Roadwork Safety - Innovation & Future Directions - Aapaq.org

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Roadwork Safety - Innovation & Future Directions - Aapaq.org

Roadwork Safety- Innovation & Future DirectionsMichael Rose,Manager Operations Safety


Introduction• This presentation identifies the high risk areas whichstill require more effective controls.• It will also highlight new control trends, safetyinnovation in those areas and future focus areas.• More detail is provided in my written paper.• I wish to thank VicRoads for supporting thispresentation in the interest of improving safety in ourindustry, and• AAPA for organising the only conference dedicatedto roadwork safety in Australia.


Introduction• The Hierarchy of Safety Controls was mandated in2004 under the Victorian OHS Act for all Hazards.This has also been adopted in the recent Nationalequivalents.• The WorkSafe High Risk Construction WorkClassification was mandated for 19 activities in 2007.• 6 of these are common at roadwork and up to 14 onsome major projects.


ROADWORK HIGH RISKCONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIESThe following activities in road construction are classifiedas high risk in the Construction Regulations and NationalEquivalents:1. Risk of Fall > 2 metres.2. Demolition Work.3. Confined Space Work.4. Trench or Shaft > 1.5 metres.5. Tunneling Work.6. Explosives Work.7. Work near Contaminated or Flammable Atmosphere.8. Work involving Tilt-up or Precast Concrete.9. Work In, Over or Adjacent to Water or other liquidswhere there is a risk of drowning.


ROADWORK HIGH RISKCONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES10.Work On or Adjacent to Railways used by Traffic.11.Work On or Adjacent to Roadways used by Traffic.12.The Movement of Powered Mobile Plant.13.Work on or near gas mains or pipes.14.Work on or near Energised Electrical Services.


THE TOP THREE HIGH RISK ACTIVITIES TO BEDISCUSSED HERE TODAY1. Mobile Plant & Vehicle Reverse over.2. Worksite Traffic Management (Short Term).3. Overhead & Underground ServicesContacts (Earthworks Primarily).These activities have either resulted in seriousinjuries or because of their incident prevalenceand risk level have the potential to do so.


Serious Safety Incidents Since 2005• One traffic controller struck by drunk driver on shortterm major project site lane closure. Serious leginjuries.• One road worker reversed over by truck on shortterm regional project site. Serious leg injuries.• One traffic controller reversed over by road sweeperand fatally injured on regional project site short termlane closure.• Other incidents involving short term lane closurepenetrations.


Safety Improvements Since 2005• TMA use significantly increased on shortterm projects sites as a consequence ofincidents in project and maintenance areas.• Two TMAs and advance warning required onhigh speed & traffic volume urban freeways.• TMAs are now used more frequently on highspeed roads for short term works.• No injuries or penetrations on properlyinstalled barrier protected long term sites.Half a Billion vehicles past barriers as of mid2012.


Safety Improvements Since 2005• Portable & Permanent Variable Speed LimitSigns introduced on Urban Freeways.• Improved Traffic Management Vehiclesdeveloped to eliminate / reduce pedestrianson high speed roads.• Portable Road Safety Cameras used on longterm project sites.• Speed and traffic volumes now measured onlong term projects such as M80.• Remote Control Mowers.• Colour VMS Displays.


Pedestrians are very vulnerable to vehicle impacts


The Traffic HAZARDIS A HIGH RISK FOR ALL ROAD TYPES


Probability of a serious casualty accidentas a function of vehicle speed@50 = 90%@40=60%@30=25%@25=12%


Probability of a pedestrian fatality accidentas a function of vehicle speed@50 = 85%@40=25%@30=10%@25=5%


Traffic Management– WHAT IS THE RISK LEVEL?• All Construction Work on or adjacent to roads is nowclassified as a HIGH risk under the ConstructionRegulations.• Risk assessments based on body of knowledge &statistics confirm the HIGH risk classification.• This now means that we must consider this work to bea HIGH risk for all road types for Construction andMaintenance works.• OHS Legislation is indictable so probably imposes ahigher duty of care than the Road Management Act interms of worksite safety considerations.


THE HIERARCHY OF SAFETY CONTROLWORKSITE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT1. Elimination of Traffic Hazard (Road Closure).2. Substitution of Traffic Hazard (Not Practicable).3. Isolation of Traffic Hazard from Worksite(Barriers long term, TMAs short term).4. Administrative / Behavioural (Signs, Bollards,Lane Closure, Low Traffic Clearances).5. A Combination of Controls and PPE areapplicable at most levels.The highest most reliable and effective controls are at the topabove the yellow line, and the lowest least are below theorange line.


FULL CARRIAGEWAY OR ROAD CLOSUREEVOLUTION OF THE HIERARCHY OFCONTROLS FOR WTM


TEMPORARY SAFETY BARRIERSEVOLUTION OF THE HIERARCHY OFCONTROLS FOR WTM


TRUCK MOUNTED ATTENUATORS (TMAs)


TRUCK MOUNTED ATTENUATORS (TMAs)


TRUCK MOUNTED ATTENUATORS (TMAs)


LANE CLOSURE & TRAFFIC CLEARANCE


TRAFFIC CLEARANCE7 metre at 40 km/hAnd is outside of 3 to 6metre fatality zone.


THE FATALITY OR RED ZONE• MOST FATALITIES HAVE OCCURRED ON ROADAND UP TO 3 METRES FROM ROAD. ONE HASBEEN AT 5 METRES.• THIS DOES NOT MEAN ERRANT VEHICLESCANNOT TRAVEL FURTHER FROM ROAD – EVENWITH BRAKES ON 19 METRES IS POSSIBLE AT 100KM/H.• THE FOLLOWING MATRIX TABLE BASED ON THEBODY OF KNOWLEDGE INDICATES THE LOW RISKZONE IN GREEN AT VARIOUS SPEED CLEARANCECOMBINATIONS. BASED ON CLEAR ZONE, LOWRISK RESIDUAL BRAKING SPEED AND WS-TMCODE.


CLEARANCE SPEED RISK MATRIXBASED ON BODY OF KNOWLEDGE


SPEED REINFORCEMENT DEVICESSPEED DISPLAYTRAILERSPEED HUMPS


SPEED REINFORCEMENT DEVICES (FH)


SPEED REINFORCEMENT WITH VMS


PATROL CARSSPEEDENFORCEMENT


SPEED ENFORCEMENT – PORTABLECAMERAS


Movement of Powered Mobile Plant /Trucks On Site– Reverse Over Risks• Blind spots behind, beside and sometimes infront of plant and trucks so operators / driverscannot see into those areas.• These incidents can easily result in the seriousinjury or fatality of a pedestrian worker. At least 5are known to have occurred over the past 2years.


Movement of Powered Mobile Plant /Trucks On Site– High Risk Construction Work• Trucks when reversing are a significant cause ofthese incidents. But all mobile constructionvehicles / plant are a proven risk.• The Hierarchy of Risk Control Applies under theOHS Act and Regulations.


REVERSE OVER INCIDENTS- PLANT BLIND SPOTSArticulated Dump Truck


REVERSE OVER INCIDENTS- BLIND SPOTSExcavator


REVERSE OVER INCIDENTS- BLIND SPOTSSmooth Drum Roller


REVERSE OVER INCIDENTSUS NIOSH DATAThe US NIOSH Fatality Data provides furtherinformation on fatal reversing incidents:• Eight of the deceased workers were using mobilephones when the reversing incident occurred.• Twenty-one fatalities involved vehicles with no driver.• Dump Trucks are the most common vehicle involved.• Twenty-five of the victims were acting as spotters forthe vehicles that backed over them.(Note in many of the incidents, employers were usingspotters to comply with the existing reversing-relatedstandards).


NIOSH RECOMMENDATIONS TO PREVENTREVERSE OVER INCIDENTS- Internal Traffic Management Plans.• Isolate workers and other pedestrians from mobile plantand vehicles.• Reduce or eliminate the need to back up.• Limit vehicle access points to work zone.• Coordinate truck and mobile plant movements.• Provide signs within the work zone to give guidance topedestrian workers (AS1742.3 standard), equipment andtrucks.• Design buffer spaces to separate pedestrian workersfrom errant vehicles and work zone equipment.• Train all on-site personnel into ITMP provisions.


PREVENTION OF REVERSE OVER INCIDENTS- Hierarchy of Controls1. Elimination of Plant / Truck Hazard (Not Practical).2. Substitution of Plant / Truck Hazard (Plant with NoBlind Spots – CCTV, Proximity Sensors, Auto Braking).3. Isolation of Plant / Truck Hazard from Pedestrians(Internal Traffic Management Plans, Barriers, Fences).4. Engineering / Physical Protection.5. Administrative / Behavioural (What we have beendoing and is not working, flashing lights, reversealarms, etc).6. A Combination of Controls and PPE are applicable atmost levels.


PREVENTING REVERSE OVER INCIDENTS- Internal Traffic Management Plans.


PREVENTING REVERSE OVER INCIDENTS- Internal Traffic Management Plans.


PREVENTING REVERSE OVER INCIDENTS- Internal Traffic Management Plans.


PREVENTING REVERSE OVER INCIDENTS- Internal Traffic Management Plans.


PREVENTING REVERSE OVER INCIDENTS- Internal Traffic Management Plans.


PREVENTING REVERSE OVER INCIDENTS- Internal Traffic Management Plans.


PREVENTING REVERSE OVER INCIDENTS- Personal Proximity Detection.


PREVENTING REVERSE OVER INCIDENTS- Personal Proximity Detection.


PREVENTING REVERSE OVER INCIDENTS- Personal Proximity Detection.


PREVENTING REVERSE OVER INCIDENTSAutomatic Detection ofPedestrians & Braking hasarrived and is a promising newretrofit able development!


WORK NEAR OVERHEADELECTRICAL SERVICESWorkSafeHandbook forWorkplaces 2009-UsingEarthmovingEquipmentnear OverheadServices.


DESIGN ENVELOPE OUTSIDE NGZSWMS required but Spotter not mandatory


DESIGN ENVELOPE INSIDE NGZSWMS required including heights of designenvelope, and electrical assets. Spotter required.


DESIGN ENVELOPE INSIDE LIMIT OF APPROACHPermit required from asset owner, SWMS, Spotter andHIGHER LEVEL CONTROL.


WORK NEAR UNDERGROUNDSERVICESActivities which have shown the potential to strikeunderground services include:• Excavation works with excavators orbackhoes• Scraping or grading works• Pile and post driving• Coring and geotechnical studies• Auger works• Steel pickets


WORK NEAR UNDERGROUNDSERVICES


NON-DESTRUCTIVE PROVING


NON-DESTRUCTIVE PROVING


ENGINEERING CONTROL – BELLY DUMPER


THE RISKY WAY


EXCAVATOR ARM HEIGHT LIMITERS


PREVENTION OF SERVICE CONTACTS• Comply with new WorkSafe Earthmoving Handbook.• Permits Essential (both utility company and site).• Contact Dial Before You Dig, but need to trace andprove what is in ground. Some not shown in plans orin wrong place.• Hydro Excavation for Non-Destructive Proving.• Ground Penetrating Radar, Cable Tracers, RadioSignal Tracers have an application.• Use smaller machines not able to reach power lineNo Go Zones• Height Limiters are recent development but mayneed a different approach to loading dump trucks.• Belly Dumpers or Side Tippers.


APPLICATION OF CONTROLS1. Higher level controls are mandatory, wherepractical, as defined in the OHS Act andRegulations.2. There is still too much dependence on the lowerlevel controls – but at what price?3. Lower level controls in the area of trafficmanagement depend on the behavior of others(drivers) and we can see how unreliable that can be.4. Where workforce behavior is involved compliancewith safety procedures is an essential component.5. Behavioral change programs have been appliedsince 2005 on major projects and is definitelymaking a difference compared to projects that donot include this in their safety programs.


THANK YOUMichael Rose0412 527 852michael.rose@roads.vic.gov.au

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