children and young people?It is important that the views of young people are taken seriously, and that they have achance to influence developments. Key issues for young people might include access to leisurefacilities, the stigma attached to deprived neighbourhoods, the need for jobs and how they’retreated by the police.Working With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving Children & Young PeopleChildren should also be involved specifically with regard to play and recreational provision.They have a need for unstructured, creative play, as well as more formal recreationalprovision.Young people can be involved in single consultation processes or longer term involvement inthe form of a local youth forum• Get to know the participants in advance so that you do not spend a lot of time inexplanation;• Observe how they interact so that you can decide on the effective size, age, gender andracial mix of the group;• Providing a ‘young people friendly’ environment;• Using a variety of approaches;• Focus on topics relevant to the participants;• Using interesting, active and fun methods for obtaining their views;• Having appropriate drinks and snacks available because young people need regular intakesof ‘fuel’ to maintain their energy levels(NB care should be taken to avoid any products that are known to cause allergicproblems);• Listen carefully and record their ideas. Check with them that you have understood theirviews and ideas;• Do not make the process too long, Maximum of an hour for an activity.You should give clear information with regard to:- What the consultation is about- What will happen as a result- How the children/young people will be given feedbackWorking With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving Children & Young PeopleVenues where you consult children and young peoplePossibilities include:• The premises where the activity usually takes place (e.g. Adventure Playground,Youth Club)• A neutral place in the local community (Scout hut, community centre, hostel meetingroom, etc).The room can be made friendly for the particular age group e.g. appropriatemusic and decor.• SchoolsMethodsYou need to :• Make children/young people feel comfortable.• Get them to reveal what they really think, rather than what they think you want to hear.Questions can be direct or indirect.In general indirect questioning is better because:• Children may understand words in a different way to you.• Teenagers may be reluctant to give their opinions directly, in case they are “wrong”.• Children or young people may not have clearly formed opinions about the issue.Asking questions directlyQuestionnairesThese are most appropriate for I I and over. They can be used for younger age groups if askilled interviewer checks their understanding of the question.• Design and layout. Make it interesting with symbols (e.g. smiling/frowning faces) as well aswords.• Use everyday language. Avoid jargon and long sentences.• Take account of possible low levels of literacy-this might mean using an interviewer.• Do not use a modified version of an adult questionnaire.• Give thought to how and where it will be administered. Will this be in a busy youth clubwith lots of noise and interruptions?Working With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving Children & Young People• Using an interviewer to administer the questionnaire is best, followed by supervisedself-completion.Asking questions indirectlyThis involves the use of an activity to reveal people’s views. For example, you could ask youngpeople to take photos of things they liked/didn’t like in their neighbourhood. You would thenask them to describe what they had photographed. You would try and be aware not just ofthe purely factual things they said, but also of any underlying feelings or attitudes. The youngpeople would then be given a chance to respond to your tentative interpretation.Techniques include:• Photography, as outlined above• Drawing and painting on the relevant topic e.g. a drawing of a playground could tell youwho’s taking part, what the most interesting activities are, etc.• Diaries. These are completed for the week before the session e.g. detailing leisureactivities/play• Word association/word games e.g. “If you had one word to describe the Leisure Centre,what would it be?”• Bubble diagrams. The drawing of a person in a scenario you are interested in has a bubblecoming out of their mouth. The young people write in the bubble what the person isthinking.• Collage stories. Young people are provided with images relevant to the issue e.g. frommagazines. They use these to write a story about an issue you are interested in.• Drama/role play. Children/young people come up with a plot and act it out.Focus groups (see separate guidance notes)Keep age range within 2 years. Up to the age of 16 run single sex groups. It is moreproductive to have smaller groups than those involving adults i.e. no more than 6 youngpeople.Ranking (as part of a questionnaire or discussion group)You can ask them to compare best/worst, next best/next worst, and so on. You can userating-marks out of 10, or gold/silver stars (for children). You can use scales, such as smileyfaces, but no more than three options. You should only use ranking after you have asked thechildren/young people to map out all the options.Working With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving Children & Young PeopleObservationof how children and young people use a service or open space in a community and, whereappropriate, react to the provider.Wolverhampton Youth CouncilThis is a group of young people,Youth Councillors, elected by schools, voluntary youthorganisations and youth clubs. The members are keen, articulate and try to keep in touchwith what other young people are thinking.It can be a source of information for how young people are thinking about particular issues.It may be possible to consult members of the Youth Council on particular issues, but that isnot its primary purpose.Addressing queries to the Youth Council should not be regarded as your only method ofconsulting young people. Not all young people take part in the youth elections. You may alsowant to explore the views of particular groups of young people.Further information contact:Sam Axtell Tel: 554918/551885Marie Taylor Tel: 556337(Senior Youth Worker, Participation)Chris Wake Tel: 551964(Children's Fund Programme Manager)Wolverhampton City Youth Councile-mail: office@wolverhamptonyouthcouncil.org.ukReading:National Youth Agency (NYA)0116 2853733www.nya.org.uk‘Never Too Young’ 1996 National early Years Network,77 Holloway Road, London N7 8JZ. Tel: 0207 6079573‘Empowering Children & Young People’ 1997 Save the Children,17 Grove Lane, London SE5 8RD.Tel: 02070 126 400www.savethechildren.org.ukWorking With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving Children & Young People‘Qualitative Market Research. A Practitioner and Buyer’s Guide’Wendy Gordon and Roy Langmaid, Gower,Aldershot, 1988.‘Including Young People in Urban Regeneration’Suzanne Fitzpatrick,Annette Hastings, Keith Kintrea, Policy Press and Joseph RowntreeFoundation, 1998.‘Guidelines For Working With Children And Young People’ Market Research Society,Website: www.mrs.org.uk or Tel: 020 7490 4911.‘Hear! Hear! Promoting Children & Young People’sDemocratic Participation in Local Government’ LGIU 1997 LGIUTel: 0207 6089573.Current Relevant Publications:‘Every Child Matters’ sets out the framework for inter-agency delivery of the Children Act2004, which outlined fundamental changes to work with children. Contact Nicky Tayloror Sue Coleman Tel: 551216 at Lifelong Learning,The Civic Centre.‘Youth Matters’ November 2005. At the time of writing this is a Green Paper whichoutlines proposals for services to young people. Copies of the document can be obtainedfrom DFES Publications.0845 6022260e-mail dfes@prolog.uk.com‘Hear by Right’ is a framework document that sets out standards for the activeinvolvement of children and young people.Please note these publications may change status in the future,Working With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving Older PeopleWhy it is important to involve older people?As a result of the Government's strategy for older people, the category 'elder people' nowencompasses everyone over the age of 50.• A high proportion of the people defined as older are very actively involved in theeconomic, social, political, educational and cultural aspects of the community. Indeed, manyhave reached positions of significant influence after reaching the age of 50.• Based on projections from the 2001 census, the percentage of older people inWolverhampton: 45 years plus = 39.3%, 60 years plus = 21.9%.• Collectively they have a broad knowledge and experience of life. For example, peoplewho have been residents in neighbourhoods for long periods may be aware of changesthat are required and may have extensive social networks through which information canbe conveyed.• Older people are experts on their own needs.• Many older people use a wide range of public services and are able to offer suggestionsand comments on how services may be improved.• Older people, like other people, want to be treated with respect and can make asignificant contribution to society.How do you contact older people?• Older people under retirement age can be contacted in similar ways to the rest of thegeneral public, i.e. through work, social venues such as pubs and educational centres suchas the Adult Education College.• People who are retired might work as volunteers and can be contacted through thenetwork of organisations available at the Wolverhampton Voluntary Sector Council(WVSC773761) or Wolverhampton One City Credit Union,Vivienne Lear/Elaine Cumine,2 Clarence Road, Wolverhampton WV1 4HZ (01902) 572340.• There are some specific sports that tend to attract older people such as bowling. LeisureServices will be able to identify the location of bowling greens and clubs etc.• Some older people attend community centres and many are actively involved inmanagement groups. Others attend day clubs, cultural organisations such as the AfricanCaribbean Cultural Centre or may be members of social clubs and associations.Contact can be made via that group or association.Working With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving Older People• Some older people may be involved in the Churches,Temples or other religious groupsand organisations. Again contact information might be available through the WVSC or theWolverhampton Race Equality Partnership, to be launched early 2006. For moreinformation contact: The West Midlands Race Equality Partnership on 0121 2503859.E-mail rewm@rewm.org.uk• Some older people live in sheltered housing schemes or residential care and may becontacted via the care provider. The Housing Department, Housing Associations andSocial Services Department may be able to provide advice and assistance.• Other older people may be isolated and quite difficult to engage. It is important toprovide information about opportunities for involvement through statutory and voluntaryorganisations working with older people. Also to use the media to publicise initiatives -particularly local radio, newspapers and community newsletters. The library serviceprovide a home service of books and information to older people who have difficultieswith mobility. They may be able to offer advice on how to access people who arerestricted to their homes.Ensuring DiversityOlder people in all communities in Wolverhampton have opinions. Creativity needs to beused when trying to involve different sections within the community.• Older people from black and minority ethnic communities are seldom reached bystatutory organisations. As mentioned above, getting to know community and religiousleaders is a good start and ensuring information is provided in an effective way such as theuse of community languages.• Be visible in the community or area where you would like to involve people, particularly atplaces where older people congregate.Other possible places to engage with older people• Markets• Shopping Centres• LibrariesWorking With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving Older PeopleCommunication• Where time allows, try to visit people to ascertain their views.• Be clear about what methods of public involvement you are going to use.• Make sure there is no room for misinterpretation of information, avoid jargon and allowfor the fact that it may need to be translated into community languages and formats suchas audio-tape.• Try to remove as many barriers to good communication and involvement as possible.What motivates them to be involved?The same things that encourage people from other sections of the public:• Focusing on interests or issues that affect their daily lives e.g. accessing leisure facilities,housing, education, transport, health services etc.• Being treated as individuals and not as a collective of ‘older people’• Providing a welcoming environment in venues that are accessible.• Provide incentives such as food at meetings and transport (including adapted vehicles forthose who are unable to use other forms of transport).• Being listened to, having ideas adopted and feedback on the outcomes of involvementExamples of initiatives• The Wolverhampton Over 50s Forum and The Wolverhampton Black Elders Partnershipare two large umbrella groups made up of individuals over the age of 50 and groups/clubswhich support the over 50s. Both groups are moving towards working with the Councilto highlight issues that affect older people, while working towards better services andincreased participation of older people in decision-making processes. They are supportedby the Network Development Officer for Older People.• Older people felt that the system for registering a death was complicated at a time whenpeople needed support. As a result of this information and following consultation with theWolverhampton Over 50s Forum the Bereavement Centre was established.Working With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving Older PeopleContacts and ReferencesThe Older Persons Strategy will soon be available on the Wolverhampton City Councilwebsite under Social Services www.wolverhampton.gov.ukFor methods and techniques for involving older people obtain a copy of the Older PersonsCommunications Strategy Tel: 555359Rose Powell Network Development Officer For Older People Tel: 555494Stuart Monger Information Officer For Older People Tel: 444010The Information Centre is located at 10 King Street Wolverhampton WV1 1STE-mail: info4all@wolvespct.nhs.ukRavinder Uppal Asian Advice Worker For Older PeopleTel: 444491Community Workers For Older People:-Tel: Barbara Nelson, Monday and Tuesday on 553494,Wednesday - Friday on 553543 andIan Peddie at Warstones Resource Centre on 556701.Wolverhampton Race Equality Partnership, to be launched early 2006, for moreinformation contact: The West Midlands Race Equality Partnership on 0121 2503859E-mail: rewm@rewm.org.ukWolverhampton One City Credit Union,Vivienne Lear/Elaine Cumine on 572340.Resource Pack for the over 50s available at various venues, contact (01902) 831831.Asian Languages (01902) 444491The Voluntary Sector Council is located at2/3 Bell Street,Wolverhampton WV I 3PRTel: 773761.Working With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving People With DisabilitiesWhy is it important to involve people with disabilities?The involvement of people with disabilities in decision-making is beneficial from at least twoperspectives. Firstly, they are able to contribute their ideas about developments as residentsof a neighbourhood or users of services. Secondly, they are able to identify the potentialimpact of any changes on people with their disability.Although it is obvious, it is important to recognise that disabilities are different in relation toboth the type and the impact on a person’s life. It is therefore important in any change, e.g.to the physical structure of a neighbourhood or the way a service is provided, to ensure thatpeople with different disabilities have the opportunity to contribute their ideas.In this section we identify some of the factors that assist people with disabilities to engage indecision-making.Contacting People with DisabilitiesThe first step is to identify where people with disabilities congregate.• Groups for people with disabilities include ‘Different Strokes’, ‘Activeyes’ the fibromyalgiagroup or ‘One Voice Disability Forum’.• There are social and sports groups such as Gateway,The Happy Society and The MaltingsSports & Social Group.• Day Centres & Drop-In Centres such as The Maltings, Ekta (Asian) Day Centre, WarstonesCentre and the Beacon Centre for the blind.• Other contact points include Shop Mobility, West Park Rehabilitation Centre, the EyeInfirmary, Sheltered Housing Schemes and Penn Hall School (for young people aged 13 ñ18).• Workers with people with disabilities include the Home Library Service based at theCentral Library and specialist officers at the University and Wolverhampton College:Many of the organisations for people with disabilities can be contacted through theWolverhampton Voluntary Sector Council or the Health and Community Care InformationService. (See contacts at the end of this section).Methods of InvolvementSome methods will work better than others but all can be adapted so that people withdisabilities can take part. The best approach is to ask people what they need in order to takepartWorking With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving People With DisabilitiesMeeting based methods such as focus groups, juries, public meetings, panels etc. the physicalaccess issues are important (see under venues below). In addition, if deaf people are inattendance, it is important to obtain the services of a sign language interpreter. BothWolverhampton University and Wolverhampton College engage people on a regular basis tosupport students and may be able to identify suitable interpreters. The Royal NationalInstitute for the Deaf (RNID) Communication Support Unit also provides qualifiedinterpreters.For people with learning difficulties, the pace of the process is critical and they may requireinitial briefings and support workers to help to explain the process.Jane Viner the Mental Health Empowerment Worker is able to provide advice with this issue.Contact information is provided at the end of this section.Written materials such as postal surveys or self completion questionnaires should be writtenin plain language and, for people with sight impairment, use large print. For computergenerated materials use sans serif print, such as Arial, at 14 point.If you are using a taped copy of a questionnaire, arrange to go through it with the tape user.Keep sentences short and to the point. As with all public involvement, if you cannot explainsomething in a straight forward way then re-think it.With Web based surveys avoid frames because text readers equipment used by blind peopleare unable to read them.Provide a telephone number to enable people to clarify what is required. Wherever possibleprovide a minicom number for deaf people who need assistance.NB Information related to any of the involvement techniques should be available in a varietyof formats large print, tape or Braille.Correspondence. It is important to apply the same approaches with regard tocommunication, as identified above, when communicating with people about becominginvolved in a decision making process.Working With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving People With DisabilitiesVenueIf people are being invited to a meeting you should consider the following:• Is the building accessible to wheelchair users?• Is it well lit to assist people with visual impairment?• Is there a loop system in the room to assist people with hearing impairment?If you have not previously used the rooms you should visit to clarify these issues. If there is aloop system, it is important to find out if someone will be available at the time of the meetingto set it up. If not, it is important that the organisers are shown how to operate the system.It is advisable to test it before the event begins.TransportConsideration is needed about whether transport is required and whether it is accessible.There are some adapted taxis in Wolverhampton. Buses are generally not accessible towheelchair users although help might be available from the Ring And Ride service (seebelow).Some Council minibuses are converted for wheelchair users. For information aboutconditions of use and availability contact Paul Falconbridge on 554883.With some venues it is important to make sure there is appropriate parking space availablefor minibuses and Blue Badge Parking close to the venue for people with disabilities who aretravelling independently.Ring and Ride ServiceTel: 421515This service operates seven days a week in the City of Wolverhampton.It provides a door to door service and all vehicles are equipped with a tail lift.To make use of this service an individual needs to register seven days prior to their firstjourney. All members of a group need to be registered individually.Bookings need to be made two days in advance and provide details of pick-up anddestination addresses and times required.Working With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving People With DisabilitiesThe service operates between 8.00 a.m. and 10.30 p.m.Charges: Variable, free with a bus passNB. The service is not available for trips to the hospital.Other schemes that offer transport for people with disabilitiesCommunity Transport Tel: 496010Easyrider Tel: 716080Wheelchair Accessible Taxis via City Council Tel: 555033Associated TaxisTel:425591Rainbow Taxis Tel: 311118Ken Till Tel: 07831 620048For further information contact:Gateway More information on www.mencap.org.uk Tel: 571253One Voice Disability Forum Tel: 810016Wolverhampton Voluntary Sector Council Tel: 773761Jane Viner, Mental Health Empowerment Project Tel: 773761Health & Community Care Information Service Tel: 831831RNID Communication Support Unit, Tel: 423717Norwich Union House, 31 Waterloo Road WV1 4DJ Text: 423716www.RNID.org.ukE-mail: cswolverhampton@rnid.org.ukFurther information:Ana Knight re DAGLA and work with young people Tel: 551972Karen Ryder, One Voice Tel: 810016Robert Williams-Finlay, Tel: 554063Senior Policy and Equality Officer Tel: 554063Linda Hardy,Access Officer Tel: 555411Working With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving People With DisabilitiesReading:Disability Organisations in Wolverhampton fact sheet available from:-Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) Part III guidance note-auxiliary aids and supportDisability Organisations in WolverhamptonRNIB Clear Print GuidelinesContact Robert Williams - Finlay Tel: 554063Wolverhampton Central Library - Reference SectionList of organisations for people with disabilities Tel: 552025E-mail wolverhamptonlibraries@dial.pipex.comWorking With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving Non - UsersWho are non-users?The term ‘non-users’ refers to people who do not make use of facilities and/or servicesprovided by the Council (or other agencies).This might include any of the following:Potential UsersThey would like to use the facilities and/or services we provide but the current services are,for example:-• Too expensive• Inaccessible e.g.- For wheelchair users- Difficult to reach by public transport- The service is provided at inconvenient times• Inappropriate for their needs• Poorly advertised (or well advertised but in the wrong places)• Culturally inappropriate• Too limited (e.g. the supply of accommodation for young single homeless people)• Some other reasons that we need to identify.Ex-users• People who no longer need the service• The service was inappropriate or not provided effectively• People who could no longer afford a service or to access a facility.Not interested in our services• People use alternative (e.g. private) provision• Our service does not match their needsWhy is it important to involve non-users?• We may be unintentionally excluding some people from facilities or services.• Non-users may have good ideas about improving our service.• We may discover needs that are not catered for.• They may have views on development needs in communities.Working With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving Non - UsersContacting non-usersUsing a combination of methods is the best way to get a sample of people that reflects thegroup we are interested in.An initial survey can be used to identify members of particular groups you are interested in(e.g. unemployed older people)It is advisable to invite people to a more in-depth consultation (focus groups or interviews).Methods of contacting people in the Community• Door to door survey• Street survey• In conjunction with Community Organisations - to identify individuals in the communitywho might be useful contacts or respondents.Contacting particular groups within the communityE.g. Black and Asian Communities• Community Organisations such as advice centres• Churches,Temples, Mosques• Survey particular parts of the city with a relatively high concentration of particularcommunities (use Census data).Working With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving Non - UsersContacting groups of non-usersE.g. Homeless young people• Young Person’s Tenancy Officer• Housing Associations• Hostels• Street vendors selling the Big Issue’.• Friends of homeless young people who agencies are already in contact with. Suchorganisations might include Community Play and Youth, Base 25 or the Youth OffendingTeam.The basic principle is to build up a list of potential contact points, develop these by talking topeople from the particular group and other people who may know the group well (supportworkers etc.) The view of those who work with the group may be interesting but this is nota substitute for direct contact with the people in question.Some groups will be particularly reluctant to be involved. This may be because they aresuspicious of authority, or because of negative experiences when involved in previousconsultation exercises.This reluctance should not be treated as a barrier. We need to make special efforts toinvolve all sections of the community.It is important to be honest about what the consultation is likely to achieve, to giveassurances about confidentiality and to treat people with respect. It may be possible toinvolve people from the group in question in carrying out the consultation. This gives themthe chance to tell their story, and has been used, for example by Save the Children on theexperiences of young people in careTechniques for asking non-users• Surveys with interviewers asking open-ended questions• In depth interviews (these can be paired interviews where the person brings a friendalong for support).• Focus groupsFor further information see the sections on Surveys and Focus Groups in this pack. (P 20)These techniques can be supplemented by additional activities such as:• ‘Mystery shopper’ exercise. This involves non-users visiting a service or facility andreporting back on what they think and feel about it.Working With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving Non - UsersThe general principles about engaging non-users:-• Start from people’s needs and priorities,• Use open-ended questions to understand their perspective,• Use appropriate sampling, so a range of opinions are represented, and• Proceed from general questions to more specific onesThese will need to be adapted as appropriate. One useful test for the appropriateness ofquestions is to try them out with colleagues.When engaging non-users, some of the workers involved should be able to speakappropriate community languages.Postal questionnaires are not suitable. This is because open-ended questions do not workwell in a self-completion questionnaire. There may be a low response rate, making the surveyunrepresentative.FeedbackAs mentioned in all the sections of this pack, it is important to provide feedback to nonusers.Indeed, the effectiveness of this work may help to identify services they need or encouragethem to re-use services they had ceased to use.Discuss with the participants the most effective methods of communication. If you have theaddresses of those you have consulted, a summary report and progress report can be postedto them. Arrangements can be made to deliver copies to homeless people via a supportagency/worker.This can be supplemented by posting results (together with a brief description of what theconsultation was about) in appropriate venues for example community centres, libraries,shopping centres, and so onWorking With Specific Groups


Involving the Public Resource PackInvolving Non - UsersFor further information contact:General enquiries about involving non-users contactIan Philips,Tel: 5581IISupporting People Officer,Sandra Jones,Tel: 555815E-mail Sandra.jones@wolverhamplton.gov.ukHousing Strategy,Lesley Williams, Tel: 5513000Young Person’s Tenancy Support Officer,Kay Bourne,Tel: 556806Homeless Services Information,Dave Taylor, Tel: 554738Base 25,Tel: 572040E-mail: info@base25.infoWebsite: www.base25.infoYouth Offending Team,Tel: 553722E-mail: youth.offending@wolverhampton.gov.ukWorking With Specific Groups


Involving Black and Minority Ethnic(BME) CommunitiesWhy is the involvement of black and minority ethniccommunities important?All the residents of the City have the right to be involved in public involvement activities anddecision making processes. Black and minority ethnic (BME) people have often been underrepresentedin such processes in the past. It is vitally important to seek their views becauseof their knowledge of their cultural groups and the contribution they make to a betterunderstanding of the diversity of the City.This section of the Resource Pack provides information about some of the factors thatencourage people from black and minority ethnic communities to become involved.What motivates people to become involved?• Focusing on issues of interest or concern to them• Planning the public involvement initiative with members of the appropriate groups andindividuals as early as possible in the process• Not treating them in tokenistic way• Providing a safe and welcoming environment where they can feel at ease e.g. their owncommunity venues• Providing incentives when appropriateHow to contact people from BME communities• Voluntary and community groups working with black communities e.g. Mount Shiloh;• Community Centres e.g. the African Caribbean Cultural Centre;• Places of worship e.g. Mosques, Gurdwaras, Churches &Temples;• Educational establishments such as schools, Wolverhampton College and the Adult College;• Specific health and social care groups e.g. Black Strategic Health Group, Asian HealthForum, African Caribbean Strategic Health Allied Network (ACSHAN)• Advice centres such as AWAAZ, the Haq Centre and Whitmore Reans Advice Centre;• Service providers for specific groups e.g. older people such as the Ekta Day Centre forAsian people; Hibiscus Housing Association and the African Caribbean CommunityInitiative for African Caribbean people.Working With Specific Groups


Involving Black and Minority Ethnic(BME) CommunitiesContact can be made with individuals who are not involved in organisations through outreachor detached work i.e. providing information and visiting community and public buildings usedby members of BME communities such as churches, libraries, schools and playgroups.Help in identifying organisations and contact people is available from:• Wolverhampton Race Equality Partnership to be launched early 2006, for moreinformation contact: The West Midlands Race Equality Partnership on 0121 2503859E-mail: rewm@rewm.org.uk• Voluntary Sector Council;• City Council - Senior Equality Officer;• Community, Play &Youth Service.(See information provided at the end of this section)• If you are seeking to involve people of a specific age or gender, it may be appropriate tocontact community organisations, many of which have relevant sub-groups. Examplesinclude the Training & Learning Centre which makes provision for Muslim women; theSeventh Day Adventist Church which has a Young Pioneers section for young people andthe Guru Ravidass Centre, Blakenhall, which organises men’s and women’s groups for Sikhelders. You may need to discuss access to these groups with the Chairperson, Secretary orproject co-ordinator.• The permission of carers will be required when working with children and young people.For further information see the section ‘Involving Children &Young People’ in thisResource Pack.• Black and minority ethnic communities have developed their own processes forcommunity involvement in decision making about key issues. There are now a number offorums that should be contacted when initiatives are being considered which affect peoplefrom the BME communities. Examples of these organisations include the AfricanCaribbean Strategic Health Allied Network, Asian Health Forum, Black Elders Forum, BMEHousing Consortium and the Black Strategic Health Group.Even if the issue you want to explore and engage with BME communities is not related tohealth or housing issues, the Chairperson or Secretary of these groups are potentiallyuseful contacts in that they may be able to add information about your initiative to theirmailouts.• Interpreting services may be required by some black and minority ethnic people inWolverhampton. Even where people can speak some English, it may be advisable toinvolve an interpreter to enable a clear understanding of the involvement process or toassist with discussions in meetings etc.Working With Specific Groups


Involving Black and Minority Ethnic(BME) CommunitiesThis type of support can be provided by the Wolverhampton Health & Social CareInterpreting Service, if your activity is related to Health & Care Field. The service providesAsian language and Patois interpreters. The Brass House Centre in Birmingham is able toprovide interpreters (see contact information at the end of this section).• Keep people informed about what is happening generally and include information aboutpublic involvement activities in black and minority ethnic newsletters, journals and digests.• Outreach methods outlined elsewhere in this pack are also suitable for the purpose ofmaking contact with individuals in this target group. For example, where there are schoolswith significant numbers of BME pupils, information can be given to their parents/carers atthe school gates when they are dropping children off or picking them up.• When you are planning participation events avoid clashes with religious and culturalcelebrations, for example Notting Hill Carnival, August Bank Holiday; Diwali in October orNovember. A calendar with significant dates can be purchased (See contact information atthe end of this section).However, cultural celebrations may present you with opportunities to provide people withinformation about your organisation and involvement activities you are planning. Contactthe organisers to discuss ways in which your information might be distributed or displayed.Organising Activities• Wherever possible, use facilities that are familiar to the group you are seeking to involve.As identified elsewhere in this pack, consideration needs to be given to accessibility,particularly for people with disabilities.If you are engaging young or older people, the provision of transport may be importantfor safety reasons, particularly at the end of evening events.For cultural reasons, events involving young Asian women will often have to be organisedin the daytime or early evening.• Have drinks and snacks available. Seek advise about dietary requirements from membersof the group you are working with.Working With Specific Groups


Involving Black and Minority Ethnic(BME) Communities• Use interesting, active and fun methods for obtaining ideas and opinions. Techniques mightinclude art, media and photography as well as other approaches identified elsewhere in theResource Pack including focus groups and surveys. It is important to ensure that if thearts and media are used they are culturally relevant and reflect appropriate images of thegroups and individuals involved.As with all sections of the population people absorb information in different ways. Try touse visual and practical information to obtain views as well as written form.• Do not assume that all the people from black and minority ethnic communities are thesame, want the same things and share the same ideals. For instance, interviewing peoplefrom the Sikh community does not mean that all Asian perspectives are being addressed.The same applies to African Caribbean people. It is important to obtain a diverse range ofopinions. Talking to a member of a cultural organisation does not mean you are obtainingthe views of all the members of that community. It is important to strive to obtain theviews of the people who are under-represented in many public involvement initiatives -young people, people with disabilities and non-users of services.• Wherever possible avoid jargon and professional terminology. If it is necessary you willneed to be able to explain what it means.• Listen carefully and record participants ideas. If in doubt, check that you have understoodtheir views correctly.• If you are recording people’s views it is important to seek their agreement by explainingwhy this is important and how the information will be used.• Give clear information in plain English, as well as community languages. Pay particularattention to:- The purpose of the consultation;- What will happen as a result;- How and when participants will be given feedback.Working With Specific Groups


Involving Black and Minority Ethnic(BME) CommunitiesCase study examplesOutreach work in barbershops was successful in contacting African Caribbean men in asexual health prevention project called ‘Real fathers, Real men’. A report is available fromACCI (See contact information at the end of this section).The HAZ Participation Team co-ordinated work with members of the Westbury StGurdwara using participatory appraisal approaches to identify the physical, social and healthneeds of the users of the Gurdwara. The results of the work will be used to influenceservice provision, obtain financial resources and has had the welcome and unexpectedoutcome of launching an Asian disability group called Wolverhampton Elders Asian Disabled(VVEAD). Tel: 448552, based at 21 Temple Street, now a drop-in centre for Asian peopleover 50 years and Asian people with disabilities, gives advice and provides activities. E-mailElderasians@btconnect.comA report is available from WEAD 44552 (as above)(See contact information at the end of this section).Working With Specific Groups


Involving Black and Minority Ethnic(BME) CommunitiesContactsSenior Policy and Equality Officer, Delva Campbell,Performance and Development, Civic Centre,Tel: 554081Ann Wood, Community, Play &Youth Service,Lifelong Learning, Civic Centre,Tel: 552162Ferdinand Addo, Chairperson,African Caribbean Strategic Health Allied Network (ACSHAN),Tel: 871250E-mail: MSHAC@TISCALI.co.ukHealth & Social Care Development Officer, (BME.Voluntary & Community Sector),Parmi DheensaTel: 421531Wolverhampton Voluntary Sector Council,Tel: 715871 (WVSC has a database of BME Voluntary and Community Organisations)Wolverhampton Race Equality partnership to be launched early 2006.For more information contact:The West Midlands Race Equality Partnership on 0121 2503859E-mail: rewm@rewm.org.ukWolverhampton Health & Social Care Interpreting Service, 36 Thornley Street,Wolverhampton WV1 1UP.E-mail: cronine8@hotmail.flBrass House Language Centre,Translation and Interpreting Services, Sheepcote Street,Birmingham, B16 8AJ,Tel: 0121 303 1619 Website: www.birmingham.gov.uk/brasshouseAsian Health Forum, contact Parmi Dhensa,Tel: 421531Black Elders Group,Angela Johnson,Tel: 421783,West Midlands Caribbean and Friends Association,372 Newhampton Road West,Wolverhampton WV6 0RXE-mail: angiewmcpfa@blueyonder.co.ukWebsite: www.wmcpfa.org.ukWorking With Specific Groups


Involving Black and Minority Ethnic(BME) CommunitiesBME Housing Consortium,Arun Bector,Tel: 571286Black Strategic Health Group,Satinder Herian,Tel:444076Health and Wellbeing in the African/Caribbean Community,Tel: 871250Demographic Information -,Wolverhampton City Council,Jatinder Mahawa,Tel: 555865Interfaith Organisation - Directory of Faith Groups;Tel/Fax::427601E-mail: admin@wifg.eclipse.co.ukSingle Regeneration Budget BME Consortium -Jo Basra,Tel: 572124 -Suffia Perveen BMER Forum,part of the Community Empowerment Network,Tel: 313052.TLC - The Learning College - Glebe House,Wolverhampton,Tel: 01902 714433Guru Ravidass Centre - Goldthorn Park,Wolverhampton,Tel: 01902 457007/450829Religious Calendar - available from - SHAP - Information and Distribution Office,Church House, Great Smith Street, London SWIP 3NZ,Tel: 020 7898 1494Website: www.SHAP.org.ukAfro-Caribbean Community Initiative (ACCI),Waterloo Terrace,217 Newhampton Road East,Wolverhampton WV1 4BA,Tel: (01902) 571230-5,Fax: 5671233.E-mail: support@acci.freeserve.co.ukRupinder Uppal, Advice Worker for Older Asian People,Tel: 444491.Working With Specific Groups


Community and Public involvementStrategy for WolverhamptonIntroductionThis plan sets out the ways in which local public agencies and voluntary organisations willcontinue to involve the public and communities more effectively in the services they deliver.It has been developed through examining our consultation and participation activities andusing feedback from the public and service usersWe recognise that working together and sharing a common approach is the only way tomeet the vital needs of local people in relation to, for example, community safety, health,education, housing and employment.We also recognise that local people have a wealth of knowledge and experience as residentsin neighbourhoods and users of public services. We know that we have not always workedwell together and have not always been open to suggestions for improvements identified bythe people who use these services.We are committed to changing and improving the way we work with each other and withmembers of the public. To do this we will need to:• move towards developing an honest and open dialogue with local people;• acknowledge the shortcomings of existing provision;• build on what works and learn from experience:• enable and support community initiatives.This cannot be achieved immediately. However, this plan outlines the ways in which thedifferent organisations will develop their work together and the actions that will be taken tobring this about.The changes do not require large sums of money but rather a commitment to use resourcesbetter; for example, carrying out community consultation and staff training together ratherthan separately. We also recognise the opportunities offered by working in partnership withpeople in neighbourhoods and communities to - improve services and the way they aredelivered.This Plan is divided into the following three sections:Statement of values:The Mission StatementThe Strategy;The basic belief shared by all those organisations providingservices in relation to the rights of local people.The general intentions of the service providers and theprinciples that will guide our activities.The areas of work the partners will carry out.Appendices


Community and Public involvementStrategy for WolverhamptonStatement of ValuesIt is the right of all people living in Wolverhampton to have the opportunity to be involved indecision making about the services they use or that affect their lives. (see note i).It is the responsibility of the providers of public services to carry out their work in an open,honest and fair way for the benefit of the residents of the city of Wolverhampton.Mission StatementAs representatives of the service providers within the local public, community and voluntaryagencies, we believe in: (see note ii)• providing services that respond to the needs and interests of service users and residents;• clear communication;• developing partnerships with local people.Through developing a strategy and action plan we intend to bring about the followingimprovements:• create opportunities for people to be actively engaged in decision making about publicservices;• involve local people and communities in identifying the best ways of involving them indecision making;• involve local people and communities in monitoring, reviewing and evaluating theeffectiveness of public involvement activities;• create better and more interesting information, consultation, participation and feedbackmechanisms;• develop ways for local people to express their opinions about services;• support communities and service users to develop their own community led initiatives;• identify and respond better to the needs and concerns expressed by local people;• create opportunities for sharing ideas and identifying options for changes andimprovements. The ideas of local people and service users will where possible, be actedupon.Appendices


Community and Public involvementStrategy for WolverhamptonPrinciplesLocal people have first hand knowledgeable about their living situations such as theirneighbourhoods, their health and so on. The following principles are set out to guide howservice providers approach public involvement work. This might include initiatives that haveto be organised by large organisations such as the Council but might equally relate tovoluntary, community and self help activities.Public involvement is not only about service providers including people in the work of theiragencies. Public sector organisations also have an important role to play in enabling,encouraging and supporting independent community initiatives.In general, the more involved and informed people are, and the more responsive theproviders become, the better the services will become.The principles below will help peopleto participate in this process:• consistency - a commitment to involve people throughout the decision making processes;• clarity - being clear about the purpose, boundaries, expectations, limitations and potentialof public involvement;• communication - use of plain language in all communication;• preparation - providing the appropriate information and time to enable participants tocontribute effectively. Also, by selecting techniques that are appropriate to the purpose ofthe initiative;• active listening - service providers really hearing what people have to say and respondingappropriately to their interests, concerns, ideas and needs;• honesty - about the expectations and constraints. For example, be prepared to say ‘we donot know’ or we are unable to provide what is requested etc.;• respect - for people who become involved and in particular, the skills, knowledge andexperience they bring with them;• recognition - by offering incentives, for example, opportunities for qualifications.partnership approach - identifying areas of responsibility and working together ondevelopments;• support - identifying what is required to enable local people, staff, service users andmembers of community groups to function effectively as partners. For example,information in a variety of formats, training, access to resources, interpretation;Appendices


Community and Public involvementStrategy for WolverhamptonPrinciples concluded• inclusive - identify strategies for:(a) involving groups who are affected by, but under-represented in, decision makingprocesses;(b) obtaining the views of non-users of services;(c) seeking a wide range of views.• flexibility - allowing sufficient time to ensure participants are able to contribute effectively;• managing the process - involvement of local people in managing the process and enablingthe views of all contributors to be heard;• open, accountable and transparent - about the processes of involvement.• monitor, review & evaluate - public involvement developments using a range of methodse.g. community evaluators;• feedback - ensuring feedback is provided about people’s involvement and the outcomes oftheir contribution within an agreed time scale.• sustainability- ensuring that new initiatives build on existing public involvement work.• evidence - ensure that decisions resulting from public involvement are based on evidenceand include a range of views.Appendices


Community and Public involvementStrategy for WolverhamptonStrategyAs agencies providing, services to the public, we will work together on:• policies related to public involvement.• quality standards for public involvement.• ways of informing, consulting and involving the public and/or service users at all stages andproviding effective feedback.• participation activities that include all relevant organisations but avoid duplication or overconsultation.• providing opportunities for people in communities and service users to develop their skillsand knowledge to support their continued involvement or start new initiatives.• creating a shared database that will include information about public involvement initiativesand the technique(s) used. The database will be governed by data protection regulations(see note iii).• web sites which link public service providers, community organisations and networks.• making references to the importance of public involvement in job descriptions and staffdevelopment activities. This will encourage staff at all levels within public serviceorganisations to recognise the key role they have to play in this area of work.• setting clear, achievable targets for participation related to the specific work of the servicearea with a regular review of progress.• developing and delivering training programmes about public involvement from inductionthrough to specific techniques.• strategies for including under-represented groups and non-users at a range of levels -individual, service or area and city wide.• systems for monitoring the effectiveness of public involvement.• learning from experience through the review and evaluation of policy, strategy and practiceon a regular basis with stakeholders and participants,The partner organisations will develop detailed action plans in order to implement thisstrategy.Appendices


Community and Public involvementStrategy for WolverhamptonNotes(i) Clarification of terms:public involvement - is the umbrella term and in its broadest sense covers a wide rangeof activities aimed at including the public in the services provided by an organisation.These activities are summarised in this document under the following headings: -,information - organisations providing members of the public with information about aservice through meetings, posters, leaflets, events, displays or the local media.consultation - organisations asking members of the public about issues on which theyrequire advice, feedback and/or information. For example, asking the residents of an areato identify their choice of location for a community centre or when patients are invited toprovide feedback on the quality of a hospital service.participation - where an organisation invites local people to become involved in thedecision making processes. For example, community representatives involved on thePartnership Boards of redevelopment areas.This may also include independent initiatives such as the establishment of a Credit Unionin an area run by local residents.(i) this document relates primarily to the people who live within the City. It is recognised,however, that people who live outside the area make a significant contribution to the Cityor use the services located here. This includes business people, hospital patients andcollege students. With the exception of initiatives specifically related to residents of theCity, the views of these groups will be included within most public involvement initiatives.(ii) the contributors to this document are from a range of agencies that provide services tothe public. They include the Council, voluntary and community organisations, health,further education and training, employment and housing service providers and the police.This booklet has been produced for their use to help improve public and communityinvolvement a activities.(iii) ‘database’ in this document refers to information about different techniques used in localpublic involvement initiatives. It may also contain the contact information for voluntaryand/or community organisations. It will not contain information about individuals unlessthey are the contact person for an organisation or technique. The database will besubject to data protection regulations.Appendices


Community and Public involvementStrategy for WolverhamptonThis Strategy has been signed up to by a number of organisations in Wolverhampton.For a copy of the Strategy or for further information contact:Cath Cunningham Wolverhampton City Primary Care Trust - 444757Sam Axtell Wolverhampton City Council - 554918/551885Geeta Patel Wolverhampton Voluntary Sector Council - 773761Appendices


Commissioning ConsultantsReference is made in a number of sections in this pack (e.g. Focus Group and Surveys) aboutthe use of external consultants. This section is designed to identify the advantages anddisadvantages associated with using external people in public involvement processes. It alsosummarises the process of engaging consultants and the involvement of the commissioningorganisation in the work.There are consultants that are able to provide a range of services:- Large scale quantitative research programmes;- Specific involvement techniques;- Skilled at working with particular sections of the community;- Advice on appropriate public involvement techniques.AdvantagesAt their best:-• External consultants possess the appropriate skills for the work that needs to beundertaken.• They will be used to working to deadlines and will complete the work in the time periodspecified in the tender.• External consultants work may be seen as more independent and unbiased and sometimesmore robust.• They may bring a fresh perspective.Disadvantages• More expensive.• Poor quality external consultants will waste not only more money but perhaps the onlychance to investigate an issue.• Investment of staff time in drawing up the “research brief”, selecting tenders and liaisingwith consultants during the research process.With care the advantages can be maximised and the potential disadvantages minimised.Appendices


Commissioning ConsultantsWorking with consultantsThe Project manager is the person from who oversees the commissioned work.This role iscrucial to the effectiveness of the process.Normally working as the leader of a small working party, their role is to:• Draw up a specification (see below for details).• Find list of appropriate consultants.• Invite a selected number of companies or individuals to tender (following corporateguidelines).• Conduct interviews.• Select the successful company.• Send out letter of agreement/contract• Liaise with the consultants during their work and receive verbal and/or written progressreports.• Set up a phased payment system that complies with Council procedures.• Check that the payments to the company proceed smoothly.• Check the draft report for accuracy.• Check if the report outcome meet all the requirements of the specification.At all stages during this process, but especially during the drawing up of the specification andselection of the successful tender, it is desirable to have the help of someone with knowledgeof public involvement and/or research techniques (depending on the work to be undertaken).Consultancy specification• Be clear about what your want to happen/find out? (beware of having an ever increasingshopping list).• Who do you want to find out about/involve?• When do you want the work completed by?• You can suggest a proposed methodology, but it is better to let the consultants suggest thedetails of how the work should be done.• Include details such as frequency of payment (typically 1/3 on commission, 1/3 postfieldwork, 1/3 on completion) and the outputs you expect i.e. number of reports to beproduced, whether you expect the researchers to do a presentation of the findings and soon.These details can be finalised at the contract stage.Appendices


Commissioning ConsultantsInvite to Tender• For Council projects use the Council ‘approved list’ of consultants. Information can beobtained from the Market Research Society and Association of Qualitative ResearchPractitioners directories (see the contact information at the end of this section).• Talk to people who have used particular companies. If there is not anyone within yourcontacts to ask, request information/references from the companies, as part of their tendersubmission.• Send a selected number of companies (no more than 6) the brief and ask them to tenderby a certain date.• You can ask companies to tender in two ways:• You specify in detail the work you expect them to do and the consultants supply you witha cost for the work.• You specify how much money is available and ask them to say what they will do for thisamount, based on your specification.• Don’t always make your selection purely on price. Quality should also be a primaryconsideration.• You can make your selection on the basis of the tender information, and/or you can invitethe applicants you are seriously interested in, to attend an interview.• Never be afraid to ask questions of the consultants.They should be able to explain theirapproach using plain language.During the project• At the first meeting with the consultants you will need to provide them with copies ofall the background literature and information relevant to the work and contact list(s).• You will get best results if you have planned meetings with the consultants and receiveverbal and/or written progress reports.• There will be times when the consultant requires additional information and/orguidance. If you are up to date with progress on the programme you can help makesure that the work goes in the direction you want.Appendices


Commissioning ConsultantsReport WritingConsultants would normally supply a draft version of the report for longer pieces of work. Inlooking at the final report you should:• See that the work has fulfilled the original brief.• Check for inaccuracies in reports.• See that reports are written in a comprehensible style.• Ensure that conclusions and recommendations relate to the evidence.• Resist any pressure to tone down or censor the report/outcomes.Usually there will be two versions of the report a summary and a longer, more detailed onethat provides the evidence. You will need to specify your requirements in advance.Additional information:Standing Orders Relating to Contracts and FinanceWolverhampton Council - Available from PurchasingTel: 555068Council `approved list’ of External ConsultantsContact Debbie Turner,Tel: 554042Contact Jayne Hettle,Tel:554312 for a list of approved consultants for regeneration projects.Code of Conduct, (& a Directory) published by the Market Research Society,Tel: 020 74904911 or Website www.mrs.org.ukThe Association for Qualitative Research publish a directory of research consultants.Contact Tel: 01480 407227Website www.aqr.org.ukAppendices


Involving the Public Resource PackQualitative Data Collection and AnalysisCodingCoding is essentially the process of putting the comments or responses into categories. Youshould have already started to develop your list of themes or categories in the planning stage.When you have designed your questionnaire or developed the questions for your focusgroup you should start to build up a list of themes which you expect to emerge fromresponses, this list will not be definitive and new themes should emerge during analysis.Look out for any underlying themes, these may be present in the way things are said aboutspecific issues. For example, if people in a particular neighbourhood say that they have toring up to get refuse removed, that they haven't seen a 'beat booby' for 12 months, and apetition for safe play facilities was ignored, then perhaps an underlying theme is that they feeltheir neighbourhood gets second class treatment.Other things to look for:Tips• Anecdotal stories• Use of metaphors or similes• Particular words used. Be aware that the meaning of words is often ambiguous and thatwords may be given a special meaning by particular groups• The emphasis put on particular words in a sentence can change the meaning• Emphasis of words can also change meaning. For example if someone says sarcastically,'the service I received was great', and they then go on to describe the poor service theyactually received, this would need to be noted.• Things that for some reason are not said - i.e. which are conspicuous by their absence• The intensity of comments indicated by changes in speech volume, and speed, theemphasis put on certain words and body posture• The frequency of comments - how often something is said• The extensiveness of comments - how many people make a particular comment• Checks on Validity - is it an accurate reflection of people's experiences, thoughts andfeelings? You may have to carry out further research to check this.Comparing the experience of different groupsThe make up of the respondents or group will affect responses. Factors such as gender,social class, age, ethnicity and apparent motives are likely to have an influence on datacollected. This should be taken into account when setting up the group or carrying outsampling and during the subsequent analysis.Appendices


Involving the Public Resource PackQualitative Data Collection and AnalysisSeeking advice of research expertiseThere are research experts within your organisation and it is advisable to seek the advice ofthese people from the planning stage of your project.Computerisation of resultsWhere a lot of completed forms are anticipated e.g. over a hundred, or you have a wealth ofqualitative information from your focus groups or consultation events, which you have beenable to code, you may wish to computerise the answers supplied.There are a wide range of computer packages available that are used to analyse quantitativedata, these include spreadsheets, statistics packages and survey analysis packages like SPSS(Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). Handling qualitative data, on the other hand, is adifferent story. Computers require exact and precisely stated rules that are context free andcontain no ambiguity it requires coding, sorting, retrieving and manipulating data.There are however, more sophisticated software packages that analyse qualitative data like(CAQDAS - Computer Assistant Qualitative Data Analysis Software).TipUse a mix of traditional methods and a computer (if you have a large amount of textualdata) when analysing qualitative data. Qualitative research is an interpretative and subjectiveexercise and the researcher should be intimately involved in the process not aloof from it.For further information contact:Debbie Turner Tel 554042Also see Focus Groups and Surveys in this pack for more informationOther sources:Edwards, A. and Talbot R. (1999) The Hard Pressed Researcher, London, LongmanBlaxter, L., Hughes C., and Tight, M., (1996) How to Research, Buckingham,Open University PressBell, J., and Opie, C. (2002) Learning from Research; getting more from your data,Buckingham, Open University PressDenscombe, M., (2002) Ground Rules for Good Research, Buckingham,Open University PressAppendices


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity ProfilingWhat is a Community Profile?An assessment of the social conditions affecting the people living in an identified geographicalarea or a specific group of the population e.g. the Muslim community or young people whomay not conform to recognised neighbourhoods.What are they used for?There are a wide range of reasons for undertaking profiles. These include, to:- provide information to guide neighbourhood renewal, youth or community developmentwork, regeneration initiatives- contribute to policy or service development- prepare local action plans or funding bids- work with a specific agency e.g. Social Services,Youth Offending Team, Connexions etc toenable them to understand community networks to assist a ‘client’.- update existing information.What are they good for?Providing detailed information about a community prior to undertaking any changes or actionwithin the area or with a group of the population.What are they not suitable for?In most public involvement situations it is important to understand something about thecontext and background of the area or group that you are working with. This may not,however, be through carrying out a community profile from scratch.There are several circumstances where it is not appropriate to carry out a community profile.For example at a city-wide level where the initiative may cut across more than one specificgroup or specific area. You do not need to carry out a community profile if you areconsulting a random group of people from across the City about refuse collection. However,you might want to undertake a small-scale profile of an area where there are a high numberof complaints, for example, about refuse collection.Appendices


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity ProfilingPreparationIt is important to be clear about the purpose so we can explain this to residents and / orworkers from other agencies. The purpose for undertaking the profile may influence the wayit is carried out and the impact it may have.In the preparatory stage it is important to think through some of the following:• What do I want to find out?• What are the potential sources of information?• Am I going to involve local residents / members of the target group?• Who are the best people to undertake the profile?• What am I / are they going to tell people?• What will be the impact of developing the profile?A full community profile takes time and resources. This is not necessary if you just want tofind out information about specific things e.g. the age composition of a neighbourhood.You need to find out if any similar work has been undertaken previously, as people in someneighbourhoods may feel they have been over surveyed. It is also useful to build on, ratherthan duplicate, existing work.Communities are composed of a series of networks. Information is conveyed through thenetworks, particularly when agencies become involved. Undertaking a profile can raiseexpectations or concerns so you need to provide clear information about what you are doingand why, particularly if someone is doing it on your behalf.It may be important to involve local people in obtaining the information. This is eitherbecause they are able to access information more effectively or because they speak thelanguage of the community you are profiling.If you have to produce a number of profiles you may want to consider different approachessuch as training community researchers to carry out the work.Appendices


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity ProfilingWhat type of information might be obtained during acommunity profile?There is a wide range of information that might be obtained in the course of a communityprofile.Some of the features that might be examined include:• Location of the neighbourhood - proximity to the city centre• Availability of Transport - to the city centre, recreational centres, hospital, employment etcby car, bus, metro, bicycle, walking• Physical structure:- Housing i.e. type(s), condition etc.- Open space- Shops- Proximity of factories etc.- Access around the neighbourhood i.e. roads, footpaths, cycle tracks etc.• Population (Demography):- Length of residence- Age structure/sex- Cultural origin- Family structures- Population size• Economic factors- Types of employment available ñ numbers employed in different industries/sectors;vacancies- Availability of training opportunities- Levels of (un)employment (and by age and duration)- Take up of free school meals• Community Infrastructure.Access to:- Statutory provision e.g. schools, library, housing office, health centres, youth club- Voluntary organisations based in the area e.g. CAB,YMCA- Community organisations e.g. community association, playgroup, tenants group etc.- Social networks ñ pubs, sports clubs / centres, community / cultural centresAppendices


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity Profiling• Health issues:Are there specific health issues related to the area? e.g. the levels of:- Coronary heart disease;- Smoking related illnesses;- Teenage pregnancy- Low birth weight rates- Infant mortality - Mental illness- Emotional health related to social conditions- Disability- General health (good/not good)- Looking after other people e.g. relatives- Life expectancy• Education:- Attainment of school children- Truancy- Suspensions/exclusions- Levels of attainment of the adult population- Involvement in adult education• Safety:- Level of crime- Types of crime- Road safety- Residents perceptions of safety issues• Deprivation indices (see next section)Appendices


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity ProfilingWhat are the potential sources of information?(a) Personal interaction:• Walking the area / observation - it is important to remember that what you see may bedifferent depending on when you visit the area. If your profile includes children andyoung people for example, then your perception will be affected if you visit duringdaytime, evenings, weekends or during holiday periods. Similarly, if you visit an area duringsummer or winter.• Informal discussions with residents, shopkeepers etc.• Meetings with representatives from statutory, voluntary and community organisations(b) Key sources of data and background information:• National e.g.- National Census and other information from the Office for National Statistics (ONS)such as neighbourhood statistics (see website addresses)- Indices of Multiple Deprivation 2000 which uses indicators based on aspects ofincome; employment; health deprivation; education; child poverty; housing andgeographical access to services. The information is at ward level and comparisons canbe made between wards in Wolverhampton and the national situation.• Neighbourhood profiles - the consultants CSR Partnership have produced detailedprofiles for 85 neighbourhoods in Wolverhampton. Information on crime, economy,education, health, housing and access to services is analysed for each neighbourhood.• Surveys or profiles undertaken or commissioned by the Council, Health Services orregional organisations such as the Connexions Service or the Learning and Skills Council• Studies undertaken or commissioned by community organisationsThese are available from sources such as the Council, Primary Care Trust, Library or Internet.Appendices


Involving the Public Resource PackCommunity ProfilingIssues of validityWhen undertaking community profiles it is important to be aware of issues related to thevalidity of the information you might obtain:• Information from people such as agencies, residents, shopkeepers will be subjective - it willbe based on their own perceptions.• Survey or research information may not have used valid research methods and wasrelevant to the time when it was undertaken. Changes may have occurred that invalidatethe research. For example, the views of residents in high-rise accommodation may havechanged as a result of an intercom or concierge system being introduced.• Some people’s views may have been overlooked in surveys. Examples include youngpeople, older people, people from Black and minority ethnic communities, people withdisabilities.• It is easier to obtain the perspective of agency workers and community organisers than`ordinary residents’ and under-represented groups. Research information may have limitedvalidity if it is over reliant on these groups.For further information contact:Mary Brennan,Wolverhampton Partnership.Tel: 01902 551848They can provide information on various social indicators at a local, regional and nationallevel including census data, neighbourhood and ward profiles, monthly unemploymentfigures, employment surveys and mapped data.Ann Wood, Community Play &Youth Service, Lifelong Learning, Civic Centre.Tel: 01902 552162Wolverhampton Voluntary Sector Council.Tel: 01902 715871Wolverhampton Central Library and Information Service.Tel: 01902 552025Websites:www.statistics.gov.uk is the website for the Office of national Statistics. It contains a rangeof up-to-date official UK statistics including the Neighbourhood Statistics database.This can be found at www.statistics.gov.uk/neighbourhood and gives data profiles for eachward on population, vital statistics, jobs, income support claimants and indices ofdeprivation. Census updates can be found at www.statistics.gov.uk/census.aspAppendices


Involving the Public Resource PackQualitative Data Collection & AnalysisQualitative Data Collection and AnalysisQualitative data is the information collected from, say, a focus group, an interview or openendedquestions within a questionnaire. Rather than the usual tick box answers you can getfrom asking people their views, qualitative data is usually in the form of words and narrative,but it could also include visual images, video tape or other media.The time and skills needed to carry out analysis of qualitative data should not beunderestimated. The value of the findings of your research can be lost if you do not have thenecessary skills and time to analyse the data. Providing the right techniques are used, it ispossible to get the most out of the qualitative data you gather.Ways of gathering qualitative data:There are a number of ways you can gather qualitative data: focus groups, questionnaires,interviews, observing behaviour). This guide will concentrate mainly on focus groups,questionnaires and semi-structured interviews.When planning your research project it is important to allow enough time for analysis of thequalitative data, it will inevitably take longer than standard quantitative data analysis.Questionnaires/Surveys/Semi-structured interviewsQuestionnaires can range from the highly structured (consisting solely of closed questions) tothe semi-structured (consisting of mainly open-ended questions). Most questionnaires shouldcontain a mix of both closed and open questions, however the emphasis should be on theclosed questions. It is the open-ended questions that provide the qualitative data.Open-ended questions allow you to ask wider ranging or deeper and more probingquestions, and may give you unanticipated ‘perspectives on an issue. They also give therespondent an opportunity to give additional information about the topics you ask about andalso issues which don’t appear on the survey.Written comments from open-ended questions are a great source of information whenconducting surveys, however, they can also be somewhat intimidating when it comes toanalysis. For example, if you have 1000 completed questionnaires with lots of answers toopen-ended questions how to do you start to analyse the responses? This can become aneven more arduous task if he answers do not fall neatly into any concise categories.Appendices


Involving the Public Resource PackQualitative Data Collection & AnalysisTipLeave enough space for the respondents to answer open-ended questions in full• The more open-ended questions included in a questionnaire the longer it will take toanalyse the data• You may find that if you include too many open-ended questions respondents are lesslikely to complete the questionnaire• Questionnaires that contain mainly open-ended questions are likely to be more useful inan interview situation, rather than say a postal questionnaireFocus GroupsFocus groups are used to ask a group of people a series of open-ended questions about aparticular topic. They give people an opportunity to express their views and feelings aboutan issue, without them being constrained by any rigid boundaries that are imposed by sets ofclosed questions.Collecting qualitative data via focus groups requires particular skills. Facilitators must be ableto remain impartial, listen to responses and ensure everyone has an opportunity tocontribute. The facilitators input should be minimal.Collecting the information can be done in a number of ways:• Note taking or writing up bullet points on a flip chart. Someone other than the facilitatorshould carry out this task• Tape recording is strongly recommended, solely using note taking or writing up bulletpoints on a flip chart can inevitably be selective and biased.Bias can happen in two ways:-- The note taker will have expectations of the kind of things people will say (and thethings that they, the note taker thinks are important). What is actually said will thentend to be squeezed into this framework.- The language used by the interviewees is summarised and tidied up. During thisprocess, emotions are usually lost, and the meaning changed.Appendices


Involving the Public Resource PackQualitative Data Collection & AnalysisAnalysing Qualitative DataAnalysis of qualitative data usually goes through some or all of the following stages:• Familiarisation with the data - reading or listening several times so that the answers arefamiliar to you• Transcribing the data - if the exercise involves interviews, focus groups etc (see below fordetails)• Organising and index the answers for easy retrieval• Anonymising sensitive data• Coding (see below)• Identifying themes (see below)• Exploring relationships between themes• Incorporation of pre-existing knowledge• Write reportDepth of analysisWhat depth of analysis do you want? This may ultimately be down to the time and resourcesavailable to you. Some elements of the analysis will be the same for all methods of datacollection.When conducting focus groups the following methods of analysis can be used:• Bullet point listsThe most simplistic method of analysis - members of the focus group might be asked toagree on the five things they would most like changed about their neighbourhood. The fivethings are listed on a flip chart as bullet points. This method can miss most of the value ofthe qualitative approach.• Note basedWriting up the notes of the session may take 3-4 hours per focus group• Tape based analysisListening to the tape several times, write up of key issues may take 4-8 hours per focusgroupAppendices


Involving the Public Resource PackQualitative Data Collection & Analysis• Full tape transcriptA full transcript based analysis could take up to 20-30 hours per focus group, the transcriptneeds to be verbatim (word for word) otherwise the emphasis placed on differentanswers might be edited out. For example, it should include sentences like “well, erm.. Isuppose...”, this can communicate things like pause for thought. Nonverbal cues likesilences or laughter should also be included as they may show embarrassment oremotional distress adding meaning to the spoken word.In most cases a tape-based analysis with supplementary notes will be adequate.Appendices


Involving the Public Resource PackReferencesCitizens’ JuriesPanels and Juries - Social Research AssociationCitizen’s Juries in Local Government - Local Government Management BoardContact: Angela Spence,Tel: 554026Citizens’ PanelsPanels and Juries - Social Research AssociationCitizens’ Panels - A new approach to Community Consultation, LGIUContact: Debbie Turner,Tel: 554042Focus GroupsFocus Groups (3rd edition) - Krueger & Casey, SageUsing Focus Groups - handouts from training sessions - Liz Ross,Dept Social Policy & Social Work, University of Birmingham.Analysing Qualitative Data - Contact Angela Spence,Tel: 554026SurveysGuides: Questionnaire Design Contact: Debbie Turner,Tel: 554042SamplingCode of Good Practice for Research StudiesCommunity InitiativesPlanning for Real:Neighbourhood Initiatives Foundation -Tel: (01952) 590777Equipment for Planning for Real Sessions -Contact Mary Jacobs,Tel:-551783Wednesday,Thursday and FridayAppendices


Involving the Public Resource PackReferencesAction Planning by Nick Wates 1996The Community Planning Handbook by Nick WatesParticipation Works - New Economics FoundationCommunity Visioning by Paul Burton (Policy Press)Contact: Sam Axtell,Tel: 554918/551885Website: www.nif.co.ukWhole SystemsLarge Group Interventions - B Alban & B BunkerWorking Whole Systems - Pratt, Plampling and GordonContact: Sam Axtel,Tel: 554918/551885Involving People with DisabilitiesDisability Discrimination Act (DDA) Part I I I guidance note -auxiliary aids and supportDisability organisations in WolverhamptonRNIB clear print guidelinesContact: Robert Williams - Finlay,Tel: 554063Involving Older PeopleOlder Persons Ageing Strategy -Tel: 554018Community and Public Involvement Strategy for WolverhamptonCath Cunningham Wolverhampton City Primary Care Trust - 444757Geeta Patel Wolverhampton Voluntary Sector Strategy - 421531Appendices


Involving the Public Resource PackReferencesGeneralInvolving the Public - LGMB 1998Democratic Practice: A Guide - LGA/LGMB 1998The Guide to Effective Participation: David Wilcox, Joseph RowntreeConsulting and Involving the Public - LGIUInvolving the Public - building new partnerships - Citywide Involvement NetworkFor all the above contact. Sam Axtell,Tel: 554918/551885Community Education, Community Development - Various publicationsReference Library at Community, Play and YouthSouth West Area Office, Lea Road, Tel: 552162Contact: GATE,Tel: 558111Resources for Involving Children,Young People and Communities in Consultation and ParticipationContact: Marie Taylor,Tel: 556337Senior Youth Worker, ParticipationResources on Public Participation in Health and Social CareContact: Rose Powell,Tel: 555494Participation Officer for Older PeopleContact: Liz Phillips,Tel: 555344Participation Officer Health and Adults with DisabilitiesContact: Andrea Cryan,Tel: 551103Participation Officer Children's ServicesResources on Tenants ParticipationContact Tenants Initiative Unit Tel: 554718/43Resources on Community Participation in LA 2I/SustainabilityContact LA 21 Team,Tel: 555627Appendices


Involving the Public Resource PackAcknowledgmentsLydia BarnstableMike CostelloAdrian HiltonPaula LloydKaren RyderLal SalterPeter ThomsonDebbie TurnerBob WillisGeeta PatelAngela SpenceVeronkia QuintyneMark WebsterThe Pack has been edited and produced by Steve Taplin (First People Training & Consultancy),Maggie Rust (Policy Team, OCE) and Heather Ernstons (Policy Team, OCE).Appendices


Involving the Public Resource PackCity Wide Involvement GroupMembership ListAdrian PittBlack Country Connexions,118/119 Salop Street, Wolverhampton, WV3 0RX01902 498942apitt@blackcountryconnexions.co.ukAmanda BevanTouchstone Housing Association,The Westlands, 132 Compton Road, Wolverhampton, WV3 9QB01902 32822107771 958187amandabevan@keynotegroup.co.ukAngie TookCity Centre Manager,Management Office,Top Floor Car Park, Wulfrun Centre, Garrick Street, Wolverhampton, WV1 3BA01902 427755angietook@wolverhamptonccc.co.ukChris WakeChildren's Fund,16a Temple Street, Wolverhampton, WV2 4AN01902 551964val-townsend@dial.pipex.com or chris-wake@dial.pipex.comEmma MartinWolverhampton City Council,R&E, Neighbourhood Management, Civic Centre01902 551339emma.martin@wolverhampton.gov.ukGeeta PatelWolverhampton Voluntary Sector Council,16a Temple Street, Wolverhampton, WV2 4AN01902 421531gpatel@wolverhamptonvsc.org.ukAppendices


Involving the Public Resource PackCity Wide Involvement GroupHeather EmstsonsThe Wolverhampton Parntership,Lich Chambers, Lich Gates, 44 Queen Square, Wolverhampton, WV1 1TY01902 551998heather@wton-partnership.org.ukJan HickmanThe Wolverhampton Partnership,Lich Chambers, Lich Gates, 44 Queen Square, Wolverhampton, WV1 1TY01902 556043 janwsp@btconnect.comCath CunninghamWolverhampton Primary Care Trust,Coniston House, Chapel Ash, Wolverhampton, WV3 0XE01902 444757cath.cunningham@wolvespct.nhs.ukGeoff BoswellW’ton Network Consortium,Whitehead Building, 26a Snow Hill, Wolverhampton, WV2 4AF01902 572034gboswell@w-n-c.orgJoy BlakemanWest Midlands Fire Service,Wolverhampton and Walsall Fire Safety Centre, Retreat Street, Wolverhampton, WV3 0RG01902 712016joy.blakeman@wmfs.netJanet SmithRoyal Wolverhampton Hospital NHS Trust,New Cross Hospital,The Lodge, Wednesfield Road, Wolverhampton, WV10 0QP01902 695363 (Janet Smith)janet.smith@rwh-tr.nhs.ukAppendices


Involving the Public Resource PackCity Wide Involvement GroupMargaret CornebyWolverhampton Black Country Chamber of Commerce & Business Link,Wolverhampton Science Park, Glaisher Drive, Wolverhampton, WV10 9RU01902 574990margaretcorneby@bccbl.comMarie TaylorChildren's Play and Youth,Prouds Lane, Bilston, Wolverhampton01902 556337cpy-development@dial.pipex.comMaxine MakinGroundwork in Wolverhampton,Westbourne Place, 2 Compton Road, Compton, Wolverhampton, WV3 9PJ01902 778220mmakin@groundwork.org.ukMichael RossChildrens Fund,16 Temple Street, Wolverhampton, WV2 4AN01902 551963michael-ross@dial.pipex.comDeena KorwinCity of Wolverhampton College,Paget Road, Wolverhampton, WV6 0DU01902 317532/01902 834246korwind@wolvcoll.ac.ukSheila GillABCD,Suite 2 (Annexe) St Johns House, St Johns Square, Wolverhampton, WV2 4AT01902 556185 F-01902 556752sheila.g@abcd-ndc.org.ukAppendices


Involving the Public Resource PackCity Wide Involvement GroupSteve SaundersNetwork Consortium,Whitehead Building, 26a Snow Hill, Wolverhampton, WV2 4AF01902 572020ssaunders@w-n-c.,org.ukSue ShreeveLocal Authority Forums,South West Area Office, Lea Road, Pennfields, Wolverhampton, WV3 0LV01902 552458sue-shreeve@dial.pipex.comSukhvinder SinghJobcentre Plus,1st Floor, Bilston Job Centre, High Street, Bilston, Wolverhampton, WV14 0DB(temporary address Burdett House, 20/31 Cleveland Street, Wolverhampton, WV1 3HU)01902 435914/07800 676936sukhvinder.singh@jobcentreplus.gsi,gov.ukAppendices

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