Second ETUCE Survey on Cyber-Harassment - Teachers ...

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Second ETUCE Survey on Cyber-Harassment - Teachers ...

4Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassment


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassmentContentsExecutive Summary .............................................................................................. 31. Introduction .................................................................................................. 72. About the ong>Surveyong> .......................................................................................... 83. Teacher Union Strategies on violence and harassment ..................................... 84. Teacher Union Strategies on cyber-harassment ............................................. 104.1 Causes of cyber-harassment ...................................................................... 154.2 Media types of cyber-harassment ............................................................... 165. Actions or interventions offered by unions .................................................... 166. Cooperation with stakeholders in education .................................................. 187. Revision of the ong>ETUCEong> Action Plan ................................................................ 198. Conclusions ................................................................................................. 19Annex - Questionnaire ........................................................................................ 225


6Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassment


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassment1. IntroductionTeachers must have safe and healthy workplaces to carry out the important task it isof teaching and educating children. ong>ETUCEong> therefore in collaboration with itsmember organisation strives to ensure that teachers have a stable and secureworking environment. An increasing threat teachers face nowadays is the hazard ofcyber-harassment. Teachers who fall victim to cyber-harassment are deeply affectedby this, and to such an extent that it may have long lasting effetcs on theirpersonality and health. Consequently, it is important that national teacher unions arepreparred to deal with this matter and exchange good practices among colleagues inEurope.The ong>ETUCEong> project Teacher Trade Unions concerned about violence at school II –Cyber-Harassment aims to support the implementation of the European FrameworkAgreement on Harassment and Violence at Work 1 in the education sector and theong>ETUCEong> Action Plan on Preventing and Tackling Violence in Schools. The projectintends to raise awareness on cyber-harassment and facilitate the exchange of goodpractices on this growing health and safety issue for teachers and school staffamongst national teacher trade unions. It moreover seeks to support the ong>ETUCEong>member unions in establishing strategies on tackling cyber-harassment in schools 2 .Cyber-harassment can be understood as the use of information and communicationtechnologies for repeatedly deliberate and hostile behaviour by an individual or agroup with the intention to harm others. It ranges from continuous e-mail-sending,threats, subject of ridicule in forums to posting false statements etc. The motivesrange from emotional reasons to personal dislike and conflict of interests at work.Other motives can be prejudices on grounds of gender, racial or ethnic origin,religion and belief, disability, age, sexual orientation and body image. Cyberharassmentagainst teachers can threaten teachers’ current and future employmentopportunities, and their professional reputation. Cyber-harassment is furthermore tobe considered a psychosocial hazard in the working environment of teachers, as itcan deeply affect the personality, dignity and integrity of the victim.Within the cyber-harassment project, ong>ETUCEong> conducted a first survey on whetherand to what extent cyber-harassment is addressed in the countries of the ong>ETUCEong>member unions. The survey showed amongst other results that many teacher unionsin Europe are working on the issue of violence and harassment in general and to alower extent on cyber-harassment in particular.1 The European social partners, ETUC, BusinessEurope, UEAPME and CEEP signed the European FrameworkAgreement on Violence and Harassment at Work in April 2007.2 More information on the project, its partners and its activities can be found on the ong>ETUCEong> Health and Safetywebsite: www.edu-osh.eu.7


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassmentIn the second project survey ong>ETUCEong> explored national teacher union actions andstrategies and gathered ideas for further development and improvement of anticyberharassment measures at national union level. This report summarises theresults of the second survey in preparation of the ong>ETUCEong> Closing Conference onCyber-Harassment in Bratislava 7-8 June 2010. The conference will be anopportunity to exchange and discuss good practices of national teacher unionstrategies collected in the survey. The participants will be invited to debate andcontribute actively to the revision of the ong>ETUCEong> Action Plan on Preventing andTackling Violence in Schools as regards the inclusion of cyber-harassment.2. About the ong>Surveyong>The purpose of the survey was to examine ong>ETUCEong> member unions’ activities on anticyberharassment measures and collect national union strategies on preventing andtackling cyber-harassment. Also, ong>ETUCEong> wanted to gather its member unions’ viewson a revision of the ong>ETUCEong> Action Plan on Preventing and Tackling Violence inSchools as regards the inclusion of cyber-harassment in the policy document.The member organisations received a questionnaire of 16 questions whichaddressed issues such as teacher union strategies on violence and harassment andcyber-harassment, the causes and media types of cyber-harassment, actions orinterventions offered to teachers and school staff as victims of cyber-harassment,union cooperation with various stakeholders in education to create effective anticyberharassment measures and the revision of the ong>ETUCEong> Action Plan. Thequestionnaire is included in the Annex.The survey took place in the period from the end of March to the beginning of May2010. All in all ong>ETUCEong> received 32 answers from its member unions the in EU/EFTAcountries.3. Teacher Union Strategies on Violence and HarassmentThe first section of the questionnaire addressed teacher union strategies on violenceand harassment in general. These strategies seek to ensure a good workingenvironment and well-being at school for teachers and school staff. They aim inparticular at promoting and mainstreaming the issues and at supporting the inclusionof prevention measures on violence and harassment in legislation and collectiveagreements.The respondents were asked to indicate on a scale from 1 to 6 how the unionconsiders the issue of violence and harassment of teachers and school staff in its8


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassmentcountry. The scale is defined in such a way that 1 is not important at all and 6 ishighly important.The table shows that 55 % of the respondents consider violence and harassment ofteachers and school staff as a highly important issue in their country, whereas only3 % consider the issue not at all important. School should be safe and healthyplaces for teaching and learning as they are the workplace of teachers and schoolstaff and are first and foremost educational institutions for young students.Occupational health and safety problems can therefore harm not only teachers andschool staff, but can indirectly affect pupils and put at risk the quality and efficiencyof the education provided. That is why ong>ETUCEong> support its member organisations inconfronting this health and safety issue.To encourage prevention measures on violence and harassment in schools andsecure a good working environment and well-being for teachers and school staffteacher unions have developed union strategies on the issue. 88 % of therespondents answered that their union has indeed got a strategy on violence andharassment for teachers and school staff in place.The various teacher union strategies are summarised in the table.9


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassmentTeacher Union Strategies on Violence and HarassmentStrategies include:EducationAwarenessraisingStakeholdersin educationPoliciesResearchMemberassistancePrevention through teacher education: Courses, training programmes, guidance,working groups.Raising awareness through brochures, information websites, conferences,booklets, campaigns, newsletters, involvement of media, press conferenceCooperation with stakeholders such as employers and occupational safety andhealth administration, participate in national discussions between social partners.Influence education authorities at national/regional/European level, create unionpolicies, secure the right to have occupational safety and health representatives atschool level.Examine the issue of cyber-harassment through surveys, risk assessment at school,defining threatening behaviour.Offering legal support, a (telephone) help line, psychological support, setting-upcodes of conduct, a reporting system and individual consultations.The table shows the variety of methods and strategies teacher unions havedeveloped on how to ensure safe and healthy workplaces as regards violence andharassment at work. They set a good example for those unions that still face thechallenge of starting up work on this vital issue (12 % of the respondents answeredthat their union has not yet developed a strategy on violence and harassment).4. Teacher Union Strategies on Cyber-HarassmentIn the second section of the questionnaire the survey asked to specify howimportant the unions consider the issue of cyber-harassment / cyber-bullying ofteachers and school staff in their country to be. As in the first question therespondents should indicate the importance on a scale from 1 to 6 where 1 was notimportant at all and 6 was highly important.10


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassmentThe result illustrates that cyber-harassment is considered a relatively central issueamong ong>ETUCEong> member unions. More than 50 % of the answers indicate theimportance of cyber-harassment as 5 or 6 on the scale and 31 % even regard it as ahighly important issue. This shows that many teachers and school staff considercyber-harassment a hazard that needs to be addressed and prevented withappropriate measures. Therefore it is important for teacher unions to adapt theircurrent strategy on violence and harassment to include this type of harassment.For a more detailed insight into the ong>ETUCEong> member unions’ work concerning teacherunion strategies on cyber-harassment, a topic of discussion also at the ong>ETUCEong>seminar in Brussels in February 2010, the respondents were asked if their union hada strategy on cyber-harassment forteachers and school staff.28 % of the respondents answered thatthey indeed have a strategy on cyberharassmentwhen they were asked todescribe their union’s long-term strategyon cyber-harassment. Many of theteacher union strategies were made onthe basis of a survey on cyberharassmentamong union members. However, the replies showed that the unionsdiffer significantly in how far the strategy development has been carried out. Someunions have a fully developed strategy on cyber-harassment, some have only startedto develop a strategy on cyber-harassment and some are integrating the issue on11


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassmentcyber-harassment into the general union work on violence and harassment ofteachers and school staff.On the following pages coloured boxesfeature examples of four union strategieson cyber-harassment at different stages inthe strategy development.72 % of the respondents answered thattheir union does not have a strategy oncyber-harassment for teachers and schoolstaff so far. This is probably due to the factthat cyber-harassment is mostly integratedinto a broader union strategy on violenceand harassment or on health and safety ingeneral.ESTUS, Slovenia: Creating a Foundationfor developing a Cyber-HarassmentStrategyESTUS is presently carrying out ananonymous online survey among itsmembers to determine the situation oncyber-harassment of teachers andschool staff.On the basis of the survey results ESTUShopes to develop a union strategy toprevent and tackle cyber-harassmentamong its members.The questionnaire then looked at whether unions would require further support fromong>ETUCEong> to develop a national teacher union strategy on cyber-harassment forteachers and school staff. 77 % of the respondents answered that they wouldwelcome the further backing. This segment of the respondents is a mix of unionsthat have already started to develop a strategy and unions that do not have astrategy on cyber-harassment. Similarly, the ones who answered that they do notrequire further support to develop a cyber-harassment strategy are a mix of unionswith strategies and unions who have not experienced a need for strategy on cyberharassment.This could indicate that the ong>ETUCEong> member unions are divided intoFETE-UGT, Spain: Developing a Strategy onCyber-BullyingThrough the "Sumate a la convivencia" project(Take part in anti-violence measures) FETE-UGThas begun to conduct a research on cyberbullyingin schools with the aim to initiate thedevelopment of a strategy on cyber-bullying. Inaddition, FETE-UGT is observing ways to deal withcyber-bullying to determine a preventionstrategy.groups of unions having a fullydeveloped strategy, unions whohave initiated the development of astrategy and unions who have up totoday not started developing aunion strategy on cyberharassment.The respondents who requiredfurther support from ong>ETUCEong> in"Sumate a la Convivencia" is a web portal that developing a national union strategyprovides materials and meaningful experiences of to help members who are victims ofschool life. It will publish news and good practicescyber-harassment, expressed theiron various issues related to cyber-byllying:needs for such assistance in morehttp://portales.educared.net/convivenciaescolar/detail: A general request was toreceive more information on cyberharassmentof teachers and school staff. Also, the respondents would like to be12


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassmentgiven more opportunities to exchange experiences with other teacher unions whoare currently working with successful cyber-harassment strategies. Furthermore, itwas important for respondents that ong>ETUCEong> continues to raise awareness on cyberharassmentso as to establish a sound basis for social dialogue on this topic atEuropean and subsequently at national level.NASUWT, United Kingdom: Long Established Strategy on Cyber-HarassmentThe NASUWT has a long established policy of highlighting and tackling harassment, inparticular workplace bullying.Also, NASUWT has been at the forefront of tackling all forms of bullying and has been workingwith the Government and other agencies to produce guidance for schools and parents ontackling cyber bullying. This includes a major campaign, “Stop Cyberbullying” in schools whichincluded an on-line survey of members to identify the extent to which incidents of cyberbullying affect their working and home lives. The NASUWT presented a dossier of almost 100incidents of cyberbullying to the then Minister for Schools asking for greater protection for thevictims of cyberbullying. This also led to the establishment of the first ever guidance forschools on tackling cyberbullying of school staff during 2009.http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/wholeschool/behaviour/cyber/The NASUWT offers a practical course to members which focuses on identifying bullyingbehaviour and developing personal strategies to deal with bullying. It also considers the legalframework and bullying from an organisational perspective, including how to raise the issuecollectively within schools. Lastly, NASUWT has produced a range of resources for members onidentifying and tackling all forms of cyber harassment.Besides the teacher unions being at very different stages in the development of theirunion strategy on cyber-harassment is seems that there are also differences how theunions structure the development oftheir strategies. 47 % have a person,9 % have a unit in the union and 19 %have a working group dealing with theteacher union strategy on cyberharassment(multiple answers werepossible). 53 % do not have a person,unit or working group dealing withcyber-harassment strategy at all. Fromthe survey answers it shows that themain part of the unions having astrategy on cyber-harassment also havea person, unit or working group dealingwith cyber-harassment strategy. Thisresult suggests that if unions wish tostart to develop a national unionstrategy on cyber-harassment, a firstLärarförbundet, Sweden: Systematic Workon Health and SafetyWithin the systematic work on Health andSafety, as a legal framework, Lärarförbundetworks on all levels to prevent violence andharassment including cyber-harassment.Lärarförbundet promotes the issue byparticipating in national discussions betweenthe social partners as well as publishingbooklets on the issue.As all Health and Safety work primarly is theresponsibility of the local social partners,most of Lärarförbundet’s work is done inschools and with the local employer.Lärarförbundet’s overall strategy on ensuringa safe and healthy educational environmentincludes all activities in this field.13


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassmentsupportive step could be to dedicate a person, unit or working group on this topic. Afirst approach for some teacher unions in developing a strategy on cyber-harassmenthas been to investigate the significance of the problem among its members. To learnmore about this approach, respondents were asked if a survey on cyber-harassmentof teachers and school staff had been conducted in the respective countries andwhat the results had shown. 66 % answered that no survey had been conductedand 34 % answered that one or more surveys had been carried out in the country.Some had been carried out by teacher unions, but some were also implemented bynational authorities, national research institutes, union news magazines or NGOs.The national survey results are summarised in the box below.Results of National ong>Surveyong>s on Cyber-HarassmentLärarförbundet- 5% of teachers, from 6 th grade in primary school up through secondary school, hadpersonal experience of cyber harassment.NASUWT- On-line survey of members to identify the extent to which incidents of cyber bullyingaffect their working and home lives - almost 100 incidents of cyber bullying.- 67% of teachers have suffered some form of prejudice-related bullying whilst at workover the previous two year period.DLF- There are still very few registered cases compared to other forms of harassments.OLME- Cyber-harassment is an existent problem amongst members and is expanding rapidly.OAJ- 13 % of members have been cyber harassed.- 6 % of schools have codes of conduct on how to prevent cyber-harassment.- Cyber harassment i s most common in classes 3-9.- 74 % think that they will not be cyber-harassed in future.UIL- Parents do not control childrens’ use of social networks and mobile phones.- Children are the main source of cyber-harassment.GEW- 8 % of the respondents are directly affected by cyber bullying. But one third of therespondents know about incidents among their acquaintances and colleagues.- Impact of cyber-bullying on victims: anger, distress, uncertainty, fear, isolation.ESTUS- Is currently conducting an anonymous online survey on cyber-harassment.These results show that cyber-harassment is a significant problem in countries thathave surveyed the reasons and circumstances for cyber-harassment of teachers andschool staff. The results should encourage other countries and teacher unions toinvestigate the problem of cyber-harassment among their own members. A survey14


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassmenthelps to raise awareness about cyber-harassment and can help victims to comeforward.Some of the survey results are already available on the ong>ETUCEong> website onoccupational health and safety (www.edu-osh.org) and ong>ETUCEong> member unions areinvited to contribute to this exchange of questionnaires and experiences withsurveys and anti-cyber harassment measures in general.4.1 Causes of Cyber-HarassmentTo investigate the general picture on the causes of cyber-harassment in ong>ETUCEong>member unions, the respondents were asked to identify the main causes of cyberharassmentamongst the unions’ members (multiple answers were possible). Themost frequently cited cause was gender, followed by racial or ethnic origin, sexualorientation, age, disability, religion and belief. More than half of the respondentsreferred to other causes of cyber-harassment. These include teacher appearance,teacher qualifications, pupil/teacher relation, personal dislike, trying to intimidate,harass or ridicule teachers, aggressive behaviour, body image or size and teachers’behaviour.CausesCauses of cyberharassmentamongst unionmembersCauses of cyberharassmentaddressed by unionstrategyGender 33% 27%Religion and belief 10% 15%Racial or ethnic origin 23% 27%Age 20% 23%Disability 17% 19%Sexual Orientation 20% 19%Other 53% 38%Cyber-harassment is not ahazard amongst our members27% 35%In addition, the survey asked to point out the main causes of cyber-harassment the15


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassmentunion strategy addresses (multiple answers were possible). Also, the survey askedwhether the causes of cyber-harassment addressed in the union strategy had beenexamined in a survey, i.e. whether the strategy focused on these causes as a resultof a survey. 82 % said that the causes addressed by the union’s strategy were notan outcome of a survey. Still, union strategies on cyber-harassment cover in generalthe main causes of cyber-harassment even though it is a relatively small part of theunions that have surveyed the causes before formulating a union strategy on theissue.4.2 Media Types of Cyber-HarassmentTo get a better picture on the reasons and circumstances for cyber-harassment andthe ong>ETUCEong> member unions’ strategies on this matter, the survey asked to determinethe main media types of cyber-harassment amongst union members and the mainmedia types addressed by the union strategy on cyber-harassment.Media typesMain media types ofcyber-harassmentamongst yourmembersMain media types ofcyber-harassmentyour union strategyaddressesEmail 50% 35%Chat room 17% 15%Discussion group 20% 15%Websites 40% 31%Social networking sites 33% 19%Virtual learning environments 0% 12%Instant messaging 17% 31%Mobile phones 57% 35%Short message services 17% 15%Blogs 30% 23%Other 17% 27%Cyber-harassment is not a hazardamongst our members17% 31%16


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassmentThe most frequently cited media type used for cyber-harassment was mobilephones, followed by email, social networking sites, websites, blogs, short messagingservice, instant messaging and chat room. As in the section on causes of cyberharassment,the survey asked to indicate the main media types of cyber-harassmentthe respondent’s union strategy addresses (multiple answers were possible). Theseanswers show that national union strategies do indeed cover the main media typesused for cyber-harassment. However, some teacher unions could benefit fromtargeting their strategy on the most frequently used media types such as mobilephones and email. One possible solution for this challenge might be conducting asurvey to gather information on cyber-harassment. This could help to focus theunion strategy and enable the teacher unions to create more successful preventionmeasures for cyber-harassment.5. Actions or Interventions Offered by UnionsTo see what measures already exist for teachers and school staff on cyberharassment,the survey examined the union’s actions or interventions for teachersand school staff as victims of cyber-harassment. Specifically, the respondents wereasked to describe:i) How were/are the union actions or interventions implemented?ii) What were/are the results of the union actions or interventions?From the replies it is obvious that the issue is of great importance to ong>ETUCEong> memberunions. Most unions offer legal and psychological support for those of their memberswho are victims of violence and harassment in general, and cyber-harassment inparticular. Some unions offer training for teacher union representatives on dealingwith cyber-harassment of teachers and school staff. Providing this kind of trainingenables teacher unions to tackle cyber-harassment at school level. Also, a welleducatedunion representative makes it easier for teachers and school staff to comeforward and report an incident of cyber-harassment.Still, 33 % have not experienced the need for actions or interventions dealing withcyber-harassment of teachers and school staff. This result is surprising since nationalsurveys on cyber-harassment (see page 14) show that cyber-harassment is acommon problem among several European countries. The fact that 33 % have notexperienced a need for actions or interventions dealing with cyber-harassment couldsuggest that cases of cyber-harassment of teachers and school staff are notreported and remains hidden, despite national surveys showing that cyberharassmentof teachers and school staff is a widespread occurrence. It is crucial thatteachers and school staff who are victims of cyber-harassment feel safe andsupported by their teacher union to come forward and seek assistance and remedy.17


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassmentTherefore national teacher unions should not underestimate the damage that mightbe caused by cyber-harassment and should ensure that this form of violence is notignored or neglected, simply because it is not reported but hushed-up by the victims.6. Cooperation with Stakeholders in EducationTo establish successful and long lasting anti-cyber-harassment measures cooparationwith other relevant stakeholders in education is necessary. Hence, the respondentswere asked to answer if their union cooperates with stakeholders on this issue – inthat case which stakeholders (multiple answers were possible).More than two thirds of the teacher unions cooperate with one or more stakeholdersin education to create effective anti-cyber harassment measures. The mostfrequently used collaborators are national authorities and teachers, followed by theschool community in general, the government, local/regional authorities andstudents. Collaborators used to a lesser extent include parents, organisations atEuropean level, teacher education institutions, service providers and schoolmanagement. ong>ETUCEong> finds it extremely positive that member unions seek supportfrom and cooperate with other stakeholders in education to ensure a safe andhealthy working environment for teachers and school staff. Also, teacher unionsmight benefit from working together with other stakeholders in another field, e.g.through collaboration teacher unions can raise awareness on the issue amongstother stakeholders in education.18


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassmentTeacher unions should continue to benefit from collaborating with differentstakeholders in order to further develop prevention strategies on cyber-harassment.Teacher unions might benefit further from a more extensive collaboration with pupilsand school management since cyber-harassment of teachers and school staff is mostoften carried out at schools and often by pupils. By including pupils in the preventionof cyber-harassment they can also be informed about the consequences forthemselves and for victims of cyber-harassment and help to establish rules of goodconduct as regards the prevention of cyber-harassment.7. Revision of the ong>ETUCEong> Action PlanSubsequently to the work carried out in the ong>ETUCEong> project on cyber-harassment, thesurvey results and the achievements made, the project steering group considered arevision of the ong>ETUCEong> Action Plan on Preventing and Tackling Violence in Schoolswhich is the basis for all ong>ETUCEong>’s work in the field of violence and harassment andwas adopted by the ong>ETUCEong> General Assembly in 1999. The ong>ETUCEong> Action Planidentifies specific actions on four main levels: European, national/regional, local andschool level. On these levels ong>ETUCEong> commits itself to preserve schools as safe placesfor teaching and learning. Also, ong>ETUCEong> advises national trade unions in mattersconcerning violence and harassment in schools.The questionnaire examined which five key issues should be addressed in a revisedversion of the ong>ETUCEong> Action Plan concerning violence and harassment and cyberharassmentin schools. Specifically, the respondents were asked to choose five top19


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassmentpriorities from a list of issues that were brought up and discussed at the cyberharassmentseminar in Brussels in February 2010.The result suggests that teacher unions regard three issues as particularly importantto include in the revised ong>ETUCEong> Action Plan on Preventing and Tackling Violence inSchools. These three issues are: reference to the European Framework on violenceand harassment at the workplace, prevention through cooperation with variousstakeholders in education and prevention through teacher training. Also importantissues include: a general definition of cyber-harassment, teacher unions’ codes ofconduct concerning cyber-harassment of teachers and teachers’ personal protection.The respondents also had the opportunity to bring forward other issues to take intoaccount in a revision of the ong>ETUCEong> Action Plan on Preventing and Tackling Violencein Schools. These issues are summarised as follows.Revision of the ong>ETUCEong> Action Plan on Preventing and Tackling Violence in SchoolsEffective school policies that prevent students from getting hold of pictures/sound andvideo that may be used to cyber-harass staff and other students;Further reseach on the causes of stress, violence and harassment;Raising the profile and awareness of anti-violence/harassment and cyber-bullyingissues on European level;European Trade Unions should be encouraged to lobby MEPs to prioritise widespreadanti-violence/harassment and cyber-bullying legislation;Teacher Unions should be encouraged to share good practice where this exists on howviolence, harassment and cyber-bullying is tackled within their experience;European campaigning for better regulation of multi national social networking sites toprotect children, pupils and education staff from falling victims to cyber-harassment orfalse allegations.The valuable survey replies under this heading will help to revise the Action Plan. Itis also important to note that many of these issues can be dealt with at nationallevel, too. It is ong>ETUCEong>’s hope that the work carried out by ong>ETUCEong> at European levelwill generate better possibilities for national teacher unions to create effective anticyberharassment measures at national level. The revised Action Plan will be up forfurther discussion at the closing conference in Bratislava in June 2010.20


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassment8. ConclusionThe answers received in this survey were rich in information and provided facts andknowledge about the status on teacher union strategies on cyber-harassment forteachers and school staff among the ong>ETUCEong> member organisations. The answersshow that most of the ong>ETUCEong> member unions have developed a strategy on violenceand harassment, whereas less have developed a specific cyber-harassment strategy.Still, more teacher unions have begun to found a basis for a cyber-harassmentstrategy. The number of unions carrying out national surveys on the issue of cyberharassmentis increasing. Also, several unions have dedicated a person, unit orworking group to work with their cyber-harassment strategy. Furthermore, teacherunions have started to cooperate with various stakeholders in education to createeffective and long-lasting anti-cyber-harassment measures. These actions provide apositive outlook, i.e. it seems that more unions will have a fully established strategyon preventing and tackling cyber-harassment of teachers and school staff within thenear future.The survey answers have moreover provided ong>ETUCEong> with a clearer picture on itsmember organisations’ opinion about the issues that need to be addressed in therevised ong>ETUCEong> Action Plan on Preventing and Tackling Violence in Schools. Theanswers suggest that it is especially important that a revised Action Plan refers notonly to the European Framework Agreement on Violence and Harassment at theWork but also includes prevention measures through cooperation betweenstakeholders in education and through teacher training.The general conclusion to the second survey on cyber-harassment must be that anincreasing number of unions are preparing the grounds to develop national teacherunion strategies on cyber-harassment. In addition, it is the belief of ong>ETUCEong> thatraising awareness on cyber-harassment is still needed at European, national andschool level as there is still room for more actions and on this matter. Also, it isong>ETUCEong>’s hope that member unions will exchange experiences and share goodpractices on successful anti-cyber harassment measures and adjust these to theirspecific national conditions.21


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassmentAnnex - QuestionnaireShort questionnaire on teacher union strategies onviolence and harassment with a particular focus on cyber-harassmentThank you for sending your contribution by 30 April 2010to susan.flocken@csee-etuce.orgPurpose of the surveyIn the context of the ong>ETUCEong> project Teacher Trade Unions concerned about violence at school II – Cyberharassment,ong>ETUCEong> conducted a first survey on whether and to what extent cyber-harassment is addressed inthe countries of the ong>ETUCEong> member unions. With this second survey ong>ETUCEong> wishes to investigate ong>ETUCEong>member unions’ activities on anti-cyber harassment measures and collect union strategies on preventing andtackling cyber-harassment.The project aims to support the implementation of the European Framework Agreement on Harassment andViolence at Work in the education sector, and to support the implementation of the ong>ETUCEong> Action Plan onviolence and harassment in schools. It aims at raising awareness on cyber-harassment and exchanging goodpractices on anti-cyber-harassment measures, in schools and from the perspective of teacher trade unions. Itmoreover seeks to support the ong>ETUCEong> member unions in establishing strategies tackling cyber-harassment inschoolsDefinition of cyber-harassmentCyber-harassment can be understood as the use of information and communication technologies such as email,chat room, discussion group, blogs, websites, social networking sites, virtual learning environments, instantmessaging, mobile phones or short message services for repeatedly deliberate and hostile behaviour by anindividual or a group with the intention to harm others. It ranges from continuous e-mail-sending to someonewho has said they do not want any further contact with the sender to threats, sexual remarks, pejorative labels,ganging up on victims by making them the subject of ridicule in forums, posting false statements, and passing onpictures, sound recordings or films via mobile phones.The motives range from emotional reasons to personal dislike and conflict of interests at work. Other motivescan be prejudices on grounds of gender, racial or ethnic origin, religion and belief, disability, age, sexualorientation and body image. Cyber-harassment against teachers can threaten teachers’ current and futureemployment opportunities, and their professional reputation. Cyber-harassment is furthermore to beconsidered a psychosocial hazard in the working environment of teachers, as it can deeply affect thepersonality, dignity and integrity of the victim.With this questionnaire ong>ETUCEong> wants to explore national teacher unions’ actions and strategies to gather ideasfor further development and improvement of anti-cyber harassment measures at national union level. Also,ong>ETUCEong> intends to gather good practices to revise the ong>ETUCEong> Action Plan on Violence and Harassment inSchools and include cyber-harassment.The survey results together with good practices on successfully implemented strategies will be discussed at theclosing conference, 7-8 June 2010 and published in an ong>ETUCEong> report which will be available for download onthe ong>ETUCEong> safety and health website: www.edu-osh.euong>ETUCEong> thus invites all member organisations to fill in the questionnaire below and present effective unionstrategies on cyber-harassment.Practical instructionsYou will be asked to answer a total of 16 questions. If the space provided in the form is not enough, pleaseelaborate on an extra sheet of paper.Please send your contribution to the ong>ETUCEong> secretariat by 30 April 2010.Should you have questions when filling in the form, please contact the ong>ETUCEong> secretariat: Susan Flocken,susan.flocken@csee-etuce.org22


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassmentBackground InformationName of the respondent:Telephone number:E-mail:Name of union:Country:EDUCATION SECTOR COVERED BY THIS COMPLETED QUESTIONNAIRE(Please tick as appropriate each education sector(s) your union represents)Pre-primary Primary ong>Secondong>ary Vocational Education Training Higher educationTeacher Union Strategies on VIOLENCE AND HARASSMENT1. How does your union consider the issue of violence and harassment of teachers in your country?1 2 3 4 5 61: Not at all important6: Highly important2. Description of your union strategy on violence and harassmentTeacher union strategies on violence and harassment seek to ensure a good working environment andwell-being at school for teachers and school staff. They aim in particular at promoting andmainstreaming the issues of violence and harassment so that prevention measures on violence andharassment are included in legislation and collective agreements.Please describe your union strategy on violence and harassment for teachers and school staffOur union has not experienced a need to develop a strategy on violence and harassment forteachers and school staff23


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassmentTeacher Union Strategies on CYBER-HARASSMENT/CYBER-BULLYINGCyber-harassment can be understood as the use of information and communication technologies forrepeatedly deliberate and hostile behaviour by an individual or a group with the intention to harmothers. It ranges from continuous e-mail-sending, threats, subject of ridicule in forums to posting falsestatements etc. The motives range from emotional reasons to personal dislike and conflict of interests atwork or prejudices on grounds of gender, racial or ethnic origin, religion and belief, body image etc.3. How does your union consider the issue of cyber- harassment of teachers in your country?1 2 3 4 5 61: Not at all important6: Highly important4. Description of your union’s long term strategy on cyber-harassmentTeacher union strategies on cyber-harassment discussed at the cyber-harassment seminar includedconducts such as “Good online behaviour”, teacher/student safety representatives addressing cyberharassmentat school.Does your union have a strategy on cyber-harassment for teachers and school staff?Yes (continue with question 4.1)No (continue with question 5)4.1 Which educational level(s) does your union strategy on cyber-harassment reach?(You can tick off several educational levels if necessary)Pre-primary Primary ong>Secondong>ary Vocational Education Training Higher education4.2 At which level(s) is your union strategy on cyber-harassment implemented?(You can tick off several levels if necessary)National Regional Local School4.3 In which year was your union strategy implemented?24


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassment4.4 Please describe your union strategy on cyber-harassment for teachers and school staff5. Does your union require further support from ong>ETUCEong> to develop a national teacher union strategyon cyber-harassment for teachers and school staff?YesNoIf yes:- What would your union’s strategy involve?- How can ong>ETUCEong> support this strategy development?6. Does your union have a person/unit/working group dealing with a cyber-harassment strategy?If yes, please describe.Yes,PersonUnit: TitleWorking group: TitleNo25


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassment7. Has a survey on cyber-harassment of teachers been conducted in your country?Yes, byOur teacher unionNational authoritiesNational research institutesNational teacher union confederationOtherNoIf yes, please briefly describe the resultsCauses of cyber-harassment8. What are the main causes of cyber-harassment amongst your members?(You can tick off several causes if necessary)Gender Religion and belief Racial or ethnic origin AgeDisability Sexual Orientation Other (please elaborate)Cyber-harassment is not a hazard amongst our members9. What are the main causes of cyber-harassment your union strategy addresses?(You can tick off several causes if necessary)Gender Religion and belief Racial or ethnic origin AgeDisability Sexual Orientation Other (please elaborate)Cyber-harassment is not a hazard amongst our members26


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassment10. Are the causes of cyber-harassment your union strategy addresses the outcome of a survey?YesNo, the causes of cyber-harassment have not been surveyedMedia types of cyber-harassment11. What are the main media types of cyber-harassment amongst your members?(You can tick off several types if necessary)Email Chat room Discussion groupWebsites Social networking sites Virtual learning environmentsInstant messaging Mobile phones Short message servicesBlogsOther (please elaborate)Cyber-harassment is not a hazard amongst our members12. Which are the main media types of cyber-harassment your union strategy addresses?(You can tick off several types if necessary)Email Chat room Discussion groupWebsites Social networking sites Virtual learning environmentsInstant messaging Mobile phones Short message servicesBlogsOther (please elaborate)Cyber-harassment is not a hazard amongst our members13. Are the media types of cyber-harassment your union strategy addresses the outcome of a survey?YesNo, the types of cyber-harassment have not been surveyed27


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassment14. Which actions or interventions does your union offer for teachers and school staff as victims ofcyber-harassment?The following trade union actions concerned teachers experiencing cyber-harassment was debated atthe cyber-harassment seminar: training, legal advice, medical help, help line and reporting mechanisms.Please describe your union’s actions/interventions for teachers and school staff- How where/are these actions/interventions implemented?- What where/are the results of these union actions/interventions?Our union has not experienced a need for actions or interventions dealing with cyber-harassment ofteachers and school staff.15. Does your union cooperate with various stakeholders in education to create effective anti-cyberharassment measures? (You can tick off several stakeholders if necessary)Yes, Government ParentsNational AuthoritiesLocal and Regional AuthoritiesTeacher Education InstitutionsSchool community in generalTechnology industry/service providersOrganisations at European levelSchool ManagementTeachersStudentsOther____________________________No28


Report on the second ong>ETUCEong> survey on cyber-harassmentRevision of the ong>ETUCEong> Action PlanThe ong>ETUCEong> Action Plan on Preventing and Tackling Violence in Schools identifies specific actions on fourmain levels: European, national/regional, local and school level. On these levels ong>ETUCEong> commits itself topreserve schools as safe places for teaching and learning. Also, ong>ETUCEong> advises national trade unions inmatters concerning violence and harassment in schools.16. Which 5 key issues should be addressed in a revised version of the ong>ETUCEong> Action Plan concerningviolence and harassment / cyber-harassment in schools?Choose 5 top priority issues only!Definition of cyber-harassmentReference to the European Framework on violence and harassment at the workplacePrevention through teacher trainingPrevention through cooperation with various stakeholders in educationTeacher unions’ codes of conduct concerning cyber-harassment of teachersTeachers’ personal protectionAuthorised teaching materialDemocratisation of school cultureInclusion of parentsSchool code of conductFurther research on the causes of cyber-harassmentOther, please elaborateThank you for your contribution!29


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