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Geology of the Kaikoura Area - GNS Science

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1 : 2 5 0 0 0 0 G e o l o g i c a l M a p 13<strong>Geology</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><strong>Kaikoura</strong> <strong>Area</strong>M. S. RattenburyD. B. TownsendM. R. Johnston(Compilers)


<strong>Geology</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><strong>Kaikoura</strong> <strong>Area</strong>Scale 1:250 000M. S. RD. B. TM. R. J(COMPILERS)ATTENBURYOWNSENDOHNSTONInstitute <strong>of</strong> Geological & Nuclear <strong>Science</strong>s 1:250 000 Geological Map 13<strong>GNS</strong> <strong>Science</strong>Lower Hutt, New Zealand2006


ABSTRACTThe <strong>Kaikoura</strong> 1:250 000 geological map covers 18 100 km 2<strong>of</strong> Westland, Nelson, Marlborough and nor<strong>the</strong>rnCanterbury in <strong>the</strong> South Island <strong>of</strong> New Zealand, andstraddles <strong>the</strong> boundary between <strong>the</strong> Pacific and Australiantectonic plates. The map area is cut by <strong>the</strong> Alpine, Awatere,Clarence, Hope and o<strong>the</strong>r major strike-slip faults, andincludes a wide range <strong>of</strong> Paleozoic to Mesozoic rocks whichform parts <strong>of</strong> eight tectonostratigraphic terranes. The earlyPaleozoic Buller and Takaka terranes, comprisingsedimentary and volcano-sedimentary rocks respectively,are intruded by mid-Paleozoic granitic rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> KarameaBatholith and form <strong>the</strong> Western Province. This province isseparated from <strong>the</strong> Eastern Province by Mesozoic plutonicrocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Median Batholith. North <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Alpine Fault,<strong>the</strong> Eastern Province comprises <strong>the</strong> Permian-Jurassic,predominantly volcano-sedimentary Brook Street,Murihiku, Dun Mountain-Maitai and Caples terranes.South <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Alpine Fault <strong>the</strong> Eastern Province comprises<strong>the</strong> Triassic-Early Cretaceous sedimentary Rakaia andPahau terranes, collectively termed <strong>the</strong> Torlesse compositeterrane.The Eastern Province and Western Province werejuxtaposed in Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous time, andsubsequently formed a comparatively stable basement toyounger Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentation.Localised fault activity and clastic sedimentary basindevelopment in <strong>the</strong> late Early to Late Cretaceous, and againin Late Cenozoic time, contrast with <strong>the</strong> deposition <strong>of</strong>widespread, passive margin limestone and mudstone in<strong>the</strong> Paleocene, Eocene and Oligocene. Late Cenozoic clasticsedimentation reflects development <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> present obliquecompressionalplate boundary and uplift <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Sou<strong>the</strong>rnAlps and o<strong>the</strong>r ranges.Quaternary glaciation deposited tills and glacial outwashgravels. During warmer interglacial periods, high sea levelscut flights <strong>of</strong> marine terraces that have been subsequentlyuplifted.Mined mineral resources within <strong>the</strong> map area includealluvial gold, salt, coal, limestone, and rock aggregate.Recorded seeps and shows <strong>of</strong> oil and gas are sparse in <strong>the</strong>area; <strong>the</strong>re has been no commercial hydrocarbon extraction,and <strong>the</strong> only petroleum exploration wells have been in <strong>the</strong>Murchison basin.The <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area is subject to severe natural hazards,including a high level <strong>of</strong> seismic activity from <strong>the</strong> Alpine,Awatere, Clarence, Hope and o<strong>the</strong>r active faults. Thesehave potential for earthquake shaking, landsliding,liquefaction and ground rupture. Several large earthquakeswith epicentres within or immediately adjacent to <strong>the</strong> maparea have occurred within <strong>the</strong> last 160 years. Tsunamihazard may be from remote or local earthquakes or fromsubmarine slumping, particularly within <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong>Canyon immediately <strong>of</strong>fshore. Storm-induced landsliding,rockfall and flooding are ongoing hazards.Keywords<strong>Kaikoura</strong>; Marlborough; Westland; Nelson; Canterbury; 1:250 000 geological map; geographic informationsystems; digital data; bathymetry; Buller terrane; Takaka terrane; Karamea Batholith; Median Batholith; MedianTectonic Zone; Brook Street terrane; Murihiku terrane; Dun Mountain-Maitai terrane; Caples terrane; Rakaiaterrane; Pahau terrane; Torlesse terrane; plutons; Greenland Group; Haupiri Group; Mount Arthur Group; KarameaSuite; Brook Street Volcanics Group; Dun Mountain Ultramafics Group; Livingstone Volcanics Group; MaitaiGroup; Tasman Intrusives; Rotoroa Complex; Teetotal Group; Separation Point Suite; Glenroy Complex; RichmondGroup; Patuki mélange; Esk Head belt; Coverham Group; Tapuaenuku Igneous Complex; Mandamus IgneousComplex; Wallow Group; Hapuku Group; Seymour Group; Eyre Group; Muzzle Group; Motunau Group; AwatereGroup; Rappahannock Group; Tadmor Group; marine terraces; alluvial terraces; alluvial fans; scree; rock glaciers;moraines; till; outwash; landslides; peat swamps; Alpine Fault; Awatere Fault; Clarence Fault; Hope Fault;Marlborough Fault System; Quaternary tectonics; active faulting; economic geology; alluvial gold; salt; subbituminouscoal; limestone; aggregate; groundwater; engineering geology; landslides; natural hazards;seismotectonic hazard; tsunami.v


INTRODUCTIONTHE QMAP SERIESThe geological map <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> area (Fig. 1) is one <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> national QMAP (Quarter million MAP; Nathan 1993)series produced by <strong>GNS</strong> <strong>Science</strong>. The series replaces <strong>the</strong>earlier 1:250 000 series geological maps covering <strong>the</strong><strong>Kaikoura</strong> area (Lensen 1962; Bowen 1964; Gregg 1964).Since <strong>the</strong> publication <strong>of</strong> those earlier maps, importantgeological concepts such as plate tectonics, terranes andsequence stratigraphy have been developed, and a vastamount <strong>of</strong> new geological research has been undertaken.This research includes detailed mapping, at 1:50 000 scale,<strong>of</strong> large areas (e.g. Johnston 1990; Suggate 1984; Reay1993; Challis & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994; Warren 1995), fault studies(e.g. Kieckhefer 1979), detailed investigations for economicand engineering projects, university <strong>the</strong>ses, and publishedpapers on tectonic, stratigraphic, petrological, geochemicaland many o<strong>the</strong>r aspects <strong>of</strong> geology.The geology <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area is in many places socomplex that <strong>the</strong> map has been considerably simplified inorder to present it legibly at 1:250 000 scale. Rock units aremapped primarily in terms <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>ir age <strong>of</strong> deposition,eruption, or intrusion. As a consequence, <strong>the</strong> colour <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>units on <strong>the</strong> map face reflects <strong>the</strong>ir age, with overprintpatterns used to differentiate some lithologies. Lettersymbols (in upper case, with a lower case prefix to indicateearly, middle or late if appropriate) indicate <strong>the</strong> predominantage <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> rock unit and <strong>the</strong> following lower case letter orletters indicates a formally named lithostratigraphic unitand/or <strong>the</strong> predominant lithology. Metamorphic rocks aremapped in terms <strong>of</strong> age <strong>of</strong> protolith (where known), withoverprints indicating degree <strong>of</strong> metamorphism. Agesubdivision is in terms <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> international time scale.Correlation between international and local time scales andabsolute ages in millions <strong>of</strong> years (Ma) are shown inside<strong>the</strong> front cover (Cooper 2004).This text is not an exhaustive description or review <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>various rock units mapped. Names applied to geologicalunits are those already published and revision <strong>of</strong>nomenclature to remove anomalies has not been attempted.In some cases, correlation <strong>of</strong> stratigraphic units hasresulted in only one name being retained as <strong>the</strong> mappingunit. For more detailed information on individual rock units,specific areas, natural hazards or minerals, <strong>the</strong> reader isreferred to data sources cited throughout <strong>the</strong> text and listedin <strong>the</strong> references.The QMAP geographic information systemThe QMAP series uses computer methods to store,manipulate and present topographic and geologicalinformation. The maps are drawn from data stored in <strong>the</strong>QMAP geographic information system (GIS), a databasedeveloped and maintained by <strong>GNS</strong> <strong>Science</strong>. The primarys<strong>of</strong>tware used is ArcInfo ® .Digital topographic data were provided by LandInformation New Zealand. The QMAP database iscomplementary to, and can be used in conjunction with,o<strong>the</strong>r spatially referenced <strong>GNS</strong> <strong>Science</strong> digital data sets,e.g. gravity and magnetic surveys, mineral resources andlocalities, fossil localities, active faults, and petrologicalsamples.The QMAP series and database are based on detailedgeological information plotted on 1:50 000 NZMS260 seriestopographic base maps. These data record sheets areavailable for consultation at <strong>GNS</strong> <strong>Science</strong>. The 1:50 000data have been simplified for digitising during acompilation stage, with <strong>the</strong> linework smoo<strong>the</strong>d andgeological units amalgamated to a standard national systembased on age and lithology. Point data (e.g. structuralmeasurements) have not been simplified. All point data arestored in <strong>the</strong> GIS, but only selected representativestructural observations are shown on <strong>the</strong> map. Proceduresfor map compilation and details <strong>of</strong> data storage andmanipulation techniques are given by Rattenbury & Heron(1997).Data sourcesThe map and text have been compiled from published mapsand papers, unpublished university <strong>the</strong>ses, <strong>GNS</strong> <strong>Science</strong>technical and map files, mining company reports, field tripguides, <strong>the</strong> New Zealand Fossil Record File in its digitalform (FRED), and <strong>GNS</strong> <strong>Science</strong> geological resources(GERM) and petrological (PETLAB) digital databases (Fig.2). Additional field mapping between 2000 and 2004resolved some geological problems and increased datacoverage in less well-known parts <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> map area.Quaternary deposits, landslides and active faults havelargely been mapped from aerial photos, with limited fieldchecking. Offshore data have been compiled frompublished studies <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>rn Canterbury-Marlboroughregion (Field, Browne & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1989; Barnes & Audru1999a,b; Field, Uruski & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1997) and unpublished datafrom <strong>the</strong> National Institute <strong>of</strong> Water and AtmosphericResearch. Data sources used in map compilation aresummarised in Fig. 2 and are cited in <strong>the</strong> references toge<strong>the</strong>rwith o<strong>the</strong>r studies relating to <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area.ReliabilityThe 1:250 000 map is a regional scale map only, and shouldnot be used alone for land use planning, planning or design<strong>of</strong> engineering projects, earthquake risk assessment, oro<strong>the</strong>r work for which detailed site investigations arenecessary. Some data sets incorporated with <strong>the</strong> geologicaldata (for example <strong>the</strong> Geological Resources Map <strong>of</strong> NewZealand [GERM] data) have been compiled from old orunchecked information <strong>of</strong> lesser reliability (see Christie1989).1


27 1072218172581436233332262124312895439 697340 75744635 714137 474244808171507576177 6059 4951483836 6645795678537615295201130478568586263656467151252 72 8414162341913435584828484708343Published map sheets Published papers1 Lensen 196213 Fleming 195823456789101112Gregg 1964Bowen 1964Fyfe 1968Freund 1971Kieckhefer 1979Suggate 1984Johnston 1990Reay 1993Challis & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994Warren 1995Field, Uruski & o<strong>the</strong>rs 199714151617181920212223Suggate 1965Clayton 1968Bradshaw 1972Cutten 1979Turnbull & Forsyth 1986McPherson 1988Crampton 1988Browne & Maxwell 1992Campbell 1992Grapes & o<strong>the</strong>rs 19922425262728293031323334Browne 1992McCalpin 1992Roberts & Wilson 1992Lihou 1993Baker & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994Wood & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994Ota & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1996Crampton & Laird 1997Benson & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2001Bacon & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2001Litchfield & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2003Student <strong>the</strong>ses Unpublished maps35363738394041424344454647484950Challis 1960Hall 1964Adamson 1966Grapes 1972Stewart 1974Cutten 1976Nicol 1977Montague 1981Botsford 1983Powell 1985Ritchie 1986Rose 1986McLean 1986Waters 1988Melhuish 1988Robertson 198951525354555657585960616263646566Harker 1989Cowan 1989Kirker 1989Lihou 1991Mould 1992Vickery 1994Lowry 1995Worley 1995Jones 1995Townsend 1996Audru 1996Clegg 2001Slater 2001Smith 2001Stone 2001Townsend 200167686970717273747576777879808182Fyfe 1936Fyfe 1946a,bSuggate 1949Beck & Annear 1968Johnston 1964Andrews 1970Campbell 1980Cooper 1980Cutten & Tulloch 1990Van Dissen 1990Van Dissen 1995Crampton 1995Crampton & Isaac 1997Langridge 2000Langridge 2002Pettinga & Campbell 200383 Barnes 200484 Suggate 195685Browne 1984Figure 2 Location <strong>of</strong> data sources used in compiling <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map. Unpublished maps and reports, including mining company reports, are held in <strong>the</strong> map archive and files <strong>of</strong> <strong>GNS</strong><strong>Science</strong>, Lower Hutt. Unpublished university <strong>the</strong>ses are held in university libraries. All data sources are listed in <strong>the</strong> references.2


REGIONAL SETTINGThe <strong>Kaikoura</strong> geological map covers much <strong>of</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>rnCanterbury, sou<strong>the</strong>rn Marlborough and sou<strong>the</strong>rn Nelson,including many <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>astern mountains <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> SouthIsland. The map area is sparsely populated with <strong>the</strong> largesttowns – <strong>Kaikoura</strong>, Hanmer and Murchison – servicingagricultural industries. The o<strong>the</strong>r main industries aretourism, fishing and exotic forestry. Much <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>northwestern part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area is covered inindigenous forest and is under Department <strong>of</strong> Conservation(DoC) stewardship. DoC administers Nelson Lakes andKahurangi national parks, Lewis Pass Scenic Reserve,Victoria, Hanmer and Lake Sumner conservation parks, MtRichmond Forest Park and Molesworth Farm Park.The <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area straddles <strong>the</strong> boundary between<strong>the</strong> Australian and Pacific plates which are converging atabout 40 mm per year (Fig. 1). This area also covers <strong>the</strong>plate boundary transition from subduction <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Pacificplate under <strong>the</strong> Australian plate (Fig. 3), exemplified in <strong>the</strong>sou<strong>the</strong>rn North Island, to continental collision between<strong>the</strong> plates, manifest by uplift <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Sou<strong>the</strong>rn Alps ando<strong>the</strong>r ranges <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> South Island. Much <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> plateboundary movement in <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area isaccommodated by oblique, dextral strike-slip along <strong>the</strong>Alpine Fault and <strong>the</strong> Awatere, Clarence, Hope and o<strong>the</strong>rfaults <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Marlborough Fault System (Van Dissen &Yeats 1991; Knuepfer 1992; Holt & Haines 1995).The basement geology <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map is dominatedby quartz<strong>of</strong>eldspathic sedimentary rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Rakaia andPahau terranes (Bradshaw 1989), <strong>of</strong> dominantly Mesozoicage, that amalgamated to form <strong>the</strong> Torlesse compositeterrane (Fig. 4). Northwest <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Alpine Fault <strong>the</strong> basementrocks include <strong>the</strong> early Paleozoic sedimentary andvolcanogenic rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Buller and Takaka terranes(Cooper 1989), and mid-Paleozoic to Early Cretaceousigneous intrusions <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Karamea and Median batholiths(Tulloch 1988; Mortimer & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1999). The Permian toJurassic volcanic and sedimentary Brook Street, Murihiku,Dun Mountain-Maitai and Caples terranes occur in southNelson.Covering mid- and Late Cretaceous, Paleogene andNeogene sedimentary rocks have been mostly removedby erosion, particularly in <strong>the</strong> central part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> map area.The sedimentary rocks resulted from an initial period <strong>of</strong>widespread erosion followed by marine transgression andsubsequent regression in <strong>the</strong> early to middle Cenozoic.The Neogene development <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> modern plate boundarythrough New Zealand, and associated convergence,resulted in uplift and fur<strong>the</strong>r erosion. WidespreadQuaternary terrestrial sedimentation reflects continuinguplift and erosion, with glaciation having a major influenceon sedimentation.Australian PlateHikurangi Trough(oceanic crust)PacificPlateChatham Rise(continental crust)?NHopeFaultClarenceFaultAlpineFaultAwatereFaultsubductingoceaniccrustDepth (km)0-1717-3030-4545-7070-9595-120120-150150-180180-210>210Figure 3 Block model <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area and surrounding regions showing active faults at <strong>the</strong> surface and <strong>the</strong>position <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> subducting Pacific Plate under <strong>the</strong> Australian Plate defined by earthquake hypocentres (mostlyconcentrated on <strong>the</strong> upper surface <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> subducting plate). After Barnes (1994b), Eberhart-Phillips & Reyners (1997).3


ProvinceSEDIMENTARY AND VOLCANIC ROCKSNorthland and East Coast allochthonsWaipapa composite terrane(western North Island)Morrinsville faciesHunua faciesCaples terraneDun Mountain - Maitai terraneMurihiku terraneBrook Street terraneTakaka terraneBuller terraneundifferentiatedTorlesse compositeterrane (eastern NZ)TuhuaterranePahau terraneRakaia terraneEastern Province WesternNorthlandAllochthonEast CoastAllochthonPLUTONIC ROCKS?Median BatholithKaramea BatholithPaparoa BatholithHohonu Batholith?REGIONAL TECTONIC-METAMORPHIC OVERPRINTSEsk Head Belt and deformedzones in <strong>the</strong> Pahau terraneHaast SchistGneissNHikurangiTrough200 kmALPINEFAULT<strong>Kaikoura</strong>Puysegur TrenchFigure 4 Pre-Cenozoic basement rocks <strong>of</strong> New Zealand, subdivided into tectonostratigraphic terranes and batholiths;after Mortimer (2004). Cretaceous to Oligocene rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Northland and East Coast allochthons were emplaced asa series <strong>of</strong> thrust sheets in <strong>the</strong> Miocene.4


Alpine (Wairau) Fault Awatere FaultWairau valleyClarence FaultAwatere valleyMurchisonBasinMoutere DepressionN20 kmHope FaultcontinentalshelfInland <strong>Kaikoura</strong> RangeClarence valleySeaward <strong>Kaikoura</strong> RangeSpenser MountainsSou<strong>the</strong>rn AlpsAlpine FaultAwatere FaultHikurangi TroughClarence FaultHope FaultKakapo FaultHanmer Basin<strong>Kaikoura</strong> CanyonCheviotBasinConwayTrough<strong>Kaikoura</strong>PeninsulaKowhai SeaValleysCulverden BasinMernoo BankChatham RiseFigure 5 Shaded relief model <strong>of</strong> QMAP <strong>Kaikoura</strong> illuminated from <strong>the</strong> northwest. The model has been generated from a digital terrain model built from 20 m contourand spot height data supplied by LINZ (on land) and bathymetric contours supplied by NIWA (<strong>of</strong>fshore). Major faults are arrowed and significant physiographic featuresare labelled.5


Main Divide rangesGEOMORPHOLOGYThe ranges and mountains at <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>rnmost end <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Sou<strong>the</strong>rn Alps (Fig. 5), rise sou<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Alpine Faultand form <strong>the</strong> “Main Divide” drainage boundary between<strong>the</strong> east and west coasts <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> South Island. The mountainsinclude a complex array <strong>of</strong> mostly north-trending rangeswith numerous peaks over 2000 m, culminating at MtFranklin (2340 m) in <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area. The higherrange crests are generally bare rock and lack permanentsnowfields or glaciers (Fig. 6).<strong>Kaikoura</strong> rangesThe nor<strong>the</strong>astern <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area is dominated by <strong>the</strong>nor<strong>the</strong>ast-trending Inland and Seaward <strong>Kaikoura</strong> ranges(Figs 5, 7) that reach <strong>the</strong>ir greatest elevation in Tapuae-o-Uenuku (2885 m) and Manakau (2608 m) respectively. Theseranges and lower ranges to <strong>the</strong> northwest are influencedby <strong>the</strong> major dextral strike-slip Alpine (Wairau), Awatere,Clarence and Hope faults, which traverse long straightvalleys with intervening low saddles and aligned riversegments. Except in <strong>the</strong> Wairau valley, remnants <strong>of</strong>Cretaceous-Pliocene covering rocks are preserved in faultangledepressions on <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>astern sides <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> faults.The summit heights <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> ranges are generally concordant,reflecting uplift <strong>of</strong> relatively planar Late Cretaceous andlater erosion surfaces cut in <strong>the</strong> basement rocks <strong>of</strong> Torlessecomposite terrane. The distinctive peaks <strong>of</strong> Mt Tapuae-o-Uenuku and Blue Mountain result from more erosionresistantigneous rock intrusions and associatedhornfelsing <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Torlesse composite terrane country rock.Hanmer BasinHanmer Basin is a rhomb-shaped topographic depression(Figs 5, 8) 15 km by 7 km at about 300 m elevation,surrounded by ranges up to 1500 m elevation. The WaiauRiver enters <strong>the</strong> basin area from <strong>the</strong> west, joins with <strong>the</strong>smaller Hanmer River, and drains through a gorge on <strong>the</strong>south side. Active traces <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Hope Fault are present on<strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>rn side <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> western part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> basin, are absentfrom <strong>the</strong> central area, and reappear on <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>rn side <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> eastern part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> basin. This basin formed at areleasing bend between <strong>the</strong> right-stepping western HopeRiver and Conway segments <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> dextral strike-slip HopeFault. Seismic and gravity studies indicate Quaternarysediment fills <strong>the</strong> basin to a depth <strong>of</strong> more than 1000 m(Wood & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994).Figure 6 Lake Constance and Blue Lake (far right) at <strong>the</strong> head <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Sabine River resulted from landslide dams in adeglaciated valley, and <strong>the</strong> smaller, unnamed tarn in <strong>the</strong> foreground fills a glacial cirque. The unvegetated greywackedominatedMahanga Range (middle distance) and <strong>the</strong> schistose Ella Range (behind) were occupied by glaciers until<strong>the</strong> early Holocene.Photo CN25744/19: D.L. Homer.6


Figure 7 The Inland <strong>Kaikoura</strong> Range is bounded to <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>ast by <strong>the</strong> major Clarence Fault, which has an averageHolocene right-lateral slip rate <strong>of</strong> 4-7 mm/yr (Pettinga & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2001). The fault separates Early Cretaceous Pahauterrane (left) from Late Cretaceous to Miocene sedimentary and igneous rocks (right). The high peaks on <strong>the</strong> skylineare Mts Alarm (2877 m) and Tapuae-o-Uenuku (2885 m).Photo CN4938/5: D.L. Homer.Figure 8 The Hanmer Basin is a depression caused by a right step in <strong>the</strong> dextral strike-slip Hope Fault. The westernHope River segment <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> fault (lower left) branches into many splays on <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>rn side <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> basin (middle left).The Conway segment <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> fault begins near <strong>the</strong> Waiau gorge (middle right) and follows <strong>the</strong> Hanmer River eastwardstowards <strong>the</strong> coast. The basin sediments are over 1 km thick and are probably all Late Quaternary in age.Photo CN14438/27: D.L. Homer.7


Figure 9 Basin and range topography in <strong>the</strong> Waikari area, with Oligocene limestone outlining folds in <strong>the</strong> foreground.Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic rocks have largely been eroded <strong>of</strong>f <strong>the</strong> Lowry Peaks Range in <strong>the</strong> left middle distance.Photo CN3665/2: D.L. Homer.Figure 10 The cliffed North Canterbury coastline results from ongoing tectonic uplift. These cliffs 4 km north <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Waiau River mouth are cut into Pahau terrane (left) and <strong>the</strong> unconformably overlying Neogene Greta Formationsiltstone (right).Photo CN19635/10: D.L. Homer.8


Figure 11 Resistant, folded Muzzle Group limestone at Needles Point forms a barrier to sand and gravel broughtnorthwards (from left to right) by long-shore currents. Dunes are also preserved in places (upper left).Photo CN23980/5: D.L. Homer.Nor<strong>the</strong>rn Canterbury basins and rangesSouth <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Hope Fault, <strong>the</strong> ranges are lower in altitudeand generally less rugged (Fig. 5). Between <strong>the</strong> ranges, <strong>the</strong>extensive intermontane Culverden, Cheviot and o<strong>the</strong>rbasins are partly rimmed by Cretaceous-Miocenesedimentary rocks (Nicol & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1995). These include<strong>the</strong> erosion-resistant Paleogene limestones that formdistinctive landscapes near Waikari and Hawarden (Fig.9). Sinkholes are locally developed where <strong>the</strong> limestone isflat-lying, such as <strong>the</strong> summit plateau <strong>of</strong> Mt Cookson andon <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> Peninsula. Where <strong>the</strong> Late Cretaceous toMiocene rocks have been stripped <strong>of</strong>f relatively recently,<strong>the</strong> range crests are broad with little local relief. Some <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>ast-trending ranges are asymmetrical intransverse pr<strong>of</strong>ile with reverse faults or thrusts on <strong>the</strong>irgenerally steeper northwestern sides. The intermontanebasins are filled with Late Quaternary gravel.Coastal landformsMuch <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> coast between <strong>the</strong> Clarence River mouth andGore Bay consists <strong>of</strong> steep slopes and cliffs cut largely inPahau terrane rocks (Fig. 10). At <strong>Kaikoura</strong>, <strong>the</strong> peninsula iscomposed <strong>of</strong> Late Cretaceous-Paleogene limestone ando<strong>the</strong>r rocks (front cover), and similar rocks form <strong>the</strong> smaller,but equally impressive Haumuri Bluffs south <strong>of</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong>.Paleogene rocks, capped by marine terraces, form <strong>the</strong>dominant exposures at <strong>the</strong> Conway River mouth and from<strong>the</strong> Hurunui River southwards. Slope failures arewidespread, particularly in fine-grained rocks that are richin montmorillonitic clays. More competent conglomeratesand limestones form coastal cliffs and <strong>of</strong>fshore rocks suchas those at Needles Point (Fig. 11) and Chancet Rocks.Clifford Bay and <strong>the</strong> adjacent shallow Lake Grassmereoccupy <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>rn end <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>ast- plunging WardSyncline. Inland, along <strong>the</strong> syncline axis to <strong>the</strong> southwest,is <strong>the</strong> even shallower Lake Elterwater.9


Figure 12 The active Alpine (Wairau) Fault crosses <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>rn end <strong>of</strong> Lake Rotoiti at St Arnaud, and continuesnor<strong>the</strong>ast into <strong>the</strong> Wairau valley (distant). Neogene dextral strike-slip has juxtaposed Median Batholith, Brook Street,Murihiku, Dun Mountain-Maitai and Caples terrane rocks to <strong>the</strong> northwest (left) against Rakaia terrane and Esk Headbelt rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Travers, St Arnaud and Raglan ranges to <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>ast (right).Photo CN46400/16: D.L. Homer.Figure 13 The Buller River flows south along <strong>the</strong> axis <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Longford Syncline to Murchison (centre distance). Thethick Eocene to Miocene strata <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Murchison Basin have been tightly folded since <strong>the</strong> Late Miocene, completing aremarkably short but significant period <strong>of</strong> basin formation and deformation.Photo CN4181/4: D.L. Homer.10


Parallel to <strong>the</strong> coast, raised interglacial shorelines formnarrow benches and terraces, <strong>the</strong> latter being moreextensive between Haumuri Bluffs and <strong>the</strong> Waiau River.Intermittent narrow beaches <strong>of</strong> sand and gravel, commonlyfringed or capped by sand dunes, also occur along <strong>the</strong>coast (Fig. 11).Alpine FaultThe Alpine Fault is marked by a succession <strong>of</strong> low saddles,depressions, and aligned stream and river valleys. BetweenTophouse and St Arnaud <strong>the</strong> fault traverses two lowsaddles (695 and 710 m; Fig. 12) that separate <strong>the</strong> Buller,Motupiko and Wairau rivers, which drain to <strong>the</strong> West Coast,Tasman Bay and Pacific Ocean, respectively. The faultprominently displaces a peninsula <strong>of</strong> moraine at <strong>the</strong>nor<strong>the</strong>rn end <strong>of</strong> Lake Rotoiti. The Alpine Fault also marksa significant change in topography, especially south <strong>of</strong> StArnaud; ranges to <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> fault are typically500 m higher than those to <strong>the</strong> northwest (Fig. 5), reflectingnet Quaternary uplift.LakesThe largest lakes in <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area have formed inglaciated valleys behind terminal moraines, e.g. lakesRotoiti (Fig. 12), Rotoroa, Sumner, Guyon and Tennyson.Most o<strong>the</strong>r lakes have resulted from landslide damminge.g. lakes Constance (Fig. 6), McRae and Matiri, and inmany cases <strong>the</strong> landslides have fallen from previouslyglaciated and oversteepened valley sides, possiblytriggered by earthquakes. Tarns occupying cirques arewidespread in <strong>the</strong> higher mountains in <strong>the</strong> west.RiversLarge rivers traverse many parts <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map areaand originate from <strong>the</strong> Main Divide, within or beyond <strong>the</strong>map area. Northwest <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Alpine Fault, <strong>the</strong> Buller Rivercuts through several mountain ranges from its source atLake Rotoiti. Close to its source, <strong>the</strong> river flows westwardthrough a gorge cut in granitic rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> MedianBatholith before crossing <strong>the</strong> Murchison Basin. Onentering <strong>the</strong> basin <strong>the</strong> river follows <strong>the</strong> axis <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> LongfordSyncline to Murchison (Fig.13). Tributary valleys aroundMurchison commonly follow north-south trending faultsand fold axes.The course <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Awatere River and sections <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Clarence, Waiau and Wairau rivers have been stronglyinfluenced by movement <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> active faults <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Marlborough Fault System and related uplift <strong>of</strong> adjacentranges. The Clarence River flows south from its sourcenear Lake Tennyson, <strong>the</strong>n east and nor<strong>the</strong>ast along <strong>the</strong>traces <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Elliott and Clarence faults, and <strong>the</strong>n sou<strong>the</strong>astthrough a gorge at <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>rn end <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Seaward<strong>Kaikoura</strong> Range to <strong>the</strong> coast.The Conway, Waiau and Hurunui rivers have each cutseveral antecedent gorges through <strong>the</strong> ranges <strong>of</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>rnCanterbury and have wide braided channels where <strong>the</strong>ytraverse <strong>the</strong> intervening basins to reach <strong>the</strong> Pacific Ocean.Most <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> rivers are flanked by sets <strong>of</strong> terraces carvedinto glacial outwash gravel or formed by aggradation. Many<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> outwash gravel surfaces can be traced inland toterminal moraines on both sides <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Main Divide.Offshore physiographyThe <strong>of</strong>fshore physiography <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area isdominated by four elements: <strong>the</strong> continental shelf, <strong>the</strong>continental slope, <strong>the</strong> Hikurangi Trough and <strong>the</strong> ChathamRise. The continental shelf has a smooth sea floor at shallowdepth (


290PermianCarboniferous354Late Devonian370391417EarlyCretaceousJurassicTriassicMiddleDevonianEarlyDevonianRahu Suite*Kirwans Dolerite*Topfer Formation*Karamea SuiteReefton Group*TUHUA TERRANEParapara Group*Riwaka Complex*Terrane amalgamationBaton Group*Separation PointSuiteTasmanIntrusivesGlenroyComplexRotoroaComplexMEDIANBATHOLITHPepin Group*KARAMEA SUITEMURIHIKUTERRANERichmond GroupBrook StreetVolcanicsGroupBROOKSTREETTERRANEMaitaiGroupLivingstoneVolcanics GroupDun MountainUltramafics GroupDUNMOUNTAIN-MAITAITERRANEBROOK STTERRANECaplesGroupCAPLESTERRANEMURIHIKUTERRANETORLESSECOMPOSITETERRANEungroupedRAKAIATERRANEEskHeadBeltDUN MOUNTAIN-MAITAI TERRANE CAPLES TERRANEungroupedPAHAUTERRANE443SilurianNOrdovician490Golden BayGroup*Greenland GroupEllis Group*Mount ArthurGroupm e505LateCambrianMiddleCambrianBULLERTERRANEDevilRiverVolcanicsGroup*l a n g e e v e n tHaupiriGroupMEDIANBATHOLITHESKHEADBELTPAHAUTERRANEine ( rau) ltFauAlp WaiTAKAKATERRANEWesternProvinceBULLERTERRANERAKAIATERRANEEasternProvinceTAKAKATERRANEESKHEADBELTPAHAUTERRANEAwatere Fault20 kmFigure 14 Tectonostratigraphic relationships within and between basement terranes. Stratigraphic units not appearing on <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map are marked with an asterisk.12


STRATIGRAPHYCambrian to Cretaceous basement rocks, includingvolcanic, metasedimentary, granitic and ultramafic rocks,outcrop over 70% <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area. The basementrocks are overlain by remnants <strong>of</strong> Late Cretaceous andCenozoic, terrestrial and marine, sedimentary and igneousrocks, preserved in basins around Murchison andthroughout eastern Marlborough and nor<strong>the</strong>rn Canterbury.In <strong>the</strong> east <strong>the</strong>se younger rocks contain local volcanicsequences. Quaternary fluvioglacial and alluvial depositsare widespread but Quaternary marine rocks occur onlylocally.CAMBRIAN TO CRETACEOUSThe basement rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area, <strong>of</strong>Gondwanaland origin, have been divided into <strong>the</strong> largelyearly Paleozoic Western Province and <strong>the</strong> late Paleozoic toMesozoic Eastern Province (Landis & Coombs 1967). Thevolcano-sedimentary and mafic intrusive rocks are mappedin tectonostratigraphic terranes (Figs 4, 14; Coombs &o<strong>the</strong>rs 1976; Bishop & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1985; Bradshaw 1993;Mortimer 2004) within which traditional lithostratigraphicformations and groups are recognised. The WesternProvince contains <strong>the</strong> Buller and Takaka terranes (Cooper1989) that amalgamated in <strong>the</strong> mid-Devonian (collectivelytermed <strong>the</strong> Tuhua composite terrane). The Eastern Provincein <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area comprises <strong>the</strong> Brook Street, DunMountain-Maitai, Murihiku, and Caples terranes west <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> Alpine Fault and <strong>the</strong> Rakaia and Pahau terranes(collectively <strong>the</strong> Torlesse composite terrane) east <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>fault (Coombs & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1976; Mortimer 2004). Many <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>plutonic rocks occur within <strong>the</strong> originally contiguousMedian and Karamea batholiths (Tulloch 1988; Mortimer& o<strong>the</strong>rs 1999).Buller terraneEarly Ordovician sedimentary rocksThe Buller terrane, comprising <strong>the</strong> Greenland Group (|g)within <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area, occupies a few squarekilometres near Maruia Saddle. The group consists <strong>of</strong> welltopoorly bedded, greenish-grey quartzose sandstone andmudstone (Stewart 1974). The rocks are intruded by LateDevonian-Carboniferous Karamea Suite granite in <strong>the</strong>northwest and faulted against Miocene conglomerate to<strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>ast. Greenland Group sandstone typicallycontains abundant detrital quartz, minor sodic plagioclaseand subordinate volcanic and sedimentary rock fragments(Nathan 1976; Roser & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1996). The group has beeninterpreted as a turbidite succession within a submarinefan deposit (Laird 1972; Laird & Shelley 1974). Graptolitesfrom near Reefton, 30 km west <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area,are early Ordovician (Cooper 1974). K-Ar and Rb-Sr agesfrom Greenland Group beyond <strong>the</strong> map area indicate awidespread Late Ordovician to Early Silurian greenschistfacies (chlorite zone) metamorphic event (Adams & o<strong>the</strong>rs1975; Adams 2004). Adjacent to <strong>the</strong> granite, <strong>the</strong> group hasbeen <strong>the</strong>rmally metamorphosed to biotite hornfels (Stewart1974). Metamorphism probably accompanied deformationthat resulted in generally steep bedding dips, tight uprightfolds and a penetrative cleavage (Rattenbury & Stewart2000).Takaka terraneA small area <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Takaka terrane outcrops in <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong>map area along <strong>the</strong> Alpine Fault, near Lake Daniells. Fur<strong>the</strong>rnorth <strong>the</strong> terrane is concealed by Tertiary rocks in <strong>the</strong>Murchison Basin (see section C-C’), but is well exposed inNorthwest Nelson, where <strong>the</strong> type localities <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Haupiriand Mt Arthur groups are located (Rattenbury & o<strong>the</strong>rs1998). Southwest <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area, <strong>the</strong> terraneprogressively narrows and is truncated by <strong>the</strong> Alpine Fault(Nathan & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2002).Middle Cambrian to Late Ordovician sedimentary rocksIn <strong>the</strong> vicinity <strong>of</strong> Lake Daniells, volcanogenic sedimentaryrocks with conglomerate and minor basaltic flows arecorrelated with <strong>the</strong> Haupiri Group <strong>of</strong> Northwest Nelson(Münker & Cooper 1999; Nathan & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2002). Threeinformal units (Nathan & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2002) are recognised,comprising dolomitic mudstone and ankeritic sandstonewith minor conglomerate ($hr), polymict pebble to granuleconglomerate ($ha), and grey laminated dolomiticmudstone and sandstone with widespread interlayeredfelsic volcanic rocks ($hh). In Northwest Nelson <strong>the</strong> grouphas been assigned a Middle-Late Cambrian age (Münker& Cooper 1999).In <strong>the</strong> Lake Daniells area <strong>the</strong> Mt Arthur Group overlies <strong>the</strong>Haupiri Group (Bowen 1964), separated by a detachmentfault (R. A. Cooper in Nathan & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2002). The SluiceBox Limestone (|ms) consists <strong>of</strong> recrystallised grey,commonly siliceous, limestone and minor sandstone withmudstone layers. Conodonts, trilobites and disarticulatedbrachiopods indicate a Late Cambrian to Middle Ordovicianage (Cooper 1989). The formation is correlated with <strong>the</strong>Arthur Marble 1 and Summit Limestone formations <strong>of</strong>Northwest Nelson (Rattenbury & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1998). Theconformably overlying siltstone and minor quartzsandstone <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Alfred Formation (|mw) contains LateOrdovician (Gisbornian) graptolites and is correlated with<strong>the</strong> Wangapeka and Baldy formations in Northwest Nelson(Rattenbury & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1998).Karamea BatholithLate Devonian to Early Carboniferous intrusive rocksThe Karamea Batholith extensively intrudes <strong>the</strong> Tuhuaterrane in <strong>the</strong> northwest <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> South Island and isdominated by <strong>the</strong> Karamea Suite <strong>of</strong> Late Devonian-earlyCarboniferous granites (Tulloch 1988; Muir & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994).The suite has S-type geochemistry, commonly containingmuscovite and generally lacking hornblende. Within <strong>the</strong><strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area <strong>the</strong> rocks are only exposed at MtsNewton and Mantell, north and south <strong>of</strong> Murchisonrespectively, but are inferred to underlie much <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Paleogene-Miocene strata <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Murchison Basin. At MtNewton <strong>the</strong> suite comprises coarse-grained, inequigranular13


iotite granite, locally with megacrystic K-feldspar, andfine-grained muscovite-biotite granite (Dkg). At MtMantell, biotite granodiorite and tonalite (Dkt)predominate (Stewart 1974). U-Pb dating <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> KarameaSuite beyond <strong>the</strong> map area gave crystallisation ages <strong>of</strong>388–358 Ma (Muir & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994, 1996).Median BatholithThe rocks separating <strong>the</strong> Eastern and Western provincesinclude a range <strong>of</strong> mafic, intermediate and felsic plutonicintrusions, some extrusive equivalent rocks and severalsignificant sedimentary units in and to <strong>the</strong> north <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>map area. The Median Tectonic Zone (MTZ, Bradshaw1993) was defined to include <strong>the</strong>se diverse and, in places,structurally dismembered rocks. Mortimer & o<strong>the</strong>rs (1999)recognised that <strong>the</strong> MTZ is more than 90% plutonic inorigin and that much <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> deformation was superimposedin <strong>the</strong> Cenozoic. Moreover <strong>the</strong> plutonic rocks extendbeyond <strong>the</strong> western limit <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> MTZ into parts <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Western Province and are viewed as part <strong>of</strong> an originallycontiguous batholith, <strong>the</strong> Median Batholith (Fig. 4,Mortimer & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1999; Mortimer 2004). The batholith isdominated by I-type plutonic rocks ranging from ultramaficthrough to felsic compositions (Mortimer & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1999).In <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area <strong>the</strong> Median Batholith is obliquelytruncated by <strong>the</strong> Alpine Fault to <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>ast, and <strong>the</strong>western contact is obscured under <strong>the</strong> Murchison Basin.Northwards from <strong>the</strong> Alpine Fault <strong>the</strong> Median Batholithbecomes increasingly obscured by a cover <strong>of</strong> late Cenozoicrocks, dominated by <strong>the</strong> Moutere Gravel, although it reemergesnor<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong> Nelson city. In Northwest Nelson<strong>the</strong> batholith intrudes <strong>the</strong> Takaka terrane (Rattenbury &o<strong>the</strong>rs 1998). In <strong>the</strong> east <strong>the</strong> batholith is separated from <strong>the</strong>Brook Street terrane by <strong>the</strong> Delaware-Speargrass FaultZone (Johnston & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1987; Johnston 1990; Rattenbury& o<strong>the</strong>rs 1998). The Median Batholith includes <strong>the</strong> RotoroaComplex, Tasman Intrusives and Separation Point Suite.The latter two intrusive units are separated by <strong>the</strong> FlaxmoreFault. Adjacent sedimentary and volcanic rocks, rangingfrom subgreenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphicgrade, are volumetrically minor and some have been derivedfrom extrusive equivalents or erosion <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> MedianBatholith intrusive rocks.Late Triassic to Late Jurassic igneous rocks andassociated sedimentary rocksThe Tasman Intrusives group several Late Triassic to LateJurassic plutons in <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> MoutereDepression (Johnston 1990). The Buller Diorite (Tab), nearLake Rotoiti, consists <strong>of</strong> medium-grained, commonlyaltered, diorite to tonalite (Fig. 15a) with sparse dikes <strong>of</strong>fine-grained diorite and quartz-rich pegmatites. The BullerDiorite characteristically contains plagioclase (oligoclase/andesine) and hornblende with minor interstitial quartz andaccessory minerals. Sou<strong>the</strong>ast, towards <strong>the</strong> Delaware-Speargrass Fault Zone, it becomes progressively foliatedwith <strong>the</strong> development <strong>of</strong> alternating white to greyish-white,feldspar-rich and dark grey to black, biotite and hornblenderichlayers. Within <strong>the</strong> Delaware-Speargrass Fault Zone<strong>the</strong> diorite grades into <strong>the</strong> foliated Rotoiti Gneiss (Tar)composed <strong>of</strong> quartz, plagioclase (oligoclase), K-feldspar,biotite, muscovite and porphyroblastic garnet. Radiometricdating <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Buller Diorite yielded Late Triassic ages <strong>of</strong>225 Ma (K-Ar, Johnston 1990) and 228 Ma (U-Pb zircon,Kimbrough & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994). O<strong>the</strong>r rock types within <strong>the</strong>Delaware-Speargrass Fault Zone include altered coarset<strong>of</strong>ine-grained gabbro and minor pyroxenite <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Seventeen Gabbro (Jas) <strong>of</strong> Mesozoic age (Johnston 1990).The One Mile Gabbronorite (Jao) consists <strong>of</strong> diorite,tonalite and hornblende gabbronorite that are commonlyaltered (Tulloch & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1999). The pluton intrudes <strong>the</strong>Rainy River Conglomerate in <strong>the</strong> east and is bounded by<strong>the</strong> Flaxmore Fault in <strong>the</strong> west. U-Pb dating <strong>of</strong> zirconsindicates a 147 Ma (Late Jurassic) intrusive age (Kimbrough& o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994).Big Bush Andesite (Jeb) <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Teetotal Group (Johnston1990) forms an 800 m wide strip in <strong>the</strong> upper Rainy Riverand consists <strong>of</strong> grey to greenish-grey, fine- to mediumgrainedandesite and overlying andesitic breccia. Theandesite is largely massive but flows, up to 2 m thick, withdark, fine-grained margins are locally recognisable. It ischaracterised by andesine phenocrysts with a dominanttrachytic texture. The breccia is predominantly unstratifiedalthough locally fragments are weakly aligned. The brecciagrades eastwards, and probably stratigraphically upwards,into <strong>the</strong> c. 2000 m thick Rainy River Conglomerate (Jer).Within <strong>the</strong> conglomerate are rare sills or flows <strong>of</strong> porphyriticBig Bush Andesite. The lower 200 m <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Rainy RiverConglomerate is dominated by andesitic breccia with layers<strong>of</strong> subrounded to rounded andesitic pebbles. This brecciagrades upwards into very poorly sorted, greenish-greyconglomerate with a variety <strong>of</strong> clasts, up to 0.5 m across, ina fine- to coarse-grained grey or greenish-grey sandstonematrix (Fig. 15b). The clasts include andesite, felsicplutonics, basalt, and altered sandstone and siltstone. Inplaces <strong>the</strong> clasts are dominated by diorite eroded from <strong>the</strong>underlying Buller Diorite (Tulloch & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1999). TheRainy River Conglomerate contains rare, very thicksandstone beds locally with coal seams up to 0.4 m thick,and minor siltstone. The formation has undergone zeolitefacies metamorphism and <strong>the</strong> coal is <strong>of</strong> high-volatilebituminous rank.Clasts within <strong>the</strong> Rainy River Conglomerate are sourcedfrom <strong>the</strong> Median Batholith and <strong>the</strong> Brook Street terrane,<strong>the</strong> closest terrane <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Eastern Province. No clasts from<strong>the</strong> Western Province have been identified. The ages <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> Big Bush Andesite and Rainy River Conglomerate arenot known, although <strong>the</strong>y are constrained by <strong>the</strong>underlying Buller Diorite and <strong>the</strong> intruding One MileGabbronorite (see above). U-Pb zircon dating <strong>of</strong> two quartzmonzonite clasts from <strong>the</strong> Rainy River Conglomerateyielded 273–290 Ma (Early Permian) and 176–185 Ma (EarlyJurassic) ages. A late Middle or Late Jurassic age isassigned to <strong>the</strong> Big Bush Andesite and Rainy RiverConglomerate (Tulloch & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1999).14


Figure 15 Median Batholith rocks. (a) Buller Diorite with steeply east-dipping foliation defined by alternating lightcoloured feldspar-rich and dark grey biotite- and hornblende-rich layers; Rainy River. (b) Well-rounded, predominantlygranitic and mafic volcanic clasts within <strong>the</strong> Rainy River Conglomerate are derived from o<strong>the</strong>r Median Batholith rocks;Rainy River. (c) The hornblende-plagioclase-dominated Howard Gabbro includes trains <strong>of</strong> xenoliths <strong>of</strong> finer grainedamphibolite, as shown here at Harleys Rock in <strong>the</strong> Buller River. (d) Outcrops <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Separation Point Batholith aretypically wea<strong>the</strong>red but this relatively fresh biotite granite boulder from Granity Creek is part <strong>of</strong> a landslide deposit thatpartly blocked <strong>the</strong> Buller River.The Rotoroa Complex comprises a layered intrusionconsisting <strong>of</strong> gabbro, gabbronorite, norite, anorthosite,diorite and trondhjemite, and rare hornblendite with lenses<strong>of</strong> amphibolite (Challis & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994). Relatively unalteredgabbronorite layered with anorthosite, hornblende gabbro,leucogabbro and biotite gabbro (Howard Gabbro, Jrh, Fig.15c) occurs mainly in <strong>the</strong> east <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> complex. Opaquemineral-rich plagioclase (typically An 60-70) gives <strong>the</strong> gabbroa dark appearance, even where it is highly feldspathic.Dioritic rocks are widespread, particularly in <strong>the</strong> west <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> complex, and include gneissic mafic to leucocraticdiorite, microdiorite, quartz diorite, and trondhjemite(Braeburn Diorite, Jra). Migmatite and gneissic intrusionbreccia are common within <strong>the</strong> diorite and have resultedfrom <strong>the</strong> later intrusion <strong>of</strong> Early Cretaceous granitoids.Layering, defined by alternating felsic and mafic bands orby coarse and finer grained rocks, is common. Fine-grained,dark grey amphibolite and epidiorite <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> KawatiriAmphibolite (Jrk) are concentrated in <strong>the</strong> northwest <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> complex. The amphibolite and epidiorite are composedmainly <strong>of</strong> hornblende and plagioclase, and are probablymetamorphosed basalt and dolerite dikes and sills. Theepidiorite is generally more felsic and has relict igneoustextures. Shearing occurs in many places, and <strong>the</strong> rocksare locally schistose.U-Pb zircon dating <strong>of</strong> gabbronorite from near Lake Rotoroaat 155 Ma indicates a Late Jurassic age for <strong>the</strong> RotoroaComplex (Kimbrough & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1993).Early Cretaceous intrusive rocksThe Separation Point Suite is <strong>the</strong> dominant component <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> Separation Point Batholith, here incorporated in <strong>the</strong>Median Batholith (Mortimer & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1999). The granitedominatedsuite intrudes Rotoroa Complex within <strong>the</strong><strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area and intrudes rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Takaka terranenorthwest <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> map area (Rattenbury & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1998). In<strong>the</strong> map area <strong>the</strong> Tainui Fault separates <strong>the</strong> suite fromTertiary rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Murchison Basin to <strong>the</strong> northwest(Suggate 1984). The suite is dominated by massive,equigranular biotite and biotite-hornblende granite withminor tonalite, quartz diorite and quartz monzonite (Ksg;Fig. 15d). In <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>the</strong> suite is extensively15


interlayered with <strong>the</strong> Rotoroa Complex along a nor<strong>the</strong>asttrend (Challis & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994). Quartz diorite occurs withintrusion breccias adjacent to unfaulted contacts with <strong>the</strong>Rotoroa Complex. The suite is intruded by late-phase dikesand sills <strong>of</strong> fine-grained tonalite, aplite and granitepegmatite. Rb-Sr ages <strong>of</strong> 116 Ma (Aronson 1965) and114 Ma (Harrison & McDougall 1980) and, from beyond<strong>the</strong> map area, U-Pb dating <strong>of</strong> zircons between 109 and121 Ma (Kimbrough & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994; Muir & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994,1997) indicate that <strong>the</strong> Separation Point Suite was emplacedin <strong>the</strong> Early Cretaceous.The Glenroy Complex (Kg), dominated by coarse-grainedbiotite-hornblende granite, occurs east <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> lower GlenroyRiver and around <strong>the</strong> Upper Matakitaki settlement(Adamson 1966; Cutten 1987). The complex also containsmetasedimentary gneiss with an amphibolite facies garnetbiotite-sillimanite-kyanitemineral assemblage and twopyroxenegranulite facies dioritic orthogneiss (retrogressedto amphibolite facies). The orthogneiss was emplaced into<strong>the</strong> lower crust in <strong>the</strong> Early Cretaceous (Tulloch & Challis2000).Brook Street terraneEarly Permian volcanic and sedimentary rocksThe Brook Street Volcanics Group (Yb) is <strong>the</strong> onlystratigraphic group mapped within <strong>the</strong> Brook Street terranein <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area. It crops out around <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>rnend <strong>of</strong> Lake Rotoiti, where it forms <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>rn end <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Permian sequence <strong>of</strong> east Nelson (Johnston 1990). Far<strong>the</strong>rsouthwest <strong>the</strong> group is concealed by Quaternary depositsexcept for a fault-bounded sliver at <strong>the</strong> south end <strong>of</strong> LakeRotoroa (Challis & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994). The group is bounded in<strong>the</strong> northwest by <strong>the</strong> Delaware-Speargrass Fault Zone andto <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>ast by <strong>the</strong> Waimea and Alpine faults. Itcomprises a sou<strong>the</strong>ast-dipping and younging sequence<strong>of</strong> intermediate to mafic volcanic-derived sedimentary rocksand associated igneous rocks.The Kaka Formation (Ybk), <strong>the</strong> dominant unit in <strong>the</strong> groupwithin <strong>the</strong> map area, comprises green, coarse-grained maficvolcanic flows and shallow intrusives with widespreadpyroclastic and clastic rocks derived from <strong>the</strong> igneousrocks. The volcanic rocks are basaltic andesite to calcalkalinebasalt, with augite and plagioclase <strong>the</strong> dominantminerals. The sedimentary rocks are dominated by breccia,with clasts <strong>of</strong> augite-rich igneous rocks up to 0.4 m across.Minor rock types are green siltstone and sandstone, andrare lenses <strong>of</strong> grey calcareous siltstone and impurelimestone, <strong>the</strong> latter having a foetid smell when freshlybroken. The lenses contain atomodesmatinid shellfragments and, at Speargrass Creek, a 3 m thick limestonehas abundant impressions <strong>of</strong> Maitaia obliquataWaterhouse (Johnston & Stevens 1985). Conformablyoverlying <strong>the</strong> Kaka Formation is <strong>the</strong> 1500 m thick BroughFormation (Ybb), dominated by dark, fine-grained basaltand dolerite with minor gabbro and tuffaceous sequences.The formation grades upwards into Groom CreekFormation (Ybg), which is dominated by poorly beddedgrey, greenish grey and whitish grey, tuffaceous siltstoneand sandstone (Fig. 16). The Brough and Groom Creekformations are intruded by lensoidal masses, up to 100 mthick, <strong>of</strong> very altered dolerite and fine-grained gabbro.The Brook Street Volcanics Group typically has beenmetamorphosed to prehnite-pumpellyite facies. The KakaFormation is <strong>of</strong> Permian age and a late Early Permian age isinferred for <strong>the</strong> group based on better constrained datingin Southland (Turnbull & Allibone 2003).Murihiku terraneLate Middle Triassic and Early to Late Jurassicsedimentary rocksThe Murihiku terrane encompasses <strong>the</strong> MurihikuSupergroup which, in <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area, forms tw<strong>of</strong>ault-bounded blocks <strong>of</strong> zeolite facies rocks, 6 km in length,along <strong>the</strong> Waimea Fault north <strong>of</strong> Tophouse (Johnston1990). The eastern block comprises <strong>the</strong> 1000 m thick BlueFigure 16 Green tuffaceous sandstonewith light coloured tuff beds <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> GroomCreek Formation, Brook Street VolcanicsGroup. The beds dip WNW here in RockyCreek, in <strong>the</strong> upper Motupiko valley.16


In both formations primary augite crystals are completelyor partly replaced by hornblende, and plagioclase ispartially replaced by hydrogrossular, prehnite, pumpellyite,chlorite and epidote. In east Nelson <strong>the</strong> upper basaltic part<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Livingstone Volcanics Group has beenmetamorphosed to greenschist facies (Davis & o<strong>the</strong>rs1980). The group has subsequently been affected byprehnite-pumpellyite metamorphism. Zircon U-Pb datesfrom outside <strong>the</strong> map area indicate an Early Permian age(Kimbrough & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1992).Late Permian to Early Triassic sedimentary rocksThe Maitai Group is exposed north <strong>of</strong> Tophouse in <strong>the</strong>Roding Syncline (Johnston 1990) and in <strong>the</strong> Matakitakioutlier as a northwest-younging sequence in which <strong>the</strong>beds are commonly overturned (Waterhouse 1964;Adamson 1966; Johnston 1976). The basal UpukeroraFormation (Ymu) in <strong>the</strong> Matakitaki outlier is severalhundred metres thick and consists <strong>of</strong> coarse tuffaceoussandstone with lenses <strong>of</strong> hematitic breccia overlain by greycalcareous siltstone (Adamson 1966). In <strong>the</strong> Red Hills <strong>the</strong>formation comprises lenses <strong>of</strong> conglomerate withtuffaceous horizons. Because <strong>of</strong> very poor exposure ineast Nelson and Matakitaki, <strong>the</strong> stratigraphic relationshipwith <strong>the</strong> underlying Livingstone Volcanics Group is unclear,although north <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area, an unconformitybetween <strong>the</strong>m is preserved (Johnston 1981). The WoodedPeak Limestone (Ymw) is up to 750 m thick, dominantlygrey, and consists <strong>of</strong> a basal poorly bedded limestone andan upper well-bedded limestone, separated by well-beddedcalcareous sandstone with minor siltstone andconglomerate. In <strong>the</strong> Matakitaki outlier <strong>the</strong> limestone isabout half <strong>the</strong> thickness <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> east Nelson limestone and<strong>the</strong> lithological distinctions are less well defined. Thelimestone has a strong foetid smell when freshly broken.The Wooded Peak Limestone grades upwards into <strong>the</strong> greyTramway Sandstone (Ymt). The Tramway Sandstone, upto 800 m thick, contains more quartz than <strong>the</strong> rest <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Maitai Group (but still less than 10%). In east Nelson itranges from well-bedded calcareous sandstone andsiltstone to poorly bedded fine-grained sandstone andsiltstone. Fragmentary atomodesmatinid fossils, includingMaitaia trechmanni Marwick, are widespread. By contrast,<strong>the</strong> formation in <strong>the</strong> Matakitaki outlier is a poorly bedded,calcareous, dark grey to black siltstone or mudstone withgreen sandstone interbeds. Wellman (1953) reported anOrthoceras from float downslope from Baldy, butatomodesmatinid fossils are less abundant here.In east Nelson <strong>the</strong> Tramway Sandstone is conformablyoverlain by up to 700 m <strong>of</strong> poorly to locally well-bedded,green volcanogenic Little Ben Sandstone (Tml), but thisformation has not been recognised in <strong>the</strong> Matakitaki outlier.Thin dark grey siltstone beds and rare lenses <strong>of</strong>conglomerate contain calcareous siltstone and limestonebut no fossils. The Little Ben Sandstone grades upwardsinto <strong>the</strong> generally thin-bedded or laminated, grey sandstoneand mudstone <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> c. 1700 m thick Greville Formation(Tmg; Fig. 19a). The upper 200 m in east Nelson consists<strong>of</strong> poorly bedded green sandstone, with thin, dark greymudstone and lenses <strong>of</strong> conglomerate. The conglomerateclasts, up to 0.2 m across, include mafic tuff and breccia.The Waiua Formation (Tmw) differs mainly from <strong>the</strong>underlying Greville Formation in <strong>the</strong> reddish-purplehematite in <strong>the</strong> finer grained beds (Fig. 19b). The formationis >750 m thick in east Nelson where it occupies <strong>the</strong> core <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> Roding Syncline. In <strong>the</strong> Matakitaki outlier <strong>the</strong> WaiuaFormation has a maximum reported thickness <strong>of</strong> only180 m (Adamson 1966).The Stephens Subgroup (Tms) is over 2000 m thick andconformably overlies <strong>the</strong> Waiua Formation in <strong>the</strong> Matakitakioutlier but near Tophouse is separated from <strong>the</strong> rest <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Matai Group by <strong>the</strong> Whangamoa Fault. It consistspredominantly <strong>of</strong> variably bedded, green or grey sandstonewith dark grey siltstone and mudstone, and beds aregenerally thicker than those in <strong>the</strong> Waiua and Grevilleformations. Thin conglomerate horizons also occur, and in<strong>the</strong> Matakitaki outlier <strong>the</strong> subgroup contains a 220 m thickcoarse conglomerate composed mainly <strong>of</strong> sandstone,siltstone and igneous clasts (Adamson 1966).The lower part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Maitai Group was deposited on <strong>the</strong>flanks <strong>of</strong> a submarine high <strong>of</strong> Livingstone Volcanics with<strong>the</strong> Wooded Peak Limestone being largely derived fromatomodesmatinid shell banks with influxes <strong>of</strong> volcanicderivedsand (Johnston 1990). The abundance <strong>of</strong> completeatomodesmatinid fossils in parts <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> TramwaySandstone suggests relatively shallow water deposition,but <strong>the</strong> source <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> detrital quartz remains unknown. TheLittle Ben Sandstone was deposited as submarine fansderived from <strong>the</strong> Livingstone Volcanics, probably at <strong>the</strong>beginning <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Triassic. The remaining Maitai Group unitswere deposited in deeper water with widespread submarinefan deposition in <strong>the</strong> Stephens Subgroup. Followingdeposition, <strong>the</strong> group was subjected to burialmetamorphism to prehnite pumpellyite facies, or locallylawsonite albite chlorite facies (Landis 1969), and foldedinto <strong>the</strong> Roding Syncline.Caples terraneLate Permian to Early Triassic sedimentary rocksCaples terrane sedimentary rocks and <strong>the</strong>ir schistoseequivalents were formerly mapped as Pelorus Group but,following stratigraphic nomenclature rationalisationbetween Nelson/Marlborough and Otago/Southland, arenow assigned to <strong>the</strong> Caples Group (Yc). The rocks cropout extensively to <strong>the</strong> north <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> map area (Rattenbury &o<strong>the</strong>rs 1998) but in <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area <strong>the</strong>y occupyonly about 20 km 2 in <strong>the</strong> Wairau valley, north <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> AlpineFault (Walcott 1969; Johnston 1990), andapproximately 8 km 2 in <strong>the</strong> east <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Matakitaki outlier.The group is separated from <strong>the</strong> Dun Mountain UltramaficsGroup by <strong>the</strong> Patuki Mélange (see below). In <strong>the</strong> east <strong>the</strong>group becomes increasingly metamorphosed to form part<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Marlborough Schist Zone <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Haast Schist. Theless metamorphosed rocks in <strong>the</strong> Wairau valley comprisean east-dipping, but overturned, succession >4000 m thick.The oldest rocks in <strong>the</strong> group belong to <strong>the</strong>19


Figure 19 Maitai Group sedimentary rocks.(a) Laminated fine-grained sandstone and mudstone <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> Greville Formation east <strong>of</strong> Tophouse. Theconglomerate boulder is derived from <strong>the</strong> upper part <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> formation.(b) Finely bedded greenish grey sandstone and purplishred mudstone <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Waiua Formation, from BeebysKnob. Cross-bedding and o<strong>the</strong>r sedimentary featuresshow that <strong>the</strong> beds young upwards (sou<strong>the</strong>ast).Figure 20 Moderately foliated and transposed Caples Group semischist east <strong>of</strong> We<strong>the</strong>r Hill in <strong>the</strong> Wairau valley.20


Star Formation (Ycs), comprising poorly bedded greensandstone with grey siltstone and mudstone beds,particularly in <strong>the</strong> upper part. To <strong>the</strong> west <strong>the</strong> overlyingWe<strong>the</strong>r Formation (Ycw) is bedded green sandstone andpurplish-red siltstone and mudstone. The youngest rocksin <strong>the</strong> sequence, <strong>the</strong> Ward Formation (Yca), are grey togreenish-grey sandstone and siltstone with subordinatethick, grey or green sandstone and grey mudstone. CaplesGroup sedimentary rocks are predominantly feldspathicwith abundant lithic (volcanic) rock fragments andsubordinate quartz.In <strong>the</strong> Matakitaki outlier, and parts <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> eastern Wairauvalley, rocks are mapped as undifferentiated Caples Group.In <strong>the</strong> Wairau valley <strong>the</strong>se rocks have a weak sou<strong>the</strong>astdippingfoliation that becomes more pronounced eastwardas <strong>the</strong> rocks grade into semischist (Fig. 20). The foliatedrocks have been mapped in textural zones (t.z. IIA, IIB; seebox). In lower Chrome Stream adjacent to <strong>the</strong> Wairau River,poorly exposed, crushed metavolcanic rock (basalt,gabbro) and phyllonite occur with green sandstone andred mudstone in fault contact with t.z. IIA and IIBsemischist to <strong>the</strong> north. In <strong>the</strong> Matakitaki outlier <strong>the</strong> groupcomprises massive to poorly bedded green and greysandstone and grey siltstone (Adamson 1966) that isweakly foliated (t.z. IIA). The Caples Group rocks gradefrom prehnite-pumpellyite facies into pumpellyite-actinolitefacies, and possibly into lower greenschist facies in <strong>the</strong>south adjacent to <strong>the</strong> Wairau River.North <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area <strong>the</strong> Caples Group containssparse, poorly preserved radiolaria, atomodesmatinidfragments, palynomorphs and leaves, that indicate aPermian (?Late Permian) to Triassic age (Johnston 1996).Rb-Sr and K-Ar whole rock ages date regionalmetamorphism at about 200 Ma (Late Triassic to EarlyJurassic), and uplift and cooling at about 200–110 Ma(Jurassic to Early Cretaceous), indicating a minimum agefor deposition <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Caples Group (Adams & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1999;Little & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1999). Caples Group sediments were derivedfrom erosion <strong>of</strong> an andesite-dacite source area anddeposited in submarine fans in a trench slope and trenchenvironment.Mesozoic mélangeThe Patuki Mélange (Tmp) crops out extensively in <strong>the</strong>head <strong>of</strong> Station Creek in <strong>the</strong> Matakitaki outlier and is up to1 km wide. The mélange is also present as fault-boundedslivers on <strong>the</strong> east side <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Red Hills between <strong>the</strong> DunMountain-Maitai and Caples terranes, where it is locallymore than 1 km wide but more typically


Torlesse composite terraneThe Torlesse composite terrane comprises predominantlyquartz<strong>of</strong>eldspathic indurated sedimentary rocks, commonlycalled greywacke, which range in age from Carboniferousto Early Cretaceous in <strong>the</strong> South Island, and Late Triassicto Early Cretaceous in <strong>the</strong> North Island. In <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong>map area <strong>the</strong> composite terrane encompasses all <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>basement rocks sou<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Alpine Fault to <strong>the</strong> easterncoast (Fig. 14). It includes <strong>the</strong> Rakaia and Pahau terranes(Bradshaw 1989), which can be distinguished from eacho<strong>the</strong>r on <strong>the</strong> basis <strong>of</strong> petrographic, geochemical, isotopicand age differences (Andrews & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1976; Mackinnon1983; Roser & Korsch 1999; Adams 2003). The two terranesare separated by <strong>the</strong> Esk Head belt which consists <strong>of</strong>deformed elements <strong>of</strong> both terranes and locallyallochthonous lithologies.Rakaia terraneLate Triassic sedimentary rocksGrey, indurated, quartz<strong>of</strong>eldspathic sandstone (greywacke)and mudstone (argillite) <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Rakaia terrane (Tt) occurin <strong>the</strong> Sou<strong>the</strong>rn Alps within <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area. Formallithostratigraphic groups within <strong>the</strong> terrane have beenproposed, for example, Mt Robert and Peanter groups(Johnston 1990) but <strong>the</strong>ir geographical extents are notknown outside <strong>the</strong>ir mapped areas. In keeping with adjacentQMAP sheets no lithostratigraphic groups have beenadopted for <strong>the</strong> Rakaia terrane <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map. Rakaiaterrane sandstones are typically poorly to moderatelysorted, fine- to medium-grained, and contain abundantlithic clasts <strong>of</strong> felsic igneous and sedimentary rock.Sedimentary lithotypes (facies) are dominated by thick tovery thick, poorly bedded sandstone and thin- to mediumbedded,graded sandstone and mudstone (Fig. 21; Andrews& o<strong>the</strong>rs 1976). The graded-bedded lithotype is generallydominated by sandstone, commonly well graded with crossbedding, sole markings and ripples. Thick mudstone beds,with or without thin- to medium-bedded sandstone, areless common in <strong>the</strong> map area. Calcareous lenses up to0.6 m in length and rare phosphatic nodules occur rarely in<strong>the</strong> graded-bedded lithotype. Locally within <strong>the</strong> sandstoneare angular, unsorted rip-up fragments <strong>of</strong> grey mudstone,and comminuted leaf and wood fragments that formcarbonaceous laminations. Conglomerate (Ttc) occurssparingly and is more obvious in river boulders than inoutcrop. Thicker lenses <strong>of</strong> conglomerate are present on<strong>the</strong> Travers, Ella and Mahanga ranges and Emily Peaks(Rose 1986; Johnston 1990). The clasts range from subangularto well-rounded and are dominated by pebble- tocobble-sized indurated quartzo-feldspathic sandstone andmudstone, with lesser amounts <strong>of</strong> felsic igneous andquartz-rich metamorphic rocks.Distinctively coloured mudstone (Ttv) is a minor rock typein <strong>the</strong> map area. The mudstones are typically dark red tobrown or pale green to grey, <strong>the</strong> difference reflecting <strong>the</strong>oxidation state <strong>of</strong> contained iron (Roser & Grapes 1990).The red and green mudstone occurs in bands up to severalhundred metres thick (Fig. 22), commonly associated withdark grey mudstone, sandstone, minor basalt, chert andrare limestone. These bands are one <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> few distinctmarker horizons within <strong>the</strong> Rakaia terrane that can be usedto map regional structural trends. One prominent band,locally <strong>of</strong>fset by strike-slip faults, extends for over 90 kmthrough <strong>the</strong> map area, and continues for at least ano<strong>the</strong>r50 km southwest towards Arthurs Pass (Nathan & o<strong>the</strong>rs2002). The basalt, <strong>of</strong> tholeiitic composition, occurs as red,green or grey bands or lenses, commonly with pillow form.It is generally accompanied by purplish red to red, white orgrey chert that may form layers up to several metres thick.The basalt and/or chert are rarely more than a few tens <strong>of</strong>metres thick or several hundred metres in length.Figure 21 Thin- to medium-beddedsandstone and mudstone interlayeredwith very thick-beddedsandstone <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Rakaia terrane on<strong>the</strong> St Arnaud Range near RainbowSkifield. Bedding-parallel shearinghas caused <strong>the</strong> changes in bedthickness.22


Figure 22 Red and greenmudstone occurs as a minor butwidespread Rakaia terrane rocktype, usually interlayered with thinbeddedgraded sandstone andmudstone. This partly shearedexample from Henry River is part <strong>of</strong>a semi-continuous band up to400 m wide that extends over 140km strike length.Figure 23 Rakaia terrane brokenformation is characterised bydiscontinuous lenses <strong>of</strong>sandstone in a shearedmudstone matrix, with numerousthin quartz veins. Rainbow Skifieldaccess road, St Arnaud Range.Fossils are rare in <strong>the</strong> Rakaia terrane. Although trace fossilsare <strong>the</strong> most common, <strong>the</strong>y are <strong>of</strong> limited use for datingpurposes. Micr<strong>of</strong>ossils, including radiolaria andconodonts, occur in relatively rare rock types such as chertand limestone. In <strong>the</strong> St Arnaud Range, east <strong>of</strong> Lake Rotoiti,scattered macr<strong>of</strong>ossils occur in poorly sorted siltstonewithin graded-bedded lithotype rocks (Campbell 1983).Monotis (Inflatomonotis) cf hemispherica Trechmann,Monotis sp. indet. and Hokonuia limaeformis Trechmann,<strong>of</strong> Warepan (Late Triassic) age, have been formallydescribed (Campbell 1983).The Rakaia terrane contains zones <strong>of</strong> deformed rocks (Ttm)that have preferentially developed in <strong>the</strong> graded-beddedlithotype, and which range in width from less than a metreto over a kilometre. The zones are characterised by layerparallelextension resulting in pinching and swelling <strong>of</strong>individual beds to form sandstone boudins in a pervasivelysheared mudstone. Quartz veining is widespread,particularly where a weak shear fabric has developed (Fig.23). The zones are commonly referred to as brokenformation, or as mélange where “exotic” rock types arepresent. Although generally poorly exposed, some zonescan be traced for many kilometres. Contacts with <strong>the</strong>surrounding Rakaia rocks typically show a gradationalchange in <strong>the</strong> shearing intensity, except where separatedby younger faults.Rakaia terrane rocks are difficult to interpret because <strong>of</strong>structural complexity, multiple folding events, few markerhorizons, poor age control and widespread shearing andfaulting. Fold hinges are rarely preserved but widespreadmacroscopic folding can be inferred from sedimentaryyounging reversals. Slaty cleavage and fracture cleavageare weakly developed in finer grained lithologies and rangefrom parallel or sub-parallel, to locally oblique to bedding.Burial and deformation have metamorphosed <strong>the</strong> nonschistoseRakaia rocks to zeolite facies in <strong>the</strong> east,increasing to prehnite-pumpellyite facies in <strong>the</strong> northwest.A 206 Ma Rb-Sr isochron from Rakaia terrane rocks at LewisPass is interpreted to date Late Triassic burial and regionalmetamorphism (Adams & Maas 2004) whereas K-Ar dataranging mostly between 133 and 170 Ma reflect progressiveuplift and cooling in <strong>the</strong> Jurassic (Adams 2003).Two depositional environments for <strong>the</strong> Rakaia terraneclastic rocks have been inferred. These are large, deepsubmarine fans fed by channelised turbidity currents(Howell 1980; Johnston 1990) and relatively shallow-waterfan-deltas (Andrews 1974). It is possible that bo<strong>the</strong>nvironments may have been operating at different timesand/or locations (Andrews & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1976).23


Permian to Late Triassic semischist and schistThe Rakaia terrane rocks are increasingly metamorphosedto semischist and schist <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Alpine Schist (Fig. 24a, b)northwest towards <strong>the</strong> Alpine Fault. The metamorphosedrocks are subdivided into textural zones (IIA, IIB, III; seetext box) after Bishop (1974) and Turnbull & o<strong>the</strong>rs (2001).The schists grade westwards from quartz-albite-muscovitechloritethrough biotite-albite-oligoclase to garnet zonemineral assemblages within greenschist facies. Bands <strong>of</strong>greenschist (Ttg; Fig. 24c), rarely thicker than 10 m andgenerally <strong>of</strong> limited strike length, occur in places. Thegreenschist bands are metamorphosed igneous rocks,possibly originally tuffs, dikes, sills or flows. Thedepositional age <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> semischist and schist protolith isassumed to be Late Triassic based on <strong>the</strong> fossils from lessmetamorphosed (t.z. 1) rocks in <strong>the</strong> St Arnaud Range and30 km west <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area (Wellman & o<strong>the</strong>rs1952).The Aspiring lithologic association (Ya) is <strong>the</strong> protolith <strong>of</strong>a strip <strong>of</strong> t.z. III schist adjacent to <strong>the</strong> Alpine Fault that isabout 2 km wide in <strong>the</strong> southwest and is obliquely truncatedby <strong>the</strong> Alpine Fault between <strong>the</strong> Glenroy and Matakitakirivers. Although largely derived from quartz<strong>of</strong>eldspathicsedimentary rocks, it contains more mudstone than o<strong>the</strong>rRakaia terrane rocks, and has numerous bands <strong>of</strong>greenschist derived from mafic igneous rocks and rare chert.The sou<strong>the</strong>astern contact with <strong>the</strong> sandstone-dominatedRakaia terrane schist is probably a ductile shear zone(Nathan & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2002). The depositional age <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Aspiring lithologic association is poorly constrained in<strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>rn South Island, and <strong>the</strong> Permian age inferredfor <strong>the</strong> association in northwest Otago (Turnbull 2000)has been adopted for <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area.Metamorphism <strong>of</strong> Rakaia terrane rocks to schist occurredabout 210 Ma (Late Triassic), followed by uplift and coolingbetween 200 and 110 Ma (Jurassic to Early Cretaceous;Little & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1999; Adams 2003). Fission track apatiteand zircon data suggest more than 10 km uplift <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> schistaround Lewis Pass since 5 Ma (Tippett & Kamp 1993;Kamp & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1989).Within 1–2 km <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Alpine Fault southwest <strong>of</strong> LakeRotoroa, non-schistose Rakaia terrane becomesincreasingly tectonised with <strong>the</strong> development <strong>of</strong> apronounced shear foliation and cleavage. The tectonismand foliation result from Late Cenozoic movement <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Alpine Fault (Challis & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994).Figure 24 The Rakaia terrane is increasingly metamorphosed west towards <strong>the</strong> Alpine Fault. (a) t.z. IIB semischistshowing strong intersection lineation between transposed bedding (light and dark bands) and penetrative cleavage(parallel to slope) near Mt Mueller.Photo: P.J. Forsyth.(b) Folded t.z. III schist showing relict mudstone (dark bands in centre) with injected quartz veins (pale), NardooStream headwaters.Photo: I.M. Turnbull.(c) Greenschist comprising t.z. III metamorphosed volcanic tuffs, shown here in Branch Creek, is common in <strong>the</strong>Aspiring lithologic association.Photo: I.M. Turnbull.24


Pahau terraneLate Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sedimentary andvolcanic rocksThe Pahau terrane forms <strong>the</strong> bulk <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> basement rocksin <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area. Formal lithostratigraphic groupswithin <strong>the</strong> terrane have been proposed, for example,Waihopai Group (Johnston 1990) and Pahau River Group(Bassett & Orlowski 2004) but <strong>the</strong> geographical extent <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong>se groups is not yet clear and <strong>the</strong>y have not beenadopted in this map. As with <strong>the</strong> Rakaia terrane, Pahauterrane is dominated by indurated, grey, quartz<strong>of</strong>eldspathic,thin- to medium-bedded and commonly graded sandstoneand mudstone, and poorly bedded, very thick-beddedsandstone lithotypes (Ktp; Andrews & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1976).These rocks are collectively (and loosely) termedgreywacke. O<strong>the</strong>r rock types include conglomerate, greensandstone, purplish red and green mudstone, sparselimestone and, particularly in <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>ast, basalt anddolerite. The Pahau sandstones are generally slightly lighterin colour and have a more “sugary” appearance than similarlow-grade Rakaia terrane sandstone. Pahau terrane rocksalso differ in that <strong>the</strong>y locally contain more carbonaceousmatter, conglomerate bands and volcanic rocks.Within <strong>the</strong> Pahau terrane <strong>the</strong> graded bedded lithotype (Fig.25) is commonly planar and relatively undisrupted overlarge areas. The poorly bedded to massive, very thickbeddedsandstone lithotype is up to several kilometresthick with <strong>the</strong> larger beds traceable over tens <strong>of</strong> kilometres.Conglomerate lenses (Ktc) are present throughout <strong>the</strong>terrane but are volumetrically significant only locally e.g.in <strong>the</strong> upper Pahau and Hossack rivers. The conglomeratesare generally poorly sorted with sub-rounded to roundedgranule to pebble size clasts enclosed in a sandstone matrix.The clasts are dominated by quartz<strong>of</strong>eldspathic sandstone,mudstone, volcanics, granitoids, quartz and chert and <strong>the</strong>volcanic clasts include rhyolite, dacite, andesite and basalt(Smale 1978; Johnston 1990; Reay 1993; Bassett & Orlowski2004; Wandres & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2004).Calcareous concretions, up to 0.3 m across, are distributedsparsely throughout <strong>the</strong> Pahau terrane. The gradedsandstone and mudstone lithotype, particularly wheremudstone is dominant, contains concretionary lenses,generally less than 10 cm thick, composed <strong>of</strong> dark grey,very fine-grained limestone. These, and rare phosphaticnodules, contain variably preserved din<strong>of</strong>lagellates.Igneous rocks (Ktv), consisting <strong>of</strong> basalt and dolerite, arepresent as flows and sills up to 2 km thick from <strong>the</strong> head <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> Avon valley to <strong>the</strong> lower Awatere valley, and as lesscontinuous, thinner bands far<strong>the</strong>r south (Fig. 26a). Theflow rocks are commonly pillowed and include tuffaceoushorizons and thin igneous breccia. They are usuallyaccompanied by green and red tuffaceous mudstone (Fig.26b), red and white chert (Ktt) and, locally, limestone.Figure 25 The Pahau terrane contains large areas <strong>of</strong> coherent sub-parallel strata comprising two dominant sedimentaryfacies: thick-bedded sandstone (centre) and thin-bedded graded sandstone and mudstone. Middle Clarence Rivergorge downstream <strong>of</strong> Dillon River.Photo: C. Mazengarb.25


Zones <strong>of</strong> intra-Pahau mélange, characterised by relativelyabundant boudins <strong>of</strong> mafic volcanic rock, chert and redand green mudstone (Fig. 26c), occur widely and are inplaces large enough to map separately (Ktm). A zone <strong>of</strong>relatively sheared rocks, up to 7 km wide in <strong>the</strong> Waihopaivalley, extends south to <strong>the</strong> Awatere Fault. Ano<strong>the</strong>rprominent zone, up to 10 km wide, in <strong>the</strong> Cheviot-Waiauarea separates planar-bedded nor<strong>the</strong>ast-striking Pahaurocks in <strong>the</strong> Lowry Peaks Range from northwest-strikingPahau rocks in <strong>the</strong> Hawkswood Range. This zone extendsinto <strong>the</strong> Kaiwara valley where it has been termed <strong>the</strong>Random Spur Mélange (Bandel & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2000). Thesezones have Late Triassic and Early Jurassic faunas andEarly Cretaceous micr<strong>of</strong>lora.Fossils in <strong>the</strong> Pahau terrane are sparse and poorly preserved(Andrews & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1976). Plant remains, althoughwidespread, are largely comminuted and indeterminate. In<strong>the</strong> Leatham valley (N29/f44) plant fragments are betterpreserved and include Taeniopteris cf daintreei,?Fraxinopsis sp., a gymnosperm seed, and fern-likepinnules. Basaltic conglomerate in <strong>the</strong> Leatham valley (N29/f94) is fossiliferous but few species are recognisable(Johnston 1990). Din<strong>of</strong>lagellates preserved within some <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> thin calcareous mudstone beds indicate that <strong>the</strong> Pahaurocks are predominantly Early Cretaceous, but may belocally as old as Late Jurassic (G.J. Wilson pers. comm.2004). Bivalves including Buchia, Anopaea and“Inoceramus” as well as belemnites <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> genusHiboli<strong>the</strong>s occur in <strong>the</strong> Clarence River (Reay 1993) andindicate an Early Cretaceous age.Outside <strong>the</strong> mélange zones <strong>the</strong>re is little variation and nosystematic change in sedimentation age across <strong>the</strong> entire>70 km width <strong>of</strong> Pahau terrane in <strong>the</strong> map area. Toge<strong>the</strong>rwith <strong>the</strong> widespread steep dips, inconsistent youngingdirections, rarely preserved large fold hinges and relativelyuniform metamorphic grade, this suggests that <strong>the</strong> Pahauterrane consists <strong>of</strong> imbricated slices and/or recumbent folds<strong>of</strong> largely Early Cretaceous rock, locally incorporated withmélange containing rocks as old as Late Triassic.Figure 26 (a) Basalt, here showing relict pillow structure,occurs sporadically within Pahau terrane, Seaward<strong>Kaikoura</strong> Range.Photo: M. J. Isaac.(b) Red mudstone beds with scattered red chert horizons,within a northwest-dipping and -younging succession <strong>of</strong>finely bedded, sheared grey sandstone-mudstone <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Pahau terrane, sou<strong>the</strong>ast face <strong>of</strong> Barometer, Awaterevalley.(c) Broken formation and mélange occur widely in <strong>the</strong>Pahau terrane <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Seaward <strong>Kaikoura</strong> Range.The environment <strong>of</strong> deposition <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> clastic rocks <strong>of</strong> Pahauterrane, like <strong>the</strong> Rakaia terrane, has been interpreted asdeep water submarine fans (Johnston 1990; Reay 1993)and marginal marine fan-deltas (Bassett & Orlowski 2004).It is also possible that both environments may have beenpresent at different locations and at different stratigraphiclevels and times (Andrews & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1976).The metamorphic grade <strong>of</strong> Pahau terrane in <strong>the</strong> map areavaries between zeolite facies (Reay 1993) and prehnitepumpellyitefacies (Bradshaw 1972; Crampton 1988;Johnston 1990). Local hornfelsing <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Pahau terranerocks (Kth) occurs adjacent to mafic intrusions at Tapuaeo-Uenukuand Blue Mountain.26


Group0Pleistocene1.7Pliocene5.324MotunauNo group345665Late Cretaceous PaleoceneEocene Olig MioceneEyreSWWaikariKowaiMt BrownWaikariAmuriHomebush*Ashley*Waipara*Loburn*GretaConway*Pahau*Broken River*GretaMandamusScargill*WaikariWeka Pass*Tekoa*Tekoa*Karetu*WaiauWaikariIsolated Hill* Spyglass*Hanmer*Weka Pass*Tekoa* Cookson Spyglass*Karetu*Ashley*erosion or non-depositionHanmerCulverdenKowaiHomebush*CheviotMt BrownGlenesk*Ashley*Waipara*Conway*Wandle/Mt CooksonLagoon Stream*Stanton*Broken River*ParnassusGretaWaikariAmuriHaumuriMarshall ParaconformityClaverley*Conway*WaimaTarapuhi*Okarahia*Monkey Face???<strong>Kaikoura</strong>MangamaunuClarence ValleyWhalesback*upper limestone*Teredo*upper marl*Branch*lower marl*Fells* GrasseedPatonAwatere ValleyWhanganui*Waimalower limestone*KekerenguMead HillBurntNidd* Creek*StarboroughUptonMedway??Woodside*AmuriNEGrassmere/Cape CampbellHerring* Mirza* Butt*Woolshed*Ess Creek*GroupAwatereMotunauMuzzleSeymourHapuku99Early CretaceousPahauterraneMandamusWallowBluffWarderTapuaenukuWillows*BluffGridironLookoutWarderSplit RockWintertonGladstoneChampagne Totara*PahauHungry Hill*CoverhamFigure 28 Late Early Cretaceous and Cenozoic stratigraphy <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> eastern part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area highlightingareas <strong>of</strong> deposition and non-deposition (grey background). In some areas, intervening erosion has probably removedstratigraphic units. A large number <strong>of</strong> stratigraphic units have been described and formalised within <strong>the</strong> area but many(shown with asterisks) have not been used in this publication. After Field, Browne & o<strong>the</strong>rs (1989), Field, Uruski &o<strong>the</strong>rs (1997).28


CRETACEOUS TO PLIOCENEFollowing amalgamation <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> basement terranes and after<strong>the</strong> mid-Cretaceous cessation <strong>of</strong> convergent margintectonics along <strong>the</strong> Gondwanaland margin, much <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>New Zealand area was uplifted and <strong>the</strong>n eroded to a lowlyinglandscape. This landscape was subject to extensionas <strong>the</strong> Tasman Sea opened and <strong>the</strong> New Zealand continentseparated from Gondwanaland in <strong>the</strong> late Early Cretaceous.In <strong>the</strong> west, <strong>the</strong>re was extensive pluton intrusion followedby rifting and <strong>the</strong> development <strong>of</strong> sedimentary basins(Bishop & Buchanan 1995; King & Thrasher 1996).Opening <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Tasman Sea ceased in <strong>the</strong> Paleocene and<strong>the</strong> New Zealand area entered a period <strong>of</strong> prolonged tectonicstability coupled with subsidence and, in <strong>the</strong> east,widespread marine sedimentation. In <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area<strong>the</strong>se conditions persisted until <strong>the</strong> Miocene, when acompressional tectonic regime was initiated as <strong>the</strong>boundary between <strong>the</strong> Australian and Pacific platespropagated through New Zealand. Rapid uplift andconsequent erosion provided a vast amount <strong>of</strong> sedimentthat filled developing basins adjacent to major strike-slipfaults.With <strong>the</strong> exception <strong>of</strong> a small area <strong>of</strong> Late Cretaceousconglomerate in <strong>the</strong> Moutere Depression, all <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> LateCretaceous to Middle Eocene rocks in <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> maparea occur sou<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Alpine Fault. These rocks cropout in two geographically distinct areas, easternMarlborough and nor<strong>the</strong>rn Canterbury. Despite manygeological similarities, <strong>the</strong> two areas have acquired twoseparate systems <strong>of</strong> stratigraphic nomenclature (Fig. 28)although some rationalisation has been attempted (Field,Browne & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1989; Field, Uruski & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1997). Withinboth areas <strong>the</strong>re are many formalised formations andmembers that have been defined on key stratigraphicsections but are difficult to map out areally. The followingdescriptions refer to many <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>se stratigraphic units butonly <strong>the</strong> bold named units are distinguished on <strong>the</strong> map.Where formations are thin, in areas that are geologicallycomplex, and <strong>of</strong>fshore, <strong>the</strong> rocks are mapped asundifferentiated Late Cretaceous (lK), Paleocene-Eocene(PE), Oligocene (O) or Miocene (M).Cretaceous sedimentary and volcanic rocksCretaceous rocks are locally well preserved inMarlborough. In <strong>the</strong> middle Awatere valley and <strong>the</strong>nor<strong>the</strong>rn Clarence valley, a late Early Cretaceoussuccession is preserved that has elsewhere presumablybeen eroded or was never deposited.The earliest confirmed post-Pahau deposition is that <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> Champagne Formation (Kcc; Ritchie and Bradshaw1985; Crampton & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1998) <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Coverham Group(Kc; Lensen 1978). The Champagne Formation is exposedin a narrow, 10 km long band in <strong>the</strong> middle Clarence valley,from Ouse Stream (Fig. 29) to Dee Stream and in WharekiriStream (too small to be shown on <strong>the</strong> map). It consists <strong>of</strong>highly deformed sandstone, mudstone and minorconglomerate, typically with boudinage <strong>of</strong> sandstone beds,faults, asymmetric folds, remobilisation <strong>of</strong> mud from foldhinges and s<strong>of</strong>t-sediment deformation (Crampton & o<strong>the</strong>rs1998). The Champagne Formation unconformably overliesPahau terrane and its base is late Early Cretaceous(Crampton & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2004).Basement versus coverDespite a wealth <strong>of</strong> previous work, <strong>the</strong> stratigraphic location <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> top <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Torlesse composite terrane in NewZealand is difficult to pinpoint. For example, in <strong>the</strong> East Cape region, <strong>the</strong> contact between Early Cretaceous(Korangan) Torlesse Waioeka terrane and overlying Early Cretaceous “cover” rocks is a fault, a high angleunconformity or series <strong>of</strong> unconformities, an olistostrome breccia, or a channelled contact (Laird & Bradshaw1996; Mazengarb & Speden 2000). In <strong>the</strong> Wairarapa region, Early Cretaceous (Motuan) Pahaoa Group isplaced within <strong>the</strong> Torlesse composite terrane and <strong>the</strong> oldest overlying “cover” rocks are also <strong>of</strong> Motuan age (Lee& Begg 2002). Radiometric dating <strong>of</strong> zircons from both below and above <strong>the</strong> unconformity yields ages <strong>of</strong> c. 100Ma (Laird & Bradshaw 2004) suggesting derivation from <strong>the</strong> same or similar-aged source rocks or recycling <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> zircons.In Marlborough <strong>the</strong> contact cannot always be defined on <strong>the</strong> basis <strong>of</strong> metamorphic grade, degree <strong>of</strong> indurationor by changes in clastic composition (Montague 1981; Powell 1985). Fossils are rarely preserved in <strong>the</strong> Pahauterrane and <strong>the</strong>se rocks are comparatively poorly dated. Lensen (1962) included latest Early Cretaceous(Motuan) rocks within <strong>the</strong> Torlesse composite terrane and Field, Uruski & o<strong>the</strong>rs (1997) state that a regionalunconformity exists between older and younger, more fossiliferous rocks, but that rocks both above and below<strong>the</strong> unconformity are Motuan in age. This implies that <strong>the</strong> “regional unconformity” was intra-Motuan and <strong>of</strong> veryshort duration in Marlborough, even though bedding discordance across <strong>the</strong> unconformity can be marked.Crampton & o<strong>the</strong>rs (2004) show no significant stratigraphic break during <strong>the</strong> Motuan at Coverham, in <strong>the</strong>Clarence valley, but <strong>the</strong>y note <strong>the</strong> presence <strong>of</strong> older late Early Cretaceous unconformities (intra-Urutawan).A mid-Cretaceous unconformity is widespread throughout New Zealand. The diachronous nature <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>unconformity surface (Laird & Bradshaw 2004) in Marlborough probably reflects ongoing deposition in localised,syntectonic basins adjacent to areas <strong>of</strong> uplift and erosion. However, <strong>the</strong>re are many locations where a clearerstratigraphic break is apparent, i.e. where <strong>the</strong> Pahau terrane is overlain by significantly younger Cretaceous orCenozoic rocks.29


Figure 29 Typically deformedChampagne Formation in OuseStream. S<strong>of</strong>t sediment folding has beenoverprinted by brittle shearing and faultrelatedfolding. Scale bar is 1 m.Photo: J.S. Crampton.Figure 30 The Split Rock Formation(Coverham Group) in Wharekiri Streamshowing internal slump-relateddeformation and brittle faulting.Photo: J.S. Crampton.The Split Rock Formation (Kcs) is preserved in a faultangledepression on <strong>the</strong> footwall <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Clarence Fault(Suggate 1958). Except in <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>ast where it liesunconformably on Champagne Formation, Split RockFormation rests on Pahau terrane with sharp angulardiscordance. The formation includes basal, mass flowconglomerate overlain by mudstone and locally ridgeformingsandstone, and interbedded sandstone andmudstone (Reay 1987, 1993; Crampton & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1998; Fig.30). In <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>ast Clarence valley, <strong>the</strong> upper part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>formation consists <strong>of</strong> poorly bedded to massive, laminatedmudstone containing abundant concretions and minorsandstone beds (Crampton & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1998, 2004). The SplitRock Formation is no older than middle Early Cretaceous(Korangan; Reay 1993) and is as young as earliest LateCretaceous (Ngaterian; Crampton & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2004).In <strong>the</strong> Awatere valley, Coverham Group rocks are preservedin a fault angle depression to <strong>the</strong> south <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> AwatereFault. The late Early Cretaceous Gladstone Formation(Kcg; Challis 1966) is exposed east <strong>of</strong> Mt Lookout between<strong>the</strong> Awatere and Winterton rivers. The formation comprisespoorly fossiliferous, indurated conglomerate, sandstone,siltstone and mudstone and it becomes finer grained up-section. Localised slump-folding is common (Montague1981) and <strong>the</strong> formation unconformably overlies Pahauterrane, commonly with minor shearing along <strong>the</strong> contact.The overlying Winterton Formation (Kcw; Challis 1966),<strong>of</strong> latest Early Cretaceous (Motuan) age, is preserved to<strong>the</strong> south, east and nor<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong> Mt Lookout withcorrelative rocks exposed to <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>ast in <strong>the</strong> middleAwatere valley and Penk River (Montague 1981). Itconsists <strong>of</strong> laterally discontinuous lenses <strong>of</strong> moderatelyindurated, mildly deformed conglomerate and siltstone. Theformation onlaps and unconformably overlies Pahauterrane and Gladstone Formation.The Coverham Group is interpreted to represent parts <strong>of</strong> afan-delta complex that filled local, fault-controlled basins.Collectively, <strong>the</strong> Gladstone and Winterton formationscontain three fining upward successions that are typical<strong>of</strong> fan-delta complexes associated with faults (Laird 1992).The Mt Lookout and Penk River successions formed inseparate, unconnected half-grabens (Lewis & Laird 1986).The Coverham Group fills channels and canyons cut into<strong>the</strong> underlying Pahau terrane and is locally up to 800 mthick (Laird 1981, Montague 1981; Powell 1985; Reay 1993).30


Figure 31 Interbedded sandstone and mudstone <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Warder Formation overlain by columnar jointed basalt flows<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Gridiron Formation (both Wallow Group) in Seymour Stream.Photo CN4895: D.L. Homer.The Wallow Group (Kw; Reay 1993) includes fluvial,terrestrial and shallow marine deposits that locallyinterfinger with subaerial basalt flows. The group cropsout in <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>rn half <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area from <strong>the</strong>Awatere valley in <strong>the</strong> west to Monkey Face in <strong>the</strong> east(Crampton 1988; Reay 1993; Warren 1995) and is wellpreserved in <strong>the</strong> middle Clarence valley. The earliest LateCretaceous Warder Formation (Kww; Fig. 31) consists <strong>of</strong>moderately indurated, non-marine sandstone, siltstone,minor conglomerate lenses, thin coal seams and lake siltdeposits (Browne & Reay 1993). The formationunconformably overlies Pahau terrane or Split RockFormation (Reay 1993; Crampton & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2004) and wasdeposited in a fluvial, coastal plain environment.The earliest Late Cretaceous Gridiron Formation (Kwg;Suggate 1958; Reay 1993) encompasses <strong>the</strong> volcanic part<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Wallow Group in <strong>the</strong> middle Clarence valley. Itincludes subaerial basalt flows, pillow basalt andvolcanogenic conglomerate, breccias, dikes and sills (Fig.31). The lavas include alkaline basalt to trachybasalt, withminor olivine basalt (Reay 1993). The lower flows <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Gridiron Formation are locally interbedded with <strong>the</strong> WarderFormation, and elsewhere <strong>the</strong> flows lie on <strong>the</strong> laterallycorrelative Bluff Sandstone (see below). The lowest lavaflows have been K-Ar dated at 93–99 Ma (Reay 1993) andAr/Ar dated at 96 Ma (Crampton & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2004).<strong>the</strong> Gridiron Formation; elsewhere it overlies Pahau terraneor Split Rock Formation with angular unconformity. Sparsemacr<strong>of</strong>ossils indicate an early Late Cretaceous age (Reay1993). Crampton (1988) suggested that <strong>the</strong> base <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> BluffSandstone may be diachronous, being Ngaterian in <strong>the</strong>west and as old as late Motuan in <strong>the</strong> east near MonkeyFace. The depositional environment <strong>of</strong> Bluff Sandstone isinterpreted as a marginal to shallow marine fan-delta (Reay1993) in an asymmetrically subsiding basin (Crampton1988).The Lookout Formation (Kwl; Challis 1960, 1966;Montague 1981) comprises basal pebble conglomerate andcoal measures overlain by extensive volcanic flows (Fig.32). It crops out extensively around Mt. Lookout andextends discontinuously as fault-bounded slivers forThe Bluff Sandstone (Kwb; Reay 1993) is dominated bymassive and thick-bedded sandstone but also includesconglomerate and alternating sandstone and mudstoneand is locally carbonaceous. The conglomerate clasts arecobble to boulder-size and include Pahau sandstone, chert,vein quartz, jasper, rhyolite, granite and basalt (Reay 1993).The Bluff Sandstone conformably overlies WarderFormation or is locally interstratified with <strong>the</strong> upper part <strong>of</strong>Figure 32 Multiple basaltic flows with interbeddedsandstone and rare conglomerate <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> LookoutFormation (Wallow Group), Castle River, Awatere valley.Photo: M.J. Isaac.31


30 km along <strong>the</strong> Awatere valley to <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>ast (Allen1962). Extrusive trachybasalt and trachyandesite areinterbedded with volcanic conglomerates, sandstone andlimestone lenses (Weaver & Pankhurst 1991). In <strong>the</strong> lowerpart <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> formation, <strong>the</strong> flows are terrestrial, but near <strong>the</strong>top pillow basalts are interbedded with marine tuffs (Challis1966). The flows are petrologically similar to <strong>the</strong>Tapuaenuku Intrusive Complex (see below). The LookoutFormation and Gridiron Formation volcanics are inferredto have been fed by numerous basanitic dikes emanatingfrom <strong>the</strong> Mt Tapuae-o-Uenuku intrusion during <strong>the</strong> earliestLate Cretaceous.The Hapuku Group (Kh; Laird & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994) crops outbetween <strong>the</strong> Hapuku and Kekerengu rivers and in <strong>the</strong>nor<strong>the</strong>ast Clarence valley. Near Ouse Stream, <strong>the</strong> HapukuGroup is structurally subdivided by <strong>the</strong> synsedimentaryOuse Fault. West <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> fault <strong>the</strong> group consists <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Nidd and Willows formations and o<strong>the</strong>r unnamedsedimentary rocks. The Willows Formation comprisespurplish-brown, epiclastic conglomerate <strong>of</strong> basalticcomposition (Reay 1993). The Nidd Formation (Lensen1978) is preserved as fault-bounded slivers sou<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> Clarence Fault and comprises richly fossiliferous,weakly bedded, purple-brown siltstone to very fine-grainedsandstone, commonly glauconitic and burrowed. West <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> Ouse Fault <strong>the</strong> Hapuku Group rests with erosionalcontact on <strong>the</strong> Wallow Group.East <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Ouse Fault, Hapuku Group consists <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> BurntCreek Formation (Lensen 1978). The formation has basalpoorly sorted, clast-supported conglomerates containingclasts <strong>of</strong> sandstone, mudstone, quartzite, chert, and felsicvolcanic and plutonic rocks. These conglomerates gradeupwards into pebbly mudstone, sandstone and siltstone(Fig. 33). The Burnt Creek Formation lies with sharp angularunconformity on Pahau terrane and it is inferred to havebeen deposited in a tectonically controlled basin in <strong>the</strong>middle Late Cretaceous (Crampton and Laird 1997).The Seymour Group occurs in <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>rn part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area between Cape Campbell and WhalesBack, north <strong>of</strong> Waiau. The middle Late Cretaceous(Piripauan) Paton Formation (Kyp; Webb 1971) consists<strong>of</strong> glauconitic, fine- to medium-grained sandstone andgraded sandstone and siltstone. The formation iscommonly bioturbated and locally contains abundantinoceramid fossils, as fragments or as whole valves. ThePaton Formation unconformably overlies Bluff Sandstone(Reay 1993), is locally scoured into <strong>the</strong> Hapuku Group(Crampton and Laird 1997), or conformably andgradationally overlies <strong>the</strong> Burnt Creek Formation (Field,Uruski & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1997). The formation is inferred to haveformed in an inner to mid-shelf environment, based onsedimentary structures and din<strong>of</strong>lagellates (Laird 1992;Schiøler & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2002).Undifferentiated rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Seymour Group (Ky) includelatest Cretaceous (Haumurian) Herring and Woolshedformations, and to <strong>the</strong> east <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> London Hill Fault, <strong>the</strong>Butt and Mirza formations (Suggate & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1978; seebelow). Collectively, <strong>the</strong>se rocks are time-equivalents <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> Whangai Formation <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> North Island’s East Coast(Lee & Begg 2002). In <strong>the</strong> Clarence valley-Kekerengu area,Herring Formation overlies Paton Formation with a sharpcontact. It is predominantly a light grey, sulphurous muddysiltstone interbedded with pale, well-sorted fine sandstone.The formation has a characteristic rusty brown appearancewhen wea<strong>the</strong>red, due to iron staining leaching from jointplanes. Jarosite staining and pyrite nodules are common.The formation commonly contains spectacular ovoidconcretions, up to 3 m diameter (Reay 1993), and locallyabundant sandstone dikes. Micr<strong>of</strong>ossils indicate a mid- toouter shelf environment <strong>of</strong> deposition (Schiøler & o<strong>the</strong>rs2002; Crampton & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2003). The Woolshed Formation(Fig. 34a) is a local facies variant exposed north <strong>of</strong>Kekerengu and consists <strong>of</strong> muddy siltstone containingabundant concretions (Suggate & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1978).In <strong>the</strong> Ward coastal area, east <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> London Hill Fault, <strong>the</strong>upper Seymour Group includes conglomerates, slumpedhorizons and channelled sandstone bodies <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> MirzaFormation (Suggate & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1978), white micritic limestone(Flaxbourne Limestone) and turbidites deposited bysediment gravity flow processes (<strong>the</strong> Butt Formation (Fig.34b); Laird & Schiøler 2005; Hollis & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2005b). Thestratigraphy east <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> London Hill Fault more closelyresembles that <strong>of</strong> Late Cretaceous rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Wairarapaarea, ra<strong>the</strong>r than Marlborough (Laird & Schiøler 2005).From <strong>the</strong> Clarence valley to <strong>the</strong> coast, <strong>the</strong> uppermostSeymour Group includes latest Cretaceous BranchSandstone, which overlies <strong>the</strong> Herring Formation withsharp but conformable contact. The formation consists <strong>of</strong>massive, well-sorted, muddy fine sandstone, typicallyabout 10 m thick, but locally up to 40 m, and is interpretedas an <strong>of</strong>fshore sand bar (Reay 1993).Figure 33 The Burnt Creek Formation siltstone andsandstone in Ouse Stream are typical <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> upperHapuku Group.Photo: J.S. Crampton.32South <strong>of</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong>, Late Cretaceous rocks equivalent inage to <strong>the</strong> Seymour Group are mapped as <strong>the</strong> lower part <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> Eyre Group (lKe; Warren & Speden 1978; Browne &Field 1985; Andrews & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1987; Warren 1995; Fig. 28).Undifferentiated Eyre Group (KEe) may also includeCretaceous sedimentary rock, where it is too thin to


Figure 34 The Seymour Group includes (a) Jarositic siltstone <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Woolshed Formation, shown here in Ben MoreStream with deformation typical <strong>of</strong> that area. (b) Well-bedded Butt Formation sandstone at <strong>the</strong> mouth <strong>of</strong> FlaxbourneRiver.distinguish from <strong>the</strong> upper part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> group. In <strong>the</strong> HaumuriBluffs-Parnassus area, <strong>the</strong> lower part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Eyre Groupincludes quartzose sandstone, thin conglomerate beds,calcareous and carbonaceous beds and granuleconglomerate (Okarahia Sandstone and Tarapuhi Grit).These coarse clastic rocks grade up into 240 m <strong>of</strong> massive,jarositic, grey siltstone to very fine-grained sandstone <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> Late Cretaceous Conway Formation (Warren 1995; Fig.35), in which sub-spherical concretions up to 5 m in diameterare common (Browne 1985). Overlying <strong>the</strong> ConwayFormation, <strong>the</strong> Claverley Sandstone (Warren & Speden1978) constitutes up to 40 m <strong>of</strong> poorly bedded, yellowgreyglauconitic sandstone. Din<strong>of</strong>lagellates indicate a mid-Haumurian age near <strong>the</strong> base and a late Haumurian-earlyTeurian age near <strong>the</strong> top (Warren 1995).Inland, north <strong>of</strong> Waiau, Late Cretaceous Eyre Groupincludes conglomerate, comprising well-rounded clasts <strong>of</strong>Pahau-derived sandstone, quartzite, rhyolite, granite andschist (Stanton Conglomerate; Browne & Field 1985).Sparse plant fossils and pieces <strong>of</strong> coalified or silicifiedwood are interspersed with sandstone beds and pebblysandstone layers. The conglomerate is locally overlain byfine sandy siltstone and interbedded sandstone <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Lagoon Stream Formation or by <strong>the</strong> Conway Formation.In <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>rn part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area, <strong>the</strong> lowerpart <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Eyre Group consists <strong>of</strong> thin conglomerate bedswhich grade upwards into fine-grained quartzose sandstoneand mudstone, with thin, rare coal seams <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> BrokenRiver Formation (Gage 1970; Browne & Field 1985). Grey,slightly calcareous silty fine sandstone <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> ConwayFormation overlies, and in turn grades upwards into, <strong>the</strong>jarositic, sandy Loburn Mudstone.The Eyre Group unconformably overlies Pahau terrane (Fig.28). At its nor<strong>the</strong>rnmost extent, at Haumuri Bluffs, it isentirely Late Cretaceous, but towards <strong>the</strong> south <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong><strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area it includes progressively younger rocks(as young as Eocene; see below). Rocks in <strong>the</strong> lower part<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Eyre Group were deposited in alluvial, estuarine andshallow marine environments with progressive deepeningto a restricted basin (Browne & Field 1985; Field, Browne& o<strong>the</strong>rs 1989).In <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Moutere Depression, <strong>the</strong> LateCretaceous Beebys Conglomerate (Kbc; Johnston 1990)rests unconformably on Brook Street terrane rocks. Theformation has a preserved thickness <strong>of</strong> 2400 m and inaddition to conglomerate it contains sandstone, siltstoneand mudstone beds, and rare seams <strong>of</strong> medium- to high-Figure 35 The Conway Formation nearHaumuri Bluffs comprises sandstoneand siltstone with horizons <strong>of</strong>calcareous concretions.Photo: G. H. Browne.33


volatile bituminous coal. The conglomerate clasts, up to0.4 m across, include felsic igneous intrusives, intermediateto mafic volcanic and igneous rocks, and induratedsedimentary rocks. Plant fossils are locally present andmicr<strong>of</strong>loras indicate an early Late Cretaceous (RaukumaraSeries) age. The formation has been weaklymetamorphosed to zeolite facies. It is interpreted as part <strong>of</strong>an extensive braided and locally meandering river depositthat accumulated in a fault-angle depression or half-grabenunder a warm oxidising climate (Johnston 1990).Cretaceous igneous rocksA nor<strong>the</strong>ast-southwest aligned belt <strong>of</strong> isolated igneousbodies extends for over 150 km through Marlborough andnor<strong>the</strong>rn Canterbury (<strong>the</strong> Central Marlborough igneousprovince <strong>of</strong> Nicol 1977). Undifferentiated Cretaceousigneous rocks (Ki) include an alkaline ultramafic gabbroring complex and associated hornfels zone preserved at<strong>the</strong> summit <strong>of</strong> Blue Mountain (Grapes 1975), and basaltflows and breccia preserved at Hungry Hill north <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Waima River. Nei<strong>the</strong>r <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>se occurrences has been dateddirectly, but Hungry Hill basalt rests unconformably uponCretaceous Pahau terrane and is overlain by LateCretaceous (Piripauan) Paton Formation (Waters 1988).carbonatite (Fig. 36a). The upper part is intruded by syenitesills and dikes (Baker & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994). Magnetite andilmenite, largely within <strong>the</strong> anorthosite, are responsible fora major magnetic anomaly centred on <strong>the</strong> Inland <strong>Kaikoura</strong>Range (Reilly 1970). The intrusion is surrounded by acontact-metamorphosed hornfels zone (Kth) up to 400 mwide in <strong>the</strong> surrounding Pahau terrane rocks (Baker &o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994). A radial suite <strong>of</strong> basanitic dikes (Fig 36b,c)extends outwards from <strong>the</strong> main body for a distance <strong>of</strong>more than 10 km, and <strong>the</strong> top <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> intrusion was probablyemplaced at a depth <strong>of</strong> 3–4 km. A 96 Ma intrusion age for<strong>the</strong> Tapuaenuku Igneous Complex, based on U-Pb dating(Baker & Seward 1996), is supported by K-Ar ages <strong>of</strong>cogenetic dike intrusion between 100 and 60 Ma (Grapes& o<strong>the</strong>rs 1992). The complex is genetically related to <strong>the</strong>96 Ma Gridiron Formation (Crampton & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2004) and<strong>the</strong> Lookout Formation (Challis 1966; Nicol 1977; Reay1993), but has a greater age range.The Mandamus Igneous Complex (Kim) is exposed in <strong>the</strong>hills at <strong>the</strong> northwestern edge <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Culverden Basin. Thecomplex is generally erosion-resistant compared with itsPahau host-rock and is <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>rnmost <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> alkalinegabbro intrusives in <strong>the</strong> map area. It is composed principallyThe Tapuaenuku Igneous Complex (Kit; Nicol 1977) cropsout as a sub-circular intrusion, 7 km in diameter.Approximately 600 m <strong>of</strong> vertical section is exposed on Mt.Tapuae-o-Uenuku. The complex is composed <strong>of</strong> layeredpyroxenite, peridotite, anorthosite, gabbro and minor(b) Basanite dike intruding gabbro and earlier dikeintrusions, Hodder River headwaters.Figure 36 The Tapuaenuku Igneous Complex.(a) Boulders <strong>of</strong> gabbro, syenite and basanite in <strong>the</strong>Hodder River.34(c) Aerial view (200 m wide) <strong>of</strong> dikes intruding poorlybedded Pahau terrane in <strong>the</strong> Inland <strong>Kaikoura</strong> Range.Photo CN25914/2: D.L. Homer.


<strong>of</strong> feldspar-clinopyroxene-biotite-amphibole syenite andclinopyroxene-labradorite-olivine-biotite gabbro. Volcanicflow rocks are predominantly trachytic with minor basalt,including possible vent-lavas/breccias around HurunuiPeak. The Mandamus Igneous Complex has been Rb-Srdated at 97 Ma (Weaver & Pankhurst 1991).Paleocene to Eocene sedimentary rocksIn <strong>the</strong> south <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area, deposition <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Eyre Group including Conway Formation and LoburnMudstone (see above) continued through into <strong>the</strong>Paleocene. The upper part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Eyre Group is commonlytoo thin to differentiate from lower parts and is mapped asundifferentiated (KEe; Fig. 28). Paleogene Eyre Group (PEe)includes <strong>the</strong> Paleocene to Early Eocene Waipara Greensand,consisting <strong>of</strong> fine- to medium-grained, glauconiticsandstone that becomes increasingly muddy up section(Browne & Field 1985). The overlying Early to MiddleEocene Ashley Mudstone consists <strong>of</strong> glauconitic,calcareous sandy mudstone, siltstone and sandstone. Ingeneral <strong>the</strong> Ashley Formation rests disconformably onWaipara Greensand (commonly with a burrowed,phosphatised contact) but, locally, around <strong>the</strong> lowerHurunui River-Culverden area, it is unconformable onPahau terrane (Fig. 28). In <strong>the</strong> far south <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong>map area, <strong>the</strong> Middle to Late Eocene Homebush Sandstoneoverlies <strong>the</strong> Ashley Mudstone. It is a massive, glauconitic,unfossiliferous, well-sorted, quartzose sandstone, that mayhave become remobilised or intruded into underlying andoverlying units since deposition (Browne & Field 1985).The environment <strong>of</strong> deposition <strong>of</strong> upper Eyre Group rocksincludes shallow marine, low energy outer shelf (bathyal),and relatively high-energy near-shore beach settings.The Muzzle Group (Reay 1993) consists <strong>of</strong> mainly stronglyindurated micritic limestone and calcareous mudstone,chert, and minor greensand and volcanic rocks. The groupcontains two formations, <strong>the</strong> Mead Hill Formation and <strong>the</strong>Amuri Limestone, and in areas where both formations arethin <strong>the</strong> Muzzle Group is undifferentiated (KPz) on <strong>the</strong>map. The Mead Hill Formation (Kzm; Webb 1971) istypically a greenish-grey, chert-rich, micritic limestone,wea<strong>the</strong>ring to white and black (Fig. 37), with calcareousmudstone and nodular chert. The formation is limited to<strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>astern part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> map area and varies greatly inthickness. In Branch Stream it is about 120 m thick but itpinches out in <strong>the</strong> middle Clarence valley and is absent inSeymour Stream (Reay 1993); it reaches its greatestthickness in Mead Stream, where it is over 250 m thick(Strong & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1995). In <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>rn Clarence valleyand in coastal eastern Marlborough, <strong>the</strong> formation contains<strong>the</strong> Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, which is particularlywell exposed in Mead Stream (Fig. 38) and is marked bymajor changes in micr<strong>of</strong>ossil assemblages (see text box).At Mead Stream <strong>the</strong> top <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> formation is as young asLate Paleocene (Strong & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1995; Hollis & o<strong>the</strong>rs2005a).Figure 37 The Mead Hill Formation, MuzzleGroup, is a well-bedded siliceous limestone,shown here in Mead Stream.Figure 38 The Cretaceous-Paleogeneboundary occurs within <strong>the</strong> Mead HillFormation in Mead Stream. The hammerhandle rests on <strong>the</strong> thin bed marking <strong>the</strong>boundary.35


The Cretaceous - Paleogene BoundaryThe Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary marks a global mass extinction event and associated paleoenvironmentalchanges brought about by a meteorite impact in Central America (Alvarez & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1980). Complete or nearcompleteboundary sections are preserved at many locations throughout Marlborough and nor<strong>the</strong>rn Canterbury(e.g. Strong & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1987; Hollis 2003). In Mead and Branch streams a disconformity spanning


The Amuri Limestone (Pza, Eza) is widely preserved in<strong>the</strong> eastern part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area (Figs 39, 40). In<strong>the</strong> north it is included within <strong>the</strong> Muzzle Group (Reay1993; Field, Uruski & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1997), but south <strong>of</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> ithas not previously been assigned to any group (e.g.Browne & Field 1985; Field, Browne & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1989). Thesou<strong>the</strong>rn occurrences <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Amuri Limestone are nowincluded within <strong>the</strong> Eyre Group on <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> mapfollowing stratigraphic rationalisation (e.g. Forsyth 2001).The formation consists predominantly <strong>of</strong> white, hard,siliceous, micritic limestone or interbedded limestone andmarl (Fig. 40), composed <strong>of</strong> coccolith and foraminifera testsand clay. O<strong>the</strong>r lithologies, not differentiated on <strong>the</strong> map,include dark siliceous mudstone (equivalent <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Waipawa Formation in <strong>the</strong> North Island; Lee & Begg 2002),yellow-grey sandy limestone (Teredo limestone member),bedded greensand (Fells Greensand member) and gradedsandstone and siltstone couplets (Woodside “formation”).At Mead Stream <strong>the</strong> Amuri Limestone rests with apparentconformity on Mead Hill Formation (Hollis & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2005a),but south <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle Clarence valley, Mead HillFormation pinches out and <strong>the</strong> Amuri Limestone restsunconformably on <strong>the</strong> Seymour Group (Reay 1993). In <strong>the</strong>Clarence valley, <strong>the</strong> limestone reaches 400 m thick; in <strong>the</strong>south <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> map area it varies considerably in thickness,but rarely exceeds 50 m, and it rests conformably (locallyunconformably) on older Eyre Group (Browne & Field 1985).Both <strong>the</strong> base and top <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Amuri Limestone are highlytime-transgressive (Fig. 28). In <strong>the</strong> Clarence valley <strong>the</strong> agerange <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> formation is Paleocene to latest Eocene (Reay1993; Strong & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1995; Hollis & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2005b). At<strong>Kaikoura</strong> Peninsula, earliest Eocene Amuri Limestone restsdisconformably on Late Cretaceous Mead Hill Formation(Hollis & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2005b). From <strong>Kaikoura</strong> southwards, <strong>the</strong>Amuri Limestone youngs progressively: at Haumuri Bluffs,<strong>the</strong> age range is Early to Late Eocene; at Hurunui River it isentirely Late Eocene; at Napenape it is Late Eocene toEarly Oligocene; and at Waipara River, on <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>rnedge <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area, <strong>the</strong> formation is entirelyOligocene (Field, Browne & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1989).The bulk <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Amuri Limestone was deposited underpelagic to hemipelagic conditions (Strong & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1995;Hollis & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2005a) and bentonitic parts <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> AmuriLimestone indicate increased influx <strong>of</strong> terrigenous mud(Reay 1993), most likely during globally warm periods (e.g.Hollis & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2005a,b). Micr<strong>of</strong>ossils indicate an upper tolower bathyal setting (Field, Uruski & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1997).Figure 40 The Amuri Limestone, consisting <strong>of</strong> interbedded siliceous limestone and bentonitic marl, at HaumuriBluffs.Photo: D.L. Homer CN30428.37


Figure 41 Pillow basalt <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Grasseed Volcanics in BlueMountain Stream. The interstitial pale pink carbonate rockis similar to <strong>the</strong> Amuri Limestone that encloses <strong>the</strong>volcanics.Figure 42 The Marshall Paraconformity at Gore Bay is anOligocene erosion surface marked by <strong>the</strong> degree <strong>of</strong>bioturbation in <strong>the</strong> underlying Amuri Limestone and <strong>the</strong>numerous phosphate nodules at <strong>the</strong> base <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> overlyingSpy Glass Formation (Motunau Group) limestone.Photo: G.H. Browne.The Grasseed Volcanics member (Ezg; Reay 1993) occurswithin <strong>the</strong> Amuri Limestone as isolated bodies in <strong>the</strong> middleClarence valley and in <strong>the</strong> Waima River-Kekerengu area.The member comprises both intrusive and extrusiveigneous rocks, including dikes, flows, sills, pillow lavas(Fig. 41) and agglomerate <strong>of</strong> peridotite, gabbro, doleriteand basalt. Gabbro sills up to several tens <strong>of</strong> metres thicklocally intrude <strong>the</strong> limestone. The dikes intrude <strong>the</strong> SeymourGroup and <strong>the</strong> Mead Hill and Amuri formations, becomingextrusive in <strong>the</strong> upper parts <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Amuri Limestone. Theextrusive parts <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Grasseed Volcanics are within-platealkali basalts and K-Ar dating <strong>of</strong> phlogopite from <strong>the</strong>Clarence valley yielded ages <strong>of</strong> 43–53 Ma (Early to MiddleEocene). Micr<strong>of</strong>ossils in <strong>the</strong> overlying limestone constrain<strong>the</strong> minimum age to Late Eocene (Reay 1993).Late Eocene to Pliocene sedimentary and volcanic rocksDuring <strong>the</strong> Late Eocene, <strong>the</strong> New Zealand continent areawas partly emergent but remained low-lying. Late Eoceneterrestrial coal measures were widely deposited, followedby a variety <strong>of</strong> marine rocks. Within <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area<strong>the</strong> rate <strong>of</strong> sedimentation was highly variable. Thickdeposits accumulated in <strong>the</strong> rapidly subsiding MurchisonBasin (see below), but on <strong>the</strong> east coast, no latest Eoceneor Oligocene rocks are preserved north <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Waima Riverto <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map boundary (Townsend 2001).Elsewhere in <strong>the</strong> map area, Late Eocene to Middle Miocenerocks are preserved locally along <strong>the</strong> Waimea Fault in <strong>the</strong>northwest and more extensively in nor<strong>the</strong>rn Canterbury.Subsequently carbonate rocks were deposited aboveextensive erosion surfaces that developed during <strong>the</strong>Oligocene (including <strong>the</strong> Marshall Paraconformity; Carter& Landis 1972; Carter 1985; Fig. 42). Early to MiddleMiocene clastic deposition in <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong>-Kekerengu areawas in response to an increasing component <strong>of</strong>convergence on <strong>the</strong> plate margin and consequent uplift.Rapid clastic deposition in <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>ast (Awatere Subbasin)during <strong>the</strong> Late Miocene and Early Pliocene resultedfrom <strong>the</strong> formation <strong>of</strong> localised, tectonically controlled subbasins(Browne 1995).Sou<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Alpine FaultFigure 43 Basaltic rock agglomerate <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> CooksonVolcanics Group exposed in a road cutting near WhalesBack Saddle.The Cookson Volcanics Group (Oc; Browne & Field 1985)crops out extensively in <strong>the</strong> middle Clarence valley andfrom Whales Back southwards along <strong>the</strong> edges <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Culverden Basin. The group comprises basaltic plugs,flows, pillow lavas, dikes, and sills (Fig. 43), with breccia,conglomerate and volcaniclastic sandstone, interbeddedwith calcareous rocks. The group is up to 50 m thick in <strong>the</strong>Clarence valley (Reay 1993) and up to 1200 m thick in asyncline north <strong>of</strong> Waiau township (Field, Browne & o<strong>the</strong>rs1989). It unconformably overlies <strong>the</strong> Amuri Limestone andforms laterally discontinuous lenses. In <strong>the</strong> Clarence valley,<strong>the</strong> sandstone contains Early Oligocene foraminifera and<strong>the</strong> basalt plug at Limestone Hill has been K-Ar dated at27.6 Ma (Reay 1993).The Motunau Group occurs widely through <strong>the</strong> eastern<strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area and in most cases unconformably38


overlies older rocks (Carter & Landis 1972; Findlay 1980;Field 1985). Many <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> formations within <strong>the</strong> group aretoo thin to be shown on <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map, and <strong>the</strong>se aremapped as undifferentiated (Mn).Widespread, undifferentiated Late Oligocene basalgreensands, limestones and calcareous mudstones (Onl)are included within <strong>the</strong> lower Motunau Group. Thelimestone commonly forms prominent bluffs and distinctivelandforms with local stratigraphic names including Omihiand Spy Glass formations, Tekoa, Flaxdown, Isolated Hill,Weka Pass and Whales Back limestones, and HanmerMarble (Fig. 44a,b). Collectively, however, <strong>the</strong>seundifferentiated rocks are shallow to deep-watersedimentary facies variants <strong>of</strong> a semi-continuous blanket<strong>of</strong> Late Oligocene carbonate deposition that only locallyexceeded 50 m in thickness. These rocks conformablyoverlie or are locally interbedded with <strong>the</strong> CooksonVolcanics Group but are generally unconformable on olderrocks such as <strong>the</strong> Amuri Limestone.The Early to Middle Miocene Waima Formation (Mnw) iswidespread throughout <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>rn and eastern parts <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area (Browne & Field 1985; Field, Uruski& o<strong>the</strong>rs 1997). It comprises more than 360 m <strong>of</strong> generallymassive to poorly bedded, greenish to bluish-greycalcareous silty mudstone (Fig. 45a). The Waima Formationis generally conformable on Oligocene limestone with agradational, usually interbedded, contact. Locally <strong>the</strong>formation is disconformable on Amuri Limestone (e.g.between Bluff and Dart streams in <strong>the</strong> Clarence valley;Reay 1993). Micr<strong>of</strong>ossil evidence suggests that <strong>the</strong> ageranges from early Late Oligocene to late Early Miocene;deposition may have locally continued into <strong>the</strong> MiddleFigure 44 Oligocene limestone (Motunau Group) includes(a) Isolated Hill limestone at Mt Cookson, which forms<strong>the</strong> spectacular headscarp <strong>of</strong> a landslide block (on right)and (b) Folded Spy Glass Formation limestone on <strong>the</strong>shore platform <strong>of</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> Peninsula. Underlying AmuriLimestone forms <strong>the</strong> base <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> cliffs in <strong>the</strong> background.39


Figure 45 The upper Motunau Group contains manydifferent rock types.(a) Gently-dipping, well-bedded Waima Formationsiltstone forms <strong>the</strong> Haumuri Bluffs. The horizontal surfaceis an elevated marine terrace.Photo CN30458/23: D.L. Homer.(b) The Great Marlborough Conglomerate facies within<strong>the</strong> Waima Formation contains clasts from most <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Cretaceous and Paleogene rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> eastern <strong>Kaikoura</strong>map area.Photo: G.H. Browne.(c) The interbedded sandstone and conglomerate <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Greta Formation at Gore Bay exhibits “badlands”-type,vertical erosive fluting.Photo CN30528/16: D.L. Homer.Miocene (e.g., at Haumuri Bluffs; Browne 1995; Warren1995). In <strong>the</strong> north <strong>the</strong> Waima Formation includes <strong>the</strong> EarlyMiocene Great Marlborough Conglomerate (not mapped),an extremely poorly sorted pebble to boulder conglomerate(Fig. 45b). Clasts are derived from Pahau terrane, LateCretaceous igneous rocks, Seymour Group, Mead Hill andAmuri formations, with large rafts <strong>of</strong> Oligocene limestoneand rip-up clasts <strong>of</strong> Waima Formation siltstone. Theconglomerate generally forms lenses within <strong>the</strong> WaimaFormation, or is locally unconformable on Pahau terraneor on Oligocene limestone. The conglomerate wasdeposited by a number <strong>of</strong> debris flow mechanisms andaccumulated in broad, shallow feeder channels (Lewis &o<strong>the</strong>rs 1980) or locally filled canyons that were incisedinto <strong>the</strong> Miocene continental shelf (Townsend 2001). In<strong>the</strong> Clarence valley <strong>the</strong> Great Marlborough Conglomeratereaches almost 300 m in thickness (Reay 1993).The Early Miocene Waikari Formation (Mnk) (Andrews1963) is widespread in <strong>the</strong> south <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area.The formation includes basal calcareous glauconiticsiltstone; massive blue-grey siltstone; and bedded, yellowbrownsandstone. The Waikari Formation unconformablyoverlies Oligocene limestone (Andrews 1963), except whereit conformably overlies Waima Formation (Warren 1995).In <strong>the</strong> south <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> map area, <strong>the</strong> Early to Middle MioceneMt Brown Formation (Mnb) consists <strong>of</strong> siltstone,sandstone and bioclastic limestone with interbedded debrisflow conglomerate that conformably overlies <strong>the</strong> finergrained Waikari Formation. It is locally up to 830 m thickand was deposited in mid- to outer shelf environments in arapidly subsiding basin (Browne & Field 1985).The conformably overlying Middle Miocene to EarlyPleistocene Greta Formation (^ng; Fig. 45c) is dominatedby fine-grained siltstone (Browne & Field 1985; Warren1995). O<strong>the</strong>r facies are only locally developed and includepoorly bedded marine, deltaic and fluvial mudstone,limestone and debris flow conglomerate, and a smallproportion <strong>of</strong> sandstone. Up to 800 m <strong>of</strong> siltstone isrecorded near Waiau (Browne & Field 1985), but <strong>the</strong>thickness <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> formation varies greatly (e.g. Warren 1995).40


Late Miocene to earliest Late Pliocene rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> AwatereGroup crop out in <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area.The group is divided into three formations (Roberts &Wilson 1992). The oldest rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> middle Late MioceneMedway Formation (Mam) crop out extensively in <strong>the</strong>Medway valley and thin eastwards into <strong>the</strong> Awatere valley.The formation consists <strong>of</strong> a basal conglomerate, 50–100 mthick, which grades upwards into 200 m <strong>of</strong> sandstone withconglomerate lenses, in turn overlain by mudstone andsiltstone (Browne 1995). Isolated Miocene fossiliferousconglomeratic sandstone on <strong>the</strong> west limb <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> WardSyncline, and a single occurrence <strong>of</strong> fine sandstone withpoorly preserved macr<strong>of</strong>ossils in <strong>the</strong> Waihopai valley,indicate that <strong>the</strong> Medway Formation originally extendedwell to <strong>the</strong> north and east <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Medway and upperFlaxbourne valleys. The formation is interpreted as asyntectonic, inner to mid-shelf deposit (Melhuish 1988),formed near an actively rising Pahau terrane hinterland atsedimentation rates <strong>of</strong> up to 870 m/Ma (Browne 1995).Unconformably overlying <strong>the</strong> Medway Formation or,locally, Pahau terrane, is <strong>the</strong> Late Miocene Upton Formation(Mau). It consists <strong>of</strong> basal sandstone or conglomerate thatgrades upward into siltstone-dominated rocks, withscattered macr<strong>of</strong>ossils and shellbeds. The lower part <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> Upton Formation was deposited near actively risingranges, while <strong>the</strong> finer grained parts were deposited in abathyal setting (Browne 1995). The upper part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>formation coarsens upwards into sandstone in <strong>the</strong>northwest. The overlying latest Miocene to Late PlioceneStarborough Formation (^as) is generally poorly exposedand consists <strong>of</strong> poorly bedded brownish-grey fossiliferoussandstone and sandy siltstone (Fig. 46).The lower part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Awatere Group comprises atransgressive sequence resulting from <strong>the</strong> incursion <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>sea over a low-lying landscape cut in Pahau terrane. Theupper part represents a regressive phase with shallowing<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> sea (Roberts & Wilson 1992; Browne 1995).Undifferentiated Early Pliocene blue-grey calcareoussiltstone and sandstone, with Pahau-derived debris-flowFigure 46 North-dipping, poorly fossiliferous sandstone<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Starborough Formation (Awatere Group) upstream<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> State Highway 1 bridge at Awatere River. Thecapping alluvial gravels are <strong>of</strong> last glaciation age (OIS2).Photo: G.H. Browne.Figure 47 Well-bedded Kowai Formation fluvial or deltaicPahau-derived gravel, exposed in <strong>the</strong> Kaiwara valley west<strong>of</strong> Cheviot.conglomerate (Whanganui Siltstone; ^u) occurs north <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> Clarence River mouth (Browne 1995).The Pliocene Kowai Formation (^k) crops out in <strong>the</strong>sou<strong>the</strong>rn part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area where itunconformably overlies Mt Brown and Greta formations.It consists <strong>of</strong> up to 650 m <strong>of</strong> Pahau-derived fluvial andshallow marine conglomerate (Fig. 47) with interbeddedsandstone and mudstone (Browne & Field 1985). Like <strong>the</strong>conglomerates <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Awatere Group, Kowai Formationresulted from <strong>the</strong> accumulation <strong>of</strong> debris shed from activelyrising mountain ranges.Northwest <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Alpine FaultLate Eocene to Early Pleistocene rocks crop out extensivelyin <strong>the</strong> northwest <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> map area and are up to 9 km thick in<strong>the</strong> Murchison Basin. The basin has been shortened byup to 60% since <strong>the</strong> Late Miocene resulting in steeplydipping fold limbs and faulted-out anticlinal axes (Suggate1984; Lihou 1993).Slivers <strong>of</strong> Late Eocene to middle Oligocene Brunner CoalMeasures (Eb) and massive mudstone are preserved along<strong>the</strong> Waimea Fault in <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> MoutereDepression. The coal measures, up to 300 m thick, haveclose similarities to <strong>the</strong> Eocene rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Jenkins Groupin Nelson (Johnston 1990; Rattenbury & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1998).In <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Murchison Basin, latest Eocene toearliest Oligocene Maruia Formation (Em, Fyfe 1968) iscomposed <strong>of</strong> 50 to 500 m <strong>of</strong> coarse, quartz<strong>of</strong>eldspathicsandstone with minor conglomerate, carbonaceousmudstone and thin seams <strong>of</strong> bituminous coal. These rocksare overlain by up to 500 m <strong>of</strong> largely massive, dark brown,micaceous mudstone or siltstone with minor bands <strong>of</strong>feldspathic sandstone, becoming more calcareous towards<strong>the</strong> top. The Maruia Formation was depositedunconformably on basement rocks, initially in a terrestrialenvironment. The mudstone represents deposition in anestuarine to partly enclosed inner shelf environment withperiodic incursion <strong>of</strong> submarine fans derived from a risingarea <strong>of</strong> Separation Point Batholith granite, probably to <strong>the</strong>east (Suggate 1984).41


its top, pebbly sandstone and thick conglomerate bedscontaining schist clasts, Separation Point granite, andsedimentary rock from <strong>the</strong> Caples and Maitai terranes.Figure 48 The Longford Formation in <strong>the</strong> Mangles valleyincludes coarse clastic material deposited in <strong>the</strong>Murchison Basin in response to Miocene uplift <strong>of</strong> adjacentmountain ranges including <strong>the</strong> Sou<strong>the</strong>rn Alps.The youngest formation in <strong>the</strong> Murchison Basin is <strong>the</strong> lateEarly to Middle Miocene Longford Formation (Ml; Fyfe1968), in <strong>the</strong> core <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Longford Syncline (Fig. 48). Itcomprises thick beds <strong>of</strong> conglomerate, sandstone,mudstone with thin coal seams, and interbedded finesandstone and mudstone. In <strong>the</strong> south, <strong>the</strong> lower part <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> formation contains proportionately less conglomerateand more sandstone and mudstone. Clast provenance wasmostly from <strong>the</strong> Separation Point Suite granite, with asignificant component derived from <strong>the</strong> Dun Mountain-Maitai and, in its upper part, Caples terranes (Suggate 1984).The formation accumulated in an estuarine environment in<strong>the</strong> south with extensive deposition far<strong>the</strong>r north bymeandering rivers in an alluvial plain setting.Far<strong>the</strong>r south, at an equivalent stratigraphic level to <strong>the</strong>Longford Formation, is <strong>the</strong> poorly dated terrestrialRappahannock Group (Cutten 1979). The lowerRappahannock Group (eMr) consists <strong>of</strong> conglomerateinterbedded with sandstone and, more commonly at <strong>the</strong>base, carbonaceous mudstone with thin coal seams. Near<strong>the</strong> base, <strong>the</strong> conglomerate is dominated by clasts <strong>of</strong>Caples Group sandstone, but Rakaia terrane Alpine Schistclasts become more common higher in <strong>the</strong> succession. Theupper part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Rappahannock Group (mMr) is alsodominated by conglomerate with clasts <strong>of</strong> chlorite andbiotite schist derived from Rakaia terrane (Cutten 1979).Figure 49 Gently nor<strong>the</strong>ast-dipping, weakly stratifiedMoutere Gravel on <strong>the</strong> north bank <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Buller Rivercontains poorly sorted quartz<strong>of</strong>eldspathic sandstone(greywacke) clasts eroded from Rakaia terrane. The gravelis <strong>the</strong> result <strong>of</strong> rapid uplift and erosion <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Sou<strong>the</strong>rnAlps during <strong>the</strong> Pliocene.The overlying Late Oligocene to Early Miocene MatiriFormation (Om; Fyfe 1968) comprises calcareousmudstone with bioclastic and crystalline limestone, and ischannelled by sandstone and conglomerate. It locally restsunconformably on basement and elsewhere is conformableon <strong>the</strong> Maruia Formation. The Matiri Formation is up to1200 m thick and was deposited in an open sea environmentthat reached bathyal depths.The conformably overlying Mangles Formation (Mm; Fyfe1968), <strong>of</strong> Early Miocene age, consists <strong>of</strong> graded quartzmicasandstone and mudstone beds, and is up to 1600 mthick. The lower Mangles Formation was deposited fromdeep-water turbidity currents when <strong>the</strong> Murchison Basinrapidly deepened, but as subsidence slowed, <strong>the</strong> basinfilled with shallow marine sediments in which sandstonebecame dominant (Suggate 1984). The upper part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Mangles Formation is dominated by thick-beddedsandstone with dark mudstone and siltstone and, towardsIn <strong>the</strong> southwest <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Moutere Depression, weaklyconsolidated sandstone and mudstone with conglomerateand minor lignite seams comprise <strong>the</strong> Glenhope Formation(^tg) at <strong>the</strong> base <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Tadmor Group. Clasts in <strong>the</strong>formation are dominated by Separation Point granite withminor amounts <strong>of</strong> Rotoroa Complex and, towards <strong>the</strong> top,an increasing percentage <strong>of</strong> Torlesse-derived sandstone.The formation is Late Miocene to Early Pliocene(Mildenhall & Suggate 1981). The overlying MoutereGravel (^tm) is <strong>of</strong> early Late Pliocene (Waipipian toMangapanian) age, and in <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area is up to500 m thick where it is down-faulted along <strong>the</strong> Waimea-Flaxmore Fault System (Lihou 1992). In <strong>the</strong> west itconformably (locally disconformably) overlies <strong>the</strong>Glenhope Formation. The Moutere Gravel is characterisedby rounded, slightly to deeply wea<strong>the</strong>red, Rakaia-derivedsandstone clasts, up to 0.6 m across but mostly less than0.2 m, in a yellow brown muddy matrix (Fig. 49). Palyn<strong>of</strong>lorasare dominated by cool temperate species (Mildenhall &Suggate 1981; Johnston 1990).Unconformably resting on <strong>the</strong> Moutere Gravel in <strong>the</strong> south<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Moutere Depression are Torlesse-derived till, lakebeds and moderately well-sorted outwash gravel <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Porika Formation (eQp). The formation is up to 150 mthick and records a Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocenepiedmont glacial advance that extended from <strong>the</strong> SpenserMountains into <strong>the</strong> developing Moutere Depression(Suggate 1965; Johnston 1990; Challis & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994).42


QUATERNARYThe tectonic regime initiated in <strong>the</strong> Early Miocenecontinued into <strong>the</strong> Quaternary, with uplift <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Sou<strong>the</strong>rnAlps, and o<strong>the</strong>r Marlborough, Nelson and nor<strong>the</strong>rnCanterbury ranges. The widespread Late Quaternarydeposits in <strong>the</strong> map area formed in response to both risingranges and alternating glacial and interglacial climaticfluctuations. However, in many localities <strong>the</strong> deposits arethin (less than 5 m) and/or <strong>of</strong> restricted distribution andhave been omitted from <strong>the</strong> map.Alluvial terrace and floodplain depositsThe gravel deposits forming terraces and floodplains (Q1a,Q2a, Q3a, Q4a, Q6a, Q8a, Q10a, eQa, uQa) are dominatedby poorly to well-sorted gravel with sand and silt (Fig.50a,b). Many gravel units originated as outwash fromglaciation episodes. Within <strong>the</strong> gravel deposits, clasts areup to a metre across but most are less than 0.3 m. In general<strong>the</strong> average clast size decreases, and degree <strong>of</strong> sortingincreases, in direct proportion to <strong>the</strong> distance from <strong>the</strong>source <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> gravel. Torlesse-derived sandstone is <strong>the</strong>Figure 50(a) The alluvial delta at <strong>the</strong> ClarenceRiver mouth showing a muddysediment plume being dispersednorthwards by <strong>the</strong> longshore current.Flanking <strong>the</strong> present day flood plainare remnants <strong>of</strong> older, uplifted latePleistocene gravels.Photo CN23903/8: D.L. Homer.(b) Over 160 m <strong>of</strong> alluvial outwashgravel, sand and silt underlie anextensively developed last glaciationterrace surface on <strong>the</strong> south bank<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> lower Hope River.43


predominant rock type but in <strong>the</strong> northwest, granite andultramafic clasts are locally present. Lenses <strong>of</strong> silt and sandare also present throughout <strong>the</strong> gravel deposits but arerarely significant.Except on present-day floodplains, <strong>the</strong> alluvial depositsform flights <strong>of</strong> aggradational terraces, with <strong>the</strong> older terracespreserved at progressively higher levels above <strong>the</strong> valleyfloors. Although stratigraphic or glacial episode nameshave been applied in local settings (Suggate 1965; Eden1989; Townsend 2001), <strong>the</strong> deposits are differentiated hereby age based on oxygen isotope stages (OIS). Mostdeposits are poorly dated and <strong>the</strong>ir ages are generally basedon <strong>the</strong> height <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> capping terrace surface relative too<strong>the</strong>rs in <strong>the</strong> valley. The extent <strong>of</strong> terrace dissection, degree<strong>of</strong> clast wea<strong>the</strong>ring and <strong>the</strong> number and thickness <strong>of</strong> loessunits (see below) have also helped to constrain terracedeposit ages.The Plateau Gravel (eQl) occurs as isolated remnants thatoverlie <strong>the</strong> Dun Mountain Ultramafics Group on <strong>the</strong> crest<strong>of</strong> Red Hills Ridge (Fig. 17). The formation is up to 25 mthick and comprises poorly sorted and weakly stratifiedultramafic clasts, commonly less than 0.5 m across butwith large angular blocks near <strong>the</strong> base and sparse, wellroundedpebbles <strong>of</strong> Torlesse sandstone. The formationowes its preservation to <strong>the</strong> sandy matrix being cementedby magnesium compounds released from wea<strong>the</strong>ring <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> ultramafic rocks. The age <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> gravel is uncertain butis inferred to be no older than Middle Pleistocene (Johnston1990).Unmapped surficial depositsLoess deposits are not differentiated on <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map,but <strong>the</strong>y sometimes form significant sheets up to severalmetres thick on older terraces (Q4 to Q10) adjacent to majorrivers or in gullies in <strong>the</strong> lee <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> prevailing westerlywinds. Identification <strong>of</strong> one or more loess-soil horizons(Fig. 51) may help to broadly distinguish <strong>the</strong> ages <strong>of</strong>aggradation terraces. In <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> map area, <strong>the</strong>26.5 ka Kawakawa tephra (Oruanui fall deposit; Wilson2001), sourced from <strong>the</strong> central North Island, commonlyoccurs as a layer in loess deposits on terraces older thanOIS 2 and locally in fan gravel deposits (Campbell 1986;Eden 1989; Benson & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2001; Townsend 2001). Thec. 340 ka Rangitawa tephra (Kohn & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1992; Berger &o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994), also from <strong>the</strong> central North Island, occursrarely in loess older than OIS 10 in <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>map area.Fill, <strong>of</strong> varying levels <strong>of</strong> compaction, is common underroads and railways, particularly in gullies and approachesto bridges. Small areas <strong>of</strong> uncompacted fill, <strong>the</strong> result <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> dumping <strong>of</strong> domestic rubbish, are present adjacent tomany <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> townships in <strong>the</strong> map area. All <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>se depositsare too small to show on <strong>the</strong> geological map.Alluvial fan and scree depositsAlluvial fan deposits (Q1a, Q2a, Q3a, Q4a, Q6a, Q8a,Q10a, eQa, uQa) are widespread throughout <strong>the</strong> map areaand many merge into <strong>the</strong> aggradation surfaces in <strong>the</strong> mainvalleys (Fig. 52). Many <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> fans are too small to beshown on <strong>the</strong> map and are ei<strong>the</strong>r omitted or incorporatedinto <strong>the</strong> corresponding alluvial terrace. Mappable screedeposits (Q1s) occur in <strong>the</strong> higher mountains and consist<strong>of</strong> locally derived, slightly wea<strong>the</strong>red, angular clasts <strong>of</strong>pebble to boulder size. Screes commonly merge with moregently sloping, water-borne alluvial fans towards <strong>the</strong> valleyfloors. Rock glacier deposits (Q1r) consisting <strong>of</strong> poorlysorted gravels up to boulder size occur on <strong>the</strong> Inland<strong>Kaikoura</strong> Range (Fig. 53). Eight rock glaciers up to 1.2 kmlength and 500 m wide occur at elevations exceeding 2100m (Bacon & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2001). These are probably activelyexpanding and moving, and result from permafrostconditions in an arid climate where <strong>the</strong>re is a high ratio <strong>of</strong>rock debris to snow supply.Figure 51 Loess on <strong>the</strong> south bank <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> Clarence River near SH 1 showingtypical vertical fluting. The faint darkerbanding part way up <strong>the</strong> loess may bea paleosol, or buried soil. Thethickness <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> loess and <strong>the</strong>presence <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> paleosol suggest that<strong>the</strong> age <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> underlying gravel depositis at least OIS 4 (Q4a).44


Figure 52 Screes on <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>rn flanks <strong>of</strong> Dillon Cone merge into alluvial fans near a prominent gradient changemid-slope towards <strong>the</strong> Clarence River valley. The Elliott Fault crosses <strong>the</strong> range close to <strong>the</strong> change in slope. Q1a andremnant Q2a alluvial terraces occur close to <strong>the</strong> river.Photo CN8171/25: D.L Homer.Figure 53 Rock glaciers (left, lower right) and screes mantling <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>rn slopes <strong>of</strong> Mt Alarm on <strong>the</strong> Inland <strong>Kaikoura</strong>Range.Photo CN25751/11: D.L. Homer.45


Till depositsThe aggradational terrace surfaces capping <strong>the</strong> alluvialgravels (see above) can commonly be traced up <strong>the</strong> valleysto terminal moraines and associated till deposits (Q1t, Q2t,Q4t, Q6t, Q8t, Q10t, eQt, uQt) in <strong>the</strong> mountains. The tillsconsist <strong>of</strong> subrounded to subangular clasts up to bouldersize in a tight clayey matrix, and older tills are generallymore wea<strong>the</strong>red than younger.Landslide depositsMass movement deposits (Q1l, uQl) are widespread,although large deep-seated landslides are relatively rare.Small superficial failures, rock falls and slope creep arecommon, but only deposits >1 km 2 in area are shown on<strong>the</strong> map. The large landslide deposits (Fig. 54) range frommasses <strong>of</strong> shattered, but relatively coherent rock, to siltyclay containing unsorted angular rock fragments. Largelandslide deposits, many triggered by severe earthquakeground shaking, dam several lakes such as lakes Matiri,Constance, Alexander and McRae. Moderately largelandslides, commonly with ill-defined margins, haveoccurred in areas <strong>of</strong> Pahau terrane in <strong>the</strong> Flaxbourne River,and in mélange zones in <strong>the</strong> lower Waiau valley and nearCheviot. Extensive failures, mostly along bedding planes,are common in <strong>the</strong> Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic rocks andhave resulted in chaotically mixed landslide deposits. LateCretaceous and Eocene rocks containing montmorilloniterichclays (smectite) are particularly prone to instability.Swamp and lake depositsHolocene swamp deposits (Q1a) are common in manyvalleys but are generally small in area. Adjacent to <strong>the</strong>coast, swamps have developed where drainage has beenimpeded by dunes and marine sand and gravel. Lakedeposits <strong>of</strong> Late Pleistocene age are present in manyvalleys, ei<strong>the</strong>r upstream <strong>of</strong> terminal moraine dams, or inside valleys dammed by lateral moraines or aggrading fans.The lake deposits range from silt to gravel, <strong>the</strong> latter locallydisplaying foreset bedding. Most deposits are intermingledwith or overtopped by alluvial gravel. Late Holocene lakesediments are present behind landslide dams, many <strong>of</strong>which were produced by earthquake ground shaking. NearMurchison township <strong>the</strong> Murchison Lake Beds (Q7k), <strong>of</strong>middle Quaternary age, consist <strong>of</strong> consolidated bandedsilt, gravel and sand. As <strong>the</strong> upper and lower contacts <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> beds have not been seen, <strong>the</strong> processes that led tolake formation are not known (Suggate 1984).A swamp deposit at Pyramid Valley (too small to be shownon <strong>the</strong> map) contains numerous well-preserved fossilvertebrates including at least 46 species <strong>of</strong> birds (waterfowl,moa, kiwi, weka, parrots amongst o<strong>the</strong>rs), as well as tuatara,bats and geckos (Scarlett 1951; Holdaway & Worthy 1997).O<strong>the</strong>r swamp sites and some alluvial and colluvial depositsaround Waikari and limestone cave sites around MtCookson contain more examples <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>se and o<strong>the</strong>r species(Worthy & Holdaway 1995, 1996). The deposits haveaccumulated over <strong>the</strong> last 40 000 years.Figure 54 The large landslide deposit in Gore Basin, near <strong>the</strong> crest <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Seaward <strong>Kaikoura</strong> Range, has originatedfrom Pahau terrane rocks forming <strong>the</strong> ridge on <strong>the</strong> right.46


Marine depositsMarine sand and gravel deposits (Q7b, Q9b, uQb) cropout as poorly exposed remnants up to 280 m above sealevel, particularly on eastern slopes <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> HawkswoodRange. The older deposits are partly dissected and tilted,and <strong>the</strong>ir altitude largely reflects tectonic uplift ra<strong>the</strong>r than<strong>the</strong> height <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> interglacial sea levels (Ota & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1984;Warren 1995). Younger marine deposits (Q4b, Q5b) aremore extensively preserved along <strong>the</strong> coast (e.g. Ota &o<strong>the</strong>rs 1995, 1996; Figs 39, 45a). All <strong>the</strong> deposits generallyconsist <strong>of</strong> boulders, rounded gravel and moderately sortedcoarse sand. They are generally poorly fossiliferous, butlocally contain remarkably well-preserved trace fossilassemblages (Ekdale & Lewis 1991). Holocene marine sandand gravel (Q1b) crop out in a narrow strip along much <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> coast.Sand depositsSand deposits (Q1d) occur locally along <strong>the</strong> coast andcomprise wind-blown sand forming dunes that may extendup-slope onto <strong>the</strong> fringing hills (Fig. 11). The <strong>Kaikoura</strong>map area characteristically has coarser beach sand andgravel than many o<strong>the</strong>r parts <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> country and dunes arecomparatively poorly developed.OFFSHORE GEOLOGYOffshore, from <strong>the</strong> Clarence River mouth north towardsCook Strait, <strong>the</strong> continental shelf is underlain by asedimentary basin identified from abundant seismic data.This Flaxbourne (Clarence) Basin contains up to 4.5 km <strong>of</strong>probable Late Cretaceous to Recent strata (Uruski 1992;Field, Uruski & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1997; Barnes & Audru 1999b). Basalsequences in <strong>the</strong> basin thicken to <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>ast and onlapolder units towards <strong>the</strong> northwest, indicating a rifted halfgraben.Growth strata <strong>of</strong> probable Miocene age resultedfrom subsequent compressional tectonics (Uruski 1992).A blanket <strong>of</strong> Holocene mud up to 45 m thick covers <strong>the</strong>central part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> basin, but around <strong>the</strong> edges Miocene(Motunau and Awatere groups) to Pleistocene rocks areexposed at <strong>the</strong> sea floor (Barnes & Audru 1999b). Up toseven Pleistocene unconformities are present within <strong>the</strong>basin.The basin is being deformed by active, dextral strike-slipand oblique-slip faults that <strong>of</strong>fset and fold Late Quaternarysediments (Barnes & Audru 1999a,b). These faults includereactivated NNE- to nor<strong>the</strong>ast-striking Miocene structuresand younger (


TECTONIC HISTORYEarly to mid-PaleozoicGreenland Group rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Buller terrane were depositedon <strong>the</strong> Australo-Antarctic margin <strong>of</strong> Gondwanaland in <strong>the</strong>Early Ordovician (Cooper & Tulloch 1992). In <strong>the</strong> Silurian<strong>the</strong> group was tightly folded and metamorphosed to lowergreenschist facies (Adams & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1975). The HaupiriGroup <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Takaka terrane formed in a volcanic island arcand back-arc setting at a convergent plate boundary(Münker & Cooper 1999). The carbonate-rich Mt ArthurGroup rocks were deposited on a passive continentalmargin, east <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> volcanic arc, after cessation <strong>of</strong>subduction; <strong>the</strong>y were subsequently thrust over <strong>the</strong>volcanic rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Haupiri Group and folded (Cooper &Tulloch 1992). Accretion <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Takaka terrane onto <strong>the</strong>Buller terrane occurred in <strong>the</strong> mid-Devonian, in part bymovement along <strong>the</strong> Anatoki Fault. The tectonic suturingwas followed shortly afterwards by <strong>the</strong> intrusion <strong>of</strong>voluminous granitic rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Karamea Batholithbetween 370 and 328 Ma (Cooper & Tulloch 1992).Late Paleozoic to Early CretaceousThe emplacement <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Median Batholith, dominated in<strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area by Triassic to Early Cretaceousintrusions, occurred along <strong>the</strong> margin <strong>of</strong> Gondwanalandand sutured <strong>the</strong> Western Province to <strong>the</strong> western part <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> Eastern Province (Bradshaw 1993; Mortimer & o<strong>the</strong>rs1999). Subsequently much <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> eastern part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>batholith has been excised by <strong>the</strong> Delaware-SpeargrassFault Zone (Johnston & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1987; Johnston 1990). TheEastern Province contains six terranes within <strong>the</strong> map areaand all record convergent margin tectonism and volcanosedimentaryprocesses (Coombs & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1976; Bradshaw1989; Mortimer 2004). The westernmost is <strong>the</strong> volcanogenicBrook Street terrane, consisting <strong>of</strong> a tectonicallydismembered remnant <strong>of</strong> a calc-alkaline island arc. Anintrusive contact between <strong>the</strong> Brook Street terrane and <strong>the</strong>Median Batholith in Southland constrains accretion <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>terrane to Gondwanaland to between 230 and 245 Ma(Middle to Late Triassic; Mortimer & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1999). In eastNelson <strong>the</strong> contact between <strong>the</strong> Brook Street and Murihikuterranes is faulted. However <strong>the</strong> Brook Street terrane mayhave originally been overlain by <strong>the</strong> volcaniclasticMurihuku terrane in a Triassic-Jurassic back-arc basin.Far<strong>the</strong>r east, a “slab” <strong>of</strong> Permian oceanic ridge or back-arcbasin crust, <strong>the</strong> Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt, wasobducted onto Murihiku and Brook Street terranes duringEarly to mid-Permian subduction (Coombs & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1976;Sano & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1997). Overlying Late Permian to TriassicMaitai Group accumulated in a trench forearc settingadjacent to a convergent margin. Although faulted, andfolded into <strong>the</strong> Roding Syncline, <strong>the</strong> group has largelyretained internal stratigraphic coherence.The Patuki Mélange separates <strong>the</strong> Dun Mountain-Maitaiterrane rocks from <strong>the</strong> Caples terrane; <strong>the</strong> latteraccumulated as an accretionary wedge in a Late Permianto Triassic trench or trench slope. The original suturebetween <strong>the</strong> Caples and Rakaia terranes (not seen in <strong>the</strong><strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area) is within a zone <strong>of</strong> greenschist toamphibolite facies schist with multiple generations <strong>of</strong>recumbent folds and penetrative foliations (Mortimer1993a,b; Johnston 1994; Begg & Johnston 2000). In <strong>the</strong><strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area <strong>the</strong> Caples-derived schist was laterjuxtaposed by Cenozoic movement <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Alpine Faultagainst non-schistose Rakaia terrane rocks. Greenschistfacies (garnet zone) schist is present in <strong>the</strong> western part <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> Rakaia terrane (Turnbull & Forsyth 1986), including<strong>the</strong> Aspiring lithological association, but far<strong>the</strong>r eastweakly metamorphosed, lithologically monotonous,quartz<strong>of</strong>eldspathic sedimentary rocks predominate. Theserocks accumulated in a Late Triassic to Early Jurassicsubduction setting and were progressively imbricated anddeformed in an accretionary wedge (MacKinnon 1983;Bradshaw 1989). The Esk Head belt, comprising mélangeand generally more deformed rock, including <strong>the</strong>Silverstream Fault Zone in Branch River, is <strong>the</strong> tectonicsuture between <strong>the</strong> Rakaia terrane and <strong>the</strong> Pahau terraneto <strong>the</strong> east. Rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Pahau terrane were deposited in asubduction setting and deformed in an accretionary wedgein <strong>the</strong> Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. The Caples, Rakaiaand Pahau terranes were amalgamated during convergenttectonism along <strong>the</strong> Gondwanaland margin between <strong>the</strong>Middle Jurassic and <strong>the</strong> late Early Cretaceous, whensubduction ceased (Coombs & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1976; Bradshaw1989). Major igneous intrusion occurred in and beyond<strong>the</strong> west <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area in <strong>the</strong> Early Cretaceouswith <strong>the</strong> emplacement <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Separation Point suite ando<strong>the</strong>r granitoids (Tulloch 1983).Mid- to Late Cretaceous and PaleogeneFollowing cessation <strong>of</strong> subduction and amalgamation <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> Eastern Province terranes, a prolonged period <strong>of</strong>extensional tectonics resulted in <strong>the</strong> opening <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> TasmanSea and, within <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area, widespread erosionand deposition into numerous mid-Cretaceous basins(Crampton & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2003). Intrusion <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> TapuaenukuIgneous Complex and associated dikes was accompaniedby extrusive basalt flows, which interfingered withterrestrial and shallow marine sedimentary rocks.In <strong>the</strong> Late Cretaceous, subsidence become more regionalin extent (Crampton & Laird 1997) as <strong>the</strong> tempo <strong>of</strong>extensional tectonics waned and a passive margindeveloped. Relative quiescence from <strong>the</strong> end <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Cretaceous resulted in regional subsidence and marinetransgression, followed by <strong>the</strong> slow accumulation <strong>of</strong>widespread, fine-grained clastic and carbonate rocks (Field,Browne & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1989). This was punctuated by sporadicintraplate volcanism, particularly in <strong>the</strong> Canterbury Basin(Browne & Field 1985). In <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> map areathis passive, basinal regime continued through into at least<strong>the</strong> Middle Eocene (Strong & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1995; Crampton &o<strong>the</strong>rs 2003). In nor<strong>the</strong>rn Canterbury, deposition on a broad,relatively sheltered shallow shelf led to accumulation <strong>of</strong>fine-grained clastic rocks and glauconitic sands. Thenor<strong>the</strong>rn basins extended southwards during <strong>the</strong> Eoceneand Oligocene, resulting in <strong>the</strong> deposition <strong>of</strong> a blanket <strong>of</strong>carbonate rocks. The Early Oligocene period <strong>of</strong> erosion48


and/or non-deposition (including <strong>the</strong> MarshallParaconformity), was accompanied by mild deformationassociated with <strong>the</strong> initiation <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> modern plate boundary(Lewis 1992; Nicol 1992). Apart from localised basalticvolcanism <strong>the</strong> remainder <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Oligocene was characterisedby tectonically subdued, regional deposition <strong>of</strong> carbonaterocks into several distinct depocentres (Browne 1995).NeogeneThe early Neogene is marked by a major influx <strong>of</strong> coarserclastic sediment eroded from rising mountains in <strong>the</strong> west.Uplift <strong>of</strong> mountain ranges was in response to increasinglyconvergent tectonics across <strong>the</strong> developing Australian-Pacific plate boundary through <strong>the</strong> New Zealand continent(Walcott 1978). Convergence associated with <strong>the</strong> plateboundary in Marlborough is recorded by Early Miocenethrust faults preserved north <strong>of</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> (e.g. Rait & o<strong>the</strong>rs1991; Townsend 2001). Erosion <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> rapidly rising<strong>Kaikoura</strong> ranges, Spenser Mountains and Sou<strong>the</strong>rn Alpsresulted in deposition <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Early Miocene GreatMarlborough Conglomerate (Reay 1993) and westernconglomerate units such as <strong>the</strong> Rappahannock (Cutten1979) and Tadmor (Johnston 1990) groups. Uplift andcooling <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Tapuaenuku Igneous Complex at 22 Ma(Baker & Seward 1996) indicates significant convergenceon <strong>the</strong> Clarence Fault by <strong>the</strong> earliest Miocene (e.g. Browne1992).Paleomagnetic and sea floor spreading data suggest that<strong>the</strong> entire coastal part <strong>of</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>astern Marlborough rotatedclockwise about a vertical axis by as much as 100º in <strong>the</strong>Middle Miocene (Su<strong>the</strong>rland 1995; Vickery & Lamb 1995;Townsend 2001; Hall & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2004). The dominantnor<strong>the</strong>ast strike <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> steeply dipping Torlesse rocks inMarlborough is inferred to have been folded from anoriginal northwest strike at this time (Little & Roberts 1997).The rotation was probably due to locking <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>subduction interface beneath Marlborough, possiblytriggered by thickened oceanic lithosphere <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Hikurangiplateau entering <strong>the</strong> trench system, and also because <strong>the</strong>relatively buoyant continental crust <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Chatham Risewas pinned against <strong>the</strong> Australian plate to <strong>the</strong> west (Lamb& Bibby 1989; Eberhart-Phillips & Reyners 1997; Little &Roberts 1997; Reyners 1998).In <strong>the</strong> Late Miocene, strike-slip faulting dominated inMarlborough and associated local, fault-bounded grabens,half-grabens, and folded sedimentary basins arecharacteristic <strong>of</strong> this period (Figs 39, 55). In <strong>the</strong> Pliocene<strong>the</strong> component <strong>of</strong> convergence across <strong>the</strong> plate boundaryincreased (Walcott 1998), as did transpression on <strong>the</strong>Alpine Fault and o<strong>the</strong>r strike-slip faults (Little & Roberts1997), resulting in <strong>the</strong> uplift <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Sou<strong>the</strong>rn Alps and o<strong>the</strong>rmountains in <strong>the</strong> west. North <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> fault, <strong>the</strong> MoutereDepression developed between <strong>the</strong> rising mountains <strong>of</strong>east and west Nelson. Early Miocene uplift <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Inland<strong>Kaikoura</strong> Range was followed by Late Pliocene uplift <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> Seaward <strong>Kaikoura</strong> Range (Kao 2002). Rotation <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Hikurangi margin continued, but on a more localised scale,in <strong>the</strong> lower Awatere valley (Roberts 1992).As <strong>the</strong> Chatham Rise continued to impinge onto <strong>the</strong>Australian plate, new faults developed at <strong>the</strong> edge <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Pacific plate, widening <strong>the</strong> plate boundary zone andresulting in <strong>the</strong> redistribution <strong>of</strong> fault slip towards <strong>the</strong> south(Knuepfer 1992; Holt & Haines 1995; Little & Roberts 1997;Little & Jones 1998; Barnes & Audru 1999b). The HopeFault is currently <strong>the</strong> most active structure <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Marlborough Fault System with a right-lateral slip rate <strong>of</strong>20–40 mm/yr (Cowan 1990; Van Dissen & Yeats 1991). Thenor<strong>the</strong>rn Canterbury basin and range topography is aconsequence <strong>of</strong> spreading deformation associated with<strong>the</strong> Australian-Pacific plate boundary. Some <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> rangesare bounded by nor<strong>the</strong>ast-striking reverse faults or thrustsand associated folding (Nicol & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1995; Pettinga &o<strong>the</strong>rs 2001; Litchfield & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2003).Figure 55 The south-plungingPuhipuhi Syncline north <strong>of</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong>is a spectacular example <strong>of</strong> foldsdeveloped along <strong>the</strong> eastern coast.The Miocene core <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> synclinelies in <strong>the</strong> valley (centre) and <strong>the</strong> foldlimbs are dominated by Paleogenelimestones underlain by mid- toLate Cretaceous sandstones.Folding, toge<strong>the</strong>r with mountainuplift, occurred in response toincreasing convergence across <strong>the</strong>Australia-Pacific plate boundary in<strong>the</strong> Neogene.Photo CN11019/4: D.L. Homer.49


GEOLOGICAL RESOURCESThe mineral resources <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area arerelatively limited, both volumetrically and economically,and have been described in detail by Doole & o<strong>the</strong>rs (1987)and Eggers & Sewell (1990). The following account issummarised from <strong>the</strong>se publications with some updating.The most significant resources in <strong>the</strong> map area areaggregate, limestone and salt.Metallic mineralsChromium, occurring as grains and up to 15 cm thick lenses<strong>of</strong> chromite, is widespread in dunite and harzburgite <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Dun Mountain Ultramafics Group in <strong>the</strong> Red Hills. Twoanalyses gave relatively low Cr 2O 3percentages <strong>of</strong> 38.01and 39.51. No economic deposits are known or are likely tobe found.Cobalt in <strong>the</strong> form <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> cobalt-iron mineral wairauite hasbeen reported from <strong>the</strong> Dun Mountain Ultramafics Group,in <strong>the</strong> Wairau valley, but is <strong>of</strong> academic interest only (Challis& Long 1964).Copper, commonly present as sparse malachite staining, isfound on surfaces or fractures <strong>of</strong> igneous rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Dun Mountain Ultramafics and Livingstone Volcanicsgroups, and in igneous rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Pahau and Rakaiaterranes. The richest known deposit is near Mt Baldy, ingabbro <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Tinline Formation <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> LivingstoneVolcanics Group. The deposit comprises chalcopyritewithin a quartz vein stockwork, up to 1 m thick and possiblycontinuous over a distance <strong>of</strong> 3 km, from which a series <strong>of</strong>samples gave between 0.58 and 7.7% Cu (Johnston 1976).In <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> map area, at Tapuae-o-Uenuku andBlue Mountain in <strong>the</strong> Inland <strong>Kaikoura</strong> Range, maficultramaficcomplexes <strong>of</strong> Cretaceous age contain subeconomic,disseminated copper-nickel and magnetiteilmenitemineralisation (Pirajno 1979; Brathwaite & Pirajno1993). The Tapuaenuku Igneous Complex consists <strong>of</strong> alayered intrusion with widespread but irregulardisseminated pyrite, pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite at or near<strong>the</strong> contact between pyroxenite and gabbro layers. Chipsamples contain up to 1% Cu and 0.3% Ni. At BlueMountain, disseminated pyrrhotite and chalcopyritemineralisation forms irregular zones within a marginal ringdike <strong>of</strong> titanaugite-ilmenite gabbro, and at <strong>the</strong> contactbetween <strong>the</strong> ring dike and olivine-pyroxenite. The highestrock geochemical values are 1.6% Cu and 1.3% Ni (Pirajno1979). The Late Jurassic layered Rotoroa Complex insou<strong>the</strong>ast Nelson contains minor quartz-pyritechalcopyriteveins and disseminations adjacent to diorite,on <strong>the</strong> margins <strong>of</strong> intrusions <strong>of</strong> Separation Point granite.Copper values <strong>of</strong> up to 0.25% have been reported (Challis& o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994).Gold occurs widely as placer deposits in and adjacent to<strong>the</strong> rivers draining west from <strong>the</strong> Main Divide. Gold wasfirst discovered in <strong>the</strong> late 1850s with <strong>the</strong> last significantfind being in 1915 in <strong>the</strong> Howard valley, between lakesRotoiti and Rotoroa. Most gold production occurred during<strong>the</strong> 1860s in <strong>the</strong> Mangles, Matakitaki and Glenroy valleysfrom river beds or from ground sluicing <strong>of</strong> small alluvialclaims on adjacent terraces (Fyfe 1968). Larger claims weredeveloped in <strong>the</strong> Matakitaki valley downstream fromterminal moraines. The gold is largely derived from quartzreefs in Rakaia terrane semischists and schists, and wascarried westwards by Quaternary glaciers to accumulatein moraines and outwash gravels. Fur<strong>the</strong>r erosion andreworking <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> deposits has concentrated <strong>the</strong> gold inflood plains and riverbeds. Minor amounts <strong>of</strong> gold havealso been eroded from <strong>the</strong> basement rocks west <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Alpine Fault, such as in <strong>the</strong> Owen valley, and from reworking<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> basal Tertiary sequences <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Murchison Basin.No economic quartz reefs have been found in <strong>the</strong> mappedarea.Iron in <strong>the</strong> form <strong>of</strong> magnetite (up to 50%) is associatedwith ilmenite and forms layers up to several metres thick inleucogabbro and anorthosite in parts <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> TapuaenukuIgneous Complex (Brathwaite & Pirajno 1993).Nickel is widespread throughout <strong>the</strong> Dun MountainUltramafics Group, with up to 0.5% Ni present within <strong>the</strong>lattice <strong>of</strong> olivine crystals, or as <strong>the</strong> iron-nickel alloy awaruite(Challis & Long 1964), but economic deposits are unlikelyto be present. Copper-nickel sulphide mineralisation formssub-economic disseminations within <strong>the</strong> TapuaenukuIgneous Complex and at Blue Mountain (see above).Platinum group minerals (PGMs) are present in some <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> gravels in <strong>the</strong> northwest <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> map area and havebeen noted during alluvial gold mining (Morgan 1927).The greatest concentrations are in <strong>the</strong> tributaries <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Howard River, between lakes Rotoiti and Rotoroa, and riverflattenednuggets up to 4 mm across have been reported.The minerals consist <strong>of</strong> platinum and Cu-richis<strong>of</strong>erroplatinum probably derived from <strong>the</strong> nearby layeredRotoroa Complex (Challis 1989; Challis & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994).Platinum group metals have been found in creeks draining<strong>the</strong> Dun Mountain Ultramafics Group in <strong>the</strong> Red Hills andin <strong>the</strong> Matakitaki valley. There is restricted outcrop <strong>of</strong> likelysource rocks, and <strong>the</strong> amount <strong>of</strong> PGMs in deposits derivedfrom <strong>the</strong>m is likely to be insignificant.Titanium in ilmenite is present in <strong>the</strong> Tapuaenuku andBlue Mountain layered intrusions (see above). Ilmenite isa very minor component <strong>of</strong> black sand in tributaries <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Buller River which drain <strong>the</strong> garnet zone <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Haast Schist.Non-metallic mineralsClay deposits are widespread throughout <strong>the</strong> map areaalthough <strong>the</strong>re are no large deposits <strong>of</strong> uniform quality.Most <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> clay deposits are residual, being derived from<strong>the</strong> wea<strong>the</strong>ring <strong>of</strong> bedrock units. In <strong>the</strong> northwest, clayminerals are widespread in <strong>the</strong> Moutere Gravel and PorikaFormation but mostly as matrix to greywacke-derivedgravel. Porika Formation lake beds contain large volumes<strong>of</strong> clay to sandy clay, with chlorite and a minor component<strong>of</strong> vermiculite or interlayered chlorite-vermiculite (Johnston1990). Sou<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Alpine Fault, illite and interlayered50


hydrous mica clay are widespread as <strong>the</strong> result <strong>of</strong>wea<strong>the</strong>ring <strong>of</strong> Torlesse-derived loess. Bentonitic clay,consisting largely <strong>of</strong> montmorillonite and derived from <strong>the</strong>wea<strong>the</strong>ring <strong>of</strong> volcanic ash, is associated with LateCretaceous and Early Eocene volcanic rocks in <strong>the</strong>sou<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area. Early Eocenebentonite <strong>of</strong> marine origin is more extensive and thicker,but relatively low grade (Ritchie & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1969).Glauconite, a possible source <strong>of</strong> potassic fertiliser, occurswidely within <strong>the</strong> Late Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks in<strong>the</strong> east <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> map area, but no economic deposits arelikely to exist.Salt is produced from <strong>the</strong> evaporation <strong>of</strong> seawater in LakeGrassmere (Fig. 56) in <strong>the</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> map area. Theseawater flows into shallow holding ponds or paddocksand evaporation is aided by a low rainfall, high sunshinehours and frequently strong, warm, northwesterly wind.Between 60 000 and 70 000 tonnes <strong>of</strong> salt is producedannually, mostly for national and international industrialuses (http://www.domsalt.co.nz/pr<strong>of</strong>ile.html).Serpentinite, or partly serpentinised harzburgite anddunite, is widespread within <strong>the</strong> Dun Mountain OphioliteBelt, but most <strong>of</strong> it is inaccessible. North <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong>map area near Nelson serpentinite has been quarried from<strong>the</strong>se ultramafic rocks and used as a source <strong>of</strong> magnesiumfertiliser (Roser & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1994).RockAggregate is <strong>the</strong> most important rock material produced in<strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area, in terms <strong>of</strong> both volume and value.With few exceptions, it is obtained from gravels forming<strong>the</strong> beds <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> major rivers. Roading uses include gravelon unsealed roads, and <strong>the</strong> production <strong>of</strong> sealing chip andmaterial for base course. A small amount is producedadjacent to <strong>the</strong> townships in <strong>the</strong> map area for concreteaggregate. Most <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> aggregate is processed fromsandstone clasts from <strong>the</strong> rivers draining Torlesse rocks,but granite clasts are a major component in <strong>the</strong> northwest<strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> map area. Suitable gravel also exists in flood plainsand Late Pleistocene outwash deposits. However, in <strong>the</strong>older outwash deposits <strong>the</strong> clasts are commonly wea<strong>the</strong>redand may be unsuitable for high quality uses. Quarrying <strong>of</strong>unwea<strong>the</strong>red bedrock units can also provide suitableaggregate although s<strong>of</strong>ter lithologies, such as mudstone(“argillite”) in <strong>the</strong> Torlesse composite terrane, are generallyunsuitable. Rocks <strong>of</strong> Late Cretaceous-Tertiary age, oldergravel deposits such as Moutere Gravel, and foliated schistare unsuitable as sources <strong>of</strong> high quality aggregate.Continuing uplift and erosion <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> mountains ensuresthat <strong>the</strong> rivers generally supply more gravel than is requiredto meet demand.Sand is present in many <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> river deposits and iswidespread in <strong>the</strong> Holocene marine deposits and dunesadjacent to <strong>the</strong> coast.Figure 56 Lake Grassmere is a modified estuarine lagoon where salt is mined from evaporated sea water.Photo CN46332/25: D.L. Homer.51


Figure 57 St Oswalds Churchon State Highway 1 at Wharanuiis built from blocks <strong>of</strong> Mead HillFormation, quarried locally fromWoodside Creek.Rip-rap is readily obtainable. Potential sources includeigneous rocks northwest <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Alpine Fault, andsandstone-dominated parts <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Torlesse compositeterrane and Paleogene limestones sou<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> fault.Rip-rap is used for river bank or coastal protection and islargely obtained from hard rock quarries. Talus deposits,such as ultramafic-derived boulders on <strong>the</strong> southwest <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> Red Hills, have been used locally because <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>irproximity to <strong>the</strong> area <strong>of</strong> demand.Argillite blocks within <strong>the</strong> serpentinitic Patuki Mélange<strong>of</strong> east Nelson have been altered by <strong>the</strong> introduction <strong>of</strong>minerals such as albite and tremolite. River boulders <strong>of</strong>altered argillite (pakohe) are tough with a characteristicconchoidal fracture. They were worked by Maori into adzesand o<strong>the</strong>r implements.Dimension and ornamental stone <strong>of</strong> varying rock type arereadily available, but <strong>the</strong> quantities obtained to date havebeen small. Basement rocks are commonly jointed andfractured, and generally difficult to access. A blackgabbronorite in <strong>the</strong> Rotoroa Complex in <strong>the</strong> Howard valleynear Lake Rotoroa has been investigated as a source <strong>of</strong>dimension stone. Although it is readily accessible, closelyspaced jointing would limit <strong>the</strong> size <strong>of</strong> blocks to


Dunite boulders are sporadically collected from streamsdraining from <strong>the</strong> Red Hills into <strong>the</strong> Wairau River for use insaunas and hangi because <strong>the</strong>y withstand rapid coolingwithout explosively disintegrating.CoalCoal occurs locally in rocks <strong>of</strong> Late Cretaceous age andcommonly near <strong>the</strong> base <strong>of</strong> Paleogene sequences. However,<strong>the</strong> only coal <strong>of</strong> economic significance in <strong>the</strong> map area is in<strong>the</strong> Murchison Basin (Suggate 1984). Up to five seamshave been recorded from <strong>the</strong> basal Maruia Formation near<strong>the</strong> lower Matiri valley. Although <strong>the</strong> coal is stronglyswelling and <strong>of</strong> high-volatile bituminous rank, <strong>the</strong> seamshave a maximum thickness <strong>of</strong> only 1.2 m, <strong>the</strong> structure isunfavourable for mining and <strong>the</strong> coal has a medium to highsulphur content. The Longford Formation in <strong>the</strong> lowerMatakitaki and Owen valleys contains several seams <strong>of</strong>low-swelling, low-moisture, high-volatile bituminous coalwith low (c. 1%) sulphur. The seams pinch and swell,reaching a maximum thickness <strong>of</strong> 3 m, and <strong>the</strong> coal iscommonly crushed. The easily accessible coal has beenworked out and, because <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> irregularity <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> seamsand structure, <strong>the</strong> prospects for renewed mining are poor.Total production was probably in <strong>the</strong> order <strong>of</strong> 150 000tonnes (Suggate 1984).WaterGroundwater availability is generally restricted east <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Main Divide where rainfall is lower and aquifers have limitedextent. The best yields occur in Late Quaternary alluvialgravel, particularly adjacent to <strong>the</strong> major rivers draining<strong>the</strong> hard basement rocks or from <strong>the</strong> fan gravel aprons on<strong>the</strong> flanks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> major ranges (Brown in Eggers & Sewell1990). In <strong>the</strong> lower Awatere valley, <strong>the</strong> gravels are thin andoverlie Pliocene siltstone <strong>of</strong> low permeability that restrictsriver recharge. In <strong>the</strong> minor rivers and streams, includingthose draining s<strong>of</strong>t and/or wea<strong>the</strong>red rock, an increase infine-grained material in <strong>the</strong> gravel deposits tends to reducepermeability. Along <strong>the</strong> coast, Holocene beach sands anddunes have a high permeability and porosity but rechargein many areas is dependent on frequent rainfall, and overextractioncan result in saline intrusion (Doole & o<strong>the</strong>rs1987; Brown in Eggers & Sewell 1990). The Neogene toPleistocene gravel and sand deposits have generally low,but usually reliable yields.The pre-Quaternary Cenozoic rocks in <strong>the</strong> mapped areagenerally have few open joints, and except along faultplanes and in limestones, groundwater yields are low. Thebasement rocks have numerous joints, particularly alongfault zones, which provide sufficient permeability to yieldsmall quantities <strong>of</strong> groundwater. In some basement rocks,such as schist, igneous and early Paleozoic rocks, <strong>the</strong>presence <strong>of</strong> sulphide minerals tends to reduce water quality.However, where this occurs surface water supplies areabundant.Thermal and mineralised hot springs are widespread,although not common, throughout <strong>the</strong> Sou<strong>the</strong>rn Alps and<strong>the</strong> ranges <strong>of</strong> nor<strong>the</strong>rn Canterbury (Mongillo & Clelland1984). These springs are <strong>the</strong> result <strong>of</strong> groundwaterpercolating to considerable depth along fault zones beforedischarging on valley floors (Barnes & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1978; Allis& o<strong>the</strong>rs 1979). Measured temperatures range from 27.5°Cto 60°C and are commonly accompanied by a sulphurousdischarge (Mongillo & Clelland 1984). Commercial <strong>the</strong>rmalresorts have been developed at Hanmer Springs and MaruiaSprings along <strong>the</strong> Hope and Fowlers faults respectively.Oil and gasOil and gas shows are present in a number <strong>of</strong> places within<strong>the</strong> Murchison Basin. The basin contains approximately9000 m <strong>of</strong> Late Eocene to Miocene sedimentary rocks in itscentre and up to a fur<strong>the</strong>r 3000 m may have been removedby erosion (Nathan & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1986). The basin was drilledin <strong>the</strong> late 1920s and in 1968, 1970 and 1985 although only<strong>the</strong> last hole, Matiri-1, reached bedrock (at 1467 m; Dunn& o<strong>the</strong>rs 1986). The rocks in <strong>the</strong> basin are generally steeplydipping, having been folded into a series <strong>of</strong> synclinesseparated by faulted anticlines. No closed structural trapsare known and <strong>the</strong>re are few potential reservoir rocks withsufficient permeability or porosity, and consequently <strong>the</strong>hydrocarbon prospects are assessed as low (Nathan &o<strong>the</strong>rs 1986).In Marlborough, oil seeps are known from Pahau terranerocks at London Hill and <strong>the</strong> Amuri Limestone in IsolationCreek, south <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Waima River. Both seeps occur in closeproximity to major faults. The oil is likely to have beensourced from <strong>the</strong> Late Cretaceous Seymour Group and havemigrated up <strong>the</strong> fault zones to <strong>the</strong> surface (Field, Uruski &o<strong>the</strong>rs 1997). While both source rocks and potentialreservoir rocks are favourable, deformation has limited <strong>the</strong>possibility <strong>of</strong> any significant hydrocarbon traps. Mudstoneat <strong>the</strong> base <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Amuri Limestone in Mead Stream hasbeen correlated with <strong>the</strong> Waipawa Formation, ahydrocarbon source rock in <strong>the</strong> eastern North Island (Field,Uruski & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1997). However, in Marlborough, <strong>the</strong>mudstone is only a few metres thick, and significanthydrocarbon potential from this rock is unlikely.In nor<strong>the</strong>rn Canterbury hydrocarbons have been reportedfrom a number <strong>of</strong> locations, principally in <strong>the</strong> Cheviot area(Field, Browne & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1989). Several seeps occur in <strong>the</strong>Torlesse rocks although <strong>the</strong> hydrocarbons are most likelyto have originated in adjacent Late Cretaceous-Paleogenerocks (e.g., <strong>the</strong> Eyre Group), which include potential sourceand reservoir rocks as well as o<strong>the</strong>r seeps. Significantstructural traps have not yet been identified, and <strong>the</strong>re is<strong>the</strong> potential for stratigraphic traps. Gas containing a veryhigh ethane content escapes from <strong>the</strong> Hanmer <strong>the</strong>rmalsprings (Field, Browne and o<strong>the</strong>rs 1989).The <strong>of</strong>fshore area <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map has had limitedpetroleum exploration but seismic data <strong>of</strong> varying qualityhas identified several deep sedimentary basins (Uruski1992; Field, Uruski & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1997). The basins may containpotential source rocks that have been buried sufficientlyto generate hydrocarbons.53


ENGINEERING GEOLOGYIt is beyond <strong>the</strong> scope <strong>of</strong> this summary text to discussengineering geological parameters <strong>of</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map arearocks except in very general terms. Site specificinvestigations should always be undertaken wi<strong>the</strong>xploratory trenching and/or drilling, and o<strong>the</strong>r testing asappropriate under geotechnical supervision.Basement rocksThe majority <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> basement rocks, <strong>of</strong> Cambrian to EarlyCretaceous age, are generally hard and strong. Rockstrength may be diminished or influenced by grain size,degree <strong>of</strong> wea<strong>the</strong>ring, joint spacing, cleavage, shearingand bedding. Examples <strong>of</strong> weaker rocks are <strong>the</strong> higher gradeschists that have a well-developed foliation and mineralssuch as micas, which decrease rock strength. Mélangeand o<strong>the</strong>r zones <strong>of</strong> deformed rocks commonly have afractured, sheared fine-grained matrix and are consequentlyless competent than less-deformed basement rocks suchas greywacke. Slope failure is common in <strong>the</strong>se zones.Late Cretaceous-Pliocene rocksThe Late Cretaceous to Pliocene rocks vary considerablyin lithology and although some <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> older sandstoneshave characteristics similar to Torlesse greywackes, mostare less indurated or are only weakly cemented. As aconsequence <strong>the</strong>ir engineering properties are diverse.While most sandstones and conglomerates are relativelyhard, fine-grained lithologies such as siltstone andmudstone are s<strong>of</strong>t. Finer grained lithologies tend to wea<strong>the</strong>rmore rapidly on exposure, forming clay-rich material with afur<strong>the</strong>r reduction in rock strength and an increased potentialto fail, particularly where water saturated and/or sheared.Where constituent clay minerals have high plasticity orhave swelling properties, such as smectite, <strong>the</strong> risk <strong>of</strong> failureon slopes or in excavations is extreme (Fig. 58). Limestonesand most igneous rocks are usually competent, with <strong>the</strong>exception <strong>of</strong> uncemented or wea<strong>the</strong>red tuff. Rocks withonly a slightly elevated carbonate content tend to be morecompetent than those lacking CaCO 3.Quaternary sedimentsQuaternary sediments are characteristically weak,particularly where wea<strong>the</strong>red. Deposits dominated byserpentinite or Cenozoic mudstone clasts are particularlyprone to a loss in strength on wea<strong>the</strong>ring. However, manydeposits have a silty or sandy clay matrix making <strong>the</strong>mless prone to failure on slopes, even where wea<strong>the</strong>red. Anexample is wea<strong>the</strong>red Moutere Gravel which is usuallystable in steep natural or artificial cuts. Loess is widespreadin <strong>the</strong> east <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> map area and, on older terraces and ingullies, may form deposits up to several metres thick. Loesshas a relatively high internal strength but on hillsides it isprone to tunnel gully erosion. Landslide deposits aregenerally composed <strong>of</strong> incompetent materials, containnumerous failure planes and are extremely weak. Many arecurrently active or are only marginally stable (see below).Figure 58 Bentonitic mudstone within <strong>the</strong> relatively weak Waima Formation is prone to slipping, and movement <strong>of</strong> thislandslide north <strong>of</strong> Kekerengu (known as Blue Slip) periodically closes State Highway 1 and <strong>the</strong> Main Trunk Railway.The active trace <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Kekerengu Fault lies at <strong>the</strong> base <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> steeper slopes behind.54Photo CN8369/2: D.L. Homer.


GEOLOGICAL HAZARDSParts <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area are subject to geologicalhazards including landslides, earthquakes, tsunami, andcoastal erosion. The main hazards are discussed here ingeneral terms, but <strong>the</strong> information presented in this mapand text should not be used for detailed natural hazardzonation or assessment <strong>of</strong> specific sites without additionalgeotechnical advice. Recording <strong>of</strong> site-specific naturalhazard information is <strong>the</strong> responsibility <strong>of</strong> local authorities,and an awareness <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> presence <strong>of</strong> major hazards, and<strong>the</strong>ir potential for recurrence, is essential for regional anddistrict planning purposes.LandslidesSlope instability is widespread in <strong>the</strong> map area in all rockunits underlying sloping ground. Some failures are <strong>the</strong>result <strong>of</strong> weak, water-saturated ground, but many areearthquake-induced, as demonstrated during <strong>the</strong> 1888Hope and 1929 Buller (Murchison) earthquakes. Excludingfailures triggered by earthquakes, extensive failures arerare in <strong>the</strong> Cambrian-Early Cretaceous rocks northwest <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong> Alpine Fault. Large, isolated failures occur in Rakaiaand Pahau rocks sou<strong>the</strong>ast <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> fault. Prominent,probably earthquake-induced, failures have damned lakesConstance, Alexander and McRae as well as Lake Matirinorthwest <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Alpine Fault. The Hope Fault scarpbetween Hanmer and <strong>Kaikoura</strong> has numerous landslidesattributed to fault movement and earthquake shaking(Eusden & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2000). Landsliding is widespread in weakmélange rocks and in Cretaceous and Cenozoic rocks, wherebedding dips parallel to <strong>the</strong> slope, or where weak rocks areundercut by <strong>the</strong> sea or rivers. Examples are <strong>the</strong> largelandslides that dammed <strong>the</strong> Matakitaki (Fig. 59) and o<strong>the</strong>rrivers during <strong>the</strong> 1929 Murchison earthquake. There aremany failures involving Cenozoic rocks in <strong>the</strong> Waima Riverarea. Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene rocks containingbentonitic clays also tend to be unstable (Fig. 58). Inmountainous terrain, rock falls are relatively widespreadand superficial failures involving soil regolith are commonon most steep slopes in <strong>the</strong> map area.Coastal erosionHard basement rocks form about half <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> coastline in<strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area and coastal erosion is only locally asignificant hazard. North and south <strong>of</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> township,SH 1 is cut into coastal cliffs or built out into <strong>the</strong> heads <strong>of</strong>small bays and rip-rap is placed as necessary to mitigatelocal marine erosion. Even where more extensive coastalplains (composed <strong>of</strong> s<strong>of</strong>ter terrestrial, aeolian or marinesediments) are present, adjacent headlands <strong>of</strong> hard rocktend to stabilise <strong>the</strong> coast. Between 1942 and 1974, along a30 km stretch <strong>of</strong> coastline from Oaro to Mangamaunu <strong>the</strong>rehas been overall net coastal accretion (up to 40 m in places)Figure 59 The 1929 Buller (Murchison) earthquake triggered widespread landsliding, causing considerable damageand some loss <strong>of</strong> life. This example originated from east-dipping Mangles Formation on <strong>the</strong> west bank <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>Matakitaki valley, and slid over 1 km to demolish an occupied farmhouse and temporarily dam and divert <strong>the</strong> river.Photo CN46447/21: D.L. Homer.55


ut locally up to 15 m <strong>of</strong> land lost because <strong>of</strong> coastal erosion(Gibb 1978). The effects <strong>of</strong> coastal erosion, and short-termphenomena such as storm and tsunami surges, can bemitigated by ensuring new housing and o<strong>the</strong>r structuresare set back a prudent distance from <strong>the</strong> coast. Provisionshould be made for a potential rise in sea level in responseto global warming. A rise in sea level is likely to initiateincreased coastal erosion and increase <strong>the</strong> risk <strong>of</strong> marineflooding <strong>of</strong> very low-lying areas inland <strong>of</strong> beach ridges ordunes.Earthquake hazardsThe <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area is situated within a region <strong>of</strong> highseismicity (earthquake activity) as historical recordsindicate (Figs 3, 60). Large shallow earthquakes, inparticular, commonly result in surface rupture and <strong>the</strong>numerous active faults in <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area aretestament to <strong>the</strong> relatively high frequency <strong>of</strong> large andshallow earthquakes in <strong>the</strong> region (Table 1).Offshore faults include <strong>the</strong> Needles, Campbell Bank andBoo Boo faults and <strong>the</strong> Chancet and North Mernoo faultzones. Many more unnamed faults have been mappedonshore and <strong>of</strong>fshore. Active faults by definition havehad demonstrable displacement in <strong>the</strong> last 125 000 years,or two or more movements in <strong>the</strong> last 500 000 years. Activityis generally determined where faults displace LateQuaternary surfaces and deposits, particularly those <strong>of</strong>alluvial terraces and fans (Q1a, Q2a). Activity may only beevident at a single locality along a fault but for mappingpurposes <strong>the</strong> fault activity has been extrapolated (orinterpolated where <strong>the</strong>re are multiple localities) along strike.An active fold has been mapped near Ward where LateQuaternary surfaces are measurably tilted. The basin andrange topography in nor<strong>the</strong>rn Canterbury is in part due toongoing active folding (Litchfield & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2003).Since written records <strong>of</strong> earthquakes have been kept inNew Zealand (from about 1840), eight shallow magnitude6.0 or greater earthquakes have originated within <strong>the</strong><strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area. Two <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>se earthquakes, <strong>the</strong> 1848Marlborough and 1888 North Canterbury earthquakes, hadmagnitudes over 7.0. They both caused moderate to strongshaking over a large part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map and wereassociated with significant, clearly identifiable surface faultruptures. Historical documents record that in <strong>the</strong> 1848 M7.5Marlborough earthquake, rupture occurred along morethan 105 km <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Awatere Fault, from <strong>the</strong> coast to at leastas far as Barefell Pass (Grapes & o<strong>the</strong>rs 1998). Shakingintensities <strong>of</strong> MM9, possibly MM10, were experienced in<strong>the</strong> Wairau and Awatere valleys where most buildings(predominantly cob structures) were extensively damagedor destroyed. There were many instances <strong>of</strong> ground172° E173° E174°E175°E^1888^^^^^^^^^^^^1855 Wairarapa42°S1991 HawksCrag1913Westport1929 Buller1968InangahuaALPINE FAULT1990 LakeTennyson1960^Acheron RiverAWATERE FAULTHOPE FAULTCLARENCE FAULT^1848Marlborough1977 Cape CampbellN42°S1948 Waiau1888 NorthCanterbury43°S1929Arthur’s Pass1995Cass1994Arthur’s Pass1946Lake Coleridge1901 Cheviot1922 Motunau1951 Cheviot100 km1965Chatham Rise4-55-66-7Magnitude>7Shallow(40km)^^43°S172°E 173° E174°E175°EFigure 60 Major historic earthquakes within and adjacent to <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area.56


The Modified Mercalli Intensity scale (MM)(in part; summarised from Downes 1995)MM 2: Felt by persons at rest, on upper floors or favourably placed.MM 3: Felt indoors; hanging objects may swing, vibration similar to passing <strong>of</strong> light trucks.MM 4: Generally noticed indoors but not outside. Light sleepers may be awakened. Vibration may be likenedto passing <strong>of</strong> heavy traffic. Doors and windows rattle. Walls and frames <strong>of</strong> buildings may be heard to creak.MM 5: Generally felt outside, and by almost everyone indoors. Most sleepers awakened. A few people alarmed.Some glassware and crockery may be broken. Open doors may swing.MM 6: Felt by all. People and animals alarmed. Many run outside. Objects fall from shelves. Glassware andcrockery broken. Unstable furniture overturned. Slight damage to some types <strong>of</strong> buildings. A few cases <strong>of</strong>chimney damage. Loose material may be dislodged from sloping ground.MM 7: General alarm. Furniture moves on smooth floors. Unreinforced stone and brick walls crack. Some preearthquakecode buildings damaged. Ro<strong>of</strong> tiles may be dislodged. Many domestic chimneys broken. Smallslides such as falls <strong>of</strong> sand and gravel banks. Some fine cracks appear in sloping ground. A few instances <strong>of</strong>liquefaction.MM 8: Alarm may approach panic. Steering <strong>of</strong> cars greatly affected. Some serious damage to pre-earthquakecode masonry buildings. Most unreinforced domestic chimneys damaged, many brought down. Monumentsand elevated tanks twisted or brought down. Some post-1980 brick veneer dwellings damaged. Houses notsecured to foundations may move. Cracks appear on steep slopes and in wet ground. Slides in roadsidecuttings and unsupported excavations. Small earthquake fountains and o<strong>the</strong>r instances <strong>of</strong> liquefaction.MM 9: Very poor quality unreinforced masonry destroyed. Pre-earthquake code masonry buildings heavilydamaged, some collapsing. Damage or distortion to some post-1980 buildings and bridges. Houses notsecured to foundations shifted <strong>of</strong>f. Brick veneers fall and expose framing. Conspicuous cracking <strong>of</strong> flat andsloping ground. General landsliding on steep slopes. Liquefaction effects intensified, with large earthquakefountains and sand craters.MM 10: Most unreinforced masonry structure destroyed. Many pre-earthquake code buildings destroyed.Many pre-1980 buildings and bridges seriously damaged. Many post-1980 buildings and bridges moderatelydamaged or permanently distorted. Widespread cracking <strong>of</strong> flat and sloping ground. Widespread and severelandsliding on sloping ground. Widespread and severe liquefaction effects.Table 1. Rupture event displacement, slip rate, last rupture, recurrence interval and likely magnitude <strong>of</strong> significantactive faults and associated earthquakes in <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area (after Pettinga & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2001; Yetton 2002; Fraser& o<strong>the</strong>rs 2006).Average Last rupture Recurrence MagnitudeFault name (segment) displacement Slip rate(s) mm/yr (years before interval (years) (Mw)per rupturepresent)(m)Waimea Fault - 0.2 - - 7.1 – 7.5Alpine (Wairau) Fault 7 4 - 5 >1000 1000 - 2300 7.3 – 7.7Alpine Fault (Haupiri-Tophouse) 3 2.4 - 12 1600 - 1670 500 7.1 – 7.5Awatere Fault (nor<strong>the</strong>rn) 5.5 - 7.5 7.7 158 690 - 1500 7.5Awatere Fault (sou<strong>the</strong>rn) - 8 522 - 597 1900 - 4000 7.5Clarence Fault (nor<strong>the</strong>rn) ~7 4 - 7 - 1500 7.7Clarence Fault (sou<strong>the</strong>rn) 7 4 - 8 - 1080 -Kekerengu Fault 5.5 5 - 10 - 730 7.2Jordan Thrust 2 - 4 1.3 - 2.5 (vertical), - 1200 7.10 - 3.4 (horizontal)Hope Fault (Conway-<strong>of</strong>fshore) - 11 - 35 168 120 - 300 7.6Hope Fault (1888 rupture) 1.5 - 2.6 14 ± 3 100 120 7.2Hanmer Fault 1 - 3 1-2


Figure 61(a) The Hope Fault at Glynn Wye ruptured in1888 and evidence from <strong>of</strong>fset morainesindicates that lateral movements <strong>of</strong> 1.5 to2.6 m have occurred approximately every 120years on average. The Hope Fault here (centre)tracks towards Hanmer Basin (top centre).Photo CN3602/26: D.L. Homer.(b) Geologist Alexander McKay visited <strong>the</strong>Hope Fault at Glynn Wye soon after it ruptured,noting <strong>the</strong> dextral displacement marked by <strong>the</strong>2.4 m <strong>of</strong>fset <strong>of</strong> this fence. His inference thatfaults could have significant and repeatedlateral movement was an idea that was notsupported by <strong>the</strong> wider geological communityuntil many decades later.Photo: A. McKay.damage including landslides, ground cracking, liquefactionand differential settlement (Eiby 1980; Grapes & o<strong>the</strong>rs1998). Ground damage may have occurred as far south asnor<strong>the</strong>rn Canterbury. The 1848 earthquake also causedconsiderable damage in <strong>the</strong> <strong>the</strong>n lightly populated town <strong>of</strong>Wellington.Forty years later, <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area was stronglyshaken by <strong>the</strong> 1888 M7.0–7.3 North Canterbury earthquake,which ruptured a 30 ± 5 km segment <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Hope Fault west<strong>of</strong> Hanmer Springs. Up to 2.6 m horizontal displacement on<strong>the</strong> fault was recorded at <strong>the</strong> time (Fig 61a,b). Many coband stone buildings were badly damaged or destroyed(MM9) in <strong>the</strong> Hope valley and on <strong>the</strong> Hanmer Plain in arelatively narrow zone parallel to <strong>the</strong> fault (Cowan 1991).Damage to household contents (MM6) extended as far as<strong>Kaikoura</strong> and <strong>the</strong> West Coast. Landslides and grounddamage occurred in <strong>the</strong> highest intensity areas. O<strong>the</strong>rdamaging earthquakes centred in <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map areainclude <strong>the</strong> 1901 M6.9 Cheviot earthquake which causedconsiderable damage to buildings in <strong>the</strong> Cheviot area, withintensities <strong>of</strong> MM8–9 occurring along a 30–40 km stripfrom Domett to Conway Flat (D.J. Dowrick, unpublisheddata). The 1922 M6.4 Motunau earthquake, on <strong>the</strong>afternoon <strong>of</strong> Christmas Day, brought down large numbers<strong>of</strong> chimneys from Cheviot to Rangiora (Downes 1995),reaching a maximum intensity <strong>of</strong> MM8 in <strong>the</strong> Motunauarea (D.J. Dowrick, unpublished data.). The 1948 M6.4Waiau earthquake caused minor structural damage,principally in and between <strong>the</strong> settlements <strong>of</strong> Hanmer andWaiau (Downes 1995).Parts <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area have also been subjectedto strong shaking from large earthquakes whose epicentreslie outside <strong>the</strong> area. The 1855 M8.1 Wairarapa earthquakethat ruptured <strong>the</strong> Wairarapa Fault in <strong>the</strong> sou<strong>the</strong>rn NorthIsland (Grapes & Downes 1997) caused subsidence in <strong>the</strong>lower Wairau valley. Intensities <strong>of</strong> MM5 and above wereexperienced over a large part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area and<strong>the</strong> maximum intensity <strong>of</strong> MM8, possibly MM9, occurredfrom <strong>the</strong> lower Awatere valley to Kekerengu and CapeCampbell.The 1929 M7.0 Arthur’s Pass and 1929 M7.7 Bullerearthquakes ruptured <strong>the</strong> Poulter Fault (Berryman &Villamor 2004) and <strong>the</strong> White Creek Fault (Fyfe 1929)respectively. Both <strong>the</strong>se earthquakes occurred in sparselypopulated areas outside <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area.Never<strong>the</strong>less, <strong>the</strong> Buller earthquake was responsible for15 deaths, <strong>the</strong> majority <strong>of</strong> which were caused by landslides(Henderson 1937). A large part <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map areawas shaken with intensities <strong>of</strong> MM6 or more. Northwesternparts <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> area experienced intensities <strong>of</strong> MM8, resultingin considerable structural and environmental damage and58


Table 2. Mean return periods for earthquake shaking intensity for <strong>the</strong> towns <strong>of</strong> Murchison, Hanmer Springs, Culverdenand <strong>Kaikoura</strong>, derived from unpublished data <strong>of</strong> W.D. Smith using <strong>the</strong> seismicity model <strong>of</strong> Stirling & o<strong>the</strong>rs (2002).IntensityMean return period (years)Murchison Hanmer Culverden <strong>Kaikoura</strong>SpringsMM6 or greater 8 8 9 9MM7 or greater 34 21 25 35MM8 or greater 230 53 100 120MM9 or greater 2400 170 1000 410extensive landsliding (Hancox & o<strong>the</strong>rs 2002). The 1968M7.1 Inangahua earthquake was less extensive in its strongground shaking effects, and <strong>the</strong> maximum intensity in <strong>the</strong><strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area was probably MM7 (Downes 1995).A re-evaluation <strong>of</strong> seismic hazard in New Zealand byStirling & o<strong>the</strong>rs (2001, 2002) uses models <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> likelyground acceleration at any one place, based on historicalearthquakes and <strong>the</strong> Late Quaternary geological and activefaulting record. The highest levels <strong>of</strong> Peak GroundAcceleration (PGA) in <strong>the</strong> map area, corresponding to <strong>the</strong>most severe shaking and damage, are predicted along <strong>the</strong>western Hope Fault. The mean return periods for specificintensity levels <strong>of</strong> earthquake-induced ground shakingvary significantly across <strong>the</strong> area, <strong>the</strong> return perioddecreasing (i.e. earthquakes occurring more frequently)towards <strong>the</strong> Hope Fault (Table 2).The consequences <strong>of</strong> a large, shallow earthquake in oradjacent to <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area will be strong groundshaking, multiple aftershocks, shaking-induced slopeinstability, and possible surface fault rupture. Fault ruptureis known to have occurred within <strong>the</strong> last 500 years on <strong>the</strong>Hope and Awatere faults (Table 1; Fig 61). The recurrenceinterval on individual faults in <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area isbetween 120 and many tens <strong>of</strong> thousands <strong>of</strong> years.During an earthquake <strong>the</strong> felt ground shaking intensitieswill vary considerably depending on ground surfaceconditions and on distance from <strong>the</strong> focus <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>earthquake. Unconsolidated water-saturated sediments,such as swamp deposits, estuarine mud, marine sand andgravel, and landfill, will amplify shaking compared withhard competent basement rocks nearby. The towns <strong>of</strong>Murchison, Hanmer Springs and Culverden are built onyoung Quaternary deposits, and it is likely that parts <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong>se urban areas will show some shaking amplification,as Murchison did in <strong>the</strong> 1929 earthquake (Suggate & Wood1979). Surface rupture along a fault could result in grounddisplacements <strong>of</strong> several metres both horizontally andvertically. Such <strong>of</strong>fsets would disrupt all services, such asroads, railways, water, and power and telephone cables.TsunamiCoastal flooding and damage caused by tsunami arepossible along <strong>the</strong> entire coastline <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> map area as wellas <strong>the</strong> lower reaches <strong>of</strong> rivers. The coastal town <strong>of</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong>and adjacent coastal communities are at risk. Large tsunami<strong>of</strong> more than 4 m are life-threatening, and can be verydamaging to structures. Even small tsunami can causeerosion and create problems - for example, <strong>the</strong> strongcurrents generated affect boats at anchor. The impact <strong>of</strong> atsunami depends on <strong>the</strong> size <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> energy source and itsdistance from <strong>the</strong> coastline, <strong>the</strong> propagation path <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>tsunami and <strong>the</strong> morphology <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> coast and <strong>the</strong> adjoiningseabed. It is difficult to predict <strong>the</strong> impact accurately.In historical times <strong>the</strong> coastline has not been stronglyaffected by tsunami generated by earthquakes at distantlocations, such as South America. Locally generatedtsunami, potentially caused by near-shore fault rupture orsubmarine landsliding, pose a greater threat. The tsunamicaused by <strong>the</strong> 1855 M8.1 Wairarapa earthquake is <strong>the</strong>largest known local source tsunami to have occurredhistorically in <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> map area. The tsunami wasobserved throughout Cook Strait area and along <strong>the</strong> Kapitiand nor<strong>the</strong>astern Marlborough coasts (Grapes & Downes1997). Near <strong>the</strong> Clarence River mouth, <strong>the</strong> tsunami inundatedparts <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> coastline to several tens <strong>of</strong> metres inland anddeposited boats above high-tide mark. Submarineslumping, particularly into <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> Canyon, has <strong>the</strong>potential to generate a large tsunami that would arriveonshore with minimal or no warning.Locally generated tsunami are a cause for concern as waveheights may be large enough to be damaging and lifethreatening,possibly catastrophic, and travel times aregenerally too short for Civil Defence warnings. The publicshould treat strong earthquake shaking as a signal to leavecoastal locations and move inland. Similarly unusualchanges in sea behaviour (sudden rise or withdrawal),possibly accompanied by roaring from <strong>the</strong> sea, could alsosignal <strong>the</strong> imminent arrival <strong>of</strong> a tsunami and <strong>the</strong> coastalarea should be evacuated.59


ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThis map was compiled by M.S. Rattenbury (part or all <strong>of</strong>NZMS 260 sheets M30, M31, M32, M33, N31), M.R.Johnston (M29, N29, N30, O29, P29, Q29) and D.B.Townsend (M33, N32, N33, O30, O31, O32, O33, P30, P31),with significant contributions from C. Mazengarb (N31,O31) and M.J. Isaac (O30). Major sources <strong>of</strong> contributinginformation were geological maps at 1:50 000, by Suggate(1984), Challis & o<strong>the</strong>rs (1994), Johnston (1990), Reay (1993)and Warren (1995). Additional data came from publishedpapers, reports, bulletins, and unpublished material from<strong>the</strong> files <strong>of</strong> <strong>GNS</strong> <strong>Science</strong>, mineral exploration companyreports and university <strong>the</strong>ses.Fieldwork during 2000–2004 concentrated on visitingselected key areas and filling gaps in knowledge, especiallyin <strong>the</strong> greywacke rocks. Fieldwork was undertaken withconsiderable assistance from B. Allan, J.G. Begg, R.Jongens, J.M. Lee, B. May, T. Nash, G.A. Partington, J. H.Rattenbury. P. Sprung, D. Thomas, and I.M. Turnbull.Aerial photograph interpretation <strong>of</strong> landslides by T.PCoote, G.D. Dellow and S.A.L. Read was compiled from <strong>the</strong>Landslide Map <strong>of</strong> New Zealand project. The <strong>of</strong>fshoregeology has been compiled from Field, Browne & o<strong>the</strong>rs(1989), Field, Uruski & o<strong>the</strong>rs (1997) and unpublished andsome published data <strong>of</strong> P.M. Barnes and co-authors listedin <strong>the</strong> references. We thank <strong>the</strong> National Institute <strong>of</strong> Waterand Atmospheric Research for permission to reproduce<strong>of</strong>fshore bathymetry, faults and folds from <strong>the</strong>ir digitalrecords.The co-operation <strong>of</strong> geology department heads fromVictoria, Canterbury and Otago universities in allowingaccess to student <strong>the</strong>ses is gratefully acknowledged.Geological map data have been sourced from <strong>the</strong> followinguniversity <strong>the</strong>ses; Adamson (1966), Allen (1962), Audru(1996), Botsford (1983), Challis (1960), Clegg (2001), Cowan(1989), Cutten (1976), Grapes (1972), Hall (1964), Harker(1989), Hill (1998), Jones (1995), Kirker (1989), Kundycki(1996), Lihou (1991), Lowry (1995), McLean (1986),Melhuish (1988), Montague (1981), Nicol (1977), Powell(1985), Prebble (1976), Ritchie (1986), Robertson (1989),Rose (1986), Slater (2001), Smith (2001), Stewart (1974),Stone (2001), Townsend (1996, 2001), Vickery (1994), Waters(1988), and Worley (1995). The North Canterbury GIScompiled by Pettinga & Campbell (2003) contains data fromUniversity <strong>of</strong> Canterbury student <strong>the</strong>ses includingLitchfield (1995), Mould (1992), Nicol (1991), and infillmapping by A.M. Wandres.Development and maintenance <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> GIS database wereby D.W. Heron and M.S. Rattenbury, with digital captureand map production by J. Arnst, T. Browne, B. Car<strong>the</strong>w,D.W. Heron, B. Lukovic, M. Persaud, J.H. Rattenbury, P.Sprung, S. Tille and D.B. Townsend. Map design and digitalcartography were by D.W. Heron and M.S. Rattenbury.The text was written by M.S. Rattenbury, D.B. Townsendand M.R. Johnston with considerable input to <strong>the</strong>geological hazards section from G.L. Downes. The diagramswere prepared by P. Car<strong>the</strong>w, M.S. Rattenbury and D.B.Townsend. Parts or all <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> map and text were reviewedby G.H. Browne, J.S. Crampton, S.W. Edbrooke, B.D. Field,P.J. Forsyth, C.J. Hollis, M.G. Laird, N.J. Litchfield, T.A.Little, and I.M. Turnbull. The map and text were edited byP.J. Forsyth and D.W. Heron. Text layout was by P.L.Murray. M.J. Isaac checked pro<strong>of</strong>s <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> map and text.R. Solomon <strong>of</strong> Te Runanga o <strong>Kaikoura</strong> provided <strong>the</strong>historical information for <strong>the</strong> front cover and frontispiecephotographs.Funding for <strong>the</strong> QMAP: Geological Map <strong>of</strong> New Zealandproject was provided by <strong>the</strong> Foundation for Research,<strong>Science</strong> & Technology under contract C05X0401.The base map is sourced from Land Information NewZealand. Crown copyright reserved.AVAILABILITY OF QMAP DATAThe geological map accompanying this book is derivedfrom information stored in <strong>the</strong> QMAP geographicinformation system (GIS) database maintained by <strong>GNS</strong><strong>Science</strong> and from o<strong>the</strong>r GIS-compatible digital databases.The data shown on <strong>the</strong> map are a subset <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> availableinformation. Customised single-factor and multifactor mapscan be generated from <strong>the</strong> GIS and integrated with o<strong>the</strong>rdata sets to produce, for example, maps showing fossil ormineral localities in relation to specific rock types, or mapsshowing rock types in relation to <strong>the</strong> road network. Datacan be presented for user-defined specific areas, forirregular areas such as local authority territories, or in <strong>the</strong>form <strong>of</strong> strip maps showing information within a specifieddistance <strong>of</strong> linear features such as roads or <strong>the</strong> coastline.The information can be made available at any requiredscale, bearing in mind <strong>the</strong> scale <strong>of</strong> data capture and <strong>the</strong>generalisation involved in digitising. Maps produced at ascale greater than 1:50 000 will generally not show accurate,detailed geological information. The QMAP series mapsare available in GIS vector and raster digital form usingstandard data interchange formats.For new or additional information, for prints <strong>of</strong> this map ato<strong>the</strong>r scales, for selected data or combinations <strong>of</strong> datasets or for derivative or single-factor maps based on QMAPdata, please contact:QMAP Leader<strong>GNS</strong> <strong>Science</strong>P. O. Box 30 368Lower Hutt60


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This map and text illustrate <strong>the</strong> geology <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> <strong>Kaikoura</strong> area, extending east from Murchison tosou<strong>the</strong>rn Marlborough, and south to Waikari in north Canterbury. Onshore geology is mapped at ascale <strong>of</strong> 1:250 000 while <strong>of</strong>fshore <strong>the</strong> bathymetry, thick Quaternary sedimentary deposits and majorstructural elements are shown. Geological information has been obtained from published andunpublished mapping and research by <strong>GNS</strong> <strong>Science</strong> geologists, from work by staff and students <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong>University <strong>of</strong> Canterbury, Victoria University <strong>of</strong> Wellington and <strong>the</strong> University <strong>of</strong> Otago, from<strong>of</strong>fshore mapping by <strong>the</strong> National Institute <strong>of</strong> Water and Atmosphere, and from mineral explorationreports. All data are held in a geographic information system and are available in digital format onrequest. The accompanying text summarises <strong>the</strong> geology and tectonic development, as well as <strong>the</strong>geological hazards and <strong>the</strong> economic and engineering geology <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> map area. The map is part <strong>of</strong> aseries initiated in 1996 which will cover <strong>the</strong> whole <strong>of</strong> New Zealand.The map area is mostly underlain by Mesozoic greywacke rocks <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Torlesse terrane, except in <strong>the</strong>northwest where narrow fault-bounded remnants <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Buller, Takaka, Brook Street, Murihiku, DunMountain-Maitai and Caples terranes occur, as well as <strong>the</strong> Median Batholith and o<strong>the</strong>r granitic rocks.Discontinuously preserved late Early Cretaceous to Pliocene, predominantly marine sedimentary andvolcanogenic rocks occur in <strong>the</strong> northwest, <strong>the</strong> east and <strong>the</strong> south <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> map area. Quaternaryterrestrial sediments are widespread on land, including till, loess, scree, landslide, alluvial fan andalluvial terrace deposits. Numerous active faults <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Marlborough Fault System transect <strong>the</strong> maparea, marking <strong>the</strong> plate boundary zone between <strong>the</strong> Pacific and Australian tectonic plates. Several <strong>of</strong><strong>the</strong>se faults have moved in historic times contributing to <strong>the</strong> region's relatively high seismic hazard.The highest point <strong>of</strong> <strong>the</strong> Inland <strong>Kaikoura</strong> Range is Mt Tapuae-o-Uenuku (2885 m) where <strong>the</strong> summitregion is composed <strong>of</strong> erosion-resistant Cretaceous mafic igneous intrusive rocks and associatedhornfelsed Pahau terrane greywacke. The active Clarence Fault separates <strong>the</strong> Inland <strong>Kaikoura</strong>Range from <strong>the</strong> distinctive Chalk Range in <strong>the</strong> middle distance, and <strong>the</strong> white screes <strong>the</strong>re and in<strong>the</strong> foreground emanate from Paleogene carbonate rocks.Photo: D.B. TownsendISBN 0-478-09925-8

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