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Airport

Airport

BUILDINGSfirm ADPI. She

BUILDINGSfirm ADPI. She warns that proper filteringdevices are required for ventilation systems inorder to preserve indoor air quality.ADPI is a specialist in the design andconstruction of airport passenger terminals of allsizes and in the renovation of terminals inoperation. It is project manager for MuscatInternational airport as well as Salalah airport inOman.The firm has been involved with several otherMENA airport projects, including sites in Libya,Egypt and the Dubai International terminal three.In Saudi Arabia, ADPI has been involved in thedesign concept for King Abdulaziz Internationalairport, for the construction of a state-of-the artterminal that will handle up to 30 million annualpassengers once complete.“Precautions should always be taken to preventsand and dust accumulating at specific locationssuch as air intakes or rain collection downpipes toavoid deterioration of filters, or clogging of thenetwork,” said Mazelet.“When external temperatures are in the rangeof thermal comfort during a limited period of theyear, natural ventilation should be envisaged.When outside temperatures are fluctuatingthroughout the day, a large thermal mass withinthe insulated portion will contribute to thebuilding’s overall performance.”Mazelet explained that the dense materialsused gradually heat up when exposed to daytimesolar energy. “These materials then gradually cooldown during the night, thus radiating heat duringMouzhan Majidi,chief executive at Foster + Partners.Photo: Nigel Young Foster + Partnersthe cool evenings and coldness during the hoursof daylight.”The on-going construction at Queen Alia isscheduled for completion in 2012. The newfacility is designed to allow the airport to grow bysix % per annum for the next 25 years, increasingannual capacity from three million passengers to12 million by 2033. The plan is to equip theairport with the capacity to become a hub for theLevant region.First experience“An airport is the first thing you see when youarrive in a country and your first experience of itsculture, so the design of a terminal must be of itsplace,” points out Majidi. “Our work is equallydriven by an understanding of and respect forlocal traditions – hospitality, for example, is animportant part of Jordanian culture, so our designfor Queen Alia airport is conceived as awelcoming gateway.”According to Foster + Partners inspiration forthe Queen Alia terminal building is drawn fromtraditional architecture of the region. The designincorporates a variety of outdoor spaces andopen-air gardens. In the courtyards, water poolsreflect daylight into the building and form anatural focus that directs passenger movement. Abroad canopy, its dark external surface evocativeof Bedouin tents, shelters the large external publicarea and evokes the excitement of aMiddle Eastern bazaar.A closer look at the design of theContinuedon Page 136135

AIRPORTSBUILDINGSCONTINUED FROM PAGE 135underside of the roof unveils a geometric patterninspired by traditional Islamic forms. “Weworked with a local artist to develop the patternfor the carpet in the piers,” added Majidi. Thedesign also responds to social customs: theforecourt has been enlarged to create alandscaped piazza where relatives can gather towelcome or bid farewell to passengers.Successful construction of airports in suchregions has increasingly taken into account theissue of sustainability, in addition to the usual ontimeand budgetary target demands.However, this arid environment can providerare opportunities to utilise and benefit from theuse of natural energies. Intense and regular sunexposure is excellent for renewable energy –thermal or photovoltaic – said Mazelet, but shealso pointed out that it does not always representa realistic solution.“This is in a context where there is no benefitfrom any subsidies and relies on very low energycosts that would result in very low profitability.Night ventilation concepts work in buildingswhere maximum occupancy is not at night –which did not apply to Muscat Airport – andwhere significant differences of temperatureoccur between day and night.”At Queen Alia, Majidi indicates that theterminal has taken a highly efficient form andFosters + Partners designed a number of featuresthat will reduce energy demand, before looking atactive measures to generate power.“Firstly, the roof has a deep overhang and asequence of horizontal louvres that shelter thefacades from direct sunlight. Again, maintenancecan consume a great deal of energy in a desert, sothe louvres are perforated to avoid a build up ofsand and dust,” he said.The roof also has an innovative double skin. Ametal canopy sits above the concrete and shieldsAirports in an arid environment can provide rare opportunities to utilise natural energies.Photo - NDIAthe structure from direct sunlight. Majidi said thata cavity between the metal and concrete allowshot air to be released. “There are alsoenvironmental benefits in building a concretestructure. It acts as a thermal store for the heatingand cooling of the terminal, plus it means we canincorporate local gravel as a material, whichharmonises with the natural shades of localsand.”Majidi points out that one of the key challengesin a hot dry climate, where the sun is so intense, isto illuminate the interior with indirect sunlight sothat the passenger areas are comfortable and easyto navigate without generating excessive heat.“We have filtered daylight into the terminalthrough split beams at the junctions between theconcrete domes – the effect is a little like a desertpalm whose leaves extend and widen from veryslender branches close to the trunk,” he said.Environmental strategyThe airport’s open-air courtyards also contributeto the environmental strategy. They featuremodest linear pools, which are lined with darktiles so that they are highly reflective – they‘bounce’ indirect daylight back into the baggagereclaim areas.It seldom rains in desert regions such as Omanbut when it does these rains can turn into heavydownpours. One of the biggest challenges is toprovide adequate drainage of the constructionarea.At Muscat Airport one of the areas whererainwater collects on its way into the sea is a flat,low-lying section where the new runway is beingbuilt. The ground was raised by three metres toprevent the new runway and roads from endingup underwater. This was achieved by drivingalmost 12 million cubic meters of desert sand andcrushed rock to the site.Protecting the rest of the airport involved theinstallation of three giant outlets to the Bay ofOman with a combined capacity of 500m² ofwater a second.“For Muscat Airport, an extensive drainagesystem of open concrete channels and culvertswas constructed as part of the preliminary worksand before building construction started,” saidMazelet.“The overall drainage design is based on amodelling simulation that considered the worstscenarios to make sure critical operational areasof the airport would not be affected in case ofheavy rain falls.” Following cyclone Gonu in2007, modifications were made to the design,whenever it was possible.Mazelet said the design should incorporatemaintenance aspects to guarantee the fullcapacity of the drainage system at any time. “Oilinterceptors are implemented for the drainageareas of runway and taxiway systems, aprons androads to avoid pollution of ground and surfacewater,” she said.“Water conservation and re-use measuresshould be especially encouraged to reducepotable water demands,” she added.At Dubai International’s terminal three thestatistics from the Dubai Airports Company areeye-watering.The mega-project required the excavation ofmore than 10 million cubic metres of earth,enough to fill 4,000 Olympic-size swimmingpools, and some 2.4 million cubic metres ofconcrete, enough to fill 950 Olympic-sizeswimming pools, was used in the construction ofthe project. As much as 450,000 tonnes of steelwas used for reinforcement and another33,000 tonnes of steel was required for thestructure; that’s approximately the weight of 850A380s.136

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