Hinduism and Buddhism

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Hinduism and Buddhism

Chapter 4 Section 2

Hinduism• A religion that grew out of thereligion of the Aryans in AncientIndiaBrahman• In Hinduism, the universal spiritof which all deities are differentpartsReincarnation• Rebirth of the soul or spirit indifferent bodies over time Dharma• In Hinduism, the divine law thatrequires people to perform theduties of their caste Karma• In Hinduism, the good or badenergy a person builds upbased upon whether he or shelives a good or bad lifeBuddhism• Religion founded by SiddharthaGautama, the Buddha; taughtthat the way to find truth was togive up all desiresNirvana• In Buddhism, a state of wisdomand freedom from the cycle ofrebirthTheocracy• Government headed byreligious leaders

Places• Nepal• TibetPeople• Siddhartha Gautama• Dalai Lama

One of the oldest religions in the world3 rd largest religion in the worldBasic principles/beliefs formulated by1500 B.C.• Found in 4 Vedas• Aryans believed in many deities• Controlled forces of nature• Governed society• Sacred hymns and poems tell us about their beliefs

For many centuries, Brahmins (priests)recited hymns and poems• Eventually written down (Sanskrit)• Over time religion changed• Beliefs mixed between Aryans and the conqueredpeople• The mixing brought about Hinduism

Took thousands of years to develop• Might explain why there are thousands of deities• Deities are all different parts of 1 universal spirit• Brahman: early worship called BrahmanismUpanishads: sacred texts/writings• Every living being has a soul that wants to bereunited with Brahman• This happens when a person dies• Describes how a person unites with Brahman• “A soul that becomes one with Brahman is like a lump of saltthrown into water. The lump of salt is gone, but water tastessalty. The salt has become part of the water.”

Turn to Page 248, answer questions.• Which deity is known as the “teacher of theworld”?• Krishna• Why does Hinduism have so many deities?• It is an ancient religion that developed from thereligious customs of many people.

A soul is joined to Brahman immediatelyafter a person diesA person must pass through many livesA soul might be reborn into a highercasteIf they had a bad life, they could bereborn in a lower caste or life-formREINCARNATION• Affects daily lives• Affects how they treat animals

To earn reward of better life: must performtheir duty Dharma – Divine Law• Requires people to perform duties of their caste• Farmer and priests have different duties• Men and women have different duties Karma – consequences of how someonelives• If they do their duty and live a good life, they willhave good Karma• Moves them closer to Brahman in next life

Helps People Accept:• Their role in life• The work of their casteDedicated Hindu believes the person inthe higher caste is superior• If they do their service, they might be reborn inhigher caste

How did the beliefs of the Aryansinfluence Hinduism?• They believed in many gods that controlled theforces of nature.What religion is the oldest in the worldand is also the third largest today?• HinduismHindu deities are part of one universalspirit called what?• Brahman

600 B.C., Indians question Hindu ideas• Brahmins focused on temple ceremonies• Needs of people neglected• People wanted simpler more spiritual religionMany find it in Buddhism• Founded by Siddhartha Gautama

Prince Siddhartha Gautama• Born around 563 B.C. near Himalayas• Modern day Nepal• Happily married with a son• Wealthy• HandsomeOne day decided to leave palace andtake a walk• Saw beggars, sick people, homeless• Became aware of suffering

Sought to answer a riddle:• “Why did people suffer and how could theirsuffering be cured?”• Left his family and riches to search for theanswer• At first,• Lived like a hermit• Fasted• Slept on the hard ground• Gave up possessions• Almost died of starvation• Did not find the answer to his questions

Meditated to find the answer: 49 days• Achieved enlightenment• Spent the rest of his life wandering thecountryside teaching what he learned• What he taught became BuddhismHe became the Buddha• Enlightened One

Siddhartha was a Hindu• Did not think that the every day world was real• Trees, houses, animals, the sky were illusions• Poverty, illness, pain, suffering were illusionsOnly way to find the truth is to give up alldesires• Giving up desires of fame, money, and worldlythings would end:• Pain and suffering

If a person gave up all desires, he/shewould reach nirvana• A state of wisdom• Sanskrit word for blowing out a candle flameThe heart of Buddhism is contained in theFour Noble Truths

1. Life is full of suffering.2. People suffer because they desireworldly things and self-satisfaction.3. The way to end suffering is to stopdesiring things.4. The only way to stop desiring things isto follow the Eightfold Path.• Eight steps to eliminate suffering

1. Know and understand the Four NobleTruths.2. Give up worldly things and don’t harmothers.3. Tell the truth, don’t gossip, and don’tspeak badly of others.4. Don’t commit evil acts, like killing,stealing, or living an unclean life.

5. Do rewarding work.6. Work for good and oppose evil.7. Make sure your mind keeps yoursenses under control.8. Practice meditation as a way ofunderstanding reality.

Buddhism rejected the caste system• A person’s place in life depended on the person.Buddha believed in reincarnation:• In order to stop being reborn, they would have tofollow the Eightfold PathMany people liked his messageincluding:• Untouchables/Pariahs and other low-castepeople• They felt enlightenment could be reached by all

Turn to Page 251, read the biographyWhat is the Buddha doing in the statues?Then and Now• What types of present-day occupations ofteninvolve traveling to teach others?• Why is this type of teaching easier today than inancient times?

Teaches that Buddha is a god who cameto save the peopleBelieve that the Eightfold Path is too hardfor most peopleBelieve that by worshiping the Buddha,people will go to a heaven• They can follow the Eightfold Path there

Special affection for bodhisattvas• Enlightened people who postpone going toheaven• Stay on earth to help others and do good deedsSpread northward into• China• Korea• JapanSpecial kind developed in Tibet• Mixed traditional with Hinduism

Buddhist leaders, lamas also led thegovernment• Theocracry• Dalai Lama headed the government• Panchen Lama led the religion• Both considered reincarnation of the Buddha Buddhists live in man countries today:• Thailand• Cambodia• Sri Lanka• Few live in India where Buddha first preached

How did Buddhism spread throughoutAsia?• Buddha and his disciples first spread it byteaching. Teachers and merchants spread itfurther into Asia.Who was the founder of Buddhism?• Siddhartha GautamaWhat was the purpose of the Dalai Lama?• He led the government.

Buddhism did not last in IndiaJainism also challenged Hindu beliefs• Believe in 24 saints who taught Jainism• Last and greatest: Mahavira

Mahavira• 24 th and last Tirthamkara (pathfinder)• Retold how to achieve spiritual liberation• Lived about the same time as Buddha• Born in northern India to a noble family• Gave up wealthy lifestyle and traveledcountryside• Became enlightened and taught Jainism

Jainism rejected caste systemStress the idea of Ahimsa• Nonviolence to all living things• Jains tried to avoid harming any other living creature• Used brooms to sweep aside insects so they wouldnot step on them• Did not farm for fear to plowing under living things

Concept of Ahimsa has influencedmodern timesMohandas Gandhi used ahimsaeffectively• Led peaceful protests against British rule duringthe early 20 th Century• Practiced nonviolent resistance• Peacefully disobeyed the law• Hoped to shame the British government• His efforts helped India gain independence

Political leaders in America haveadopted Gandhi’s believe in ahimsa andnonviolent protest• Martin Luther King, Jr.• Led civil rights protests during the 1960s• Believed in living by the principles of ahimsa andpracticed passive resistance

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