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PROMOTING GENDEREQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIESIN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINSHANDBOOKThis publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development. Itwas prepared for Development and Training Services, Inc. (dTS) by Deborah Rubin (Cultural PracticeLLC) and Cristina Manfre and Kara Nichols Barrett (dTS).


PROMOTING GENDEREQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIESIN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS: A HANDBOOKGREATER ACCESS TO TRADE EXPANSION (GATE) PROJECTUNDER THE WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT IQCCONTRACT NO. GEW-I-00-02-00018-00, Task Order No. 02DISCLAIMERThe authors’ views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Agencyfor International Development or the United States Government.Photo credits on cover starting left to right: Gennadiy Ratushenko/World Bank, Shehzad Noorani/WorldBank, Cristina Manfre/dTS


Curt Carnemark/The World BankACKNOWLEDGMENTSThis report was produced for USAID Office of Women in Development by the GATE Project, Development & TrainingServices, Inc. (dTS), a task order of the USAID Office of Women in Development. The report was prepared byDeborah Rubin, Director, Cultural Practice LLC, Cristina Manfre, GATE International Program Manager and KaraNichols Barrett, GATE Research and Program Manager.We are particularly grateful to Kristy Cook for invaluable insights, contributions and continued support to thedevelopment of this handbook. We would also like to thank the following individuals for reviewing and providingtechnical comments to early drafts: Jeannie Harvey, Tracy Gerstle, Linda Mayoux, Sharon Phillipps, CatherineRagasa, Sharon Williams and Beatrice Wamalwa. We are also grateful to Ed Lijewski, USAID Office of Womenin Development. Finally, we would like to thank the USAID implementing partners in Kenya and Tanzania whoparticipated in the INGIA-VC trainings.


Introduction“Women are the backbone of farming in Africa, just as they are in most of theworld. They plant the seeds, they till the fields, they harvest the crops, theybring them to market, they prepare the meals for their families. So to succeed inthis work, we must work with women. And so we need a good collaboration tomake sure that women are equal partners with men farmers all the way throughthe process… to enable… farmers who are women to make a contributionthat will transform agriculture, add to the gross domestic product of theircountry, give them more income to educate their children to have a better life.”Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in Kenya, August 5, 2009PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 2


INTRODUCTION TO THE HANDBOOK 5Purpose of the Handbook.............................................................................................................................................7Organization of the Handbook......................................................................................................................................9Objectives of the INGIA-VC Approach..........................................................................................................................9Underlying Assumptions...............................................................................................................................................9Characteristics of Gender Equitable and Competitive Agricultural Value Chains......................................................13A FRAMEWORK FOR INTEGRATING GENDERISSUES INTO AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 15Gender Analysis......................................................................................................................................................... 17The Gender Dimensions Framework (GDF)........................................................................................................ 18Linking Gender Relations to Value Chain Operations................................................................................................ 25On-Farm Productivity.......................................................................................................................................... 27Horizontal Linkages............................................................................................................................................ 34Vertical Linkages................................................................................................................................................. 38Business Enabling Environment......................................................................................................................... 46Employment........................................................................................................................................................ 48Entrepreneurship................................................................................................................................................. 513


A PROCESS FOR INTEGRATING GENDER ISSUESINTO AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 59How to Use the INGIA-VC Process........................................................................................................................... 61Enhancing The Agriculture Sector Through Trade (East) Project in Twanya: A Case Study...................................... 63Phase One: Mapping Gender Roles and Relations along the Value Chain............................................................... 73Quantitative Data Collection............................................................................................................................... 73Qualitative Purpose Mapping............................................................................................................................................ Of The Handbook..........................................................................................3879Phase Two: Organization From Gender Of Inequalities The Handbook...................................................................................41to Gender-Based Constraints....................................................................... 90Phase Three: Objectives Assessing Of The the Consequences Ingia-Vc Approach.........................................................................45of Gender-Based Constraints.............................................................. 95Phase Four: Underlying Taking Actions Assumptions..............................................................................................57to Remove Gender-Based Constraints....................................................................... 101Phase Five: Measuring Success of Actions............................................................................................................. 107TABLE IntroductionOF CONTENTSCONCLUSIONConcluding Remarks............................................................................................................................................... 113Endnotes.................................................................................................................................................................. 117Bibliography............................................................................................................................................................. 119Glossary................................................................................................................................................................... 123Annex 1: Additional Resources on Gender and Agricultural Value Chains.............................................................. 127Annex 2: Illustrative Scope of Work......................................................................................................................... 129Annex 3: Gate Gender and Value Chain Fact Sheet................................................................................................ 131PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 4


Introductionto the Handbook


Introduction“Promoting Gender Equitable Opportunities in AgriculturalValue Chains: A Handbook” is based on research studiesand training programs conducted under the Greater Accessto Trade Expansion (GATE) Project. The GATE Project is afive-year (September 2004–September 2009) United StatesAgency for International Development (USAID) Task Order(TO), funded by the Office of Women in Development (WID)and implemented by Development & Training Services, Inc.(dTS). Over the life of the project, GATE worked with sevenUSAID Missions to better integrate gender considerations intoeconomic growth and trade-related programs to expand areasof opportunity and mitigate the adverse effects of economicand trade expansion for poor women and men.*Gender issues fundamentally shape the totality of production,distribution, and consumption within an economy but haveoften been overlooked in value chain development. Fromproduction to processing to disposal, gendered patterns ofbehavior condition men’s and women’s jobs and tasks, thedistribution of resources and benefits derived from incomegeneratingactivities in the chain, and the efficiency andcompetitiveness of value chains in the global market. Althoughmost of the leading international donor agencies adopt valuechain approaches as a strategy for enhancing economic growthand reducing poverty, until recently, few have considered howgender issues affect value chain development.Edwin Huffman/The World BankThis is beginning to change. Women are now widelyacknowledged to contribute to and shape the global economy* GATE worked in Albania, Bangladesh, Dominican Republic, Kenya, Nigeria, Peru, andSouth Africa. GATE also implemented one activity in Tanzania. All GATE project documentsas well as other gender and trade-related materials are available for download on theUSAID Women in Development website at http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/cross-cutting_programs/wid/.6


as employees, entrepreneurs, and leaders.* Moreover,a renewed focus on agriculture has been accompaniedby a reminder of the high participation rates of women indomestically oriented and commercial food productionand of the persistent gender inequalities that hinderprogress.** To address this gap, the GATE projectdeveloped a participatory training program to enhancepractitioners’ understanding of how gender roles andrelations impact value chains and program outcomes.During 2008-2009, the training program was piloted inKenya and in Tanzania.† This Handbook is an outgrowthof those experiences.Building on the growing body of empirical evidence thataddressing gender issues in value chains can improveprogram outcomes, this Handbook presents a practicalprocess for practitioners on how gender issues caninform the design, implementation, and monitoring ofUSAID value chain programs. Influenced by some of theleading USAID value chain development approaches,the Handbook provides a methodology for analyzinghow gender issues constrain or support the ability ofthese programs to achieve their goals.Agriculture includes the science and practice ofactivity related to food, feed, and fiber production,processing, marketing, distribution, utilization, and tradeand includes family and consumer sciences, nutrition,food science and engineering, agricultural economicsand other social sciences, forestry, wildlife, fisheries,aquaculture, floriculture, veterinary medicine, and otherenvironmental and natural resources sciences.A value chain describes the full sequence of activities(functions) required to bring a product or service fromconception, through the intermediary of production,transformation, marketing, and delivery to finalconsumers.PURPOSE OF THEHANDBOOKThis Handbook presents the “Integrating Gender Issuesinto Agricultural Value Chains” (INGIA-VC) approach.It was developed to bring together concepts fromdifferent technical areas in development, specificallygender, agriculture, microenterprise development,and value chains. Written by gender practitioners, itprovides readers with an understanding of agriculturalvalue chains from a gender perspective. The Handbookhelps practitioners become familiar with:✪✪ How gender issues affect agricultural value chains.✪✪ A process for analyzing gender issues inagricultural value chains.✪✪ Strategies for addressing gender issues inagricultural value chains.Who should use the Handbook?The Handbook covers conceptual and practical issues foraddressing gender in agricultural value chains. Becauseit brings together several different technical areas, ithas multiple audiences from gender, agriculture, orvalue chain backgrounds. The Handbook was primarilywritten for a USAID audience, including staff located inBureaus or Missions, and USAID implementing partnerorganizations.Other non-USAID readers may also find it useful asthey approach the subject of gender and value chains,but they should be aware that the particular contentprovided in the Handbook reflects the specific interestsof USAID and therefore may not encompass the fullrange of issues of interest to them.* See Shipman and Kay, Womenomics; Catalyst, “The Bottom Line”; and (The) Economist. “A Guide to Womenomics.”** Other researchers that have been working on the intersection of gender and value chain development include Agri-poor Focus, “Gender in Value Chains: EmergingLessons and Questions”; Mayoux and Mackie, “Making the Strongest Links: A Practical Guide to Mainstreaming Gender Analysis in Value Chain Development”; and IFAD,“Gender and Poverty Targeting in Market Linkage Operations: A Sourcebook.”† The East African trainings were called “INGIA-VC,” where INGIA is an acronym for “Integrating Gender Issues in Agricultural Value Chains.” In Swahili, “ingia” means“to enter,” and one often enters a farm through a gate. Not only does the GATE project represent the entry point for integrating gender into agricultural value chains, butthe training is the process by which attention to gender enters into the program operations. In Kenya, the training was attended by staff members from the Kenya MaizeDevelopment Program (KMDP), the Kenya Dairy Sector Competitiveness Program (KDSCP), and the Kenya Horticultural Development Program (KHDP). In Tanzania, thetraining was attended by staff members from the Smallholder Horticulture Outgrower Promotion (SHOP) Program and the Sustainable Environmental Management throughMariculture Activities (SEMMA) Program. The training reports are available at http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/cross-cutting_programs/wid/.7


The writers assume that readers using this Handbookwill have some knowledge of gender issues, agriculture,or value chain development. Nonetheless, it placesgreater emphasis on providing readers formerlyunfamiliar with gender issues with a foundation andprocess for assessing agricultural value chains froma gender perspective. For additional resources ongender, agriculture, or value chains, please see thereference list included in Annex 1.Definitions are provided throughout the text in boxeslike this one.tipsTips, reminders, additional information, and helpfulhints are provided in text boxes like this one.IntroductionTo assist readers, text boxes provide additionalinformation and guidance. Three types of text boxesare used in the Handbook.ExamplesIllustrative project descriptions provide readerswith real examples of projects that havefaced gender issues or addressed them inimplementation. This evidence is presented inboxes like this one.THE GATE PROJECT GENDER AND VALUE CHAIN RESOURCESThe GATE project developed a suite of resources to provide development practitioners with an understanding of andthe tools for addressing gender issues in value chain analysis and development programs. These include:✪✪ Promoting Gender Equitable Opportunities in Agricultural Value Chains: A Handbook✪✪ Kenya Gender Training Materials: Integrating Gender in Agricultural Value Chains✪✪ Tanzania Gender Training Materials: Integrating Gender in Agricultural Value Chains✪✪ Gender and Pro-Poor Value Chain Analysis: Insights from the GATE Project Methodology andCase Studies✪✪ A Pro-Poor Analysis of the Artichoke Sector in Peru (available in Spanish, with a summary inEnglish)✪✪ A Pro-Poor Analysis of the Shrimp Sector in BangladeshThese are available on the USAID Office of Women in Development website, http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/crosscutting_programs/wid/.PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 8


ORGANIZATION OFTHE HANDBOOKThe Handbook is divided into two parts.Part I. Integrating Gender Issues into Value ChainDevelopment. This first part introduces genderissues and their relationship to agricultural value chaindevelopment. It also provides a framework for analyzinggender issues. Part I is composed of the followingsections:✪✪ Gender Analysis briefly explains this analyticalmethod;✪✪ Gender Dimensions Framework describes oneanalytical method for analyzing gender issues andfor identifying gender-based constraints, which isused throughout this Handbook; and✪✪ Linking Gender Issues to Agricultural Value ChainDevelopment illustrates how gender-basedconstraints affect the structure and relationships ofthe value chain.Part II. A Process for Integrating Gender Issues intoAgricultural Value Chains. Part II offers practitioners afive-step process for identifying and evaluating genderbasedconstraints within agricultural value chains withtools and worksheets for implementing the process.At the end of the Handbook, readers can find thefollowing resource documents in the annexes:✪✪ Additional Resources on Gender and AgriculturalValue Chains✪✪ Illustrative Scope of Work for Conducting GenderAnalysis for Agricultural Value Chains✪✪ GATE Value Chain Fact SheetOBJECTIVES OF THEINGIA-VC APPROACHThe INGIA-VC approach presented in this Handbookaims to:1.2.3.Enhance the competitiveness of agriculturalvalue chains by reducing inefficiencies thatoriginate from gender-based constraints.Increase the opportunities for women at alllevels of the chain.Improve the ability of USAID projects to meettheir objectives.TABLE 1: A PROCESS FOR INTEGRATING GENDER ISSUES INTO AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINSPhasePhase One. Mapping Gender Roles andRelations along the Value ChainPhase Two. From Gender Inequalities toGender-based ConstraintsPhase Three. Assessing the Consequencesof Gender-based ConstraintsPhase Four. Taking Actions to RemoveGender-based ConstraintsPhase Five. Measuring Success of ActionsPurposeLearn how to identify gender roles and relations along the value chain throughdata collection effortsBecome familiar with a systematic way to identify gender-based constraintsUnderstand how to assess the implications of gender-based constraints onvalue chainsLearn how to determine the most appropriate course of action to removegender-based constraintsBecome familiar with ways of measuring the success of actions9


UNDERLYINGASSUMPTIONSThe INGIA-VC approach is built on the followingunderlying assumptions:1. VALUE CHAINS ARE EMBEDDED IN ASOCIAL CONTEXTIt is widely accepted that social and cultural factorsaffect the construction of organizational arrangements,transaction costs, bargaining strength, and incentivesto cooperate or collude. Building on this understanding,this Handbook assumes that value chains are embeddedin a broader social context. Within this broader socialcontext, gender roles and relations guide and determinethe behavior of different actors, both as individuals andfirms. Value chains reflect the consequences of genderrelations from the household to the firm. Understandingthe functions and operations of value chain actorscannot be isolated from an examination of how genderroles and relations shape and impact particular behaviorwithin value chains.✪ ✪✪ ✪The Household and Market InteractA large part of agricultural production amongsmallholders is conducted within the context of thehousehold; therefore, it is imperative to considerhow households differ in their operations fromfirms and what actions can be taken to supporttheir transformation into enterprising householdunits. Whether the objective of productionis for sale or household consumption, socialexpectations underpin the gender division ofagricultural and household tasks. These socialexpectations can lead to unequal bargaining powerthat distort intrahousehold allocation of labor andproductive resources and affect agricultural valuechain outcomes.Social Institutions Reflect Social NormsAlthough the labor market is often perceivedas a neutral space in which buyers and sellersinteract, hiring practices, labor contracts,managerial directives, systems of jobevaluations, professional and business networks,and pay determination structures are all bearersof gender. 1 The restriction of jobs based on theperceived roles appropriate for men and women,for example, is an important way in which thelabor markets reflect gender relations. This oftenleads to the concentration of men and women inparticular sectors or occupations. Furthermore,perceptions that men are the primary incomeearners and women are secondary incomeearners, known as the male breadwinner bias,often limit women’s earning potential andupward mobility.✪ ✪ Legal Frameworks Embody Social BeliefsLegal and regulatory frameworks embody socialbeliefs and perceptions about appropriate rolesfor men and women. Inheritance and ownershiplaws are clear examples of the codification ofbeliefs about who has the right to property andparticular assets. Although reforms are takingplace, many women still lack legal protection andrights to land through inheritance, upon divorce,or when widowed. Regulations sometimes limitthe weight of goods carried by men and womenand are based on particular beliefs about men’sand women’s physical strength.2. VALUE CHAIN DEVELOPMENT AFFECTSGENDER ROLES AND RELATIONSValue chain development programs aim to achievesystemic change in the behavior within firms andacross the chain in ways that promote upgrading andcompetitiveness. Change within agricultural valuechains involves shifting production systems that drawon indigenous or local knowledge to processes thatdepend on technical knowledge from input suppliersor buyers and meet consumer preferences. Marketingsystems move from spot interactions to more dependentand predictable relationships governed by contractualarrangements. These shifts, which can provide smallproducers with important advantages through increasedfarm incomes, affect gender roles and relations as well.Gender relations and enterprise conditions are dynamic;they are continually shifting. The discussion belowprovides examples of changes in gender roles andrelations as a result of value chain interventions.✪✪ New Technology and On-Farm Division of Labor.The introduction of new technology and agriculturalIntroductionPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 10


CHARACTERISTICS OFGENDER EQUITABLEAND COMPETITIVEAGRICULTURALVALUE CHAINSValue chain programs that support gender equity goals:1.2.3.Understand men’s and women’s roles andrelations.Gender equitable and competitive valuechain practitioners understand how men andwomen participate as economic actors alongthe value chain and use this information in thedesign and implementation of their programs.Well-informed practitioners are better ableto anticipate and address gender-basedconstraints and seize opportunities to supportgender equality.Foster equitable participation.Gender equitable and competitive value chainpractitioners create the conditions for bothmen and women to participate in value chainservices and activities, from membership inassociations to participation in training andpublic-private dialogues. Project-sponsoredactivities should insist that men, women, andyouth are invited to participate.Address the needs of women.Women are actively involved in agriculturalvalue chains as unpaid household workers,wageworkers, entrepreneurs, and leaders. Theconstraints facing them may differ from thoseof men. Gender equitable and competitivevalue chain practitioners recognize thesedifferences and design activities that meet theneeds of both men and women.4.5.6.7.Support women’s economic advancement.Gender equitable and competitive value chainpractitioners consider how to empower womenas lead entrepreneurs: setting an example forother women, contributing to upgrading, andleading systemic change in agricultural valuechains.Promote gender equitable market-drivensolutions.The private sector can be a catalyst inpromoting gender equality goals when itunderstands the business potential for doingso. Gender equitable and competitive valuechain practitioners facilitate understanding ofhow addressing gender issues in value chaindevelopment is “smart business” and supportthe development of solutions that create equalopportunities for men and women.Design equitable benefit-sharing mechanisms.Gender equitable and competitive value chainpractitioners consider not only men’s andwomen’s participation in value chains butalso how men and women will benefit fromparticipation. They understand the genderissues in benefit-sharing mechanisms relatedto the distribution of profits, wages, and nonmonetarycompensation and ensure that menand women are adequately rewarded for theircontributions to the value chain.Include men in defining the “problem” and thesolution.Gender equitable and competitive valuechain practitioners include both men andwomen in identifying the gender issues thatconstrain their abilities to raise productivityand income and to expand their enterprises.Programs can bring both men and women tothe table to clarify their roles in, for example,producer association governance or to defineequitable criteria for hiring, promotion, andcompensation within firms.IntroductionPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 12


A FRAMEWORKFOR INTEGRAtINGGENDER ISSUESINTO AGRICULTURALVALUE CHAINS


IntroductionFrameworkPart I of the Handbook describes an approach that helpspractitioners:✪✪ Learn about and analyze the gender issues relevant tovalue chain development programs;✪✪ Identify gender-based constraints that affect effortsto increase agricultural productivity, employment,and entrepreneurship and to strengthen horizontaland vertical linkages and the business enablingenvironment; and,✪✪ Learn from successful strategies to overcome theseconstraints.Curt Carnemark/The World Bank14


ILLUSTRATIONGENDERANALYSISValue chains are embeddedwithin sociocultural contexts. Thegender aspects of agriculturalvalue chain projects are especiallycomplex because market-orientedagriculture among smallholdersstill relies on farming householdsand family labor. Building thesemultifaceted and multipurposeunits into sustainable enterprisesin the value chain requires carefulattention to both social andeconomic relationships within andoutside the household.Gender analysis is the first steptoward understanding the genderissues that are relevant to valuechain operations. Gender analysisidentifies the gender relationsthat structure how smallholderGender Analysis is a methodology that both:households are organized andhow they interact with other firmsand economic processes. Ideasabout gender relations shape theopportunities that are availableto men and women throughoutthe value chain, by creatingor restricting educational andemployment options, as well asavenues for starting businessesand establishing needed socialand business networks. Genderexperts have developed differentmethodologies consisting of datacollection methods and descriptiveand analytical tools to illuminate theaspects of gender relations that arerelevant in development work.*Gender analysis leads to theidentification of Gender-basedConstraints (GbCs). This term isused in gender and developmentliterature to highlight the manydisadvantages faced by womenin their efforts to engage inthe economy. In value chain✪✪ describes existing gender relations in a particular environment, rangingfrom within households or firms to a larger scale of community, ethnicgroup, or nation, and✪✪ organizes and interprets, in a systematic way, information about genderrelations to clarify the importance of gender differences for achievingdevelopment objectives.Gender analysis involves collecting and analyzing sex-disaggregated dataand other qualitative and quantitative information on gender issues, includingaccess to and control over assets (tangible and intangible), as well as beliefs,practices, and legal frameworks.discussions, the term “constraint”typically refers to different types oflimits that influence the operationsor growth of individuals and/orfirms. In development projectson economic growth, agriculture,and trade, commonly identifiedconstraints include limited income,legal restrictions, social or ethicalconsiderations, and availabletechnologies.GbCs can limit men’s and women’sparticipation in social life, accessto resources, time use, mobility,legal rights, or exercise of power.Just as a lack of nutrients affectsthe growth of plants or livestock,GbCs place limits on men andwomen based on specific aspectsof their gender identities and limitthe efficient allocation of labor andskills in ways that restrict overalleconomic growth.In this Handbook, GbCs aredefined as restrictions on men’s orwomen’s access to resources oropportunities that are based on theirgender roles or responsibilities.The term encompasses both themeasurable inequalities that arerevealed by sex-disaggregateddata collection and genderanalysis, as well as the factors thatcontribute to a specific conditionof gender inequality. In Part II of theHandbook, a set of tools guidesthe reader through the use of theGender Dimensions Frameworkto identify GbCs and to developactions to overcome them.* See Candida March, Ines Smyth, and Maitrayee Mukhopadhyay, A Guide to Gender-Analysis Frameworks, London: Oxfam Publishing, 1999; and Suzanne Williams,Oxfam Gender Training Manual. London: Oxfam, 1994.15


Gender roles are the behaviors,tasks, and responsibilities that areconsidered appropriate for womenand men because of socio-culturalnorms and beliefs. They change overtime, through individual choices or as aresult of social and/or political changesemerging from changed opportunities(more education, different economicenvironment) or during times of socialupheaval (such as disasters, war, andpost-conflict situations).FrameworkGender relations are one type ofsocial relations between men andwomen that are constructed andreinforced by social institutions.They include the routine ways inwhich men and women interact witheach other in social institutions: insexual relationships, in friendships, inworkplaces, and in different sectorsof the economy. Gender relations aresocially determined, culturally based,and historically specific.Gender is the social category usuallyassociated with being a man or awoman. It encompasses economic,social, political, and cultural attributesand opportunities as well as roles andresponsibilities. Gender is defineddifferently around the world and thosedefinitions change over time.Sex refers to biological characteristicsthat distinguish males and females.These do not change from one cultureto another and can be recognized asindependent and distinct from oneanother.Curt Carnemark/The World BankGender-based constraints refer torestrictions on men’s or women’saccess to resources or opportunitiesthat are based on their genderroles or responsibilities. The termencompasses both the measurableinequalities that are revealed bysex-disaggregated data collectionand gender analysis as well as theprocesses that contribute to a specificcondition of gender inequality.PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 16


THE GENDERDIMENSIONSFRAMEWORK (GDF)This Handbook presents a frameworkfor gender analysis* designedto provide guidance to USAIDstaff and partner organizations,called the Gender DimensionsFramework (GDF).** The GDFoffers a structured way to analyzegender relations with the household,the firm, the community, and thePOWER: A CROSS-CUTTING DIMENSIONbroader economy. It examines fourintersecting dimensions of social life:✪✪ observed practices andpatterns of participation,✪✪ existing patterns of access toproductive assets,✪✪ social beliefs and perceptions,and✪✪ laws, policies, and institutions.Although overlapping in real life,these dimensions are conceptuallydistinct. Working with the GDFIn addition to the four dimensions of practice, assets, beliefs, and laws,the GDF incorporates attention to power as a crosscutting issue. Power isexpressed in different ways. The power of a husband to direct how his spouseallocates her labor, for example, is not only wielded by him as an individual butalso draws on rights to that power that are accepted in the community, thatare part of a system of customary practice, and that are enshrined in statutorylaw. Women may not have the same access to public positions of power asmen do, but they still wield significant authority and influence in the communityand in the home.Power is infused in value chain operations as well, governing the relationshipsbetween individual firms and within firms. Men and women have differenttypes and degrees of power to control, to enforce, and to shape the decisionsover themselves and others. These differences affect women’s and men’sopportunities to engage in collective actions or to associate with others; toparticipate in affairs of the household, community, municipality, and nation; touse individual economic resources; to choose employment; to vote or run foroffice; or to enter into legal contracts.helps illuminate specific areas ofgender inequalities that might:✪✪ be created or exacerbated byexisting value chain programs,and/or✪✪ create inefficiencies inchain operations or openopportunities for more genderequitable interactions betweendifferent actors along thechain.The GDF also underscores thatvalue chains and gender relationsboth change, either as a resultof development interventions oras a product of indirect factorssuch as market or policy shifts.The descriptions of each of thedimensions in the GDF belowdraw on examples of typicallydocumented gender inequalities,resulting from gender-basedconstraints. Included in eachdescription is a box that highlightshow the dimension relates to valuechains.* The Gender Dimensions Framework is based on The Domains Framework for Gender Analysis developed by Deborah Rubin and Deborah Caro of Cultural Practice LLCunder USAID contracts (the WID IQC and the Health Policy Initiative). It draws on other approaches and was refined specifically for use with USAID programs. Many ofthe components of this approach are used in training and other materials with a health focus and are available on the Interagency Gender Working Group (IGWG) website,www.igwg.org. The USAID WID website (www.usaid.gov/wid) offers other training materials on gender and additional examples of the domains/dimensions framework.** It has been refined under the GATE project to address gender integration in value chain work being supported by USAID. Training materials and trip reports on the pilotprograms in Kenya and Tanzania that introduced this framework are available at http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/cross-cutting_programs/wid/eg/pubs.html.17


PRACTICES ANDPARTICIPATIONIdeas about gender shape howpeople behave: from aspects ofdress and personal appearance tothe division of labor within familyenterprises, to the educationopportunities open to them and thekinds of jobs they take as a result.Ideas about gender influence whois allowed to travel to differentlocations by oneself or in groups,by foot or in a vehicle, and at whattimes they are allowed to be there.Gender roles influence participationin activities, in meetings, in politicalprocesses, in services, and intraining courses.TimeMen and women typically carry outdifferent tasks within the household,on the farm, and in business.Women’s contributions to runningthe household, though essentialfor getting workers (includingthemselves) off to work, may bediscounted because these contributionsare less visible to researchers,policy-makers, or governmentofficials. Time allocation studiesshow that women’s household responsibilitiesare demanding andthat women have a longer workdaythan men. Women often travel longdistances to find firewood and water.When combined with domesticresponsibilities, women have lesstime to participate in communitymeetings and other social gatheringsrelative to men. Women in ruralKenya, for example, work approximatelythree hours more per daythan men. 5MobilityAn environment that restrictswomen’s mobility reduces theirability to engage in networkingopportunities and limits theinformation available to them. 6 Inaddition, spaces where informationis exchanged are not necessarilygender neutral. In Albania, marketinformation is often receivedthrough networking with colleaguesin local coffee shops. These coffeeshops are considered male spaces,and women do not comfortablycongregate there. Similarly, in ruralUganda, men network in drinkingclubs, spaces women are restrictedfrom entering. 7Labor participationMany analyses reveal a high degreeof sex segmentation in the laborforce across different levels of thevalue chain, as well as within theoccupational categories inside firms.Women are often concentrated inlower-skilled positions in productionprocesses, as well as in relativelylower-skilled positions, such asclerks, in firms engaged in export andmarketing. Documenting men’s andwomen’s contributions to economicactivities makes them visible.PRACTICES AND PARTICIPATION DESCRIBES:Association participationAs a consequence of the limits ontheir time, education, and mobility,women are often underrepresentedin mixed sex producer associationsand business groups. At times,they are not informed about groupformation, as the communicationmechanisms used to elicitparticipation and membershipmay not be those used by women.Women may also be limited to onlycertain positions of leadershipwithin the organization. Conversely,some groups formed explicitly tobenefit women may prohibit orrestrict participation by men.ACCESS TO ASSETSGender relations shape access tothe resources that are necessaryto be a fully active and productiveparticipant in society, includingaccess to both tangible andintangible assets such as land,labor, capital, natural resources,education, employment, andinformation. Research studies showthat a significant global gender gapexists in asset ownership, control,and access. 8 On average, men haveaccess to more types and higher✪✪ Where men and women cluster, their occupations, and the tasksthey undertake, which illustrate the distribution of Employmentalong the value chain; and✪✪ Men’s and women’s types and levels of participation in institutionssuch as producer and trade associations, input suppliers, andbusiness development service providers, which form Horizontaland Vertical Linkages.FrameworkPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 18


levels of assets than women do, ormen’s rights are more commonlyformalized, while women arelimited to customary user rights.In other situations, women may befavored in access to certain assets,such as microfinance, and menmust rely on other financial tools.Asset inequality has significantimplications for agriculture sectorgrowth, as different types of assetscan inhibit or promote differentagricultural investments. 9 It isimportant to examine the typesand quantities of assets requiredto participate in agricultural valuechains and the extent to which menand women are able to access andmobilize those resources.Dominic SansoniThe World BankAccess to landWomen typically have less accessto land. In Montenegro, 3 percentof property is registered in women’snames. 10 Ten percent of propertyin rural Kosovo is registered towomen. 11 In Tanzania, women ownabout 19 percent of titled land. 12Both customary and formal laws limitwomen’s rights to land inheritanceor land purchase and constrainwomen from expanding agriculturalproduction. Gender relations withinthe household further delimit areasof responsibility for decisions overland use and land management,frequently limiting women’s userights to particular portions of ortypes of land. In Lushoto, Tanzania,participants in the USAID-fundedSmallholder Horticulture OutgrowerPromotion Program (SHOP)reported that most householdsown two types of land for cropproduction: valley bottom andupland plots. Household membersreported that, while both men and19


women farm the valley bottomplots in high-value vegetablesintended for market, these aremore often considered men’s plots,and the plots owned independentlyby women are typically smaller.Upland plots farmed by women areplanted in staple grains and grownprimarily for home consumption;fruit trees planted on those fieldsfor market are owned by men. Thisdivision results in potential inequityin which men own and manageland that earns more income whilewomen manage plots that producefood crops.Access to information andextension servicesWomen farmers have historicallybeen excluded from many of thebenefits of technical advancesin productivity, despite providingthe labor for developing countryagricultural efforts. One wellstudiedarea of exclusion hasbeen women’s lack of accessto agricultural extension, whichuntil recently was handledprimarily through agriculturalresearch centers and governmentministries. An initial study inKenya in the mid-1970s revealedthat women’s exclusion fromagricultural extension had twocomponents: (1) few womenbecame extension agents and(2) few women farmers met withextension agents. 13their ability to improve agriculturalproductivity.Access to educationBoys and girls typically do not havethe same educational opportunities.This inequality is recognized inMillennium Development Goal 3and its objective to achieve genderinequality through increasingeducation of girls. Studies indicatethat disparities in educationattainment create unequal accessto employment. In rural Tanzania 14and Zimbabwe, 15 access tononfarm employment was criticallydetermined by education, age, andgender. 16Access to education not onlyinfluences the fields of studythat men and women pursuebut also affects their economicopportunities. Today, women areunderrepresented in agriculturalscience departments in mostcountries around the world. A2004 survey of 57 developingcountries found that the shareof women’s enrollment rates inagricultural sciences ranged from27 percent in sub-Saharan Africato 41 percent in the Asia-Pacificregion. 18Gender bias in education has adirect effect on economic growthby depressing the quality ofhuman capital. It is a misallocationof human resources. 20ACCESS TO ASSETS, DIFFERENTIATED BY WOMEN AND MEN,DETERMINES:✪✪ The educational and business skills opportunities available to menand women, which can facilitate access to Employment along thevalue chain;✪✪ Whether men and women are informed of and able to accesstechnologies that support On-Farm Productivity;✪✪ Men and women’s bargaining power in negotiating and managingVertical and Horizontal relationships and in advocating for changein the Business Enabling Environment.FrameworkMore frequent interaction withextension agents and on-farmdemonstrations is linked to greateradoption of inputs and newtechnologies. Women’s significantlylower rates of interaction withextension agents continue to hinderPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 20


BELIEFS ANDPERCEPTIONSAll societies have belief systems thatshape ideas about appropriate rolesand responsibilities for men andwomen. Beliefs guide men’s andwomen’s socialization processesand shape general patterns ofbehavior. For example, it is oftenexpected for girls and boys to learnabout different aspects of agriculturalproduction and marketing practices.Associations between women andcaregiving shape opportunitiesfor women to learn more aboutwild foods, medicinal plants, orsmall-animal health than men.Social beliefs also shape economicopportunities available to men andwomen. For example, beliefs aboutthe appropriateness of women inmanagerial roles may restrict womenfrom decision-making positions.Social beliefs also shape men’s andwomen’s access to assets. Despitelaws that stipulate equal pay for equalwork, a common belief that women aresecondary income earners may resultin the acceptance and perpetuationof differential wages for men andwomen. Furthermore, a belief thatsons should inherit land may overridea law that requires equal inheritancerights indiscriminate of sex.Beliefs about men andwomen as economicactorsWomen are key actors in farmingenterprises, making significantcontributions as unpaid familyworkers. They are the direct users ofmany inputs and services. Womenare frequently independent farmmanagers, as well as acting farmRay Witlin/The World BankBELIEFS AND PERCEPTIONS VERSUS PRACTICES ANDPARTICIPATIONBeliefs and practice are often contradictory. Social beliefs may sometimesbe at odds with individuals’ actions but are used to justify and upholdgender differences. People may say they believe that women are moretrustworthy when it comes to repaying loans but still restrict the sizeof their loans because women have limited collateral. Or a producerassociation may assert that women are more effective communicators,a quality prized in an association leader, but women may be restrictedfrom leadership positions because they do not own land. Social beliefsand perceptions often guide behavior but do not necessarily determinethe actions of individuals.21


Scott Wallace/The World BankFrameworkmanagers for men who have leftthe farm to seek wage employmentelsewhere or who have full-timeemployment elsewhere.Yet in many societies, people assumethat only men are the farmers or thatonly men are the clients of serviceproviders. These beliefs reduce thepotential client base for providers,contribute to poor targeting, andinterfere in the efficient channeling ofgoods and services from provider toclient. Assumptions about women’slack of competence as farmers alsoundermine an understanding of theresponsibilities women take on asfarm managers in many countries.Women own and manage manyinformal and formal businesses,but perceptions that their roles aresecondary impede their access toa range of opportunities to buildsocial capital and new clients.Perceptions about women businessowners affect their interactionswith banks, government officials,potential buyers, and peers. InCambodia, women are oftenconsidered to have lower statusthan men, which makes it difficultfor women business leaders to betaken seriously. Although womenmanage the day-to-day operationsand decision-making in many familyenterprises in Vietnam, it is stillimportant that husbands or othermen family members are perceivedto be the decision-makers. 21Beliefs about men andwomen as associationmembersSocial perceptions about genderroles can limit women’s involvementin associations. At the start ofan agricultural project in Albania,social attitudes toward womenroutinely limited their participationin project activities, includingtheir membership in producerassociations. Men, in their roles ashousehold heads, were assumed tobe primary decision-makers for allthe enterprises of farming families.Although women met project criteriafor inclusion, and studies revealedthey often owned enterprises and/or jointly managed farm enterpriseswith their husbands, few effortswere made initially to reach out tothem. 22Beliefs about appropriateworkBeliefs about appropriate work andworkplaces for men and womenshape the allocation of labor eventhough they create distortions andinefficiencies in the labor market. 23Dolan and Sorby argue that beliefsand assumptions about womencontribute to the congregation ofwomen into unskilled positions withinprocessing plants. They suggest thatthe feminization of tasks is rooted in“a number of stylized assumptionsthat equate production imperativesof quality, consistency and speedwith ostensibly ‘feminine’ traits ofdexterity and conscientiousness.” 24For example, in packhousesassociated with export-orientedhigh-value horticulture, womenwere hired to clean, cut, grade, sort,pack, seal, and weigh produce. Men,however, were hired as electriciansand mechanics. In Egypt, differenceswere based on cultural perceptionsthat linked women’s experiencePROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 22


BELIEFS AND PERCEPTIONS AFFECT:✪✪ The gendered division of labor in the household and on the farm,which facilitates or impedes On-Farm Productivity;✪✪Ideas about the appropriateness of Employment opportunities formen and women;✪✪ Expectations about men’s and women’s behavior, which shapetheir interactions with institutions and govern the BusinessEnabling Environment.in domestic work (e.g., in foodpreparation) with the sensitive carethat delicate horticultural productslike strawberries needed to avoidhigh losses from bruising, but thesewere also lower-paid jobs that mendid not want. 25Beliefs about legal rightsSome studies suggest thatdiscriminatory beliefs about womenlead to differential treatment byregulatory officials. For example,a study in Kenya found thatgovernment officials enforceregulations differently for women. 26Gender-based intimidation wasa major issue reported in theinteraction between womenand civil servants. In this case,simply streamlining the licensingand registration processes willnot necessarily overcome theconstraints women face. Whileresearch suggests that womenare more likely to register theirbusinesses if procedures aresimplified, it is also important toensure that women are treatedfairly by regulation officials.LAWS, POLICIES, ANDINSTITUTIONSGender roles influence how peopleare regarded and treated by formaland informal laws, policies, andinstitutions. Gender affects rightsto legal documents, ownership andinheritance, representation, anddue process. Many formal laws andinstitutional practices outside of thehome erect barriers against women.Customary and statutory laws as wellas institutional policies often formalizeexisting beliefs and practices, someof which are discriminatory, but lawscan also be used to establish moreegalitarian practices.Legal rights to landIn agriculture, rights to land are critical.Studies highlight the importance ofsecure property rights for increasedagricultural productivity. 27 Secureproperty rights create incentives foragricultural investment and outputs.Furthermore, access to and controlover land is a cascading asset,meaning that land is often importantfor facilitating access to services,goods, and membership in the valuechain. For example, land facilitatesaccess to credit and membership inassociations. Many countries nowhave legal frameworks that affordboth men and women equal accessto land and property.In some situations, customary andstatutory law treats land accessdifferently; sometimes conflictsexist within statutory law ofdifferent types. In Botswana, forexample, land laws have not beenharmonized with marriage law tofacilitate women’s landownership. 28In Kenya, the Kenya RegisteredLand Act (RLA) allows for up tofive people to register as ownersof a plot of land. Plots are typicallyregistered solely in the name of thehead of household. According to theRLA, legislation overrides customaryrights unless they are registered.User rights of land are rarely notedon the register; thus, most often theregistration gives absolute title to theregistered landowner. In other cases,additional legal requirements mayconstrain women from registeringland. For example, in Guatemala,the law allows women to own land.However, one reason few womenare legal landowners is that theyoften lack legal identity cards, whichare required to register land.Legal rights to land are often linkedto marital status, where men’s andwomen’s rights in marriage aredefined differently under the law.The Kenyan Law of Succession,which governs inheritance rights,terminates a widow’s inheritancerights if she remarries, but awidower’s rights remain intact. InUganda, although legal provisionspermit women to inherit 15 percentof matrimonial property upon thedeath of her husband, womenare often not consulted about the23


disposition of family land upon thedeath of the spouse. 29Legal rights toemploymentEmployment laws often determinewhere and when men and women areeligible for work. In the Philippines,laws prohibit women from night work.Women are restricted from industrialundertakings that occur between thehours of ten o’clock at night and sixo’clock in the morning. 30Legal rights to servicesInstitutional policies define whohas access to services. Forexample, agriculture cooperativesor producer associations, whichrequire landownership as thebasis for membership, may restrictwomen who have user rights toland but not ownership over landfrom becoming full and activemembers. If associations are theprimary mechanism through whichsmallholders receive inputs, marketinformation, and training services,gender inequalities in membershipmay impact productivity and marketlinkages.Legal rights to creditWomen’s lack of access to land andproperty in their own right or throughjoint titling and registration remainsan obvious factor in countries wherelegal frameworks allow only a limitedset of assets to be used as collateral.Legal frameworks requiring land ascollateral for accessing credit actuallyimpose two constraints on women:(1) Women typically do not own landthemselves because land titling andproperty registration practices favormen. (2) Institutional policies maylimit the use of nonland assets forcollateral.Where bank options reflect socialbiases that consider men “heads ofhousehold,” a married woman maybe required to obtain her husband’ssignature to access finance andcredit options. The bank policyis built on the perception thatmen play a more important rolein the household. In essence, theperception that men and womenhave an unequal position in thehousehold is translated intoinstitutional policy that reinforcesthe inequality of opportunity toaccess credit.FrameworkLAWS, POLICIES, AND INSTITUTIONS STRUCTURE:✪✪ Hiring and labor practices that can affect the level andcharacteristics of men’s and women’s Employment;✪✪ Men’s and women’s ability to access due process and to enforcecontracts that mediate Horizontal and Vertical relationships; and✪✪ How men and women, as producers and entrepreneurs, are treatedunder the existing Business Enabling Environment.PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 24


LINKINGGENDERRELATIONSTO VALUECHAINOPERATIONSBuilding on the Gender DimensionsFramework (GDF), this sectionof the handbook explores andexplains how gender issues impactvalue chain interventions. Thediscussion covers three topicscommon to value chain structure(vertical linkages and supportservices, horizontal linkages, andbusiness enabling environment)and three topics that reflectcritical aspects of the intersectionbetween gender relations andagricultural development (on-farmproductivity, employment, andentrepreneurship).In each section, key GbCs areoutlined (Table 2) and strategies(Table 3) to overcome them arediscussed. It is not an exhaustivediscussion, but rather an illustrationof how gender analysis illuminateschallenges practitioners face inbuilding gender equitable andcompetitive value chains. Nearly allGbCs can be addressed to somedegree—if not eliminated—bycareful consideration in the design,implementation, and monitoringof gender-sensitive indicators inagricultural value chain programs.The suggested strategiesincorporate the characteristics ofgender equitable and competitivevalue chains described in theintroduction to the Handbook.The World Bank25


TABLE 2: ILLUSTRATIVE GENDER-BASED CONSTRAINTSMostcriticalGbCsrelated to:On-FarmProductivityAccess to assetsincluding:✪✪ Land✪✪ Labor✪✪ Capital✪✪ Inputs✪✪ Technology✪✪ Information✪✪ EducationHorizontalLinkagesActiveparticipationincluding:✪✪ Membership✪✪ Decisionmaking✪✪ Leadershipin decisionmaking andleadershipVertical LinkagesAccess to assetsincluding:✪✪ Land✪✪ Labor✪✪ Capital✪✪ Inputs✪✪ Technology✪✪ InformationBusiness EnablingEnvironmentLaws, policies, andinstitutions✪✪ Formaldiscrimination inlaw and policy✪✪ Cross-sectoralor crossjurisdictionalinconsistencies✪✪ UnequalenforcementEmployment andEntrepreneurshipAccess to assetsincluding:✪✪ Land✪✪ Labor✪✪ Capital✪✪ Education✪✪ Information✪✪ TrainingFrameworkIllustrativefactors thatcontributeto orexacerbatetheseconstraintsinclude:✪✪ Beliefs andperceptionsaboutappropriatewomen’seconomicactivity (e.g.,as farmers orentrepreneurs)✪✪ Legal andregulatoryframeworksrelated topropertyownership andinheritance✪✪ Lack ofaccess toassets, suchas land andcapital, thatfacilitateparticipationand/orleadership✪✪ Beliefs andperceptionsabout thecapabilitiesof women tolead✪✪ Beliefs andperceptions aboutappropriate jobs/tasks for men andwomen✪✪ Beliefs andperceptions aboutappropriatenessfor women totravel alone, atdifferent timesand to differentlocations✪✪ Beliefs andperceptionsthat discouragewomen fromparticipating inpublic fora✪✪ Beliefs andperceptions ofofficials withenforcementauthority✪✪ Lawsregulatingemploymentterms andconditions,credit, andpropertyownership✪✪ Beliefs andperceptionsaboutappropriateroles/jobs forwomen andmen✪✪ Beliefs andperceptionsaboutinheritancepatternsPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 26


ON-FARMPRODUCTIVITYIncreasing agricultural productivityamong smallholder farmers hasbeen the core of most national andmultinational development interventions,emphasizing improvedefficiency of labor, land, and otherinputs, including water, in the productionof marketable crops, suchas staple food grains, livestock,and high-value fruits and vegetablesfor domestic, regional, andexport markets. For many years,the focus was on men, who, aspresumed and predominant headsof households, were the targets ofdevelopment assistance. Gradually,appreciation for women’s rolesand responsibilities in agriculturalproduction led to better identificationof the gender differences thataffect the adoption and sustainabilityof agricultural innovationson smallholder farms and solutionsto address them. In recent years,as small farmers have become incorporatedinto global networks ofproduction, processing, and sales,a better understanding is emergingof how gender differences affectproductivity in global value chains.Increased productivity can beachieved in many ways. Theapplication of science andtechnology to breed higher-yieldingor pest- or drought-resistantvarieties improves the productivityof labor and of seed. Improving thetiming or sequencing of cultivationtasks and the application ofpesticides and fertilizers can alsoraise yields while reducing labor.Costs associated with the use offarm equipment can be recouped bygains from cultivating larger acreagewith fewer hands. Improvementsin postharvest storage by usingtemperature and humiditycontrolledunits can reduce lossesto harvested production.Improving women’s on-farmproductivity must address thetime-poverty they face in balancingboth domestic and agriculturalresponsibilities. Documenting howwomen’s work in caring for andreproducing the household makesvisible the way that value chain–related activities are embeddedin and shaped by intrahouseholddynamics. At the same time, GbCs toagriculture productivity are not onlythe product of the intrahouseholdrelations that govern householdpractices but are also a reflection ofthe inadequacies of public policiesthat affect how women and men aredifferentially able to access assetsand markets.Shehzad Noorani/The World Bank27


ACCESS TO LANDOwnership, control, and accessto land are critical pieces forimproving agricultural productivity;when those who work the landalso benefit from it, incentives arecreated to increase yields andprovide good stewardship. Landnot only benefits agriculture, butlandowners also earn more nonfarmself-employment income than thelandless. 31Legal discrimination and socialnorms restrict women’s abilitiesto use and own land equally tomen. Women are often restrictedin their access to land throughrelationships with men, by marriageor kinship, and have relativelyfew opportunities to obtainformal ownership of land eitherindependently or jointly. As a result,the gender gap in landownershipis significant. Although data areincomplete, reports from countriesaround the world suggest thatwomen’s landownership rates varyfrom between 2 and 15 percent to20 and 25 percent only in Europeancountries. As land markets emerge,commercialization and privatizationcan exacerbate existing genderinequalities in land access.However, if commercialization andprivatization are accompanied bymore opportunities for women toearn income, then more equitableopportunities for both women andmen to obtain land may result. 32STRATEGIESFacilitate access to land for women and other disadvantaged groups, forexample, by helping producer associations and small businesses negotiateland access from the community or from local government (Box 1).Box 1FACILITATING LAND ACCESS FOR LANDLESS GROUPS✪✪ In Tanzania, the USAID-funded Smallholders HorticulturalOutgrowers Project helped connect a women’s group with a localfarmer to grow and sell high-value vegetables, including baby cornand green beans. The women leased land from the farmer andreceived technical assistance from the project.✪✪ In South Africa, the Marwa Honey Queens, a company that raisesbees to produce honey, was established after four enterprisingwomen visited an agricultural show and saw a demonstration onhoneybee farming. They obtained a small piece of land from theirlocal Department of Agriculture and were able to garner a largerplot from the local government. They have also convinced thelocal electrical utility to provide a loan for refurbishing existingbuildings into office space. Within a few years, they were able toexpand to 500 honeybee hives and purchase a truck and officeequipment.Sources: Tanzania field interviews, April 2009; Rubin, Deborah, Nomtuse Mbere,and Nancy Taggart, “South Africa Gender Assessment.” USAID Women inDevelopment Short-Term Technical Assistance and Training Project, Arlington,VA: DevTech Systems, Inc., November 2004, http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/cross-cutting_programs/wid/gender/gender_assessments.html.FrameworkPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 28


ACCESS TO LABORWomen typically dedicate significantunpaid labor to agricultural incomegeneratingactivities, and in manyplaces, they carry the burden ofdomestic responsibilities as well.Their contribution to producingmarket and food crops is a critical,often unmeasured, labor input inmany value chain programs.Like land, women’s access to labor isoften mediated by their relationshipswith men through marriage andkinship, and they are furtherconstrained in hiring labor by theirrelatively low incomes. Intrahouseholddecision-making plays an importantrole in defining their rights to call onfamilial labor and for shaping howwomen use their own labor. Withoutaccess to additional labor, women’stime-poverty becomes a significantconstraint on productivity.STRATEGIESAssist project participants to work out cooperative labor arrangementsor to use collective resources to overcome labor constraints.box 2In different projects in Tanzania, project participants spoke about findingcreative ways to overcome some of their labor constraints.✪✪ A seaweed cultivation project on the coast helped a producerassociation to get loans from a local bank and to purchase boatsto transport their harvests to the shore instead of carrying them inbags on their heads.✪✪ In a horticultural project, some participants worked on adjacentplots in rotation to help one another meet labor needs. Otherscooperated with neighbors who were not project participants,asking them for help at weeding and harvest times when labor wascritical and helping them on their village plots at other times.Source: INGIA-VC Interviews in Tanzania, April 2009.29


ACCESS TOWELL-DESIGNEDTECHNOLOGYTechnology design that considersgender issues can significantlyenhance on-farm productivityamong smallholders. A recentintergovernmental report concludedthat “a priority task for scientists isto develop technologies that can…reduce the hours of work andincrease income per hour of workfor women.” 33Manual treadle pumps, for example,have been introduced for irrigationand have been successfullyadopted by women in India wherethe newly irrigated fields increasedyields, women’s incomes, and asense of empowerment. 34 Positiveresults were reported in Kenya andin Zambia, but in Zimbabwe, womenreported feeling less comfortablewith the pump operation. Newtechnologies need to be carefullyadapted, refined, or revised, in lightof gender differences, to increasethe likelihood of their adoption. 35STRATEGIESDesign innovative technologies that meet women’s labor needs, particularlythose that ease time constraints and make the work easier.The following key principles are important for the design of women’sfarm tools:✪✪ Weight: Tools should not be too heavy✪✪ Maneuverability: Tools should be easy to control✪✪ Durability: Tools should not wear out quickly✪✪ Repairability: Tools should be easy to repair✪✪ Socially acceptable: Tools, when used, should not harm women’sreputation✪✪ Cost: Tools should affordableSource: IFAD, ”What African Women Farmers Look for in Their AgriculutralImplements.” January 2007, http://www.ifad.org/gender/learning/sector/agriculture/74.htm.FrameworkPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 30


ACCESS TOEXTENSION ANDHIGHER-QUALITYINPUTSWomen continue to be disadvantagedin accessing agricultural extension,whether from government or fromprivate sources, and in learningabout new methods for cultivation,storage, processing, and newproducts to grow. Women are aminority of agricultural extensionagents, constituting only 15 percentof the world’s total, according to theFood and Agriculture Organization(FAO) estimates. 36 Innovativetechniques that are easily accessibleto both women and men are needed,including expanding agriculturalprogramming on radios, introducingfree agricultural information as partof cell phone services, providingtransportation and child care toenable women to attend farmer fielddays, among other options. Linkedto difficulties in finding time andtransportation, women often avoidusing improved inputs because theyare sold or distributed in quantitiestoo large for women to manageeasily.STRATEGIESUse proven communication strategies and appropriate communicationchannels to reach women as well as men with agricultural information,for example✪✪ Hold demonstrations on farmer’s fields✪✪ Make information available free of charge✪✪ Train agricultural extension officers who are men to reach out to womenfarmers✪✪ Hire more agricultural extension officers who are women.Yuri Mechitov/The World Bank31


ENGAGING FARMERSIN AGRICULTURALRESEARCHParticipatory research emergedin the 1970s as a productive wayto enhance adoption of new cropvarieties by smallholders. Bringingwomen into participatory researchefforts ensures that the preferencesof these end users are incorporatedinto the research program.When research and extension arefarmer-led, or when participatoryresearch has a specificempowerment or farmer capacitybuilding element, the processof participating and engaging inresearch can have a significanteffect on farmers’ human and socialcapital, hence creating the basis forsustainable local innovation throughenhancing learning capability andknowledge generation in ruralcommunities. 37STRATEGIES1. Ensure research and dissemination programs are participatory,including both men and women, and offered at convenient timesand locations so that knowledge of key practices will be offered tothose most engaged in production, harvest, and storage processes(Box 3).2. In conducting agricultural research, the following gender issuesshould be considered: access and control over the technology bymen and women and potential displacement of women from incomeearningwork (Box 4).box 3box 4Facilitating Women’s Participation In AgriculturalResearchAnother innovative program has been pioneered by The World VegetableCenter. Its breeding program develops improved seeds for bothindigenous and exotic vegetables. In a carefully designed outreach effort,WVC distributes improved seed in conjunction with on-site residentialtraining programs at their Tanzanian research station and in extensionvisits to women’s groups across Africa. Participants in the program areprovided with small daily stipends or transportation subsidies. Uptake ofthe improved seeds has been sufficient to encourage local private seedcompanies to enter into the supply chain.Source: The World Vegetable Center, http://www.avrdc.org/.Addressing Gender Issues In Agricultural ResearchFrameworkParticipatory breeding efforts have involved women in on-farm trials toidentify their preferences for different characteristics such as length ofthe growing season, cooking qualities, and taste. NERICA (New Rice forAfrica) was developed at the African Rice Center with the help of localfarmers, including many women, who participated in varietal selectionefforts. First, the center planted demonstration plots of the upland ricethat sought to incorporate the higher yields of Asian rice varieties with thedisease resistance and drought tolerance of indigenous African varietiesin village “rice gardens.” Farmers were invited to observe the planting andgrowing process and to sample the harvest, and researchers collectedtheir feedback. In subsequent seasons, farmers, including many women,tested the new varieties. They planted and harvested the test varietieson their own farms, reporting on both its favorable and less desirablecharacteristics. The feedback of local farmers, including women farmers,has helped to increase the popularity of the NERICA varieties, which isnow thought to be planted by over 30,000 farmers in several West Africancountries.Source: “The Warda Annual Report 1999.” Bamako, Mali: Africa Rice Center, 1999,http://www.warda.org/publications/AR99menu.htm.PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 32


INCREASING WOMEN’SPRODUCTIVITYINCENTIVESIntrahousehold dynamics playan important role in determiningallocation of and benefits derivedfrom labor inputs and is relevant toaddressing gender issues withinvalue chains because womendedicate significant unpaid laborto agricultural income-generatingactivities, and in many places,they continue to carry the burdenof domestic responsibilities. Theircontribution to producing marketand food crops is a critical, oftenunmeasured labor input in many valuechain programs. Women’s significantcontributions to agriculture withlittle or no remuneration create fewincentives for them to increase theirproductivity.Examples from the field revealthat women’s lack of incentives tocontribute to agricultural activitiescan have a direct effect on thevolume and quality of the flow ofgoods in a value chain. As describedin Box 5, gendered patterns ofresource allocation within thehousehold can reduce the supply ofraw materials required for processingplants to deliver an adequate supplyof goods to their buyers. As thecase suggests, the issue is not justrelevant to smallholder farms butalso to other actors in the chain thatare dependent on women’s labor.STRATEGIES1. Design distribution mechanisms that reward women’s unpaidlabor.By working with producers and sellers, value chain programs can design paymentschemes that encourage positive change on gender relations and householdincomes, while fostering collaboration among chain actors. For example, thiscould include cash payments and nonmonetary contributions to the householdas explained in. Where payment is delivered to bank accounts, it is important toensure that men and women have access to those accounts, and the projectshould encourage the use of joint bank accounts or ensure that women haveaccess to an individual account without interference from spouses.2.Adopt “farming as a family business” approaches.These approaches aim to foster more cooperative efforts between menand women in planning and managing family farm enterprises to maximizehousehold profits.* Specific topics that should be addressed include:✪✪ Individual time and task allocation✪✪ Family management and budgeting✪✪ Conflict resolutionbox 5GENDERED PATTERNS OF RESOURCE DISTRIBUTION AFFECTSUPPLY EFFICIENCYIn Eldoret, Kenya, Mace Foods processes African Bird’s Eye (ABE) chili forsale in Kenyan and in European markets. Smallholder farms provide MaceFoods with raw material. Women cultivate the chilies in small gardens,while men deliver the crop to the processing plant and collect payment.Shortly after the purchase of the first crop, decreasing supplies of ABE ledMace Foods to inquire about the on-farm production methods to assessany constraints. It found that married women farmers had abandonedchili production because they were not receiving returns for their labor;spouses were often retaining the proceeds and using them for personalexpenses. Gendered patterns of household labor and resource distributionjeopardized Mace Foods’s ability to meet the buyer’s demand. To increaseincentives for women to produce chili, Mace Foods, with the USAID KenyaHorticulture Development Program (KHDP), designed a payment systemthat included both cash and noncash rewards. Mace Foods distributed apound of sugar, a desirable household commodity, along with the cashpayments.Source: INGIA-VC Interviews in Kenya, September 2008.* See Bishop-Sambrook and Wonani “The household approach as an effective tool for gender empowerment,” “Upgrading Cocoa Farming in Ecuador” Available at http://www.acdivoca.org/acdivoca/PortalHub.nsf/ID/FeatureEcuadorCocoa, and “Farming as a Family Business” Available at http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/cross-cutting_programs/wid/snapshot/africa/kenya/kenya_ag_me.html33


HORIZONTALLINKAGESImproving the competitivenessof agricultural value chains indeveloping countries relies onincreasing efficiency at all levelsof the chain. As markets haveliberalized and expanded acrossregional and national boundaries,leading firms have increasinglydominated the agricultural market,setting standards for productquantity, quality, size, and othercharacteristics. To deal moreeffectively with these lead firms, andto upgrade their own contributionsto value chain operations, manyactors are building horizontallinkages to improve their positionswithin the chain.FrameworkHorizontal linkages are defined as:longer-term cooperativearrangements among firmsthat involve interdependence,trust and resource pooling inorder to jointly accomplishcommon goals. . . . Interfirmhorizontal linkagescan contribute to sharedskills and resources andenhance product qualitythrough common productionstandards. Such linkagesalso facilitate collectivelearning and risk sharing whileincreasing the potential forupgrading and innovation. 38Dominic Sansoni/The World BankHorizontal linkages include memberorganizations at each level of thevalue chain, such as producerassociations, cooperatives, andbusiness associations. Horizontal34


linkages may encompass bothcooperative relationships withother firms at the same stage of thevalue chain, as well as relationshipsbetween firms and other typesof organizations. 39 Theseorganizations may have broadmembership across a subsector,such as the Tanzania HorticultureAssociation, or more focusedmembership around a particularniche in the chain, such as anassociation for high-quality seedsuppliers like the Seed ProducersAssociation of Ghana or the UgandaVanilla Exporters Association. Theyrange in size from small groups ofproducers in one or several villagesto national-level organizations oflarge firms.Meeting market demand requirescooperation among farmers as itmay be too difficult for individualsmallholder farmers to meet largeorders or purchase required inputsrequired to ensure their productmeets appropriate specifications.Globalgap certification allowsfor smallholder farmers togain group certification to takeadvantage of economies of scalethat would otherwise precludeindividual farmers from accessingexport markets. For this reason,horizontal linkages are oftenpromoted through the creation orsupport of farmer producer groupsor associations where economiesof scale overcome market failuresand increase incentives to buyersand producers to engage in amarket relationship.Successful horizontal linkagesprovide members of these typesof organizations with benefits thatare not possible when working asindividuals. By establishing eitherformal or informal groups andworking together, associationscan respond to the difficulties ofdoing business, such as lack ofaccess to key markets, high costsor inadequate supply of inputs orproduct, or lack of financing. Inproducer organizations and tradeassociations, members can oftenaccess new or more numerousservices from other actors in thevalue chain, including inputs,credit, and education or training.Costs are reduced througheconomies of scale. Bargainingpower is increased through thepower of plurality. 40Although all actors in valuechains can benefit from improvinghorizontal linkages, many projectsremain focused on the producerswith project goals to “strengthenproducer associations.” As aresult, producer associationexamples are overrepresented inthe discussion following.Scott Wallace/The World Bank35


EQUITABLEPARTICIPATIONAND MEMBERSHIPOne key gender constraint inbuilding horizontal linkages relatesto inequitable participation inthe associations. Membershipcriteria sometimes discouragewomen’s active participation, byinsisting on a single membershipfor an entire family in the name ofthe head of the household or byrequiring demonstration of legalland ownership. In one Kenyandairy producer association, forexample, both of these conditionswere in force. Even though womenwere the active managers of dairyproduction on the family farms, theirhusbands were the legal associationmembers. When membershipcriteria limit participation of somepotential members, they do notgain the benefits of improvingtheir information about marketopportunities and prices, gettingextension services, or accessingfinance—all of which limit theirproductivity.STRATEGIES1. Ensure that information about new associations is announced usingcommunication channels used by both men and women.2. Ensure that meetings are held at times and in venues that facilitatewomen’s participation.3. Encourage association membership to be based on output (e.g.,liters of milk for sale or baskets of tomatoes) rather than access tofactors of production (e.g., legal title to land or registered ownershipof animals).4. Create women-only associations if appropriate to encourage theentry of more women into new economic arenas.5. Investigate potential barriers to women’s entry and continuedmembership into associations. This information will help determineentry and membership fees at a level and on a payment scheduleboth women and men can manage.6. Provide business development services to women withinassociations.FrameworkEven with extra support, womenremain a minority of ownersof agribusiness firms and willtypically form a smaller minority inassociations that are not targetedto women.PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 36


SUPPORTINGWOMEN’S LEADERSHIPTo strengthen horizontal linkagessuccessfully, members need toshare a common purpose. Men andwomen within and across groupsmay have different motivationsfor joining or develop differentinterests as operations grow andchange. Perceptions about men’sand women’s leadership qualitiesas well as structural constraints ontime and mobility tend to channelmen into senior leadership andrestrict women to clerical positions.Women members will benefitmore broadly from associationmemberships when they have equalopportunity to participate in groupleadership and to set associationpriorities and policies.STRATEGIES1. Provide training on association governance that establishes genderequitable principles of leadership and decision-making (Box 6).2. Investigate potential barriers to women’s leadership positions withinassociations.box 6SETTING QUOTAS FOR SUPPORTING WOMEN’S LEADERSHIPA coastal zone management project in Tanzania found that womenwere not actively participating in the village producer associations andenvironmental management groups and purposefully set out to achievemore gender equitable participationA meeting was . . . held with both men and women to discuss the lack ofparticipation by the women. The men recognized that when women didnot participate, their understanding of the issues would suffer and the menthemselves would not benefit from the ideas, experiences, suggestionsand help they could get from the women. [The men] perceived the lack ofparticipation by women to be the result of customs and tradition, ratherthan their own unwillingness to listen to the women, the poor timing ofthe meetings or the lack of advance notice, as identified by the womenthemselves. . . . Men and women discussed their different perceptions. Thewomen decided that they would attend the meetings and men promised thatthey would listen to the women, and that meetings would be held at a timethat would be more suitable for women and announced in a better manner.Subsequently women attended many of the meetings (although initially inlow numbers); they took seats in the village environmental committees, andparticipated in the formulation of the fisheries management agreement.The project helped the village to establish quotas for women’s committeemembership to reflect the activities on which women worked.Sources: Van Ingen, T., C. Kawau, and S. Wells. “Gender Equity in Coastal ZoneManagement: Experiences from Tanga, Tanzania.” The World Conservation Union,December 2002.37


VERTICALLINKAGESThe rationale for verticallyintegrating actions along a valuechain is to overcome market failuresin credit, information, factors ofproduction, procurement of rawmaterials, as well as in transactioncosts that govern the identificationof sellers, and the management,negotiation, and enforcement of themarket linkages. 41 Vertical linkagesrefer to the buyer-seller relationshipthat link input suppliers, producers,processors, exporters, and otherbuyers. These range from oneoffspot market transactions tocontract farming, with value chaindevelopment programs focusing onthe creation of vertically integratedrelationships. The difference in therange of possible linkages is relatedto the intensity of the relationshipbetween the actors: markettransactions between buyers andsellers in spot markets are lessintense than between producersand buyers in contract farming.The demands of certain markets,such as international or organicmarkets, create incentives todeveloping strong vertical linkagesbetween buyers and sellers. Thesemarkets are more knowledgeintensive and therefore buyers andsellers must collaborate to ensurethat products are grown, produced,and processed to meet marketrequirements and specifications.The action of moving towardmore coordinated and predictablemarkets requires a host of othernonmarket transactions, suchas information, knowledge, andfinancial and business services, tofacilitate the linkage and overcomemarket failures. In some valuechains, these support services maybe provided through commercialbusiness development firms, whilein other cases, these services maybe embedded within the buyersellertransaction.Because of the prominent role ofwomen as farmers and producers,value chain practitioners oftenoverlook opportunities to enhancewomen’s participation in othermarket transactions as owners ofinput supply shops, traders, andsales agents. Yet evidence fromdifferent regions reveals that womenare participating in market linkagesboth as buyers and as sellers ofgoods and services at differentpoints in the chain. In Cambodia,for example, many input supplyshops providing livestock feedsto swine producers are women. Inmany parts of West Africa, womenconduct most marketplace-basedagriculture trade. 42 Even in a highlymobility-constrained environmentsuch as Pakistan, women are salesagents. 43 Some of the genderbasedchallenges facing womenas employees and entrepreneursat other levels of the chain areconsidered under the “Employment”and “Entrepreneurship” sections.Yosef Hadar/The World BankFrameworkPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 38


INCREASING ACCESSTO MARKETSAccess to markets is determinedby a variety of factors—resourceendowments, capital, knowledge,and services, as well asintrahousehold patterns of resourceallocation. Increasingly complexvertical relationships requiredifferent combinations of tangibleand intangible assets. Whereasfarmers may adequately meet thedemand for vegetables in localmarkets on small plots of land orby applying few inputs, to producelarger quantities that meet thespecifications of more demandingbuyers (and end consumers),farmers need more land and credit,as well as knowledge, trust, andnetworks that can facilitate verticallyintegrated relationships. Globalgapcertification requires a strong assetbase of land and water, as well asstable and long-term access tocredit to pay for inspections andoverhead. Asset inequality affectsthe different markets in which menand women participateSTRATEGIES1. Identify gender equitable market opportunities.Programs can integrate specific criteria in their market selection activities toensure that decision-making considers gender inequalities (Box 7). Fintracdeveloped a gender mainstreaming approach to ensure its activities improvewomen’s participation and incomes, as well as empowerment, autonomy, andwell-being. Part of its gender mainstreaming guide provides staff with criteriato help them identify “gender-friendly activities” in their selection of crops,enterprises, and technologies. For example, gender-friendly crops include thosewith the potential to bolster food security, are characterized by low input and risk,and are grown close to home. 442. Target markets in which discriminating consumers or the privatesector can be partners in supporting gender equitable businesspractices, for example, fair trade certification (Box 8).IDENTIFYING GENDER EQUITABLE MARKET OPPORTUNITIESIdentifying gender equitable market opportunities requires anunderstanding of the socioeconomic context of agricultural value chains.An assessment of these opportunities will:✪✪ Reveal the presence and absence of women in differentparts of the chain, highlighting where women entrepreneursexist✪✪ Identify opportunities to easily increase employment andincome opportunities for women, e.g., informal, domesticcrops, microprocessing, or trading✪✪ Assess the gender-based constraints facing women inchains where their presence is low✪✪ Consider upgrading opportunities with potential to affectincomes, as well as improve food security or nutrition, e.g.,food-grade milk cans for the informal dairy sector, highnutritioncrops for kitchen gardensPromoting Gender Equitable and Competitive Agricultural Value Chain isless concerned with targeting women-dominated value chains than withensuring that women and men have equal opportunities to participatein all value chains. While it may be appropriate in some socioeconomiccontexts to target women-dominated value chains, it is just as importantto target value chains in which the constraints barring women fromentering or upgrading their skills are high relative to men.39


ox 7THE WOMEN-OWNED AND MANAGED SHEA NUT VALUE CHAINSudanese women have long been the primary guardians of the lulu, or shea nut tree, found in southern Sudan. Buildingon this role, the Medical Emergency and Development International Committee (MEDIC) supported the development ofa women-owned and managed shea nut value chain under the USAID-funded Lulu Livelihoods Program. Women arethe core members up and down the chain that produce, process, and market Lulu Life moisturizers, soap, and lotions.The growing attention to the benefits of shea butter within the skin care and cosmetics industry, coupled with women’shistorically recognized role as keepers of the trees, provided a unique opportunity to build a competitive value chainwith women at the center. At the same time, women’s responsibility for household food security provided appropriateincentives for them to dedicate time to this lucrative income-generating opportunity. The compelling story of how theseconflict-affected women support their families through the income derived from their labor drives the sale of this productin Kenyan and in U.S. markets among discriminating consumers. Between 2004 and 2005, Lulu Life saw its sales inKenya triple in size, reaching a total of $19,300 in 2005. Future opportunities focus on expanding market opportunitiesin natural product sectors and among hotel amenity industries.FrameworkSources: Amstrong, Susan, Gordon Wagner, Kristina Belknap, and Carla Viezee. “Value Chain Framework and the LuLu LivelihoodsProgram.” USAID Accelerated Microenterprise Advancement Project, May 2008, http://www.microlinks.org; USAID, “LuLu HarvestYields Livelihoods,” http://www.usaid.gov/stories/sudan/successstory_sudan_lulu.html.box 8ENGAGING CONSUMERS TO SUPPORT GENDER EQUALITYDiscriminating consumers are increasingly changing the way global production and marketing processes develop.Firms interested in targeting these consumers consider other “bottom line” issues, including the environment, laborconditions, and fair pay. Fair trade schemes often include gender equity as one of their standards in certificationprograms. The World Fair Trade Organization includes gender equity as one of its principles stating, “Fair Trade meansthat women’s work is properly valued and rewarded.” These strategies often allow firms to command a higher valueor price for their products and provide greater benefits to their employees. For example, Café Femenino is a womenownedbrand of coffee grown in northern Peru and sold in U.S. and Canadian markets as a fair trade product certifiedby the Fair Trade Labeling Organization (FLO). The 400 women that grow the coffee make about 17 cents more perpound than the average Peruvian coffee farmer. In addition to receiving higher incomes, the women also apportion apercentage of their sales to local infrastructure projects through their Café Femenino Foundation.Source: Hoagland, Sadie. “Female Coffee Growers Find New Freedoms in Peru,” February 5, 2006, http://www.womensenews.org/article.cfm/dyn/aid/2626/.PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 40


INTEGRATING FINANCIALAND BUSINESSDEVELOPMENTSERVICESThe efficient provision of financialand business development servicesrequires an understanding of genderissues facing both the client and theservice provider.On the client side, women smallholderfarmers often have limited accessto information about the servicesavailable or the value of those servicesto their farm. Generally, they also haveless access to cash, which translatesinto lower purchasing power.They also face more severe creditconstraints relative to men. The plotsand livestock under their control mayrequire different inputs and servicesthan those men require, in terms ofboth size and type of input or service.The availability of appropriateservices and financial options maybe reduced by perceptions aboutfarming that cause service providersto overlook women as potentialclients. Men are often consideredlead farmers and are targeted forservices. Yet women are activelyinvolved in farming as unpaid familyworkers or as farm managers whenmen have sought wage employmentelsewhere. These women stand tobenefit greatly from services tailoredto their needs.However, financial institutionsand service providers often lackinformation about the purchasingpower of and inputs requiredfor women farmers. Interviewsconducted in Tanzania andKenya indicated that men’s andwomen’s purchases differed. Menpurchased in bulk while womenpurchased more frequently butin smaller quantities. Differencesmay be due to differences in sizeSTRATEGIES1. Identify and design inputs, financial products, and businessdevelopment services tailored to men’s and women’s needs.For input suppliers, it is important to capture men’s and women’s different needs tooffer appropriate supplies and to tailor the packaging and pricing of their inputs. 45Supplies should be sold in sizes and quantities for the end user. In Malawi andCameroon, research found that when suppliers reduced the quantities and soldthe goods in smaller, easily transportable bags, women increased their purchaseand use of the products. 462.Support women entrepreneurs as providers of goods and service.Women can be engaged as actors beyond the production stage, providing valuableservices to men and women producers as input suppliers, veterinarians, and salesagents. Women are already doing so in many places, including Albania, Cambodia,and Kenya, and evidence from Zambia suggests that there may be greater potentialfor expanding women’s opportunities. 47 In Pakistan, women were trained as salesagents, providing not only market linkage services but also improving the flow ofinformation and services between producers and retailers (Box 9).3.of plots or purchasing power.Not understanding the needs ofmen and women results in poortargeting and offering the wronggoods, finances, and services.Encourage the private sector to target women as clients.THE BUSINESS CASE FOR ADDRESSING WOMENENTREPRENEURS’ LACK OF ACCESS TO CAPITALIdentifying gender equitable market opportunities requires anunderstanding of the socioeconomic context of agricultural value chains.An assessment of these opportunities will:✪✪ Women entrepreneurs make up a growing and largely unmet andunderserved market.✪✪ Women are reliable customers. In microfinance they have a 95percent repayment rate.✪✪ Targeting women customers allows finance institutions todifferentiate themselves in the competitive micro-, small, andmedium enterprises (MSME) market.Source: IFC. “Women Entrepreneurs and Access to Finance,” November 2006,http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/sustainability.nsf/Content/Gender_Tools_AccesstoFinance.41


INCREASINGACCESS TO MARKETINFORMATIONSYSTEMSFarming is increasingly aknowledge-intensive enterprise.Market information about prices,clients, and consumer preferencesis critical for integrating smallholderfarmers into value chains andenhancing their ability to negotiateprices, increase production,and meet buyer specifications.Information is disseminated andshared through informal socialnetworks and formal marketinformation systems (MIS). Theseare not gender neutral; men andwomen face different constraints inaccessing different types of MIS.access to information, includinga range of different technologiesto disseminate information suchas radio, Internet, short messageservice (sms), and television. If thetechnologies are not free or dependon literacy skills, men and womenwill likely face differential access.Other MIS may include organizingmarket information points forbuyers and sellers. In these cases,women’s access will be affected bytheir time and mobility as well asconstraints and expectations aboutappropriate public behavior.STRATEGIESIdentify and build market information systems that target theinformation channels used by men and women.Upgrading or building new market information systems should include both highandlow-technology solutions to ensure that market information is widely available.This may require complementing expansion of information dissemination throughwebsites and sms with the use of men’s and women’s social networks or menand women sales agents.FrameworkGender differences in access tosocial networks may either facilitateor limit the transfer of knowledgebetween and among men andwomen of different classes, ages,and ethnicities. Time, mobility,and space are key features ofsocial networking practices. Timeis needed to meet with peersand clients, to converse, and toexchange information. The abilityto travel helps expand networkingopportunities outside of one’shousehold, private social circle, orvillage. It is important to supportmen’s and women’s access tospaces in which information isexchanged, such as farmer fieldschools, village markets, or socialgatherings.Developing formal MIS also requireconsideration of men’s and women’sScott Wallace/The World BankPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 42


FOSTERING TRUSTAND COLLABORATIONTrust—although difficult to measureor create—is a key ingredient inforging collaborative relationshipsthat support value chaindevelopment and foster systemicchange. Trust takes time to build andis easily lost. Social capital fosterstrusting relationships by reducinguncertainty about individuals. 48Trust is therefore linked to socialnetworking and fosters informationdissemination.Social perceptions about womenas farmers, entrepreneurs, andextension officers affect how peopleact, speak, and behave. Negativestereotypes may lead to mistrust orexclusions, limiting women’s abilityto participate in and benefit fromvalue chain activities (Box 10).Positive perceptions of women’scapabilities do not always translateinto increased participation andopportunities for women. Despitethe advantages input suppliersin the Zambia PROFIT projectsee in women rural sales agents,few women become agents.Agent selection is made by thecommunities themselves whouse other criteria. This suggeststhat there is an opportunity forincreasing women’s participationin this section of the chain. 49 Thesocial capital among women mayfoster a collaborative relationshipbetween rural sales agents andproducers.STRATEGIES1. Recruit women market facilitators, loan officers, or sales agents.2. Promote gender equitable market facilitation.box 9ENGAGING WOMEN AS MARKET FACILITATORSThe “Behind the Veil” project implemented in Pakistan between 2002and 2004 aimed to develop a value chain that linked homebound ruralembroiderers to high-value urban markets. Because of the severemobility constraints facing the women rural embroiderers, they often hadimperfect information about the prices, quality, and design valued byurban consumers. In an effort to improve the efficiency along this chainand empower the women rural embroiderers, Mennonite EconomicDevelopment Associates (MEDA) and its partner the EntrepreneurshipCommunity Development Institute (ECDI) promoted the integration ofwomen sales agents who provided the vital link between the embroiderersand urban retailers. Because their interaction with the homebound ruralembroiderers was socially acceptable, they were able to build a relationshipwith embroiderers and provide them with critical market information.Source: McVay, Mary and Alex Snelgrove. “Program Design for Value ChainInitiatives.” Lancaster, PA: Mennonite Economic Development Associates,December 2007.PRINCIPLES OF GENDER EQUITABLE MARKET FACILITATIONIncreasingly, value chain programs are adopting market facilitationapproaches to strengthen vertical linkages. Market facilitators can act as“gender equity” facilitators to ensure that, as they build vertical relationshipsalong the chain, they support gender equity goals.Gender equitable market facilitators should:✪✪ Approach men and women as equal actors in the value chain.✪✪ Understand different constraints facing men and women inbuilding vertical relationships, e.g.,Asset levelTime and mobilityEducation and knowledgeDiscriminatory beliefsInformation channels and networks✪✪ Promote targeting of women as clients and recipients of goodsand services.✪✪ Mentor women leaders.43


Box 10GENDER PERCEPTIONS CREATE DISINCENTIVES TO BUILDINGCOLLABORATIVE MARKET RELATIONSHIPSFrameworkThe Mtazamo Vegetable Growers (MVG) is working with Kilimo ImpactTanzania (KIT) in Arusha, Tanzania, to provide high-value vegetablesto Home Grown, a Kenya-based horticulture export company. MVG isan all-women producer group that leases land, acquires inputs, andaccesses export markets through KIT. The MVG Executive Boardhas one employee, a manager whose tasks include overseeing thebank account, distributing payments, and monitoring input use. Therelationship between the all-women executive board and KIT has beendifficult for both parties. Interviews with the manager, a local associationbuildingservice provider and the commercial farmer, revealed a widelyheld perception that the women of the executive board lacked thecapacity and were reluctant to fulfill their obligations as leaders of theexecutive board. However, the women expressed confidence in theirability to perform their functions if trained properly and uncertaintyabout the long-term sustainability of the arrangement with KIT. Theinterviews revealed conflicting perceptions about the productionarrangement linking MVG and KIT. Miscommunication between the twoparties created distrust. Moreover, the gender relations embedded inthe arrangement clouded the ability to judge a proper course of action.The majority of the managers, project staff, and supervisors were men.While both parties were committed to maintaining the relationship inthe long term, the perception of the women’s lack of capacity held bythe managers, supervisors, and project staff led them to believe that inthe future mixed-sex groups would be more appropriate partners.Source: INGIA-VC Interviews in Tanzania, April 2009.Curt Carnemark/The World BankPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 44


BUSINESSENABLINGENVIRONMENTInterest in understanding the extentto which the business environmentfacilitates or constrains microandsmall-enterprise growth isgrowing. The business enablingenvironment includes norms andcustoms, laws, regulations, policies,international trade agreements, andpublic infrastructure that affect themovement of a product or servicealong the value chain. 50 Researchsuggests that addressing thefollowing regulations has significantimpact on small-firm growth: startingand closing a business, dealing withlicenses, employee hiring and firingdecisions, exporting and importingof goods, paying taxes, protectinginvestors, and obtaining credit. 51Improving the business enablingenvironment does not mean simplychanging laws. It requires successfulpolicy reform, which includesaddressing the implementation of thelaws, regulatory burdens, businessrelations, and incentives that affectbusiness decisions. 52 Identifyingpolicy reforms that matter to valuechain participants is essential fordeveloping a successful policyreform strategy.Policies and institutions mediatemen’s and women’s access toeconomic opportunities. Men andwomen are often differentially treatedand affected by formal and informallaws, policies, and regulations.To address gender-related policyimpediments effectively, it isimportant to identify these differencesin specific locations.REFORMING BUSINESSREGISTRATIONAND LICENSINGREQUIREMENTSThere is evidence that registeredbusinesses are more likely togrow than unregistered, informalbusinesses.Registration seems to be an epochin the lifestyle of informal firms andis crucial for firm graduation. Thisfinding leads to the conclusion thatinformality imposes major penaltieson firms with uncertain legal statusthat reduces access to credit andpublic services such as electricity,telephone and water, all of which areimportant for improved performanceand graduation. 53While women are highly active asmicro- and small entrepreneurs,they are less likely than men to haveformal, registered businesses. Forexample, while women in Cambodiarepresent 55 percent of businessowners, most of their businessesare informal. In Mexico, womenrepresent 30 percent of all businessowners but own only 14 percent ofall formal businesses.Formalization is an important step inenterprise growth. Men and womenoften face different constraints inthis process. Studies indicate thatthe following factors often inhibitthe ability of women to register theirbusinesses more than men:✪ ✪ Time-Poverty. Womenentrepreneurs often combinehousehold duties with theirbusiness activities. Relativeto men, women tend to bemore “time-poor.” If licensingprocedures are cumbersome,women may face greaterdifficulties formalizing theirbusinesses.✪ ✪ Cost. High registration andlicensing fees may restrictcash-constrained women fromformalizing their businesses. 54✪ ✪ Discriminatory Laws. Womenand men are often treateddifferently under the law. Forexample, formal laws that requiremarried women to gain theirhusbands’ permission beforestarting a business may impedetheir ability to register thesebusinesses. 55✪ ✪ Access to Information. Men,on average, have higher literacyand education rates than women,making it easier for them tofind information about businessregulations. Men are often ableto socialize with governmentofficials outside of work togain greater understandingof business requirements. InCambodia, business regulationsare privileged knowledge forgovernment staff or offered to thepublic in ways less accessibleto women. Summaries arepublished in the Royal Gazette oron the Internet; few women haveaccess to either of these sourcesof information.45


STRATEGIES1.Identify and address polices and procedures that adversely affect either men or women.A gender analysis of policies and procedures is required to understand how men and women are differentially affected by thelegal and regulatory environment. The Government of Uganda commissioned a Regulatory Cost Survey in 2004. The studyrevealed that the trade license procedures were negatively affecting women. Only women with the financial resources requiredto hire a lawyer successfully fulfilled the procedures. On the basis of the study’s results, Uganda simplified the procedures andwitnessed a significant increase in women formalizing their businesses. 56Framework2.3.Pay attention to gender differences in cost, time, and required information when streamlining the registrationprocess (Box 11).Design dissemination strategies that use both men’s and women’s information channels.Ensure that registration and licensing procedures and advertisements are placed in public sources, particularly those thatwomen have access to, such as radio, newspapers, local and regional commerce associations, women’s organizations, and theInternet. Women entrepreneurs in Vietnam, for example, suggested that disseminating information related to laws, policies, andpotential changes through business associations as well as public media would increase women’s access to information.4.Promote the development of business assistance programs and partnerships that assist women entrepreneurs.Projects can encourage assistance programs and partnerships that facilitate women’s access to business-related services,such as registration and license applications (Box 12).box 11THE GOVERNMENT OF RWANDA FACILITATES WOMEN’S BUSINESS REGISTRATIONThe government of Rwanda is taking important steps to facilitate women’s business registration. These includeappropriate opening hours that accommodate women’s schedules; hiring women staff in the registration offices;awareness campaign for women that addresses why and how to register; and registration cost recovery program tohelp encourage cash-constrained women to register their businesses.Source: IFC. “Voices of Women Entrepreneurs in Rwanda,” October 2008, http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/sustainability.nsf/AttachmentsByTitle/p_Gender_VoicesofWomenEntrepreneurs_Rwanda/$FILE/7024English_Final.pdf.box 12EGYPT’S “ONE-STOP-SHOP”The Women Business Development Center (WBDC), established under the umbrella of the National Council for Women,launched a “One-Stop-Shop” that provides women entrepreneurs with tools to establish, run, and grow small andmedium enterprises. The services provided through WBDC include:✪✪ Training✪✪ Business counseling✪✪ Assisting women in developing e-marketing websites✪✪ Online information for SMEs✪✪ IT support✪✪ Workshops related to business registration and licensingSource: National Council for Women. “The Women Business Development Center,” http://www.ncwegypt.com/english/prog_wbdc.jsp.PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 46


STRENGTHENPUBLIC-PRIVATESECTOR COORDINATIONPublic-private dialogue (PPD) isincreasingly regarded as a keycomponent for effective policyreform. 57 Through PPDs, reformsare defined, policy proposals areadopted, and trust between thepublic and private sector is built.Public and private actors worktogether to establish a shared visionand common set of priorities. WhilePPD is a promising practice forpromoting reform, women are oftenunderrepresented in such forums.Studies highlight that women’s lackof participation in public-privatedialogues is often because ofsocial norms, mobility restrictions,and underrepresentation inassociations. Social norms andexpectations that discouragewomen from mixing freely with menoften limit women’s participation inpublic-private dialogue. 58 Publicprivatepartnerships often emergewhen either the government reachesout to business associations orwhen associations lobby publicinstitutions. Associations providea vehicle for voicing concerns andperspectives on policy issues.Where women’s participation inassociations is low, they mayhave greater difficulty engaging inPPDs.STRATEGIEs1. Take into consideration women’s time and mobility constraintswhen designing PPD activities (Box 13).2.box 13box 14Ensure women’s business needs are included in PPD agendas.Women and men often possess different business needs and priorities.Ensuring proportional representation will create greater balance and potentiallyaddress a broader set of interests (Box 14).INCREASING WOMEN’S PARTICIPATION IN PPDTo address the constraint of women’s limited participation in publicprivatedialogue in Afghanistan, UNIFEM supported the establishmentof the Afghan Women’s Business Council. Women entrepreneurs nowhave a channel through which to voice their concerns. The South Africangovernment launched a women entrepreneur’s network to enable womento collectively lobby the government on policy and legislation issues.Source: World Bank. “Gender and Development Briefing Notes: Private SectorDevelopment & Gender,” January 2007, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTGENDER/Resources/Gender_PSD_Feb07.pdf.MONITORING WOMEN’S ENGAGEMENT IN PPDThe Africa Public-Private Dialogue used the questions below to monitorthe extent to which women were engaged in their PPD efforts.1.2.3.4.How many men/women are in the institutions, committees, anddecision-making bodies through which the PPD work is done?Have women’s business constraints been presented anddiscussed?Are women’s business issues on the PPD agenda?What actions are the PPD team taking to address genderissues in its work?Source: Africa Public-Private Dialogue, http://www.publicprivatedialogue.org/workshop%202008/Africa_PPD_2008_material_requested_from_participants.pdf.Facilitating opportunities for bothmen and women to participate inPPDs is important for ensuring thata broad range of constituencies areengaged and represented.47


EMPLOYMENTAgriculture remains highly laborintensive in many developingcountries. Both productionfor home consumption andcommercial farming across thevalue chain rely on the use ofunpaid, paid, permanent, seasonal,and temporary workers. One aimof addressing gender issues invalue chains is to increase the leveland quality of men’s and women’sparticipation throughout the chain,not only in production but also inunderrepresented occupationsamong all actors.Yosef Hadar/The World BankFramework48


IMPROVING THECONDITIONS OF WORKENVIRONMENTSAn increased level of women’semployment, primarily intemporary and informal positions,characterizes the expandingagro-export production. Womenbenefit from paid employment withincreased economic independence,improved bargaining power withinthe household, and personalempowerment. To promote moregender equitable employmentopportunities, value chaindevelopment should look not onlyat the number of women’s jobsalong the chain but also the qualityof those jobs.In the agricultural sector, manywomen’s terms of employmentare insecure, marked by shorttermcontracts with limited socialprotection. Women often worklong hours under high pressurein unhealthy conditions. Studiessuggest that women experiencemore precarious employmentconditions because of their limitedassets, limited involvement inorganizations and associations,and lack of protection and benefits.As a result of the lack of protectionand benefits, including limits onovertime, rest days, sick leave,and maternity leave, women’shealth and well-being is oftencompromised and leads to highturnover, costing firms in trainingand management. 59STRATEGIES1. Encourage sector-wide development of codes of conduct oremployment standards.There is recognition that gender equitable policies and practices are not only goodfor women, they are good for business. Projects can encourage their private sectorpartners to adopt codes of conduct that facilitate healthy and successful workenvironments for women. Such efforts may include financial assistance programsfor schooling, transportation to and from work, guidelines on occupational safety,pay equity policies, on-site health clinics, and maternity leave (Box 15). 602. Encourage formal laws that promote gender equity in the workplace(Box 16).box 15box 16UNDP SUPPORT EQUALITY SEALIn Costa Rica, the UNDP supported the development of the Equality Seal(labor certification on gender equality). It is a voluntary certification process(ISO standards) for the private sector that verifies that a company ismeeting standards that promote workplace equality for women and men.Fresquita Vegetales is a certified enterprise in Costa Rica that promotesgender equality in recruitment, remuneration, training opportunities, andlabor rights. It provides medical services and has policies on sexualharassment and work-family balance, such as maternity leave andflexible schedules for pregnant and breast-feeding workers. A recentevaluation of Fresquita Vegetales provides evidence that the EqualitySeal has increased labor productivity and a work environment free fromdiscrimination and gender inequality.Source: Ad Melkert. “Gender and Millennium Development Goals, ” October 2008,http://content.undp.org/go/newsroom/2008/october/ad-melkert-on-gender-andmillennium-development-goals-mdgs.en?src=printIMPROVING WORKING CONDITIONS FOR MEN AND WOMENTHROUGH THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK✪✪ South Africa: The Employment Equity Act (1998) provides forprotection of all workers, including agricultural laborers, againstdiscrimination based on gender, sex, pregnancy, marital status,and family responsibilities.✪✪ Cambodia: Labor Law Article 186 states that enterprises withat least 100 women are required to provide day-care centers orpay child-care fees, provide one hour of paid time off for breastfeedingmothers, and provide nursing rooms at or near theworkplace.Source: Better Factories Cambodia. “Providing Support to Working Mothers,”September 2007, http://www.betterfactories.org; World Bank, FAO, and IFAD.Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2009, http://worldbank.org/genderinag.49


INCREASINGEMPLOYMENTOPPORTUNITIESEven though women comprise alarge percentage of agriculturallaborers, improving the productivityand efficiency of agricultural valuechains will not automatically benefitwomen. The agricultural sectoris characterized by high levels ofsex segmentation. Women areoften hired for labor-intensive, lowwaged,seasonal tasks, while menoccupy the majority of permanentjobs, as well as managementpositions. 61 The literature suggestsseveral factors that perpetuateoccupational sex segmentation,including beliefs and perceptions,lack of access to education, andlack of access to training and skillsdevelopment.The clustering of women in lowentry,low-return activities limitstheir opportunities to acquirenew skills. 62 In agro-industries,formal training is often provided topermanent workers who tend to bemen (e.g., in management or in theoperation of machinery). Temporarywomen workers typically gain skillson the job through repetitive taskperformance. 63 As such, women areless able than men to increase theirwages and move into supervisoryand managerial positions. Reducedemployment opportunities forwomen may reduce the averageability of the workforce; therefore,leading to lower economic growth.STRATEGIESPartner with the private sector to upgrade women’s workforce skills.Projects can address women’s limited employment opportunities by workingwith the private sector to design programs and activities that equip women fortechnical and managerial positions. Promising practices include designing firmspecificor sector-wide skills development programs for women and establishingformal mentoring schemes with tracks for promotion. Additional principles foradvancing women’s employment opportunities are found in Calvert InvestmentsWomen’s Principles.CALVERT INVESTMENTS WOMEN’S PRINCIPLESCalvert Investments established seven core principles to providecompanies with a set of goals they can aspire to and measure theirprogress against in achieving greater gender equity. The seven principlesinclude:1.2.3.4.5.6.7.Employment and Compensation (e.g., fair wages andelimination of discrimination)Work-Life Balance and Career Development (e.g., supportaccess to child care and provide professional developmentopportunities)Health, Safety, and Freedom from Violence (e.g., prohibit andprevent violence, eliminate unsafe work environments, provideleave time for medical care)Management and Governance (e.g., proactive efforts to recruitwomen for managerial positions and proactive efforts toensure women’s participation in decision-making bodies)Business, Supply Chain, and Marketing Practices (e.g.,encourage women’s entrepreneurship and respect dignity ofwomen in sales and advertising materials)Civic and Community Engagement (e.g., encourage women innontraditional fields and respect employees’ voluntary freedomof association)Transparency and Accountability (e.g., publicize commitmentsto gender equality, establish benchmarks, and conductperiodic self-evaluations)Source: Calvert Investments. “Calvert Women’s Principles, ” March 5, 2009,http://www.calvert.com/womensPrinciples.html.FrameworkPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 50


ENTREPRENEURSHIPA focus on women’s critical rolesas producers and agriculturalwageworkers has sometimes beenat the expense of supporting womenagribusiness entrepreneurs. Womenentrepreneurs produce, managebusinesses and households, hireworkers, earn income, borrowand save, and provide a range ofservices for businesses in agriculturalvalue chains. They are a significantentrepreneurial force as owners offarms, input supply stores, servicedelivery businesses, and exportfirms whose contributions to local,box 17national, and global economies arefar reaching. Globally, women leadroughly 38 percent of all registeredsmall businesses (Box 17). 64The enterprising playing field is notequal. Women-owned businesses,despite their strengths, face differentconstraints from men-ownedbusinesses in growing and expandingtheir enterprises. Value chainprograms can help to overcome thebarriers women face in starting theirbusinesses, accessing credit, andnetworking. The result will identify andfoster women-owned businesses intobecoming lead firms and employersat multiple levels of the value chain.Women entrepreneurs are not anundifferentiated mass; a number offactors mediate their access to theWOMEN’S ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A GLOBAL SNAPSHOT✪✪ In Swaziland, women own 70 percent of micro-, small, andmedium enterprises.✪✪ Sixty-four percent of firms employing 10 people or more in Russiaare owned by women.✪✪ Women-owned businesses make up roughly 16 percent of allenterprises in Vietnam, not including jointly owned enterprises.✪✪ In Rwanda, women make up 58 percent of informal businesses and40 percent of formally registered businesses.✪✪ In Latin America, rough estimates suggest women own betweenone-quarter and one-third of all micro-, small, and mediumenterprises.✪✪ In 2004, women-owned businesses accounted for 47 percent ofsmall enterprises in Canada.✪✪ In China, 17 percent of the women-owned small businessesemploy more than 1,000 peopleSources: Gammage et al., “Enhancing Women’s Access to Markets”; IFC,“Voice of Women Entrepreneurs in Rwanda”; Weeks and Seiler, “Women’sEntrepreneurship in Latin America: An Exploration ofproductive resources that facilitatetheir entry into value chains asentrepreneurs. Like men, womenwho have initial endowments of landand financial capital are better poisedto enter markets than their lessasset-wealthy competitors. Womenentrepreneurs with little more thantheir labor to sell are likely to clusterin the informal economy, in smallproduction units that are unregisteredand where they may not pay taxeson income, labor, or capital. Thesesmaller women entrepreneurs facedifferent sets of opportunities andconstraints scaling up their economicactivities and entering new markets.Little sex-disaggregated data onentrepreneurship in agriculture isavailable, except in micro–foodprocessing and trading. Women areoften concentrated in small-scale,retail trading but are less representedas intermediaries or wholesalers (Box18). 65 Within this sector, women tradeparticular commodities, for example,products that are highly perishable. Ineastern Guinea, small-scale womentraders specialize in products withhigh levels of seasonality, while menare more often wholesalers, trading ina larger range of products. 66Donors in recent years are looking morecarefully at women entrepreneurs.The IFC’s Gender Program, forexample, highlights their presencein many sectors and countries andunderscores the persistent genderbasedconstraints they face. Inaddition to the constraints alreadydiscussed in other sections, thissection focuses on access to start-upcapital, perceptions about women inbusiness, and women’s time-povertyand mobility constraints.51


ox 18Curt Carnemark/The World BankFrameworkWOMEN AND MEN IN FOOD PROCESSING AND PETTY TRADINGIN AFRICA✪✪ In Uganda, few women sell food or cash crops,approximately 30 percent and 9 percent, respectively.✪✪ Tanzanian men dominate as urban food traders andwholesalers, representing up to 75 percent of tradersin both activities at the national level. In Dar es Salaam,60 percent of women are mainly self-employed streetvendors, selling fruits, vegetables, and cakes.✪✪ Around Lake Victoria in Kenya, women make up 75percent of the artisanal fishing sector, as processors andtraders.✪✪ Nigerian women make up 68 percent of urban and 78percent of rural informal sector cowpea processors andvendors across 12 states. Men’s involvement increases asthe business grows.Sources: White, Suzanne. “Women’s Employment in the Agro and FoodProcessing Sector: South Asia and East Africa.” WIEGO, April 1999, http://www.wiego.org/papers/white.pdf; GATE, “A Study of the Cowpea Value Chain in KanoState, Nigeria from a Pro-poor and Gender Perspective.” USAID Greater Accessto Trade Expansion Project, Arlington, VA: Development & Training Services, Inc.(dTS), July 2008, http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/cross-cutting_programs/wid/eg/gate.html.PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 52


INCREASE FINANCIALOPTIONS FOR WOMENENTREPENEURSEntrepreneurs require access tocapital not only for initial investmentsto start businesses but also ongoingaccess to capital to operate andexpand their businesses. Although,in theory, a range of financeoptions exists for men and womenentrepreneurs, from microfinanceinstitutions to formal bankinginstitutions, in practice, the ability toaccess the different options presentparticular challenges. Moreover, creditinstitutions are often wary of lendingto agricultural enterprises becauseof their perceived volatility and risk.Credit remains the leading constraintfacing women entrepreneursworldwide. 67Women need different types of credit.Microfinance institutions, Savingsand Credit Cooperative Organizations(SACCOs), other revolving capitalfunds, and moneylenders addresswomen’s immediate credit shortages.But interest rates are high, theamounts that can be accessed areoften small, and the consequencesfor default can be dangerous,particularly with moneylenders.Women entrepreneurs who haveexpanded beyond the financingavailable through these schemesface critical unmet financial needs.Many women rely on personal fundsfor their investment needs. In Tunisia,71 percent of women exporters’financing came from their own fundsor was borrowed from family andSTRATEGIESEncourage financial institutions to target women and design “womenfriendly”financial products, for example, non-collateral-based lending,asset leasing, or embedded financial services in buyer contracts.Reforming collateral-based loan policies and practices has become a part ofmany policy agendas. Romania and the Slovak Republic have both successfullyundertaken reforms. As a result, in Romania, the volume of credit increased by50 percent, while in the Slovak Republic, 70 percent of new business credit wasissued with nonland collateral (neither disaggregated by sex). 70friends. 68 Evidence from Cambodia,Kenya, and Tanzania also suggeststhat women entrepreneurs resortto self-financing as a strategy toovercome capital constraints. 69 Thisis the result of different legal policiesand practices that make womenineligible or hinder their access tofinance. Where collateral-based loansare prevalent, access to an asset suchas land is necessary. Women’s relativelack of access to land will make itmore difficult for them to access creditthan men. In other scenarios, bankoptions may reflect social biases thatconsider men “heads of household”and require a married woman toobtain her husband’s signature toaccess finance.These features of banking policiesand practices may be overlookedif practitioners fail to consider howboth men and women access credit.Expanding financing options withoutaddressing the factors that mediatewomen’s access to credit mayincrease the range of finance options,but it will not do so in equitable waysthat benefit both men and women.53


PROMOTING WOMENENTREPRENEURSAlthough women are presentin many informal and formalbusinesses, perceptions aboutthem in business impede theiraccess to a range of opportunitiesto meet new clients and buildeffective relationships withother actors along the chain.Negotiating a legitimate space ofleadership, whether it is within afirm or with other firms, remainsa critical challenge to womenbusiness leaders in developedand developing countries. Asone Kenya woman explained, “Itis difficult to be a woman whomanages men because you haveto be extra hard and extra tough.A woman’s words are dismissed.”A survey of women corporateexecutives in the United Statesconducted in 2004 found thatwomen felt the leading barriersto their advancement were dueto lack of access to informalnetworking opportunities, genderbasedstereotypes, and lack ofrole models. 71STRATEGIES1. Recognize the achievement of women business leaders.Working with the private sector, business associations and women’s businessassociations, develop an awards program to highlight the efforts of exceptionalwomen business leaders. This will raise the profile of women in business andcontribute to increasing the confidence of other women, as well as change theperceptions of men about women in business. Such programs already exist inmany countries and are sponsored by leading private sector firms.2. Foster opportunities for women to connect with otherwomen entrepreneurs to create stronger horizontaland vertical linkages among businesswomen and helpincrease networking opportunities.This might include organizing or supporting the participation of women in existingtrade fairs aimed specifically at addressing women entrepreneurs’ needs,creating networking opportunities with peers, and connecting them to suppliersand buyers. In 2009, Ghana hosted the 4th Global Women Entrepreneurs TradeFair and Investment Forum to create a platform for African women entrepreneursin agribusiness to connect with and foster trade and cooperation with globalcounterparts. 73FrameworkAt the same time, women’s lack ofself-esteem and confidence in theirown skills also contributes to theseperceptions. In Bosnia Herzegovina,34 percent of women in a 2002survey of women entrepreneursstated they were unsure whetherthey had the appropriate skills tobe businesswomen. 72PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 54


Table 3: Gender Equitable StrategiesON-FARMPRODUCTIVITYHORIZONTALLINKAGESFosterequitableparticipationUse provencommunicationstrategies andappropriatecommunicationchannels toreach women,as well as menwith agriculturalinformation.Ensure that informationabout new associationsis announced throughcommunicationchannels used by bothmen and women.Ensure that meetingsare held at times andvenues that facilitatewomen’s participation.Ensure researchand disseminationprograms areparticipatory,including bothmen and women,and offered atconvenient timesand locations sothat knowledge ofkey practices willbe offered to thosemost engagedin production,harvest, andstorage processes.Encourage associationmembership based onoutput (e.g., liters of milkfor sale or baskets oftomatoes) rather thanaccess to factors ofproduction (e.g., legaltitle to land or registeredownership of animals).Investigate potentialbarriers to women’sentry and continuedmembership intoassociations.VERTICALLINKAGESIdentify genderequitable marketopportunities.BUSINESSENABLINGENVIRONMENTTake intoconsiderationwomen’s timeand mobilityconstraintswhen designing(public-privatedialogue) PPDactivities.Designdisseminationstrategies thatuse both men’sand women’sinformationchannels.EMPLOYMENT ENTREPRENEURSHIPPartner with privatesector to upgradewomen’s workforceskills.55


Table 3: Gender Equitable Strategies (cont.)ON-FARMPRODUCTIVITYHORIZONTALLINKAGESAddressthe needsof womenAssist project participantsto work out cooperativelabor arrangements or touse collective resources toovercome labor constraints.Createwomen-onlyassociations ifappropriate.Design innovativetechnologies that meetwomen’s labor needs,particularly those that easetime constraints.In conducting agriculturalresearch, access and controlover the technology by menand women, and potentialdisplacement of women fromincome-earning work, shouldbe considered.Providebusinessdevelopmentservices towomen withinassociations.VERTICALLINKAGESIdentify andbuild marketinformationsystems thattarget theinformationchannels usedby men andwomen.Identify anddesign inputs,financialproducts,and businessdevelopmentservices tailoredto men’s andwomen’s needs.Promote genderequitablemarketfacilitation.BUSINESS ENABLINGENVIRONMENTPay attention to genderdifferences in cost, time,and information requiredwhen streamliningregistration process.Identify and address policiesand processes proceduresthat adversely affect eithermen or women.Ensure women’s businessneeds are included in PPDagendas.Promote the developmentof business assistanceprograms and partnershipsthat assist womenentrepreneurs.EMPLOYMENT ENTREPRENEURSHIPEncouragesector-widedevelopmentof codes ofconduct oremploymentstandards.Encourage financialinstitutions to targetwomen and design“women-friendly”financial products, e.g.,non-collateral-basedlending, asset leasing,or embedded financialservices in buyercontracts.FrameworkPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 56


Table 3: Gender Equitable Strategies (cont.)ON-FARMPRODUCTIVITYHORIZONTALLINKAGESSupportwomen’seconomicadvancementFacilitate accessto land forwomen and otherdisadvantagedgroups.Provide trainingon associationgovernancethat establishesgender equitableprinciples ofleadership anddecision-making.Designdistributionmechanisms thatreward women’sunpaid labor.Adopt “farmingas a familybusiness”approaches.Investigatepotential barriersto women’sleadershippositions withinassociations.VERTICAL LINKAGES BUSINESSENABLINGENVIRONMENTTarget marketswhere discriminatingconsumers or theprivate sector can bepartners in supportinggender equitablebusiness practices, e.g.,fair trade.Encourage privatesector to target womenas clients.Support womenentrepreneurs asproviders of goods andservices.Recruit women marketfacilitators.Promote genderequitable marketfacilitation.EMPLOYMENT ENTREPRENEURSHIPPartner withprivate sectorto upgradewomen’sworkforce skills.Foster opportunities for womento connect with other womenentrepreneurs to create strongerhorizontal and vertical linkagesamong businesswomenand to increase networkingopportunities.Recognize the achievementof women business leadersand widely disseminateinformation about successfulwomen entrepreneurs to helpincrease the confidence of otherwomen as well as change theperceptions of men.57


Alejandro LipszycThe World BankFrameworkPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 58


A PROCESS FORINTEGRATINGGENDER ISSUESINTO AGRICULTURALVALUE CHAINS


IntroductionProcessHOW TO USE THEINGIA-VC PROCESSThe INGIA-VC process is designed to be used in thesequence presented in this Handbook. It can be usedalongside other research design methods to inform theidentification of beneficiaries, the design of activities, and thedevelopment of indicators. Individual sections can also beused at different moments of the project cycle to take stockof project advances and troubleshoot recurring challenges.The INGIA-VC process starts with a gender analysis of thevalue chain. It uses the Gender Dimensions Framework(GDF), presented previously as an organizing and analyticalframework during the initial phases of the process. Thelatter phases of the process, beginning with Phase Three,link the findings from the gender analysis to value chaindevelopment. Table 4 provides a summary of the phases,the worksheets, and their purpose.Ray Witlin/The World Bank60


The INGIA-VC process is most useful when led by a gender expert familiar with analyzing gender issues in agriculture,value chains, and understanding the country context. The process is enriched when it draws on gender-relatedinformation from other gender analyses or, ideally, analyses already completed by the project.Here, the INGIA-VC uses a case study about the fictional country of Twanya to illustrate how the process works.Information about Twanya mirrors the types of information typically encountered about gender relations in agricultureand about the organizations that structure production and marketing activities.PHASE FIVE:MEASURING THESUCCESS OF ACTIONSPHASE ONE:MAPPING GENDERROLES AND RELATIONSALONG THE VALUE CHAINPHASE FOUR:TAKING ACTIONSTO REMOVEGENDER-BASEDCONSTRAINTSINTEGRATINGGENDERISSUES INTOAGRICULTURALVALUE CHAINSPHASE TWO:MOVING FROMGENDERINEQUALITIES TOGENDER-BASEDCONSTRAINTSPHASE THREE:ASSESSING THECONSEQUENCES OFGENDER-BASEDCONSTRAINTS61


Table 4: Summary of ingia-vc processPHASE USES… TO INFORM THIS TOOL ORWORKSHEET…AND HELP PRACTITIONERSPhase One.Mapping GenderRoles andRelations alongthe Value ChainExisting national/regionalbackground and projectdocuments and completedsurveys and survey analysesOrganizing gender-relatedinformationOrganize data on gender roles andresponsibilities using the GenderDimensions Framework.Process**In the Handbook, thisinformation comes from thecase studyData on sex segmentation inthe value chain.Organizational map of thevalue chain.Understand the sex-segmentedcharacter of the value chain.Other gender-relatedinformation.INGIA-VC interview guide.Collect data on the factors thatshape outcomes for men andwomen in value chainsSupplementary field interviews.Organizing gender-relatedinformation from INGIA-VCinterview guide.Identify areas of gender inequalitiesas a guide to identifying genderbasedconstraints.Phase Two.From GenderInequalities toGender-basedConstraintsPhase One Worksheet:Organizing gender-relatedinformation from INGIA-VCinterview guide.From observed inequalitiesto gender-based constraintstatements.Identify areas of gender inequalitiesas a guide to identifying genderbasedconstraints.Phase Three.Assessing theConsequencesof Gender-basedConstraintsGender-based constraintstatements.Assessing the consequencesof gender-based constraints.Think through the implications of thegender-based constraint at multiplelevels and assess the constraintsthat will lead to win-win outcomesthrough their removal.Phase Four.Taking Actionsto RemoveGender-basedConstraintsPhase Two Worksheet:From observed inequalitiesto gender-based constraintstatements.Developing indicators tomeasure success.Develop indicators to measuresuccess of actions to removegender-based constraints.Phase Five.MeasuringSuccess ofActionsActions from Phase Four.Developing indicators tomeasure success.Develop indicators to measuresuccess of actions to removegender-based constraints.Indicators and targets frommonitoring and evaluationsystems and from PhaseFive Worksheet: Developingindicators to measure success.Plotting success diagrams.Illustrate advancement towardgender equality outcomes.PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 62


ENHANCING THEAGRICULTURE SECTORTHROUGH TRADE (EAST)PROJECT IN TWANYA:A CASE STUDYCOUNTRY BACKGROUND“Twanya” is a fictitious African nation of approximately 27 million people. Classified as a “low-income” country bythe World Bank, it has a mostly tropical climate, with many good water sources. It also offers microclimates suitablefor cultivating a wide range of agricultural products. Agriculture, primarily from smallholder production, providesnearly one-half of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP), and a significant proportion of GDP is earned fromsmallholder production. The economy has grown erratically over the last decade; the current GDP growth rate is2.8 percent. Per capita GDP is just under US$1,300 per year. Inadequate infrastructure, low agriculture productivity,poor export performance, and weak governance have negatively affected the country’s economic performance.PROJECT INFORMATIONThe new agricultural competitiveness project in Twanya, Enhancing the Agriculture Sector through Trade (EAST), willsupport the development of the horticulture subsector, from production to processing to building market linkages.The project builds on previous activities, including a market analysis, which identified key fruits and vegetable cropsfor expansion. The program components include:1.2.3.4.Increase productivity of targeted horticulture commoditiesStrengthen trade and producer associationsIncrease employment in horticultural production and processingIncrease agriculture trade in domestic, regional, and international markets63


A new component of this project is greater emphasis on gender issues than in the past. The donor pronouncedthat the project’s effectiveness will be linked to implementing the institution’s ability to identify and address genderrelatedissues while also raising productivity and incomes. The donor country’s operational plan has identifiedgender as a crosscutting theme, but unfortunately, the plan did not provide details about implementation strategies.Although no gender assessment was carried out before the design of the EAST project, in the course of its designand implementation, project staff found the information presented below from published reports and projectdocuments.ProcessAGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN TWANYAGender relations in Twanya are neither extremely unequal nor completely egalitarian. There are differences in men’sand women’s opportunities and responsibilities. The population is 80 percent rural, and most people are expectedto marry and live on the small farms that supply their food and livelihoods. Although collaborative decision-makingis increasing, especially among the younger generation, it is still customary for women to defer to men on a rangeof issues and in many public settings. Women have smaller social networks outside their villages and generally havelower levels of education.Small ProducersSmallholder farms draw primarily on household labor. Men and women in Twanya are both involved in agriculturalproduction, processing, and marketing, but their roles and responsibilities are different. Family members providethe majority of labor required on smallholder farms. Women provide most of the day-to-day labor (e.g., planting,transplanting, weeding, and harvesting) on household fields and small gardens that supply the family with food(staple grains and local vegetables). The surplus is sold in the domestic market. Women work on plots that producean increasing proportion of vegetables destined for the small but growing export market. They also raise poultry.Women and young girls have added responsibilities for child care and other domestic work, such as food preparationand cleaning; this is considered “women’s work.” Men work on the farms and are especially involved in land clearingand plowing. Hired labor supplements household labor on the farm, especially for weeding and harvesting. Manymen own herds of cattle that are grazed on common lands. Some men have wage jobs, either as casual labor or insalaried positions, depending on their education and skills. Women carry their produce to market on their heads orhire men with carts or bicycles to assist them; men generally have their own transport or hire trucks to transport theirproduce. Men are more likely to handle crop sales and to share with their wives only a portion of the proceeds.Title to most agricultural land is held in men’s names. Twanya laws stipulate that children should inherit equally andthat women may own land in their own names. However, women seldom inherit on an equal basis with their brothers.Women lack cash to buy their own land, or they lack access to capital to expand their current landholdings. Thisis in part the result of banks requiring spouses to cosign loans. It is still rare for an unmarried (single, divorced, orwidowed) woman to obtain capital. Women’s holdings are smaller than those owned by men. In addition, fieldsfor staple foods and for higher-value crops are located in different locations. Women are expected to marry andgain access to land through their husbands, but a growing number of younger couples are registering their land inthe names of both husbands and wives. Women operate approximately one-third of all agriculture enterprises butreceive less than 10 percent of agriculture extension services.Twanya has built many rural schools, and both girls and boys attend in equal proportions. Young women are usuallyless likely than young men to continue their education at the postsecondary level, as it is believed that boys shouldreceive preference in education. Girls are required to leave primary or secondary school if they become pregnant.Among those who do continue, women are underrepresented in the fields of agricultural science, veterinarymedicine, and engineering. In addition, customary laws and social attitudes further restrict women’s opportunitiesto work outside the home after marriage.PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 64


Input SuppliersSeventy percent of input supply shops are owned by men. Within the supply shops, men and women are hired fordifferent tasks. Few women possess the qualifications and certifications required to work in technical positions,such as agro-vet agents and extension workers. Women typically occupy positions in accounting and sales; menare hired as drivers, porters, and extension agents. Although women are physically capable of undertaking the tasksas porters, most people—men and women, employers and workers—believe it is “inappropriate” for women to loadtrucks because women will be more easily injured by the heavy work.Input suppliers report that men’s and women’s purchasing patterns and use of inputs differ. Men are typically ownersof large-scale farms, while women possess small gardens. Their purchases differ by scale. Even though womenpurchase fewer inputs, on average, shop owners say they display more interest in learning the proper use of theinputs bought. Women are perceived as more likely than men to follow instructions provided by agro-vet agents.Producer AssociationsThe vast majority of smallholder farmers receive inputs, market information, and training services through producerassociations. In some cases, anyone who meets the membership requirements may join an association, for example,by showing title to agricultural land, by owning livestock, or by paying dues and registration fees. In other cases,membership is limited to heads of households who can meet these conditions. Among married couples in ruralTwanya, women and their adult children may sit in on meetings, but each household is allowed only one vote,usually given to the man as head of the household. It is commonplace for only the registered member (individual orhousehold) to be permitted to establish an account or to receive training or other services.Women’s participation in producer associations varies greatly throughout the country, depending on the specificrequirements for membership, their interest in the crops targeted, and other issues related to scheduling and locationof meetings. Although women are active members, they are not frequently elected to executive leadership positions.ProcessorsSex-segmented employment patterns are common in processing factories. Men dominate management and technicalpositions and fill the jobs that require operating heavy machinery or handling heavy loads. Women occupy lowskilledand lower-paid positions in the field and in packinghouses or on the assembly lines. Women are perceived asmore adept at postharvest handling. There are cultural beliefs that link the sensitive care that horticultural productsrequire with women’s domestic work. Labor laws also restrict women’s nighttime work hours and the weight ofloads they may carry. Lower skill levels, lack of experience, and social conditions limit employment opportunities forwomen in senior management and technical positions in processing firms. It is believed that women are incapableof managing men. In addition, perceptions concerning the appropriateness of heavy lifting and machinery operationlimit women’s opportunities in processing plants. Reports indicate that sexual harassment of women is common.Some processors notice that there is a difference in the quality of products supplied by men and by women,particularly of fresh fruits and vegetables. Men are thought to be more careless than women in storage transporting,resulting in contamination or bruising.TransportersThe majority of transportation companies are owned by men. Over 90 percent of drivers are also men. Womendo drive small cars, but it is uncommon for a woman to drive large trucks, although those who have attended theNational Service Driving School are capable of driving them as well as men.Transporters often hire young men to pack and load the fruits and vegetables. They do not like to hire young womenbecause the transporters have to do much of their work at night, and young women are not usually permitted towork outside of their homes at night. Women do work for transport firms in office positions.65


ExportersOf the 272 exporting firms that opened in the country in the past three years, only 12 percent were owned by women.Of these 33 firms, 27 were started by married women whose husbands had professional positions in business, law,academics, or government. This is in part the result of banks requiring spouses to cosign loans for start-up capital.It is still rare for an unmarried woman (single, divorced, or widowed) to obtain the capital and to have the businessknowledge to start her own export firm.Few women are involved in horticultural product export firms except as low-skilled workers and clerical staff. Womenwith computer training are hired for data input positions.ProcessINDICATORS AND TARGETSTo measure whether the objectives of the EAST project in Twanya are being met, the following indicators are used:Impact IndicatorsINDICATOR 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Number of producer organizations, trade and businessassociations, and community-based organizationsassisted as a result of USG interventionsNumber of agriculture-related firms benefiting directlyfrom USG assistance (sex-disaggregated)Number of individuals who have received short-termagricultural productivity training with USG assistance(sex-disaggregated)Number of producers or traders trained in the useof market information for strategic planning, farmmanagement, and business decision-making (sexdisaggregated)5 10 15 25 4010 20 30 40 5050 200 300 500 70050 100 200 300 300Illustrative Outcome IndicatorsINDICATOR 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Percentage change in production of targeted agriculturalcommodities as a result of U.S. Government (USG)assistancePercentage change in domestic sales of targetedagricultural commodities as a result of USG assistancePercentage change in export sales of targetedagricultural commodities as a result of USG assistancePercentage change in annual household income as aresult of USG assistancePercentage change in employment rate in client firms as aresult of USG assistance+2% +5% +10% +15% +20%+5% +10% +15% +25% +35%+10% +20% +30% +40% +50%+5% +10% +15% +25% +35%+5% +10% +15% +20% +25%PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 66


RESULTSThe Twanya EAST project has been operating for one year. Thus far, it has made the following progress in itsobjectives:Increase productivity of targeted horticultural commoditiesHouseholds have increased production of high-value vegetables on their farms by 15 percent based on yieldmeasurements obtained at the farm gate. Sales of vegetables to the producer associations, however, have increasedby only 5 percent. Gross household incomes, as measured by product sales, have also increased by 15 percent, buthigher costs of fuel and fertilizer cut into farm profits.Strengthen trade and producer associationsFour new producer associations have been established and four older associations have been reorganized. Thelargest association has 60 members; the smallest, 22 (see table below). Membership is organized by household,with membership listed by household head (a man or a woman, as appropriate). Membership in the producerassociations formed by the project is open to heads of households. Eight different training sessions were offeredto the members.Joining the association requires payment of the Twanya equivalent of US$50 and the verification of land title to atleast 1.5 acres. In three of the old associations, women have been elected as secretaries or treasurers. No womenhold leadership positions in the new associations.Increase employment in horticultural production and processingASSOCIATIONTOTALMENWOMENMEMBERSHIPA (old) 60 40 20B (old) 28 12 16C (old) 33 30 3D (old) 48 24 24E (new) 22 18 4F (new) 36 24 12G (new) 41 30 11H (new) 38 26 12Among the firms assisted by the project, 90 new jobs have been created. Ten of these have been new managerialpositions. Another 50 people were hired to accept the loads of vegetables brought to the factories by the suppliers,moving and weighing the heavy baskets and sacks of produce: 30 on day shifts and 20 on night shifts. Five peoplewere hired into clerical positions. The remaining 35 people were hired on the shop floor to grade and pack thevegetables.67


SUPPLEMENTARY INTERVIEW DATAThe Twanya EAST project team realized that many questions about gender roles and responsibilities remainedunanswered. Therefore, they conducted field interviews to identify the responsibilities of different actors in the valuechain and how gender differences affected their work. The following vignettes are based on excerpts from thesefield interviews.An Input Supplier: Martin Amayo is the owner of Farm Medicine Experts Ltd., a small family-owned company thatsells pesticides, fertilizer, seeds, and some farm equipment. He regularly employs a staff of eight to ten people. Mr.Amayo employs women as both counter sales staff and as his traveling sales agents to interact with the public.He says the women are good at selling, and he believes that he can trust women with the cash used in the salestransactions. He said that in his experience, the women who are qualified for the sales clerk position are morewilling to stay in the job than are men. The men, he says, generally have higher qualifications, and as a result, theyask for more pay or quickly try to take better jobs. He hires men as porters and as his warehouse manager. He saysthat men are better in those positions “because of the work involved; you have to carry boxes and it is physicalwork.” Furthermore, in Twanya, labor regulations restrict the loads that women are allowed to carry to 20 kilograms.Although a trolley is available to move the very heavy or bulky packages, the trolley is difficult to move when it isfully loaded at 50 kg. Mr. Amayo notes that it might be possible to identify a way to let women work as porters, butthere are so many men willing to do this work that it is not worthwhile for him to invest in alternative technologiesto hire women in those positions.ProcessA Business Service Provider: Anna Onyango is a single mother of two young children who provides artificialinsemination (AI) services to local farmers. After completing secondary school, Anna trained in AI and received acertificate. Her brother helped her to pay for the course and to purchase her initial supplies. Anna is self-employedand likes her job because it is not full time but still provides a good income. She faces challenges, however, withsome aspects of the job, particularly transport and the hours. She has to be ready to go to the farmers’ homesteadswhen the cows are ovulating, which sometimes means traveling at night, when she does not always feel safe. Shehas been able to buy her own pickup truck, but she does not like to drive it alone at night.Ray Witlin/The World BankPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 68


A Business Service Provider: Martha Malia provides seedlings of horticultural plants to farmers in her area. Shestarted her nursery about six years ago in her backyard, but it has grown to encompass four greenhouses withplants in different stages of growth. Martha is a recent widow in her late forties with several grown children. Sheused to teach in a primary school in a nearby town and lives on land that her husband inherited from his father.They built a house together on it, and she was given rights to the surrounding land for her garden. Her eldest soninherited the bulk of the property on his father’s death but left her in control of her house and gardens. She thoughtof the nursery while she was still teaching as a way to earn some extra money, and she attended several trainingsessions with a local nongovernmental organization (NGO) on preparing seedlings: learning about the diseaseresistantvarieties that grow well in the area and that have a taste that people like. She employs four women to carefor the seedlings and an accountant to handle the finances. One obstacle to expanding the business further is thatshe does not have her own truck; she depends on people to come to her garden to collect their seedlings. Shewould like to have a truck to transport seedlings to others who don’t have transport of their own.A Producer: “My biggest problem is finding good labor,” says George Maticho. He and his wife have invested inhigh-value horticultural crop production and, after a few good seasons, have expanded their acreage. But at theircurrent level of production, they can no longer handle the labor requirements for all phases of the production cycle.Mr. Maticho says that the specialty crops require precise applications of fertilizers and pesticides and that he hasrun into problems using the available local people. They are not educated and have made errors in application thathas hurt his yields. Sometimes, he says, they are not available when he needs them, and timing of applicationsis critical. He finds women to be more willing to listen to instructions and to be more reliable workers, but thereare few women workers available as most are already involved in the agricultural and domestic work on their ownhomesteads. Mr. Maticho is at that difficult point in growing his business: he is not yet able to get sufficient credit tohire a permanent labor force, but his business is too large to handle the labor requirements on his own.Yosef Hadar/The World Bank69


A Producer: Mrs. Oluko is a maize farmer. She farms her maize on her husband’s land, about 1.5 acres. She getsup early in the morning, around 5:30 a.m., to milk her cows and then heads to her maize farm to work. She carriesout most of the work, including sowing, planting, weeding, fertilizing, and harvesting. She uses hand tools, althoughthe land is prepared using a tractor hired by her husband. She is sometimes helped by her adult daughter, who livesat home. In her community, it is customary for husbands to make decisions about land use and cropping choices.She says that, in general, husbands will talk over their decisions with their wives but that, in the end, it is the man’sdecision. Sometimes, if the wives don’t agree, they might argue a bit with their husbands. When there is more lovein the relationship, she says, the relationship is more consultative, especially among the younger generation, butshe and her husband are in their fifties, and what he wants is what happens. She keeps half of the total harvest foruse by the household. Mrs. Oluko says that she is discouraged from getting involved in the marketing. Her husbandsays that because she is less experienced dealing with the buyers, she may get cheated by them, and he insistson talking to the buyers who visit the farm or on taking the maize to the local market or the warehouse. Mrs. Olukodoesn’t always know exactly how much her husband sells the maize for, although she does have a pretty good ideaof the market price from listening to the radio and talking with her friends.ProcessA Producer: Monica Kubadi is an unmarried woman in her early twenties. She recently returned home from completinga short training course, offered by a local NGO, on growing indigenous vegetables for the local market. She isexcited about following up on the NGOs recommendations for using improved seeds sold by a seed company intown. She talks to the seed sales agents about appropriate cultivation techniques and market opportunities. She isstill living at home with her parents and working on the family farm. Although she only completed primary school,she is an avid learner and has a dream of becoming a successful businesswoman. On a small parcel of land, hardlya tenth of an acre that her father allows her to use as her own, she has been growing indigenous vegetables andcarrying them to town for sale, sometimes by foot and sometimes by bus. However, the amount of land she hasis not sufficient for expanding her business, and according to customary laws in her region, unmarried women arediscouraged from owning land. Her father says that unmarried women should not own land because they will haveto leave it when they marry. The by-laws of the producer association that was set up to encourage farmers to link tonew markets and that offers additional training and credit options does not allow unmarried women to join on theirown. Her father already represents the family in the association. Unfortunately, the association only allows registeredmembers to attend training on productivity and marketing. Monica’s father does not necessarily attend the trainingthat Monica is interested in, and even when he does attend, he may not convey the information accurately.A Producer: Enos Tangawizi is a young unmarried man in his early twenties. He completed primary school butdid not continue his education beyond that. As the only son in his family, he will inherit his father’s lands, andhe is now responsible for working the farm alongside his 43-year-old father. The two of them grow primarilyfood crops—maize and local beans—but Enos has recently been experimenting with some other horticulturalproducts. His father has allowed him to use two acres on which to plant string beans. Enos’s sister and motherwork in the fields with him. Enos typically gets up at around 6:30 a.m. and goes to work in his fields for severalhours. He returns to his home at lunchtime and eats lunch prepared by his younger sister. He would only cook forhimself if he were living alone. “Cooking is women’s work. They are responsible for feeding of the rest of us,” hesays. His father also joined the horticultural producer’s association, and Enos is representing the household there.Enos knows he will not have full control over his father’s lands until he inherits the plots after his father’s death.If his string bean venture is successful, he will have to either ask his father to use more of the family’s lands or topurchase other fields within a reasonable traveling distance, but he has no other reliable source of income for thatpurchase, apart from the profits of his string beans. Currently, he sells the string beans through the association toan exporter. The proceeds are paid to him directly, and he, in turn, gives a portion of the proceeds to his motherand his sister. The association does offer loans for land purchases. He wants to build his string bean business,but he feels constrained by his situation.PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 70


A Transporter: Mr. Chabanga is a retired civil servant, now in his fifties. He owns two pickup trucks that he purchasedsecondhand using his savings and credit opportunities associated with his government job. He uses his trucks totransport fruits to the capital city from smallholder farms a few hours away. He started the business when a friend ofhis from another town suggested it, pointing out the piles of fruits along the road waiting for transport. Mr. Chabanganow has established relationships with 40 reliable smallholders from whom he regularly collects fruits. He is nowhoping to expand his business. Mr. Chabanga drives one truck himself or calls on one of his nephews, who has asecondary school education. Sometimes he also hires another driver. His son now assists him in managing otheraspects of the business, including the accounts, after first spending several years traveling with his father to learnthe business “from the ground up.” His unmarried daughter, who recently completed a certificate in agronomy, alsowants to get involved in his business, but Mr. Chabanga is reluctant to allow her to travel. He is concerned about herreputation and her physical safety, being out on the road, unmarried, and always having to interact with strangers.His wife, a primary school teacher, believes that times have changed and that he is being old-fashioned. She wantsher daughter to be exposed to all aspects of the business so that she can go to work for one of the large agriculturalexporting companies. He and his wife are currently arguing about their daughter’s future in the business.A Processor: The supervisor at the processing plant, Mr. Frederick Masawe was enthusiastic about the better qualityof milk that was provided by the women suppliers. He explained that women are careful about sending only freshmilk from the morning collection. Men, however, “are too greedy, and they will combine milk from the night beforewith the morning milk, and some of it will be spoiled. Then we have to throw out the whole batch,” he says. Hewould like to get milk from more women, but it is hard for him to get women to attend the quality control trainingshe holds monthly at the plant. “Women can’t get into town easily, in light of their other responsibilities, so they don’tattend the trainings.”A Processor: Mrs. Mkingamkono is a married woman in her forties with a college degree in business. She is marriedto a lawyer. She lives in a large town in central Twanya, which is home to a branch of the national university. Mrs.Mkingamkono started making pineapple and orange juice in her kitchen at home when her children were small,and she employed a nephew to sell it at the market by the cup and by the bottle. She earned a reputation forproducing a safe and clean product, and over the years, her business grew as she began to sell to neighborsfor their parties and to one or two restaurants. At first, she had bought her supplies in the market, but she soonrealized that she could purchase the raw materials at a lower price by buying directly from the producers aroundtown. She made connections with a man who made deliveries for a shop in town to his branch stores in thesurrounding areas, and he brought back fruit from several growers on his return trips and delivered them to herhome. When her children were in secondary school, she decided to find a shop with a warehouse and expand herbusiness. The local bank where her husband had maintained a personal account for many years, however, wasunwilling to give her a loan independently of her husband. She was asked to get her husband to cosign the loanand to put up the plot of land they owned just outside of town as collateral. Mrs. Mkingamkono now employs40 people in her business. Despite her own business success, she hired a man as her senior manager becauseshe believes it is easier for him to work with both the men and women employees. She admits that she doesn’tknow whether her employees who are men would have trouble with a woman manager, but she thinks they might.She also employs men as drivers and to operate the canning and packing machinery. She employs both womenand men to accept the fruit deliveries, to sort and clean them, and to run the juicing machines. Men and womenperforming the same jobs receive the same salaries, but each job has a different scale of remuneration. Sortersand machinery operators are paid the most; cleaners the least.71


Scott Wallace/The World BankProcessthis page shouldhave a picture if itdoesn't please letthe designer knowPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 72


PHASE ONE: MAPPING GENDER ROLESAND RELATIONS ALONG THE VALUE CHAINPhase One of the INGIA-VC process includes (1) mapping men’s and women’s participation and benefits along the chainand (2) identifying the factors that shape current gender roles and relations in value chain operations. The process ofmapping the value chain, in this Handbook, refers to the assembly and collection of gender-related data relevant to thevalue chain, as well as the organization and presentation of that data. This mapping process includes both quantitativeand qualitative data collection. The quantitative-engendered mapping exercise helps practitioners determine laborallocation, returns, and ownership along the chain. The qualitative mapping exercise complements the quantitative databy collecting data on the factors that shape particular outcomes for men and women along the chain. Quantitative andqualitative data collection efforts should use both primary and secondary sources. Secondary sources, such asproject documents, company records, or easily available government records, often contain useful information onthe location of, and the nature and returns to, men and women throughout the value chain. Information on genderdifferences, however, is often unavailable in existing secondary sources. Interviews with key informants and focusgroup discussions can provide needed detail to inform the gendered value chain analysis.QUANTITATIVE DATA COLLECTIONMapping Quantitative Gender InformationMapping helps practitioners understand men’s and women’s differing levels of participation and returns in valuechains. At a minimum, a value chain map should disaggregate participants by sex. A value chain mapping exercisecan also show much more, by illustrating known gender roles and relationships as a starting point and then identifyingthe location and extent of gender inequalities along the chain.RELATING PHASE ONE TO OTHER PROJECT DATA COLLECTION EFFORTSThe data collection methods and principles outlined in Phase One can be applied to other data collection efforts inthe project cycle.✪✪ Baseline assessments. Finding out where men and women are located in project target areas and what they do,will facilitate the establishment of realistic targets, by sex, for projects.✪✪ Gender assessments. The INGIA-VC process is a type of gender assessment that can be conducted tocomplement the quantitative data by revealing gender-based constraints and providing information for thedesign of activities. This process can be modified and conducted at a midpoint in the project to captureadvances and recurring challenges.✪✪ Ongoing technical assistance. The interview guide provides a range of questions that can be used periodicallywith different actors to gain insights into how gender issues may pose challenges or create opportunities forimproving relations along the value chain.73


Step 1. Identify key groups of actors in the value chainThe first step to examining gender relationships in value chains is to identify key groups of actors in the value chainand, more specifically, to determine where women and men are located throughout the chain. Interviews withstakeholders are often necessary to identify the relative participation and location of men and women throughoutthe chain. For example, through interviews with men and women farmers, practitioners can collect data on thegender division of labor, including production, marketing, and selling.ProcessStep 2. Measure sex segmentation along the value chainMen and women are typically not evenly distributed through the value chain. Not only do men and women oftenundertake different tasks, but there is often also sex segmentation in terms of wages and ownership. By collectingdata on the locations of men and women in the value chain, on their labor returns, and on ownership/managementrates, areas of inequality can be identified. The following types of data should be collected:1. Labor Allocation: A preliminary analysis of participation includes a simple breakdown of the number ofworkers in various organization units by sex.2. Labor Categories: To move beyond the level of participation to understand the quality of men’s andwomen’s participation, it is also important to clearly disaggregate each labor category of actor andinstitution by sex. Particularly in processing and labor-intensive production industries, different categoriesof labor and management should be disaggregated. In some industries, specific labor categories arehighly gender segregated. For example, in the Bangladesh shrimp sector, men and women are clusteredin different activities. Women and girls constitute 40 percent of all fry catchers and 62 percent of allprocessing plant workers. Few women are intermediaries. In addition, women are absent from severalgroups of actors, which limits their ability to economically gain from the sector.3. Labor Returns: The occupations that men and women hold have implications for the benefits they receive.In the examples above, the better-paying jobs are overwhelmingly held by men. 74 At the same time, studiesindicate examples of wage discrimination in which men and women occupy the same positions but are not paidequally. Sex-disaggregated data should be collected across organizations and within occupational categories.4. Ownership and Management: Data on the sex of the owner(s) and manager(s) of enterprises along thechain should be collected.SEX-DISAGGREGATED OR GENDER-DISAGGREGATED DATASex and gender are distinct concepts. The difference in meaning is often blurred in discussions about sex-disaggregateddata and gender-disaggregated data.Sex-disaggregated data refer to the collection of data by physical attributes of the individual. Disaggregating data by sex(i.e., in categories of males and females) permits valid cross-country comparisons.Gender-disaggregated data refer to the results of a gender analysis of sex-disaggregated data to explain differences anddetermine the effect of activities on gender relations.Source: “Agricultural Censuses and Gender: Lessons Learned from Africa” (Rome: FAO, 2005, pg. vi). Available at http://www.fao.org/sd/dim_pe1/docs/pe1_051003d1_en.PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 74


TIPS FOR GAINING A “COMPLETE” PICTURE✪✪ Examine sex segmentation upstream and downstream. In some global value chains, women areclustered in production or processing activities depending on the nature of the value chain (e.g.,horticulture). It is important to capture both the absence of men and women as well as theirpresence. The absence of men or women at any level of the value chain should serve as a redflag for project staff to explore gender-based barriers to entry.Map men’s and women’s participation in support services. It is important to map actors that✪✪add value as well as services along the value chain. In an agricultural value chain, agriculturalextension agents may not add value directly but are integral to improving the competitivenessof the value chain. The absence of women agricultural extension workers may be a significantconstraint to upgrading an agricultural product because women producers may not receiveproductivity-raising technology from men extension workers because of social restrictions,limits on women’s mobility, or other factors.Curt Carnemark/The World Bank75


Step 3. Organize and present the dataValue chain maps can be presented in multiple ways. A common value chain mapping convention first identifies thefunctions in a value chain and then aligns the various actors (or operators) by function. In other cases, identifyingactors is more appropriate. Figure 1 shows a simplified value chain map in the agricultural sector that distinguishesbetween function and actors.There is no common method for denoting engendered relations in a value chain map. The approach taken maydepend on the data collected. Where sex segregation is strong or complete, separate shapes or colors can indicatewhere men and women dominate. Figure 2 provides an example in which color and size highlight the relationsand relative importance of different male and female actors in the production of honey in Ethiopia. In Figure 3, theTwanya EAST project value chain map uses a different color to indicate a higher proportion of women. In somecases, if the flow of value added differs significantly between men and women actors, separate shapes will highlightthese relations more easily.ProcessOnce a preliminary value chain map has been sketched out, more precise information on the participation of menand women in the chain can be entered. The map may need to be modified if the gender analysis indicates that thereare significant subgroups of actors. For example, in Figure 2, women honey producers use a different technologyand produce a different product from the honey than the men, so these actors are separated out. In some cases, aseparate value chain map should be developed.FIGURE 1: CONCEPTUAL VALUE CHAIN MAPPINGFunction Production ProcessingMarketing / Wholesale Marketing / RetailActors /OperatorsOwner-OperatorFarms < haSmall-ScaleProcessorsLocal TradersLocal MarketsOwner-OperatorFarms < haProcessors and ExportersRegional andInternationalSupermarketsPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 76


FIGURE 2: HONEY PRODUCTION IN ETHIOPIASource: Mayoux, L.“Making the Strongest Links.”TWANYA EAST PROJECT QUANTITATIVE MAPPING EXERCISETable 5 summarizes the data on sex segmentation collected by the Twanya EAST project on the passion fruit valuechain. The data were culled from baseline surveys and initial market assessments. An initial analysis of the datarevealed that women represent 39 percent of all employees along the chain. However, their participation variesgreatly among the different actors. For example, women comprise 80 percent of workers on large-scale farms and73 percent of all workers in processing plants. In contrast, women are greatly underrepresented as rural purchasingagents and wholesalers/brokers. In addition, the data revealed a high level of informality. Of the women employedin the chain, 81 percent of women’s jobs are classified as informal. Further, there exists a disparity in men’s andwomen’s wages. Women earn an average of 29 percent less than men along the chain.The Twanya EAST project decided to map women’s participation along the chain based on their initial findings.The categories of actors in yellow indicate a high presence of women. This helped the team to visualize women’spresence and absence along the chain. The map will be updated as new information is made available.TABLE 5. OWNERSHIP, EMPLOYMENT, AND WAGES IN THE PASSION FRUIT VALUE CHAIN% FOwnerMaleEmployeeFemaleEmployeeTotal % F % Informal F/M WagesInput Suppliers .30 142 88 221 0.36 — 0.56Producers .15 6,890 5,265 12,155 0.43 0.82 0.98Small and Medium-Sized .15 1,923 711 2,634 0.27 0.85 0.88Large .00 1,704 6,816 8,521 0.80 0.82 0.53Rural Purchasing Agents .01 58 3 61 0.05 0.93 0.69Wholesalers/Brokers .03 79 6 85 0.07 0.79 0.73Processors .05 2,737 6,054 8,294 0.73 0.64 0.58Total .09 13,533 18,943.62 32,476 0.39 0.81 0.7177


FIGURE 3: PASSION FRUIT VALUE CHAIN IN TWANYAProductionTrading / Marketing /StorageSmall-ScaleProducers &Farm WorkersTrading / Marketing / StorageLarge-ScaleProducers &Farm WorkersWholesalers /BrokersExportersInput SuppliersHigh Female ParticipationFlow of GoodsRetail Sales &ProcessingRural / UrbanDealersProcessorsEUMarketsConsumptionTwanyaConsumersEUConsumersProcessPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 78


QUALITATIVE MAPPINGThrough collecting sex-disaggregated data, men’s and women’s overall participation in the value chain is better understood.The data help to measure various areas of sex segmentation. In the case of the Twanya EAST project, project staff learned thatthere is labor market, wage, and ownership segmentation along the passion fruit chain. The quantitative data alone, however,do not explain the current gender roles and relations nor how they might impede value chain efficiency, program objectives,or women’s empowerment. Qualitative data are required to understand the factors that produce particular outcomes for menand women. It also clarifies how current gender roles and relations affect and are affected by value chain operations.Step 1. Identify gender roles and relationsQualitative information about gender roles, responsibilities, and relationships are found in a range of materials, fromacademic studies, in-depth surveys, project reports, and people with their own sometimes accurate and sometimesinaccurate ideas about appropriate behaviors for men and women. It can be difficult to know what to do with thewealth of information available. The Gender Dimensions Framework is a tool to organize the data about gender.In the Phase One Worksheet, “Organizing Gender-Related Information,” the information presented in the case study narrativeis organized according to each of the dimension categories. It is the first step in understanding gender relations in countriesor communities where the project will be implemented or where it already works to understand how those relations influencemen’s and women’s participation in operating existing value chains or that need to be addressed before organizing newones. After organizing the data given in the narrative, the worksheet provides space to raise questions about the implicationsof the data given. Is additional data needed on any point? Are there points on which the data presented disagree? Thequestions raised in the last column of Phase One Worksheet can be included later during interviews with actors along thevalue chain or by seeking additional background data from government sources or other published materials.PHASE ONE WORKSHEET: ORGANIZING GENDER-RELATED INFORMATION FROM INTERVIEWSDIMENSION INFORMATION ABOUT WOMEN INFORMATION ABOUT MEN QUESTIONSPRACTICESANDPARTICIPATION✪✪ On the farm, women performlabor-intensive tasks, such asplanting, transplanting, weeding, andharvesting vegetables and fruits.✪✪ Women and girls do most of thehousehold work (e.g., child care,food preparation, cleaning).✪✪ Power differentials:Women do a disproportional amountof household work.Young women are not permitted towork outside of their homes at night.✪✪ On the farm, men typically providelabor for field preparation.✪✪ Men are more commonly elected asproducer association leaders.✪✪ Men own the vast majority of exportfirms.✪✪ Men handle crop sales.79


DIMENSION INFORMATION ABOUT WOMEN INFORMATION ABOUT MEN QUESTIONSACCESSTO KEYPRODUCTIVEASSETS✪✪ Married women have small gardens onwhich they grow vegetables.✪✪ Married women can sell the vegetablesfrom their gardens in local markets.✪✪ Some women earn income throughwork in agro-vet shops in countersales and in agricultural processingplants in entry-level positions.✪✪ Women have little access toagricultural extension services.✪✪ Women typically need to havehusbands cosign loans.✪✪ Girls typically receive less educationthan boys and are underrepresented inmost technical agricultural fields.✪✪ Power differentials:Married women need to get husbandsto cosign loans for start-up oroperating capital. The proportion offirms owned by men suggests this isharder for women than for men.✪✪ Men own larger farms than women.✪✪ Men own cattle.✪✪ Some men have wage jobs; theyare hired as porters, drivers, and torun heavy equipment. Men are alsopreferred for management jobs inprocessing plants.✪✪ Men receive the bulk of agriculturalextension services.✪✪ Men go farther in school than womenand are better represented in technicaldisciplines related to agriculture.✪✪ What are the othersources of income formen and for women?Who contributesmore labor andmore income to thehousehold? Whocontrols that income?✪✪ Need moreinformation onlandownership. Howdo unmarried adultsget access to land?✪✪ Why are agriculturalextension servicesmore accessible tomen?✪✪ Why do womenrefrain from studyingagriculture? Howsuccessful are thewomen who do?Process✪✪ It is perceived as inappropriate forwomen to load trucks or work asporters.✪✪ Women are perceived as morecapable than men at performing jobsthat need “sensitive care.”✪✪ Women prefer not to drive at night.✪✪ It is believed that women managerscannot manage men well inprocessing plants.✪✪ Men are perceived as less likely tofollow instructions provided by anagro-vet agent than women.✪✪ Boys should receive preference in(higher) education.✪✪ Young men in urban areas are thoughtto be hard workers while those in ruralareas are thought to be lazy.✪✪ Power differentials: Men expect womenand younger men (sons) to defer to themon key decisions regarding the household.✪✪ Would women takeon “heavier” jobsif there were bettertools available?✪✪ Legislation stipulates equal inheritancerights for children, indiscriminate ofsex. Yet women seldom inherit on anequal basis with their brothers.✪✪ Girls who become pregnant mustleave primary or secondary school.✪✪ Banks ask spouses to cosign loandocuments.✪✪ Legislation stipulates equal inheritancerights for children, indiscriminate of sex.✪✪ Banks typically ask spouses to cosignloan documents.✪✪ Do statutory lawson marriage andinheritance referto customarylaws? Which takesprecedence inwhich situations?PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 80


PHASE ONE WORKSHEET: ORGANIZING GENDER-RELATED INFORMATION FROM INTERVIEWS (CONT.)DIMENSION INFORMATION ABOUT WOMEN INFORMATION ABOUT MEN QUESTIONS✪✪ It is perceived as inappropriate forwomen to load trucks or work as porters.✪✪ Women are perceived as more capablethan men at performing jobs that need“sensitive care.”✪✪ Women prefer not to drive at night.✪✪ It is believed that women managerscannot manage men well in processingplants.✪✪ Men are perceived as less likely tofollow instructions provided by an agrovetagent than women.✪✪ Boys should receive preference in(higher) education.✪✪ Young men in urban areas are thoughtto be hard workers while those in ruralareas are thought to be lazy.✪✪ Power differentials:Men expect women and youngermen (sons) to defer to them on keydecisions regarding the household.✪✪ Would womentake on “heavier”jobs if therewere better toolsavailable?✪✪ Legislation stipulates equal inheritancerights for children, indiscriminate of sex.Yet women seldom inherit on an equalbasis with their brothers.✪✪ Girls who become pregnant must leaveprimary or secondary school.✪✪ Banks ask spouses to cosign loandocuments.✪✪ Legislation stipulates equal inheritancerights for children, indiscriminate of sex.✪✪ Banks typically ask spouses to cosignloan documents.✪✪ Do statutory lawson marriage andinheritance referto customarylaws? Whichtakes precedencein whichsituations?In addition to reviewing secondary data, practitioners should also conduct in-depth individual or group interviewswith actors along the chain. The interviews should explore men’s and women’s roles, the relationships between menand women, and the institutional structures that support men and women. Existing project data should be used toformulate the qualitative data exercise. In the case of the Twanya EAST project, the initial mapping exercise revealedvarious types of segmentation that need further examination, including factors affecting women’s limited ownershipalong the chain, occupational segregation, and wage disparity.The INGIA-VC interview guide was developed based on the Gender Dimensions Framework. Using the framework,questions are posed about access to assets, perceptions and beliefs, practices and participation, and laws, policies,and institutions related to value chain operations. The questions are tailored for each actor in the chain. The chartbelow provides examples of the types of questions asked of producers and processors. Supplementary data fromthe Twanya EAST project is given in the Supplementary Interview Data following the case study.81


TABLE 6: SAMPLE QUESTIONS FROM THE INGIA-VC INTERVIEW GUIDEACTOR INTHE CHAINProducersACCESS TO ASSETS✪✪ How did you obtainyour land?✪✪ How do you getinformation on newfarming practices?✪✪ How do you getinformation on marketprices?PERCEPTIONS ANDBELIEFS✪✪ Are there aspects ofproduction that are hardfor you because you are awoman/man?✪✪ Are there aspects ofproduction that men/women are discouragedfrom doing?PRACTICES ANDPARTICIPATION✪✪ Who makesdecisions about thefarm enterprise?✪✪ Who makesdecisions about whatcrops to produce?✪✪ Who negotiatessales?LAWS, POLICIES,REGULATORYINSTITUTIONS✪✪ Are there laws orpolicies that makeit hard for you torun your farm as abusiness?Process✪✪ Who receives incomefrom the sale?Processors✪✪ How did you raisethe initial funds topurchase/obtain thebusiness?✪✪ Do you believe that men orwomen are better suitedto particular jobs in yourbusiness?✪✪ Do you believe that thereare differences in thesupply or quality of theproduct that you receivefrom men or women?✪✪ What kind of jobs domen and women doin the plant/factory?✪✪ With whom do younegotiate your salescontract (man/woman)?✪✪ Are there lawsor policies thatprohibit menor women fromperformingparticular jobs inthe plant/factory?STEP 2. Organizing the dataData collected in the interviews need to be organized to make sense. First, separate the information collected fromwomen or about women from information collected by men or about men. Men and women have different assets,undertake different tasks, and receive different benefits from their participation in the chain. Organizing the datashould help identify these differences.Second, beliefs and perceptions inform common understandings of what is appropriate for men and women. Note howparticular outcomes (i.e., access to assets or responsibility for tasks) are informed by beliefs and social expectations.Third, often data reveal contradictions. For example, interviewees may express a belief that women are “moretrustworthy” when it comes to repaying loans. However, that belief may or may not result in women actually receivingmore or larger loans. Women’s lack of collateral may override a belief about their collective “trustworthiness.” It isimportant to note these contradictions.The Phase One worksheet “Organizing Gender-Related Information from Interviews” provides an example of how to organizethe data from the field interviews. The organization is only suggestive; each project is likely to develop its own worksheets tohighlight the information most important for the activities they are supporting. The information in the chart is culled from the datacollected by the Twanya EAST project, including information from the case study narrative and supplementary interviews.PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 82


PHASE ONE WORKSHEET: ORGANIZING GENDER-RELATED INFORMATION FROM INTERVIEWSACTOR IN THE VALUECHAIN: PRODUCERSDATA ABOUT MEN DATA ABOUT WOMEN BELIEFS ABOUT MENAND WOMEN RELATEDTO DATA REPORTEDIN PREVIOUS TWOCOLUMNSDescription of daily activitieson the farm from morning todinner.6:00 a.m.: wakes up, milkscow, goes to town forsupplies8:00 a.m.–2:00 p.m.: workson farm2:00 p.m.: eats lunch3:00 p.m.–4:00 p.m.: workson farm5:00 a.m.: wakes up, cleansthe house, works on the farm10:00 a.m.: feeds livestock,weeds12:00 p.m.: prepares lunch1:00 p.m.: rests2:00 p.m.–5:00 p.m.: feedslivestock, works on the farmResponse from men:“Cooking is women’s work”6:00 p.m.: prepares dinnerHow did you obtain yourland?Who makes decisions aboutthe use of land?He inherited the land fromhis father.He makes decisions aboutthe use of land.Farms on her husband’s plot.She consults her husbandbefore making decisionsabout how to use the land (1stwoman).Men’s response: Unmarriedwomen should not ownland because they will haveto leave it when they marry.Farms on her father’s land, butshe can decide what to grow(2nd woman).How do you raise cashwhen you need it?He is also a milk vendor.Sales from milk are usedto purchase inputs for thefarm.She sells a chicken when sheneeds cash.OBSERVATIONSOR OTHER DATATO CONFIRM ORCONTRADICT REPORTEDDATASome husbandsinterviewed reportedpreparing their own middaymeals because their wiveswere working in the fields.Another young man said hewould cook for himself if hewere living alone.Census data confirmlow rates of women’slandownership.Agricultural surveys showthat only 3% of agriculturalhouseholds access credit.Women are more likelyto borrow from familiesand friends; men fromcooperatives.83


Continued - PHASE ONE WORKSHEET: ORGANIZING GENDER-RELATED INFORMATION FROM INTERVIEWSACTOR IN THEVALUE CHAIN:PRODUCERSDATA ABOUTMENDATA ABOUTWOMENBELIEFS ABOUT MEN AND WOMEN RELATED TO DATAREPORTED IN PREVIOUS TWO COLUMNSHow do you findlabor?Hires casuallaborers forclearing andplowing. Menare hired forboth tasks.Initially hired boys, butnow employs womenexclusivelyWoman’s response: Boys have greater economic opportunitiesthan women. They are unwilling to receive lower wages.Man’s response: More men are looking for jobs. They feel pressureto be “breadwinners” for their family.2nd man’s response: Women are more willing to listen toinstructions and to be more reliable workers.How do youget reliableinformation onnew farmingpractices?Who makesdecisions aboutthe choiceof crops (orvarieties) toproduce?Who makesdecisions aboutthe technologyused?From theassociationand friends(1st man).He makesdecisionsaboutcrops andtechnology(2nd man).Her husband receivesinformation from theproducer association.She is not a memberof the association andis not able to attendmeetings/trainings.She and her husbandmake decisionstogether.Her husband. He hasgreater knowledge ofnew technologies andproduction techniques(2nd woman’sresponse).Man’s response: Men have many “outdoor” activities, so it’seasier for men to get information than women.How do you getyour product toyour buyer?Who negotiateswith buyers?He uses abike to takehis productsto market (1stman).He negotiateswith thebuyers (1stman).Her husband transportsthe products to market(1st woman).When she sells locally,she transports thevegetables in a basketon her head (3rdwomen).Woman’s response: Marketing is perceived as a man’s taskbecause it involves transporting and interacting with men.Man’s response: Negotiating with buyers is done by men.“Women might get cheated.”Women don’t have time to go to the market given theirhousehold responsibilities. Plus, most women in this areadon’t ride bikes. That is the primary way in which products aretransported to market.OBSERVATIONS OR OTHERDATA TO CONFIRM ORCONTRADICT REPORTED DATAWomen reported listening to theradio and talking with their friendsto get agricultural information.They were also aware of it beingavailable on their cell phones butfelt that it cost too much moneyto use. Many had access to cellphones and would use them to getmarket information if there wereno cost.Younger couples reported makingdecisions more collaboratively;older women deferred to theirhusbands.Observations in the village andtown markets showed that marketsellers of vegetables and smallerquantities of fruits were women.Sellers with larger quantities andthose who sold grains were mostlymen.ProcessPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 84


Continued - PHASE ONE WORKSHEET: ORGANIZING GENDER-RELATED INFORMATION FROM INTERVIEWSACTOR IN THE VALUECHAIN: PRODUCERSDATA ABOUT MEN DATA ABOUT WOMEN BELIEFS ABOUT MENAND WOMEN RELATEDTO DATA REPORTEDIN PREVIOUS TWOCOLUMNSWho receives income fromthe sale?He receives the income.His wife’s portion of theincome is determined basedon his evaluation of thehousehold’s needs.He keeps the money for hisown needs, but helps out tobuy household items for thehousehold (married man).The money is split 70/30. Shereceives 30% of the sales tocover household expenditures(married woman).She keeps all the moneyfrom her vegetable salesbut is expected to help hermother with major purchases(unmarried woman).He splits his profits50/50 with his father (2ndunmarried man).OBSERVATIONSOR OTHER DATATO CONFIRM ORCONTRADICT REPORTEDDATA85


Continued - PHASE ONE WORKSHEET: ORGANIZING GENDER-RELATED INFORMATION FROM INTERVIEWSACTOR IN THE VALUECHAIN: PRODUCERASSOCIATIONSDATA ABOUT MEN DATA ABOUT WOMEN BELIEFS ABOUT MENAND WOMEN RELATEDTO DATA REPORTEDIN PREVIOUS TWOCOLUMNSHow much are membershipfees (registration andmaintenance)?Schedule, frequency, andlocation of meetingsUS$15 registration fee.US$30 per annum maintenance fee.Three annual meetings are held at the association office from 9a.m. to 12 p.m. Emergency meetings are called as needed.Women reported havingdifficulty attending somemeetings because of theirresponsibility for otherwork; meetings did notalways start on time andtook longer than expected;or they did not have thefunds for transport.What are the criteriafor membership in theassociation?Have to be a farmer with .5 hectare land vegetable productionand .5 hectare land fruit production.What are the benefits tomembers?How many members aremen? How many membersare women?Collective sales; secure markets; collective transportation;production trainings. (Trainings are limited exclusively tomembers; family members are not permitted to attendtrainings.)60 men/40 women (1st group).23 women (2nd group).OBSERVATIONSOR OTHER DATATO CONFIRM ORCONTRADICT REPORTEDDATAObservations at severalmeetings confirmed thatmore men than womenattended in the mixed-sexproducer associations.ProcessPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 86


Continued - PHASE ONE WORKSHEET: ORGANIZING GENDER-RELATED INFORMATION FROM INTERVIEWSACTOR IN THE VALUECHAIN: PRODUCERASSOCIATIONSDATA ABOUT MEN DATA ABOUT WOMEN BELIEFS ABOUT MENAND WOMEN RELATEDTO DATA REPORTEDIN PREVIOUS TWOCOLUMNSNumber and sex ofassociation officersWhat are the qualificationsneeded to become anassociation leader?7 positions (chair, vicechair,secretary, treasurer,3 association memberrepresentatives)5 men / 2 women (secretaryposition and one associationmember representativeposition are held by women).Women have to consult withtheir husbands before decidingto run for a position. It isimportant for them to discusshow the woman will manageher household activities withthe time commitments of theleadership position.Men and women areequally capable of holdingleadership positions.What financial resources(financial, time, other) arerequired to be an associationleader?Knowledgeable ofagricultural issues; effectivecommunicator with diverseaudiences (members,donors, governmentofficials); advocates for theneeds of farmers.Women often choosenot to run for leadershippositions because theyfeel that they don’t want to“risk their marriage” for theassociation.OBSERVATIONSOR OTHER DATATO CONFIRM ORCONTRADICT REPORTEDDATAVisits to multiple associationoffices and review ofproject records reveal thatmost association leadersand committee chairmenare men. When womenare elected into positions,they are overwhelminglyelected as secretaries and/or treasurers but rarelyas presidents/chairs orvice-chairs, unless it is a“women-only” group.87


Continued - PHASE ONE WORKSHEET: ORGANIZING GENDER-RELATED INFORMATION FROM INTERVIEWSACTOR IN THE VALUECHAIN: PRODUCERASSOCIATIONSPlease note whether theowner of the business is aman or a womanDATA ABOUT MEN DATA ABOUTWOMENBELIEFS ABOUTMEN AND WOMENRELATED TO DATAREPORTED INPREVIOUS TWOCOLUMNSDo you believe that beinga man or a woman helpssomeone to become anassociation leader?Women believe thatthey are not as capableat marketing as men.Marketing often entailsbeing on the road atnight. This is “risky” forwomen.Source of initial capital forthe business?From savings and from abank loan.From as a governmentemployee (in localgovernment).Foreign investor.From savings as agovernment employee(a teacher).From husband.Who is responsible for theday-to-day operations of thebusiness?The owner (a man) hired amanager (a man).She co-owns thebusiness with theforeign investor. Sheis the operationalmanager.There was a perceptionstated by both men andwomen that womenwere not capable ofmanaging men and thatmen would not listen toa woman manager.Number and sex ofemployees?10 permanent staff15 contract employees4 permanent staff15 contract employees10 casual employees90 casual employeesOBSERVATIONS OR OTHER DATATO CONFIRM OR CONTRADICTREPORTED DATAIn Twanya, only 12% of horticulturalexport firms were actually owned bywomen. Of these 33 firms, 90% (27)were started by married women whosehusbands had professional positions.Interviews with successful womenbusiness owners suggest that thereare many women capable of managingmen, but the belief that they can’t do sowell is a problem.ProcessPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 88


Continued - PHASE ONE WORKSHEET: ORGANIZING GENDER-RELATED INFORMATION FROM INTERVIEWSACTOR IN THE VALUECHAIN: PRODUCERASSOCIATIONSDATA ABOUT MEN DATA ABOUTWOMENBELIEFS ABOUT MEN ANDWOMEN RELATED TO DATAREPORTED IN PREVIOUS TWOCOLUMNSTypes of jobs performed bymen/womenTechnical positionsManagementMachine operationAccountingCleaningGradingWomen are “naturally” more carefuland precise. Men are careless andsloppy. Women are better at cleaningand grading vegetables than men.Sealing Women aren’t as physically strongas men and therefore have difficultylifting heavy machinery.Men have difficulty taking instructionsfrom a woman. It’s better to have aman as a manager. “You have to be areally tough and assertive woman tomanage men. I haven’t been able tofind any women who can do it.”Is there a difference in thesupply or quality of theproduct that you receivefrom men or women?“I can immediately tell if the fruitshave been harvested by a man or awoman. Harvesting requires patience.Men don’t ‘naturally’ have patience.”OBSERVATIONS OR OTHER DATATO CONFIRM OR CONTRADICTREPORTED DATARecords show that there are significantpay and benefit differences amongthese positions. Women are the majorityworkers in the lower-paid, moreseasonal jobs of cleaning, grading, andsorting. Technical positions that requiremore training and skills are more highlypaid and filled predominantly by men.This is information that should bespecifically collected in a survey.89


PHASE TWO: FROM GENDERINEQUALITIES TO GENDER-BASEDCONSTRAINTSThe work conducted in Phase Two is intended to help practitioners identify GbCs affecting value chain development.Some gender differences may be unimportant to the value chain, for example, where men and women may eachdesign and produce a different style of basket for home use. Access to land, however, can be critical for value chaindevelopment, and men’s and women’s differential access to land becomes a product of GbC on land allocation.Where relevant GbCs are identified, the factors creating those constraints need to be considered.ProcessThe available data from Twanya compiled from documents and collected in field interviews reveal that men andwomen have multiple roles and responsibilities related to the maintenance of the household and related enterpriseson and off the farm. Some of these are distinct; others are overlapping or intersecting. The gender and value chainanalysis worksheet that follows, “Phase Two Worksheet: From Observed Inequalities to Gender-Based ConstraintStatements,” helps to identify the types of disparities existing in the communities in which the project works and todistinguish the areas of inequality that are relevant to the efficient operation of the value chain.Gender-based constraints refer to restrictions on men’s or women’s access to resources or opportunities that arebased on their gender roles or responsibilities. The term encompasses both the measurable inequalities that are revealedby sex-disaggregated data collection and gender analysis as well as the processes that contribute to a specific conditionof gender inequality.Step 1. Identify conditions of gender disparityUsing information from the case study narrative and the interview data from the Twanya EAST project, the first stepis to identify measurable conditions of inequality linked to a society’s understanding of gender. For example, womenand men have different spheres of responsibility and perform different tasks on the farm and in the household. Menin Twanya work in agriculture, but their tasks are limited to land preparation and harvesting, although they have asignificant role in deciding about which crops to plant, how much of them to plant, and how to market the harvestedproduce. Women have many more tasks to complete on the farm, including planting, fertilizing, and weeding, butthey also assume nearly all of the work of maintaining the home. It is possible that men and women work on differenttasks but that they are of equal importance. In other situations, as is common in many agricultural communities,women bear a greater proportion of the workload and have less power to control their work. Women’s lack of time,or “time-poverty,” illustrates gender unequal conditions, that is, measurable inequalities that are revealed by sexdisaggregateddata collection and gender analysis.PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 90


Step 2. Identify the factorsthat cause conditions ofgender disparityThe findings of inequalities (“conditions”) in step 1 is followedby investigation to clarify the causes (“factors”) in step 2. Insome cases, the causes may be obvious. In other cases, itmay require additional investigation to understand why theinequalities exist.At least two different factors are at work that might explain thegender disparities in time allocation used in this example:✪✪ First, many women producers lack access to labor-saving,on-farm, and domestic technologies that would maketheir labor more efficient.✪✪ Second, social expectations in the community shapebeliefs about the type of work that is appropriate for menand women. These social expectations influence menand women to have different and unequal levels of effortleading to different patterns of time allocation.It is important to move beyond stereotypes about the reasonsfor gender disparities. It is not helpful, for example, to acceptthat “this is what we do”; instead try to find examples ofpeople whose successes, even if only in small ways, showhow barriers can be overcome. Identifying an appropriate andmanageable “factor” to address is a critical prerequisite tocharting a pathway for change.In many actual cases, it may be necessary to do someadditional investigating to determine the most critical factorsleading to the gendered inequalities that are relevant to aproject’s goals.Curt Carnemark/The World Bank91


Step 3. Formulate a cause and effect hypothesis: thegender-based constraint statement (GbC statement)Identifying one or more measurable area(s) of inequality and the factors that cause them lead to the formulation ofthe GbC statement. An example is provided from the INGIA-VC training conducted in Kenya.Condition(s) of inequality:Process✪✪ Fewer women than men are members of the dairy producers association although women are the primarycaretakers of the dairy cows.✪✪ Fewer women have payment accounts with the local dairy processing plant because the accounts are basedon association membership.✪✪ Women do not always receive full payment for the milk they sell.Factor:✪✪ Dairy association requires titled ownership to land, but women are rarely included as property owners onspousal property.GbC statement:✪✪ Women are constrained from full membership in the dairy association and thus do not receive full payment forthe milk they supply because they are not registered landowners.Ray Witlin/The World BankPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 92


The GbC statement is a product of the multistep gender analysis and is the foundation for identifying the actionablesteps that need to be put in place to build the value chain so that it offers equal opportunities to both men andwomen at each level of the chain. Each GbC statement has three parts: (1) it shows who is being affected, (2) itidentifies what result is being limited (the condition), (3) and it offers a framing of the cause of that limitation (thefactor). The statement above can be diagrammed this way:GENDER-BASED CONSTRAINT STATEMENTWomenWomenWHO CONDITION OF DISPARITY FACTOR(S) CAUSING THE CONDITIONare constrained from puttingmore time into market-orientedhorticultural productionare constrained from fullmembership in the dairy associationthat is based on landownership andthus do not receive full payment forthe milk they supplybecause:✪✪ they lack transport to travel quickly betweentheir farms and their homes (lack of access totransportation), and✪✪ they are expected to be home to prepare a dailyevening meal (social expectation)because they are not registered landowners (unequalaccess to assets).In real life (as in the example on time allocation), there may be multiple factors leading to the observed and measurableconditions of gender inequality, and there may also be cascading set of factors and conditions that lead to differenttypes of constraints. In this situation, women’s time-poverty may also constrain their participation in an association,or it may be a factor in women’s relative lack of income to purchase land. The discussion here is oversimplified toestablish a process that can be helpful in the field. Interview data can be tested in focus groups to prioritize thesecascading constraints and to determine which are most important for the project to address at that time.The Phase Two worksheet provides several illustrations of the process described above. It uses the organizingstructure of the Gender Dimensions Framework from earlier worksheets to stimulate thinking about the types ofinequalities described by both the quantitative and the qualitative data collection. The factors identified in theresulting GbC statement become the probable “levers” for action in the project activity.93


PHASE TWO WORKSHEET: FROM OBSERVED INEQUALITIES TO GENDER-BASED CONSTRAINT STATEMENTSDIMENSION OBSERVED AND MEASURABLEUNEQUAL CONDITIONSFACTORS LEADING TO THE OBSERVEDGENDER INEQUALITIESGBC STATEMENTPractices andParticipationIn comparison to men, women haveless discretionary time available.Women work on both household and agriculturaltasks. Women are disproportionately responsiblefor household work.Women are often constrained fromimproving on-farm productivity becauseof time-poverty linked to their householdlabor responsibilities.Access to Assets Women have greater difficulty inaccessing capital; they take outfewer loans than do men.Women own fewer and smalleragricultural plots than do men, eventhough the land law allows men andwomen to inherit equally.Producer association membershipis based on landownership; fewerwomen than men are registeredmembers.Husbands and wives are required to cosign loans,but husbands are less willing to sign for theirwives than wives are for husbands.Title to agricultural land is typically held in men’snames. Equal inheritance under the law is notfollowed in practice, and women do not inheritfamily assets equally to their brothers.Producer associations do not allow nonlandassets to be used to meet membership criteria.Women are often constrained fromaccessing financial capital because theylack ownership of assets that can serve ascollateral.Women are often constrained fromimproving the overall quality and quantityof horticultural crops because they lackaccess to services provided by producerassociations because of membershiprequirements for landownership.Beliefs andPerceptionsWomen are observed to hold fewertechnical and management positionsthan men. Girls also form a smallproportion of the agricultural scienceand technical students in secondaryschools.Both men and women express concerns aboutplacing women in supervisory positions overmen. These stereotypes work against even thosewomen with degrees and excellent qualifications.Women are often constrained fromfilling senior management and technicalpositions in processing firms becauseof discriminatory social attitudes towardwomen’s employment and ability tomanage men.Laws, Policies,and InstitutionsWomen cannot work in horticulturalprocessing plants at night.Labor laws restrict women’s nighttime work.Labor laws restrict the weight women are allowedto carry.Women are restricted in the number ofhours and types of jobs they can workbecause of discriminatory legislation.ProcessPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 94


PHASE THREE: ASSESSING THECONSEQUENCES OF GENDER-BASEDCONSTRAINTSThis phase of the process aims to assess the consequences of each identified GbC on value chain efficiency andcompetitiveness, the achievement of project objectives, and on women’s economic empowerment. The purpose ofthis phase is to help practitioners connect GbCs with the goals and objectives of value chain programs. A commonresponse by practitioners, when asked to consider gender issues in their program, is that the issues are not relevantto their particular activities. For example, the scope of a livestock program aimed at increasing the quality of milk neednot consider addressing men and women’s unequal access to land. So it is true that not all issues may be relevant toall projects. However, it is also true that practitioners often lack the capacity to connect gender issues to their activitiesand do not take the time to evaluate why particular GbCs may work against the achievement of goals.This phase is meant to guide practitioners through an exercise to assess the implications of the constraints ondifferent aspects of the program. It is a hypothesizing exercise through which practitioners consider the potentialconsequences that might occur if the program does not address the specific GbC.DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONSEQUENCES OF GENDER-BASED CONSTRAINTSGender-based constraints that affect the value chain are understood as:✪✪ Those that interfere with the achievement of the USAID-funded (or other donor) program/project objectives,e.g., where the constraint makes it impossible to reach the designated number of beneficiaries or volume ofsales;✪✪ Those that inhibit women’s economic advancement, e.g., where the constraint keeps women from participatingin key leadership positions in producer associations or from expanding their enterprises; and/or✪✪ Those that impair or restrict the efficiency and competitiveness of the value chain as a whole, e.g., where theconstraint affects the ability of producers to maintain a steady supply of quality products.95


Step 1. Hypothesizing the consequences of GbCsThe INGIA-VC approach considers three types of consequences of the GbCs on value chain development programs.For GbC, practitioners should ask the following question:What are the consequences of this constraint on✪✪ Achieving project objectives?✪✪ Supporting women’s economic advancement?✪✪ Building efficient and competitive value chains?In the context of USAID programs, practitioners must consider specific targets and indicators. While overallobjectives may be geared toward supporting value chain competitiveness and gender equality, programs also mustreport against their Performance Monitoring Plans. The latter two types of consequences consider how the GbCaffects the value chain as a whole and women’s economic advancement.ProcessCONSEQUENCES OR “MISSED” OPPORTUNITIESThe process here is framed to have practitioners consider potential consequences. However, it could equally consider“missed opportunities” or how addressing GbCs contributes to potential gains for the value chain, women’s economicempowerment, or the program.Addressing women’s lack of time to increase on-farm productivity has the potential consequence of reducing thevolumes of crops flowing into the value chain. Ignoring this issue, while reducing the chain’s competitiveness, wouldbe a missed opportunity to addressing one of the most persistent gender inequalities women continue to face: thedisproportionate burden of time spent on household activities.The USAID-funded Kenya Dairy Development Program (2002–2008) explored introducing bio-gas technology tofarms. The technology used cow manure as the fuel source for household stoves and ovens. This freed up the timewomen spent on collecting firewood, potentially increasing the time they could spend in more productive activities.Curt Carnemark/The World BankPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 96


The Twanya EAST ProjectPhase Three worksheet is meant to help practitioners think through the implications of the GbCs based on the threetypes explained above. The Phase Three worksheet begins with the GbC statement identified during Phase Two.This statement is generally constructed to facilitate the process of hypothesizing the potential consequences.As an example, consider the following GbC statement:GENDER-BASEDCONSTRAINTWHOCONDITION OFDISPARITYFACTOR(S) CAUSING THE CONDITIONSTATEMENTWomenare constrained fromimproving the overallquality and quantity ofhorticultural cropsbecause they lack access to services provided byproducer associations as a result of membershiprequirements for landownership.In Phase Two, the GbC statement was divided into three parts that show (1) who is being affected, (2) what resultis being limited (the condition), and (3) the factor(s) causing the condition. The potential consequences of notaddressing the GbC statement are generally embedded within the “condition of disparity” and the “factor(s) causingthe condition.”The potential consequences of this GbC statement on the Twanya EAST project are clearly referenced in the “conditionof disparity.” The Twanya EAST project’s first objective, “increased productivity (quantity) of horticultural crops,” willbe affected if women, who provide labor to the production of horticulture crops, do not receive appropriate guidanceon crop production.The potential consequences on women’s economic empowerment are found under the “factor(s) causing thecondition.” In this case, the producer association’s membership criteria are based on landownership. Women inTwanya have less access to land based on practices that favor men. This limits their ability to learn new agriculturepractices and to build social and political capital through participating in the association.The consequences on the efficiency of the value chain often parallel the consequences on project objectives andwomen’s economic empowerment. In this case, on-farm productivity will be affected because women may not bereceiving information on the production of their crops. Also, strengthening horizontal linkages through the creationof associations based on ownership of assets has the potential to exclude competent producers.Consequences of the remaining GbC statements are broken up on the right and considered in the Phase Threeworksheet.97


PHASE THREE WORKSHEET: ASSESSING THE CONSEQUENCES OF GENDER-BASED CONSTRAINTSGENDER-BASEDCONSTRAINTWHAT ARE THE CONSEQUENCES OF THIS CONSTRAINT ON:PRIORITIZINGCONTRAINTSWomen are oftenPROJECTOBJECTIVESIncreasing productivityWOMEN'S ECONOMICADVANCEMENTThe constraint maintainsEFFICIENT ANDCOMPETITIVE VALUECHAINSWomen’s lack of access1Processconstrained fromof targeted horticulturewomen’s status quoto support services andimproving the overallcommodities: If womenas resource-poorinformation that canquality and quantityare not receivingproducers, missingimprove the quantityof horticultural cropsappropriate guidanceopportunities for themand quality of cropsbecause they lackon crop production,to benefit from effortsreduces efforts to upgradeaccess to servicesthe project will missto pool resources andproduction. It alsoprovided by produceropportunities toto share information,hampers efforts to supportassociations as aincrease productivity.services, and inputs.the production of qualityresult of membershiprequirements forlandownership.Strengthening producerassociations: Asstrong associations arebuilt on principles ofIt also overlooksopportunities to supportwomen’s empowermentby increasing their socialcrops to buyers, therebyreducing the strengthof vertical linkages builtalong the chain.democracy, producerand political capital.Associations designed toassociations built oninclude members on thecriteria that excludebasis of their assets, ascapable producersopposed to their ability tocreate vested interestscooperate to meet buyerin the community.demands, are less strongand overlook the potentialfor different types ofproducers to contribute toeffective value chains.Women are oftenTime constraints willAs demands on women’sTime constraints that take2constrained fromaffect time availableon-farm labor increases,away from women’s on-farmimproving on-farmfor work on farms,women may sufferlabor or create increasedproductivity because oftraining, or producereven greater in terms ofhealth risks that reduce theirtime-poverty linked tofairs, reducingincreased time-poverty.productivity, may reduce thetheir household laborwomen’s opportunityflow of goods in the valueresponsibilities.to participate in andchain.benefit from manyproject activities.PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 98


PHASE THREE WORKSHEET: ASSESSING THE CONSEQUENCES OF GENDER-BASED CONSTRAINTS (CONT.)GENDER-BASEDCONSTRAINTWHAT ARE THE CONSEQUENCES OF THIS CONSTRAINT ON:PRIORITIZINGCONTRAINTSPROJECTOBJECTIVESWOMEN'S ECONOMICADVANCEMENTEFFICIENT ANDCOMPETITIVE VALUECHAINSWomen are oftenconstrained fromWomen will find it harderto engage in economicValue chains are oftencapital-constrained, which4accessing financialactivities that requirereduces upgrading efforts.capital because theynew capital (e.g., startlack ownership ofbusinesses, purchaseassets that can serveadditional land oras collateral.heavy machinery, hireemployees).Women are oftenconstrained from fillingTo increaseemployment inPersistent discriminatoryattitudes about womenOccupationalsegmentation reduces3senior managementhorticultural productionrestrict their employmentoverall efficiency andand technicaland processing: Gainsopportunities and arecompetitiveness of valuepositions in processingin employment throughbarriers to realizingchains by not taking fullfirms because ofthe project activity,economic empowerment.advantage of the potentialdiscriminatory socialwhen disaggregatedof qualified women.attitudes towardby sex and occupation,women’s employmentwill show no changeand ability to managein the relative status ofmen.men and women.99


Step 2. Prioritizing constraints.Once practitioners have considered the consequences of GbCs, they should prioritize the constraints to identify themost critical issues to address. Laying out the possible consequences in the previous step should help practitionerssee which GbCs have the potential to affect the program negatively. In the next step, practitioners will brainstormpossible actions to overcome constraints. GbCs can have multiple factors or root causes that create the constraints,which means that addressing or alleviating any one constraint may require the articulation of several differentstrategies. For this reason, focusing on a select number of GbCs allows the design of actions to concentrate on afinite set of factors.ProcessDetermining the priorities is influenced by a variety of factors, including the project timeline, budget, short-term andlong-term goals, and reporting requirements. It also means considering where action can have multiple spillovereffects, that is, where the leverage points exist.The Twanya EAST ProjectIn the case of the Twanya EAST project, staff reviewed the consequences of each of the GbCs they identified andprioritized them as follows:1. Women are often constrained from improving the overall quality and quantity of horticultural crops becausethey lack access to services provided by producer associations as a result of membership requirements forlandownership.2. Women are often constrained from improving on-farm productivity because of time-poverty linked to theirhousehold labor responsibilities.3. Women are often constrained from filling senior management and technical positions in processing firmsbecause of discriminatory social attitudes toward women’s employment and ability to manage men.4. Women are often constrained from accessing financial capital because they lack ownership of assets thatcan serve as collateral.As a first priority, the staff felt it was important to ensure that both men and women had access to the services thatcould improve the quantity and quality of their crops. The long-term gains in addressing this GbC would strengthenboth horizontal and vertical linkages and might result in a stronger relationship between the buyer and the producerassociation.Second, the staff considered women’s lack of time because identifying ways of reducing women’s time burden inthe household would contribute to their economic advancement by freeing them for productive activities. It wouldallow them to participate in and benefit from program activities and potentially increase on-farm productivity.Because the data on employment had not been disaggregated by sex, Twanya EAST project staff was unclear whetherthe discriminatory attitudes were contributing to occupational sex segmentation. However, they recognized that tosupport women’s economic empowerment and meet USAID gender policy requirements, they needed to ensure thatthe project did not support discriminatory practices. Moreover, staff felt that encouraging firms to adopt a genderequalworkplace might attract buyers whose consumers were more concerned about the origins of their products.Finally, because the staff was facilitating market linkages with buyers who could embed credit and other servicesin contracts with producer associations, the Twanya EAST project considered addressing women’s lack of creditdirectly to be the least critical priority.PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 100


PHASE FOUR: TAKING ACTIONS TOREMOVE GENDER-BASED CONSTRAINTSAfter determining the most critical GbCs to address, Phase Four focuses on brainstorming possible actions toremove these constraints and take advantage of opportunities to support women’s economic empowerment.This is an iterative and creative process that encourages practitioners to think innovatively and to evaluate thedifferent opportunities of action against the economic and social realities of the program and its objectives. Thetemptation may be to think conservatively about the possible actions. A fear of “changing culture” often casts ashadow on brainstorming efforts, but practitioners should consider all possible actions and then determine howthey can be appropriately implemented in the specific socioeconomic context.Addressing gender issues in value chains seeks to identify relationships and actions that enhance value chainefficiency and competitiveness while supporting gender equality goals. This makes it possible for USAID-fundedprograms to meet the dual objectives of achieving programmatic targets, as well as supporting USAID policy ongender integration. In this way, it identifies leverage points at which value chain interventions generate positivegender outcomes or gender interventions generate broader positive value chain outcomes.Cascading factors refer to situations in which multiple factors build on one another to create gender inequalities. Forexample, women’s lack of finance may be the result of their lack of access to collateral such as land. Women’s lack ofaccess to land may be the product of inheritance practices or legal institutions that do not grant them the right to land.Addressing the gender-based constraint therefore can happen at multiple levels or at levels within the manageable interestsof the project.Step 1. Take stock of gender-based constraints.Having selected a number of GbCs to address, now is the time to reexamine these constraints. As has beenexplained previously, GbCs are the result of multiple factors that create the gendered condition of inequality. Toidentify the range of possible actions, it is important to return to the GbC statement and examine those factors.Using a constraints analysis tree, 75 practitioners can dissect the different factors embedded within the GbC. Thisis illustrated in Figure 4. The GbC used in this example has multiple levels of factors. The first-level factors includethe exclusive membership criteria to the producer associations and the lack of access to services. Although thesetwo are related, as indicated by the arrow connecting the two boxes, they have been separated into two separateboxes because they refer to different dimensions of the GDF: Membership criteria are related to Practices andParticipation; Access to services is related to Access to Assets. This also implies that there may be different areasof action required to address those factors.*The Gender Continuum and definitions used here are an adaptation of work conducted by the InterAgency Working Group on Women that addresses gender issues inhealth and HIV/AIDS programs. Many explanations of the continuum have been developed. The version presented above is drawn from the forthcoming revision of theGender Integration into HIV/AIDS program manual by Debbie Caro, published by PRB for the HPI project101


This exercise is important to better isolate the individual factors that create the GbC. If there are cascading factors,as in the case of the membership criteria, these should be outlined. Much of the work in this step will have beenundertaken during Phase Two.FIGURE 4: IDENTIFYING DIFFERENT AREAS OF ACTIONSProcessGender-based constraint statement:Women are often constrained from improving the overall quality and quantity ofhorticultural crops because they lack access to services provided by producerassociations as a result of membership requirements for landownership.Factor 1Exclusive membership criteriaFactor 2Lack of access to support servicesSubFactor 1Lack of landownership by womenStep 2. Identifying actions.Programs can use different approaches to address gender issues in their activities. Because there is no single wayof mitigating or removing gender-based constraints, it is useful to work off of a continuum of different strategies, orapproaches, to gender integration. The Gender Continuum* (see Figure 5) identifies three different types of genderintegration approaches (and/or outcomes) that move from gender exploitative to accommodating to transformative.The continuum can be referred to when assessing the design of different value chain activities or evaluating the outcomeof particular activities. In this handbook, it is used to prioritize and design value chain interventions. The continuum ismade up of three broad categories of gender integration strategies: (1) Gender Exploitative, (2) Gender Accommodating,and (3) Gender Transformative. The aim is to identify strategies that move toward gender transformative strategies.FIGURE 5. GENDER CONTINUUMGENDEREXPLOITATIVEGENDERACCOMMODATINGGENDERTRANSFORMATIVEPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 102


THE GENDER CONTINUUM: GENDER INTEGRATION STRATEGIESGender Exploitative refers to projects that intentionally manipulate or misuse knowledge of existing gender inequalities andstereotypes in pursuit of economic outcomes. The approach reinforces unequal power in the relations between women andmen and potentially deepens existing inequalities.Gender Accommodating refers to projects that acknowledge inequities in gender relations and seek to develop actionsthat adjust to and often compensate for gender differences and inequities without addressing the underlying structuresthat perpetuate gender inequalities. While this approach considers the different roles and identities of women and men inthe design of programs, it does not deliberately challenge unequal relations of power. In the process of achieving desireddevelopment objects, projects following this approach may miss opportunities for improving gender equality.Gender Transformative refers to an approach that explicitly engages both women and men to examine, question, andchange those institutions and norms that reinforce gender inequalities and, through that process, achieve both economicgrowth and gender equality objectives.Source: Gender Manual 2009.Building on the principles underlying the Gender Continuum, practitioners need to consider how well their strategiesare aimed at building broad-based growth in which both men and women can participate. Combining the valuechain approach with the Gender Continuum, results in a range of possible strategies as depicted in Figure 6 anddescribed below.FIGURE 6: ACHIEVING THE WIN-WININTEGRATED VALUE CHAINEXPLOITATIVE ECONOMICGROWTHMUTUALLY SUPPORTIVE ANDTRANSFORMATIVEDEVELOPMENTGENDER EXPLOITATIVEGENDER ACCOMMODATINGGENDER TRANSFORMATIVEEXPLOITATIVE STATUS QUOACCOMMODATINGINCOME-GENERATIONSPOT MARKETS103


EXPLOITATIVE STATUS QUOThis quadrant represents a continuation of “business as usual” conducted by firms and households in waysthat reinforce existing inequalities. It captures the existing process of production and marketing both outside ofdonor-funded programs and unfortunately sometimes under existing programs as well, when no gender analysishas been made. The characteristics of the “Exploitative Status Quo” can include, for example, expectations thatan additional need for labor, perhaps to meet quantity or quality specifications, can be drawn from women’s timewithout adjustments or compensation. Another example would be calculating “profits” using an assumption thathousehold labor is “free labor” and not assigning any cost to it.ProcessEXPLOITATIVE ECONOMIC GROWTHPrograms that use gender relations and stereotypes in negative ways to promote value chain development andcompetitiveness are considered “Exploitative Economic Growth” and are located in the upper left quadrant. Lowwages in the garment sector and large-scale, export-oriented agriculture fall into this category when they aredesigned on the basis of perceptions of women’s “natural” abilities for certain tasks or have a bias favoring men asthe only breadwinners. Firms use these low production costs to gain competitiveness in the global market. In thelong run, this strategy has been shown to erode competitiveness. 76ACCOMMODATING INCOME GENERATIONThese programs most often focus on isolated income-generating opportunities for women. This is often the casein small-scale handicraft production or livestock projects. The benefits are cited in terms of women’s access toincome and their ability to combine these activities with their domestic responsibilities. These do not consider theincome-generating activities in a larger value chain context, which would ensure sustainability. Many programsfall into this category because it can be far simpler to address specific gender inequalities. Generally, theseprograms do not create systemic change in the value chain but will identify isolated issues that may create moredynamic change in a broad range of activities.MUTUALLY SUPPORTIVE AND TRANSFORMATIVEAchieving the “win-win” aims to find positive synergies between gender relations and value chain development.These programs design value chain activities to address gender inequalities directly. Among the strategies used byprograms that fit this category are gender equitable market facilitation, introduction of labor-saving technology thatreduce women’s labor, and promoting household approaches to farming business training.The process for designing actions to remove constraints is iterative, identifying factors to address and designing actionsto remove them. Since most GbCs involve multiple factors, programs may need to consider a range of strategies toensure that GbCs are addressed. It may be possible to identify a fewer number of strategies, if they are able to addressdifferent factors of the constraint at the same time. There may also exist different types of actions to address specificconstraints. Practitioners should consider the scope and resources for their specific program. Where programs facelimits on their ability to act directly to remove particular factors, practitioners look to involve other actors in the valuechain or donor-funded programs to collaborate on specific tasks.The aim through this process is to identify mutually supportive and transformative strategies that lead toward genderequitable and competitive value chains (as shown in the upper right quadrant of Figure 6).PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 104


TIPS FOR IDENTIFYING ACTIONS1.2.3.4.Be creative and think innovativelyAim for strategic and market-driven solutionsSeek mutually supportive and transformative strategiesEngage both men and womenPhase Four worksheet provides examples of some possible actions for the Twanya EAST project. For each constraint,there are multiple opportunities for actions. Since one of its objectives is to strengthen trade and producer associations,pursuing a strategy that enhances productivity through an association that better represents all producers may be themost appropriate course of action. This strategy also contributes to building women’s agency and voice throughparticipation in the association.However, another project might consider strategies to alleviate the GbC through the private sector. A rural salesagent model, as used in the Zambia PROFIT project, 77 might overcome the challenges women face accessing goodsand services through producer associations by shifting the responsibility for bulking and delivering orders to inputsuppliers through sales agents. Where sales agents are trained to target women as customers, this could help womengain access to inputs. The Kenya Business Development Service (KBDS) program aimed to develop commerciallysustainable business development enterprises for tree fruit sectors. In this model, the aim was focused on identifyingand supporting the establishment of qualified individuals or groups of individuals who could provide such businessdevelopment services as pruning, grafting, and transplanting to avocado and mango producers. 78Yosef Hadar/The World Bank105


PHASE FOUR WORKSHEET: TAKING ACTIONS TO REMOVE GENDER-BASED CONSTRAINTSLIST THE MOST IMPORTANTFACTORS CONTRIBUTING TOWHAT ACTIONS MIGHT ADDRESS THEGENDER-BASEDCONSTRAINTCONSTRAINTS TO ACHIEVE MORE EQUITABLECONSTRAINTS FOR THEPROGRAMWomen are often constrainedfrom improving the overall qualityExclusive membership criteria.OUTCOMES?Encourage a change in membership criteria, e.g.,graduated membership based on increased quality andProcessand quantity of horticultural cropsquantity of product delivered to association.because they lack access toservices provided by producerassociations as a result ofLack of access to supportservices.Design alternative service delivery scheme for non–producer association members (e.g., rural sales agent).membership requirements forChange association rules to allow non–producerlandownership.members to attend trainings and access benefits.Lack of landownership byRaise awareness on landownership rights.women.Advocate for equitable land distribution.Support better enforcement of existing legislativeframework on land policy.Women are often constrainedWomen’s householdIdentify labor-saving technologies to reduce women’sfrom improving on-farmresponsibilities.time on household responsibilities.productivity because of timepovertylinked to their householdlabor responsibilities.Social perceptions that linkApply family as a farming business approach.household responsibilities withwomen’s work.Address time/task allocation of household labor infamily business workshops.Women are often constrainedCollateral-based loan policies.Work with lending institutions to design women- andfrom accessing financial capitalpro-poor- friendly business loan instruments.because they lack ownershipof assets that can serve ascollateral.Social perceptions aboutwomen’s capabilities.Advocate for legislative framework for use of nonlandassets in lending.Design awareness raising campaigns to promotewomen’s leadership in business.Women are often constrainedEncourage firms to adopt gender-sensitive practicesfrom filling senior managementand policies (e.g., nondiscriminatory employment,and technical positions ingender-sensitive labor relations trainings).processing firms because ofdiscriminatory social attitudestoward women’s employmentand ability to manage men.PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 106


PHASE FIVE: MEASURING SUCCESSOF ACTIONSThe purpose of this phase is to develop indicators that measure the success of actions taken to remove genderbasedconstraints. This discussion is limited to designing indicators for the actions identified in Phase Four. Gendersensitiveindicators are important because they measure gender-related changes in society. Gender-sensitiveindicators help to reveal how men’s and women’s status and roles change over time. In doing so, gender-sensitiveindicators help practitioners assess their relative success in achieving greater gender equality.GENDER-SENSITIVE INDICATORSAn indicator is a pointer. It can be a measurement, a number, a fact, an opinion, or a perception that points at a specific conditionor situation and measures changes in that condition or situation over time. . . . Indicators provide a close look at the results ofinitiatives and actions. . . . Gender-sensitive indicators have the special function of pointing out gender-related changes insociety over time. Their usefulness lies in their ability to point to changes in the status and roles of women and men . . . to measurewhether gender equity is being achieved. Because use of indicators . . . will lead to a better understanding of how results can beachieved, using gender-sensitive indicators will also feed into more effective future planning and program delivery.CIDA. “Guide to Gender-Sensitive Indicators.” Quebec: CIDA, 1997. http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/inet/images.nsf/vLUImages/Policy/$file/WID-GUID-E.pdfStep 1. Develop gender-sensitive indicatorsThe discussion below provides a few pointers on developing gender-sensitive indicators.Check your assumptions. Value chain development programs are often associated with larger goals, such as increasingrural household income. Part One discussed the heterogeneity of intrahousehold allocation practices. Increasing overallhousehold income does not necessarily benefit all household members equally. Indicators may need to be modified to betterunderstand how benefits are distributed. For example, in addition to indicators that measure changes in rural householdincome, projects should also consider adding indicators such as “percentage increase of income under women’s control.”Avoid counting only bodies. Although it is important, for example, to disaggregate training participants by sex, suchindicators do little to measure men’s and women’s relative opportunities. Gender-sensitive indicators should alsocount people moving into new positions and new opportunities. For example, if a project is tracking the number of jobsgenerated for men and women, it is important to know whether the jobs created for women are in underrepresentedareas or reflect previous clustering patterns. Thus, the project may elect to adopt an indicator such as “increase jobsfor women, particularly in underrepresented occupational categories.”Aim to measure changes in levels of gender inequality. As stated above in the definition, gender-sensitive indicatorsare designed to measure changes in men’s and women’s roles and status over time. Instead of “number of womenwho joined the producer association” use “percentage change in proportion of women’s membership” or “percentagechange in proportion of women in leadership roles.” In addition to general indicators, such as increased sales, projectscan add an indicator, such as “women’s proportion of increased sales (ratio of women’s sales to men’s sales).”Phase Five provides examples of indicators constructed to measure the success of actions taken to address genderbasedconstraints in the Twanya EAST project.107


PHASE FIVE WORKSHEET: DEVELOPING INDICATORS TO MEASURE SUCCESSLIST THE MOST IMPORTANTWHAT ACTIONS MIGHTMODIFY OR CONSTRUCT A GENDER-SENSITIVEGENDER-BASEDADDRESS THE CONSTRAINTSINDICATOR TO MEASURE SUCCESSCONSTRAINTS FOR THEPROGRAMWomen are often constrainedfrom improving the overall qualityTO ACHIEVE MOREEQUITABLE OUTCOMES?Encourage change inmembership criteria.Percentage increase in women’s membership.Processand quantity of horticultural cropsbecause they lack access toservices provided by producerassociations as a result ofmembership requirements forlandownership.Change association rules to allownon–producer members to attendand access benefits.Percentage increase in women’s participation intrainings.Women’s proportion of increased yields.Women are often constrainedSupport better enforcement ofPercentage increase in land titles issued to women.from improving on-farmproductivity because of timepovertylinked to their householdexisting legislative framework onland policy.Percentage increase in proportion of land owned bywomen.labor responsibilities.Identify labor-saving technologiesNumber of labor-saving technologies introduced.to reduce women’s time onhousehold responsibilities.Number of women attending trainings on newtechnology.Number of women adopting new technology.Percentage of women with access and control over newtechnology.Address time/task allocationNumber of men attending training.of household labor in familybusiness workshops.Number of women attending training.Change in proportion of household labor undertaken bywomen.Women are often constrainedWork with lending institutionsNumber of women- and pro-poor-friendly loan productsfrom accessing financial capitalto design women- and pro-designed.because they lack ownershipof assets that can serve aspoor-friendly business loaninstruments.Percentage increase of women applying for loans.collateral.Percentage increase of women receiving loans.Women are often constrainedEncourage firms to adoptNumber of gender-sensitive policies adopted.from filling senior managementand technical positions ingender-sensitive practices andpolicies (e.g., nondiscriminatoryNumber of gender-sensitive practices adopted.processing firms because ofdiscriminatory social attitudestoward women’s employmentemployment, gender-sensitivelabor relations trainings).Percentage increase of women in managementpositions.and ability to manage men.Percentage increase of women in technical positions.PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 108


Step 2. Set gender targetsIn addition to developing gender-sensitive indicators, it may also be helpful to set internal targets. Targets establishhow projects define success. As the Twanya EAST project began to monitor changes in gender relations, the projectdecided to formalize its commitment to gender equality by setting targets. In the same way that failing to meet aproduction or sales target signals the need to adjust project activities, the Twanya EAST project developed thefollowing gender targets to help evaluate the project’s progress.TABLE 7: TWANYA EAST PROJECT GENDER TARGETSINDICATOR 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011% Increase in women’s association membership 10 15 20 20 30% Increase women’s leadership positions 5 10 15 20 30% Women’s attendance in trainings 20 25 30 35 40% Women’s increased employment 10 20 30 30 40% Women’s increased sales 5 10 15 20 30% Women’s increased yields 15 20 25 30 35Step 3. Plot project successIn the same way that it is helpful to present data on gender roles and relations, it is also helpful to present or plot changesin those roles and relations. The aim of addressing gender-based constraints is to decrease gender inequalities, to increaseopportunities for women, and to improve overall value chain development. Two different measurement tools are providedbelow. The first attempts to depict changes in segmentation along the chain, as well as changes in desired project outcome.The second tool highlights changes in women’s opportunities or outcomes along the value chain. Both tools can be used totrack or plot areas visually for project improvement, as well as project success in achieving greater equality.Curt Carnemark/The World Bank109


Measuring Changes in Sex SegmentationInitial Twanya EAST project assessments revealed high levels of labor market and wage-sex segmentation. At thesame time, though, the project was successfully achieving its sales and employment targets. Achievement of overallproject objectives did not, on their own, alleviate gender inequalities. The project found it helpful to present changesin key project indicators with key areas of gender inequalities to gain a more holistic picture of project achievements.The information in Table 8 was plotted on the Sex Segmentation and Value Chain Development diagram. The goalis to achieve a full diamond. This occurs when the project achieves its targets of increasing sales and employment,as well as reducing labor market segmentation and wage inequality.ProcessTABLE 8: TWANYA EAST PROJECT CHANGES IN SEGMENTATION% INCREASE SALES % INCREASEEMPLOYMENT% LABOR MARKETSEGMENTATION*% WAGE INEQUALITY2007 5 10 34.7 292009 30 20 35 25FIGURE 7: TWANYA EAST PROJECT CHANGES IN SEGMENTATIONSalesSegmentation35302520151050EmploymentGender Wage Inquality20092007* Labor Market segmentation was calculated using the Duncan Index is | m-f | 21= DiiN =1i∑*100. Where I = (1,2, . . . , N) is the total number of sectors, industries, oroccupations and fi and mi are the sectoral employment ratios of men and women to their respective labor force. The Duncan Index of dissimilarity, ranging from 0 to 100, canbe used to measure labor market segmentation by sex. An index of 0 indicates that the sectors or occupations are not sex segregated, and women and men are distributedacross these sectors and occupations in proportion to their participation in the total labor force. An index of 100 indicates that men and women are in entirely different sectorsand occupations.PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 110


Measuring Women’s Value Chain OutcomesThe Twanya EAST project also decided to develop a diagram to measure its success in increasing women’sopportunities along the chain. Figure 9 measures six outcomes for women related to value chain development:✪✪ Percentage increase in women’s association membership✪✪ Percentage increase in women’s association leadership positions✪✪ Percentage of women’s attendance in project trainings✪✪ Women’s proportion of increased employment✪✪ Women’s proportion of increased salesThe diagram allows the project to visualize areas of success and identify opportunities for greater achievement.Table 9 includes the data that is plotted in the diagram.FIGURE 8: TWANYA EAST PROJECT GENDER INDICATORSWomen's ValueChain Outcomes604020020092007TABLE 9: TWANYA EAST PROJECT GENDER INDICATORSINDICATOR 2007 2009% Increase in women’s association membership 20 50% Increase women’s leadership positions 30 50% Women’s attendance in trainings 20 30% Women’s increased employment 10 30% Women’s increased sales 5 20% Women’s increased yields 15 30111


Curt Carnemark/The World BankProcessPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 112


Conclusion


IntroductionConclusionToday, women in developing countries are widelyrecognized as the face of farming, especially amongsmallholders. Research conducted over the past thirtyyears on gender issues in agriculture and natural resourcemanagement is being rediscovered. New research, onagricultural credit, land tenure security, managing risk,access to assets, and the agricultural policy environmentis increasingly focused on how gender roles and relationsaffect these issues.Thomas Sennett/The World BankThis is a critical moment. The world’s wealthiest countrieshave recommitted to raising support for agriculturalresearch and development to unprecedented levels.This is a moment of immense opportunity to use theseinvestments to transform developing country foodsystems. It is important that resources are not simplytargeted toward women who work on the farm and in thefields as laborers and small-scale farmers, but that creativeapproaches are adopted that work to remove genderbasedbarriers to accessing assets, to participation,in social beliefs, and in legislation throughout the valuechain. Gender-equitable opportunities can be enhancedin business development services, in processing,packaging, transport, exporting, and in financing. Thegoal of gender-equitable agricultural transformation canbe reached by providing needed resources, skills, andservices to both men and women so that everyone canfind increasingly better jobs and can start and maintainmore successful businesses that make the agriculturalsector more profitable and more productive.The INGIA-VC process is one pathway towards theseambitious goals. As laid out in this Handbook, theprocess uses a set of participatory and analytical tools to114


help development practitioners understand how genderroles and relations impact value chains and programoutcomes. Using gender-related information, it builds amap of gender roles and relationships along the valuechain. From there, key gender inequalities and genderbasedconstraints are identified, and possible actionsto remove the constraints and ways to measure thesuccess of those actions are considered.Because the world is a dynamic place, changes inproject activities may create new imbalances in thevalue chain, and new solutions will be needed. Thestep-by-step process laid out here aims to facilitatepractitioners’ ability to understand how current genderdifferences should be addressed in project design andthen to consider what impact the activities will have onthe status of women and men and the relative differencebetween them if the project is successful. It parallels theproject cycle and therefore can easily be integrated intodifferent moments of that cycle to enhance practitioners’ability to program for changes. The goal is always toboth reduce gender disparities and improve economicgrowth, finding the win-win solution.PHASE FIVE:MEASURING THESUCCESS OF ACTIONSPHASE FOUR:TAKING ACTIONSTO REMOVEGENDER-BASEDCONSTRAINTSPHASE ONE:MAPPING GENDERROLES AND RELATIONSALONG THE VALUE CHAININTEGRATINGGENDERISSUES INTOAGRICULTURALVALUE CHAINSPHASE THREE:ASSESSING THECONSEQUENCES OFGENDER-BASEDCONSTRAINTSPHASE TWO:MOVING FROMGENDERINEQUALITIES TOGENDER-BASEDCONSTRAINTSSEVEN STEPS TOWARDSGENDER-EQUITABLEAGRICULTURAL VALUECHAIN PROGRAMMING1.2.3.4.5.6.7.Understand men’s and women’s roles andrelations. Conduct gender assessments andgender analyses to collect accurate informationfor designing and operating value chainactivities. Make adjustments as conditionschange.Foster equitable participation. Project-sponsoredactivities should insist that men, women, andyouth are invited to participate.Address the special needs of women whereappropriate. Take into consideration women’sconstraints at home and in the workplace wherethey differ from those of men. Identify practicesthat may cause conflicts between work andhome, such as times or locations of meetings.Support creative benefits, such as flexible workhours, day care and health benefits, subsidizedtransport, literacy and numeracy classes.Support women’s economic advancement.Empower women as lead entrepreneurs. Theycan set an example for other women, contributeto upgrading, and lead the way toward systemicchange in agricultural value chains.Promote gender equitable market-drivensolutions. Addressing gender issues in valuechain development is “smart business.”Design equitable benefit-sharing mechanisms.Ensure that men and women are adequatelyrewarded for their contributions to the valuechain.Include men in defining the “problem” andthe solution. Include both men and women inidentifying the gender issues that constraintheir abilities to raise productivity and incomeand to expand their enterprises. Enlist menand women’s support in establishing equitableproducer association governance and definingequitable criteria for hiring, promotion, andcompensation within firms.115


A better quality oflife for womenand men and anoverall betterdevelopmentoutcomeWorld Bank StaffIncreasingwomen's accesto education,health care,and humanrightsShehzad Noorani/The World BankIntroductionConclusionCurt Carnemark/The World BankEnhancedchild healthimproved food production,lower population, growthrates, higher incomesPROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS 116


ENDNOTES1. Elson, “Labor Markets;” Acker, “Hierarchies,Jobs, and Bodies.”2. World Bank, FAO, and IFAD, Gender inAgriculture.3. World Bank, “Engendering Development.”4. Cagatay, Trade, Gender and Trade; Blackdenand Bhanu “Gender, Growth and Poverty”;Elson and Evers, “Gender Aware”; Evers andWalters, “Extra Household Factors”; Tran-Nguyen, “Economics of Gender Equality.”5. Marston with Nichols Barrett, “Women in theEconomy.”6. Katungi et al., “Gender, Social Capital andInformation.”7. Ibid.8. Hausmann et al., “The Global Gender Gap.”9. Birdsall et al., “Inequality and Growth”;Deininger and Squire, “New Ways.”10. IFC, “Voices of Women Entrepreneurs BosniaHerzegovina.”11. Ibid.12. Ellis et al., Gender and Economic Growth inTanzania.13. Staudt, “Women Farmers.”14. Collier et al. Labour and Poverty.15. Adams, “The Rural Labour Market”; Piesseand Thirtle, “Does Non-Farm Income ReduceRural Poverty.”16. See note 14 above.17. Beintema, “Participation of FemaleAgricultural Scientists.”18. Ibid.19. Klasen, “Does Gender Inequality ReduceGrowth.”20. Gorman et al., “Gender and Development.”21. IFC, “Voices of Vietnamese Entrepreneurs.”22. Interview, April 2008.23. Dolan and Sorby, “Gender and Employment.”24. Ibid, 12.25. El Messiri, “The Feminization of StrawberryProduction.”26. Ellis et al., Gender and Economic Growth inKenya.27. Jacoby et al., “Hazards of Expropriation”;Besley, “Property Rights.”28. ECA, “Land Tenure Systems.”29. Ellis et al., Gender and Economic Growth inUganda.30. Keitel and Ledesma “Night WorkProhibition.”31. ICRW, “Property Ownership.”32. Lastarria-Cornhiel et al., “Gender and LandRights.”33. InterAcademy Council, “Realizing thePromise.”34. Prabhu, “Marketing Treadle Pumps.”35. Kay and Braden, “Treadle Pumps.”36. Van Crowder et al. “Training for Agriculturaland Rural Development.”37. Lilja et al. “Scaling Up and Out.”38. MicroLinks Wiki, “Horizontal Linkages.”39. Altenburg, “Donor Approaches”; Bolwig, etal., “Integrating Poverty.”40. Chemonics, “Moving from Subsistence toCommercial Farming”; ECA, “EconomicReport.”41. Key and Runsten, “Contract Farming.”42. Chemonics, “Guinea Agricultural MarketLinkages Activity.”43. USAID, “Notes from the Field.”44. INGIA-VC, Interviews in Kenya, September2008.45. INGIA-VC Interviews in Kenya, September2008; INGIA-VC Interviews in Tanzania, April2009.117


46. Gladwin, “Gendered Impacts.”47. Interview from Albania, April 2008; Interviewfrom Kenya, September 2008; Interviewfrom Cambodia, March 2009; Sebstad andKrivoshlykova, “Zambia PROFIT ImpactAssessment.”48. See note 6 above.49. Sebstad and Kirvoshlykova, “Zambia PROFITImpact Assessment.”50. MicroLinks Wiki, “Business EnablingEnvironment.”51. Iris Center, “Industry Growth.”52. Kleinberg and Campbell, “Business EnablingEnvironment.”53. ACEG, “Growth and Transformation.”54. See note 29 above.55. See Note 2 above.56. See Note 29 above.57. Bannock Consulting Ltd., “Reforming theBusiness Enabling Environment.”58. IFC, “Women’s Networks.”59. Oxfam, Trading Away Our Rights.60. See note 2 above.61. See note 23 above.62. Lastarria-Cornheil, “Feminization ofAgriculture”; Whitehead, “The GenderedImpacts.”63. See note 23 above.64. IFC, “Women Entrepreneurs.”65. Baden, “Gender Issues.”66. Pujo, “Toward a Methodology.”67. See note 64 above.68. Niethammer, “Promoting Women asExporters.”69. Interviews in Cambodia, March 2009;IFC, “Voices of Cambodian WomenEntrepreneurs.”70. See note 26 above.71. See note 58 above.72. See note 10 above.73. Ghana Association of Women Entrepreneurs,http://www.ghanawomenentrepreneurs.org.74. See note 25 above; El Messiri, “WomenLaborers.”75. Adapted from McVay and Snelgrove, “MEDAProgram Design for Value Chain Initiatives.”76. Seguino, “Gender Inequality.”77. See note 49 above.78. Gender Assessment Interviews in Kenya,October 2006.118


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GLOSSARY OF TERMSAgricultureThe science and practice of activity related to food,feed, and fiber production, processing, marketing,distribution, utilization, and trade and includes familyand consumer sciences, nutrition, food science andengineering, agricultural economics and other socialsciences, forestry, wildlife, fisheries, aquaculture,floriculture, veterinary medicine, and other environmentaland natural resources sciences.Commodity chainOften used synonymously with value chain (seebelow).CompetitivenessThe capacity of an enterprise to establish and maintainan advantage in the market over its competitors,by achieving greater efficiencies in production andmarketing, often through improved quality, differentiatedproducts, and/or new markets.DownstreamDownstream in a value chain refers to the actors andoperators toward the end consumption of the valuechain product, i.e., the final market or consumer.Duncan IndexA method of measuring segmentation. The DuncanIndex is calculated using the following formula:| m-f | 21= DiiN =1i∑ *100EfficiencyThere are two concepts of efficiency: Technologicalefficiency occurs when it is not possible to increaseoutput without increasing inputs. Economic efficiencyoccurs when the cost of producing a given output isas low as possible. An economically efficient situationis one in which any additional reallocation of resourceswould not achieve any greater welfare, also termed“allocative efficiency.”EmpowermentThe ability of people to define and achieve their lifegoals using all of the resources (material, human, andsocial) available to them.GenderThe social category usually associated with being aman or a woman. It encompasses economic, social,political, and cultural attributes and opportunities aswell as roles and responsibilities. Gender is defineddifferently around the world and those definitionschange over time.In some countries, additional gender categories beyondman and woman are used. The category of “transgender”has emerged in popular and development discourse asan umbrella term for people who encompass socialroles relating to both men and women, e.g., the hijra ofIndia, the berdash among some Native American tribes,and the xanith of Oman.Gender accommodatingProjects that acknowledge inequities in gender relationsand seek to develop actions that adjust to and oftencompensate for gender differences and inequitieswithout addressing the underlying structures thatperpetuate gender inequalities. While this approachconsiders the different roles and identities of women andmen in the design of programs, it does not deliberatelychallenge unequal relations of power. In the processof achieving desired development objects, projectsfollowing this approach may miss opportunities forimproving gender equality.Gender analysisGender analysis is a methodology that both:✪✪ describes existing gender relations in a particularenvironment, ranging from within households orfirms to a larger scale of community, ethnic group,or nation, and✪✪ organizes and interprets, in a systematic way,information about gender relations to make clearthe importance of gender differences for achievingdevelopment objectives.Gender analysis involves collecting and analyzing sexdisaggregateddata and other qualitative and quantitativeinformation on gender issues, including access to andcontrol over assets (tangible and intangible), as well asbeliefs, practices, and legal frameworks.123


Gender assessmentA term often used synonymously with gender analysis(see above) when it involves carrying out a genderanalysis on one or more specific topic or in studyingand summarizing existing gender relations (see below)in a location (community, sub-region, or nation) for thepurposes of program design. In USAID, it is also usedto describe the process of reviewing the institutionalcapabilities of an organization to identify the need forand carry out gender analyses within its programs,and the organization’s ability to monitor gender issuesthroughout the program cycle.Gender-based constraintRestrictions on men’s or women’s access to resourcesor opportunities that are based on their gender rolesor responsibilities. The term encompasses both themeasurable inequalities that are revealed by sexdisaggregateddata collection and gender analysisas well as the processes that contribute to a specificcondition of gender inequality (see below).Gender-disaggregated dataThe results of a gender analysis of sex-disaggregateddata to explain differences and determine the effect ofactivities on gender relations.Gender disparityMeasurable differences in the relative conditions betweenmen and women, especially (but not only) as they relate tothe ability to engage in economic or political opportunities,e.g., illiteracy rates, levels of land ownership, or access tofinance (see also gender inequality).Gender equityEquity involves fairness in representation, participation,and benefits afforded to men and women. USAID refersto equity strategies as the processes used to achievegender equality. The goal is that both women and manhave a fair chance of having their needs met and eachhas equal access to opportunities for realizing their fullpotential as human beings.Gender equalityThe ability of men and women to have equal opportunitiesand life chances. Since gender roles (see above) changeover time, development programming can have an impacton gender equality, either supporting it or inhibiting it.Gender exploitativeProjects that intentionally manipulate or misuseknowledge of existing gender inequalities andstereotypes in pursuit of economic outcomes. Theapproach reinforces unequal power in the relationsbetween women and men and potentially deepensexisting inequalities.Gender inequalitySee gender disparity, above.Gender integrationA process that involves identifying and then addressinggender differences and inequalities during programand project design, implementation, monitoring, andevaluation. Since the roles and relations of powerbetween men and women affect how an activity iscarried out, attending to these issues on an ongoingbasis is essential.Gender mainstreamingThe process of assessing the implications for womenand men of any planned action, including legislation,policies, or programs in any area and at all levels. Itrefers to strategies for making women's as well as men'sconcerns and experiences an integral dimension in thedesign, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation ofpolicies and programs in all political, economic, andsocial spheres such that inequality between men andwomen is not perpetuated.Gender relationsOne type of social relations between men and womenwhich are constructed and reinforced by socialinstitutions. They include the routine ways in which menand women interact with each other in social institutions:in sexual relationships, friendships, workplaces, anddifferent sectors of the economy. Gender relations aresocially determined, culturally based, and historicallyspecific. They are mediated by other identities includingethnicity, class, and age. Gender relations are shapedand reinforced by cultural, political, and economicinstitutions including the household, legal andgovernance structures, markets, and religion. Genderrelations are dynamic and change over time.124


Gender rolesGender roles are the behaviors, tasks, and responsibilitiesthat are considered appropriate for women and men asa result of sociocultural norms and beliefs. Gender rolesare usually learned in childhood. Gender roles changeover time, through individual choices or as a result ofsocial and/or political changes emerging from changedopportunities (more education, different economicenvironment) or times of social upheaval (duringdisasters, in war, and in post-conflict situations).Gender-sensitive indicatorGender-sensitive indicators reveal gender-relatedchanges over time. They point to changes in the statusand roles of women and men and the extent to whichgender equity is being achieved.Gender transformativeAn approach that explicitly engages both women andmen to examine, question, and change those institutionsand norms that reinforce gender inequalities and,through that process, achieve both economic growthand gender equality objectives.Gendered economyThe idea that economic systems express or reflectthe consequences of gender relations in the socialorganization of economic institutions and activitiesfrom the household to the firm to the distribution ofresources by the state.Gendered value chain analysisAn analysis that explores the different positions andcontributions of men and women along the value chain.As used in this handbook, it not only investigates theeconomic, organization, and asymmetric relationship[s]among actors located along different points of theindustry, but also studies the relationships betweenmen and women in households and communities toidentify the relationships between these levels of socialorganization and the operation and development of theenterprises in the value chain.Input-Output matrix or modelA representation of an economy or region’s economyused to predict the changes in one industry on others.Each column of the input-output matrix reports themonetary value of an industry's inputs and each rowrepresents the value of an industry's outputs relatingthe output of one industry to the input of another.Intrahousehold dynamics ORIntrahousehold resource allocationThe decision-making processes within households thatshape the practices and outcomes of asset allocation,including both tangible and intangible assets.Market chainSometimes used synonymously with “value chain” (seebelow)SexBiological characteristics that distinguish males andfemales. Intersex is a term to describe people whohave sexual characteristics related to both males andfemales.Sex-disaggregated dataThe collection of data by physical attributes of theindividual. Disaggregating data by sex (i.e., in categoriesof males and females) permits valid cross-countrycomparisons.Sub-sectorSometimes used synonymously with “value chain” (seebelow).Supply chainSometimes used synonymously with “value chain” (seebelow)UpgradingUpgrading refers to a number of different activitiesthat result in bringing greater value to the actors at aparticular point in the value chain, including moving toa new chain, changing the mix of activities performed,increasing the efficiency of internal processes, and/orintroducing new products or improving old products.The consequence of successful upgrading is makingthe firm or the chain more competitive (see above).125


UpstreamUpstream in a value chain refers to the actors andoperators in early stages of the production of a valuechain product, i.e., the origin of the value chain.Value chainA value chain describes the full sequence of activities(functions) required to bring a product or service fromconception, through the intermediary of production,transformation, marketing, and delivery to finalconsumers. A value chain can also include the finaldisposal after use (see also commodity chain, globalsupply chain, market chain, sub-sector, supply chain).Value chain actorThis term summarizes all individuals, enterprises andpublic agencies related to a value chain, in particularthe value chain operators, providers of operationalservices and the providers of support services.Value chain analysisTypically, an economic or institutional analysis thatlooks at the significance of how the revenues generatedby gross consumer spending are translated into therelative net revenues distributed along the chainfrom production through processing to sale. But see“gendered value chain analysis” above.Value chain operatorThe enterprises performing the basic functions of thevalue chain are the value chain operators (see alsovalue chain actors).126


Annex 1: ADDITIONALRESOURCES ONGENDER AND VALUECHAINSDONOR AGENCIES: TOOLS ANDSOURCEBOOKS ON GENDERAND VALUE CHAINSAgriPro Focus Learning Group: Gender in Value Chains.http://genderinvaluechains.ning.com/IFAD. “A Sourcebook: The Start of an In-Country Process,Gender and Poverty Targeting in Market LinkageOperations.” Gender Strengthening Programme forEastern and Southern Africa Division. Rome: IFAD,2002. Available at http://www.ifad.org/gender/tools/gender/Sourcebook.pdfMayoux, Linda and Grania Mackie. “Making the StrongestLinks: A Practical Guide to Mainstreaming GenderAnalysis in Value Chain Development.” Geneva:ILO, 2007.Riisgard, Lone, Simon Bolwig, Frank Matose, StefanoPonte, Andries du Toit, and Niels Halberg. “A StrategicFramework and Toolbox for Action Research withSmall Producers In Value Chains.” DIIS WorkingPaper no 2008/17. Copenhagen: Danish Institutefor International Studies, 2008. Available at http://www.diis.dk/graphics/Publications/WP2008/WP08-17_Strategic_Framework_and_Toolbox_for_Action_Research_with_Small_Producers_in_Value-Chains.pdfWorld Bank, IFAD, and FAO. Gender in AgricultureSourcebook. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank,2009.USAID. MicroLINKS: Value Chain Development Wiki.Available at http://apps.develebridge.net/amap/index.php/Value_Chain_DevelopmentVan den Berg, Michael et al. "Making Value Chains WorkBetter for the Poor: A Tool book for Practitionersof Value Chain Analysis." Making Markets WorkBetter for the Poor (M4P). Hanoi, Vietnam: AsianDevelopment Bank, 2007. Available at http://www.markets4poor.VALUE CHAINS AND GENDERINTEGRATION IN VALUECHAINS: CONCEPTS ANDTHEORYAtcha, Shehnaz, Elizabeth Dunn, David Blood, BanuAkin, Phillip Church, and Shand Evans. “Analysisof the Integration of MSEs in Value Chains:Tanzania Research Protocol.” microReportno. 72. USAID Accelerated MicroenterpriseAdvancement Project Business DevelopmentServices Knowledge and Practice Task Order.Washington, DC: The Louis Berger Group, July2006. Available at http://www.microlinks.org/ev_en.php?ID=14538_201&ID2=DO_TOPICBarrientos, Stephanie. "Gender, Flexibility and GlobalValue Chains." IDS Bulletin 32 (2001): 83-93.———, Catherine Dolan, and Anne Tallontire. “A GenderedValue Chain Approach to Codes of Conduct inAfrican Horticulture” World Development 31(2003):1511-1526.Bernet, Thomas, Graham Thiele, and Thomas Zschocke."Participatory Market Chain Approach (PMCA)."Lima, Peru: International Potato Center (CIP) – PapaAndina, 2006. Available at http://www.cipotato.org/publications/pdf/003296.pdfBolwig, Simon et al. “Integrating Poverty, Gender andEnvironmental Concerns into Value Chain Analysis:A Conceptual Framework and Lessons for ActionResearch.” DIIS Working Paper 2008/16. DanishInstitute for International Studies, 2008.Campbell, Ruth. “The Value Chain FrameworkBriefing Paper.” Washington, DC: USAID, 2008.Available at http://www.microlinks.org/ev_en.php?ID=21629_201&ID2=DO_TOPIC127


Dolan, Catherine and Kristina Sorby. “Gender andEmployment in High-Value Agriculture Industries.”Agriculture and Rural Development Working Paper7. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2003.Gereffi, Gary. "Beyond the Producer-driven, Buyer-drivenDichotomy: The Evolution of Global Value Chainsin the Internet Era." IDS Bulletin 32(2001): 30-40.Available at http://www.soc.duke.edu/~ggere/web/gereffi_ids_bulletin.pdfHerr, M. “An operational guide to Local Value ChainDevelopment.” Geneva: ILO, 2007. Availableat http://www.entergrowth.com/download.php?type=projects&id=27Humphrey, John. “Shaping Value Chains for Development:Global Value Chains in Agribusiness” Eschborn:GTZ, 2005. Available at http://www.mtti.go.ug/docs/Humphrey%202005%20Shaping%20Value%20chains%20for%20development.pdfKanji, Nazneed, James MacGregor and Cecilia Tacoli.“Understanding Market-Based Livelihoods in aGlobalising World: Combining Approaches andMethods.” London: International Institute forEnvironment and Development, 2005. Availableat http://www.iied.org/SM/markets/documents/MethodsMarketBasedLivelihoods.pdfKIT, Faida MaLi, and IIRR. Chain Empowerment: SupportingAfrican Farmers to Develop Markets. Royal TropicalInstitute, Amsterdam; Faida Market Link, Arusha;International Institute of Reconstruction, Nairobi,2006. Available at http://smartsite.kit.nl/smartsite.shtml?id=SINGLEPUBLICATION&ItemID=1952&ch=FABMayoux, Linda. “Trickle-Down, Trickle-Up Or Puddle?Participatory Value Chains Analysis For Pro-PoorEnterprise Development” 2003. Available at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/pdf/ValueChainsAnalysis.pdfSpringer-Heinze A. 2007 GTZ – ValueLinks Manual, Themethodology of Value Chain Promotion. Availableat http://www2.gtz.de/publikationen/isissearch/publikationen/details.aspx?RecID=BIB-GTZ070900USAID. MicroLINKS: Microenterprise Learning,Information, and Knowledge Sharing. http://www.microlinks.org/ev_en.phpVan den Berg, Michael et al. "Making Value Chains WorkBetter for the Poor: A Tool book for Practitionersof Value Chain Analysis." Making Markets WorkBetter for the Poor (M4P). Hanoi, Vietnam: AsianDevelopment Bank, 2007. Available at http://www.markets4poor.Kaplinsky, Raphael and Mike Morris. “A Handbook forValue Chain Research.” London: InternationalDevelopment Research, 2000. Available at http://www.ids.ac.uk/UserFiles/File/globalisation_team/ValuechainHBRKMMNov2001.pdfKeane, Jodie. “A New Approach to Global Value ChainAnalysis.” Working Paper No. 293. London: OverseasDevelopment Institute, 2009. Available at http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/odi-publications/workingpapers/293-global-value-chain-analysis.pdf128


CASE STUDIES OF GENDERISSUES IN SPECIFIC VALUE-CHAINSDolan, Catherine, M. Opondo, and S. Smith. "Gender,Rights & Participation in the Kenya Cut FlowerIndustry." Natural Resources Institute ReportNo. 2768. Kent, UK: Natural Resources Institute,2004. Available at http://www.nri.org/NRET/kenyareportfinal2.pdf——— and Kirsty Sutherland. "Gender and Employmentin the Kenya Horticulture Value Chain." DFID-fundedGlobalization and Poverty Research Programme,Discussion Paper 8. Norwich, UK: University of EastAnglia, 2006. Available at http://www.gapresearch.org/production/FinalDraft.pdfEdwards, Rita. “The Position of Women Workers in Wine &Deciduous Fruit Value Chains [South Africa].” Womenon Farms Project. SANPERI Development Consultants,2008. Available at http://www.wfp.org.za/pdf/women_in_the_global_value_chain_final_28apr08.pdfHamilton, Sarah, Linda Asturias de Barrios, andBrenda Tevalan. “Gender and AgriculturalCommercialization in Ecuador and Guatemala.”Blacksburg, VA: IPM CRSP, Virginia TechUniversity, 2001. Available at http://www.oired.vt.edu/ipmcrsp/communications/papers/GuWPaperSHamiletal090301.PDFShillington, Laura J. “Non-timber Forest Products,Gender, and Households in Nicaragua: ACommodity Chain Analysis.” M.Sc. degree,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,2002. Available at http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-06122002-164349/Tallontire, Anne, Catherine Dolan, Sally Smith, and StephanieBarrientos. "Reaching the Marginalised? Gender,Value Chains and Ethical Trade in African Horticulture."Development in Practice 15 (2005): 559-571Tallontire, Anne, Sally Smith, and Chosani Njobvu. “EthicalTrade in African Horticulture: Gender, Rights, andParticipation. Final Report on Zambia Study. NRIReport No. 2775. Kent, UK: Natural ResourcesInstitute, 2004.129


ANNEX 2: ILLUSTRATIVE SCOPE OF WORK FORCONDUCTING A GENDER AND AGRICULTURALVALUE CHAIN ASSESSMENTThe scope of work (SOW) detailed below provides general guidance on the activities and level of effort requiredto undertake an assessment using the INGIA-VC approach. The exact level of effort required will depend on thenumber of commodities to be analyzed and the geographic scope of the work.OBJECTIVEThe objective of this gender assessment is to identify gender issues that should be addressed in value chaindevelopment for a particular commodity/ies.METHODOLOGYThe assessment will use the Integrating Gender Issues into Agricultural Value Chains (INGIA-VC) process, includingthe following methods of data collection and analysis to achieve the aforementioned objective:✪✪ Collect information on gender roles and relations along a specific agricultural value chain, using both:✪✪ a quantitative analysis based on existing project baseline surveys, monitoring and evaluation systems, household,firm, and labor force data to derive a complete picture of the level of men’s and women’s participation in the sectorand/or project and,✪✪ qualitative methods including structured interviews with actors at each level of the chain with both men and women.Mixed-group interviews and same-sex interviews may be necessary and appropriate, particularly with producerassociations.✪✪ Identify gender-based constraints that have the potential to reduce value chain competitiveness, women’seconomic advancement, and the ability of the project to achieve its goals;✪✪ Recommend appropriate actions to remove gender-based constraints; and,✪✪ Design indicators to measure the success of actions.DELIVERABLESThe expected outputs will include the following three components, either as one or more written deliverables:✪✪ Literature review of available data on gender issues related to the commodity, region, or country in which theassessment is conducted;✪✪ A sex-disaggregated quantitative and institutional map of the value chain;✪✪ Report reviewing the quantitative and qualitative analyses, with an explanation of the gender-based constraintsidentified and the recommendations of suggested actions and indicators.130


LEVEL OF EFFORTThe exact level of effort required to employ the INGIA-VC process will depend on the number of commoditiesconsidered in the assessment, the number of regions, travel time, and other variables, all of which can extend thetime necessary for completing the data collection and analysis process.Table 1 provides a guideline for estimating the level of effort required for the INGIA-VC approach.TABLE 1. GUIDELINES FOR DETERMINING LEVEL OF EFFORT REQUIRED FOR A SINGLE VALUE CHAINTASKBackground readingInterviewsNUMBER OF DAYS3-5 days3-4 days per region in-country (assuming roughly 4 interviews a day) forthe field visits with value chain actors (farmers, processors, transporters,exporters)1-2 days per region per value chain for interviews with project staff andother donors and NGOsDebriefWriting of the assessment and recommendations1 days5 daysNOTE: These estimates do not include travel time and assume only one commodity is being assessed.131


Annex 3: ADDRESSING GENDER ISSUES INGLOBAL VALUE CHAIN DEVELOPMENTGender issues are overlooked in most value chains, though they fundamentally shape the totality of production,distribution, and consumption within an economy. From production to processing, gendered patterns of behaviorcondition the jobs and tasks of men and women, the distribution of resources and benefits derived from incomegeneratingactivities in the chain, and the efficiency and competitiveness of value chains in the global market. Agrowing body of economic and empirical evidence suggests that addressing gender issues in value chains canimprove programs’ efforts to achieve both greater gender equity and more effective value chain operations:✪✪ Increasing women’s employment can reduce poverty through intergenerational transmissions of wealth. Womenplay key roles in human development and the creation of human capital. When women control cash earnings,households spend more on human development inputs such as food and education. In Bangladesh, one studyshowed that for every 100 taka lent to a woman, household consumption increases by 18 taka, as opposed toan 11-taka increase in consumption for every 100 taka lent to men.✪✪ Addressing gender-based constraints in employment and productivity can increase competitiveness. Whenmore than half of a country’s potential labor force is not used efficiently, competitiveness with other countries isnegatively affected. In Thailand, Cargill Sun Valley implemented family-friendly, gender-sensitive policies targetedto its largely woman-dominated work force resulting in reduced absenteeism and labor turnover, and improvedproductivity. Evidence from Kenya and elsewhere suggests that women and men can be equally productivewhen given equal access to inputs, training, and other factors of production.✪✪ Increasing women’s employment increases economic growth. A correlation exists between gender equalityand economic growth in cross-country comparisons and in comparisons done over time. Studies in 61countries found a positive correlation between growth and women’s labor force participation between 1980and 1990.Thus, gender differences are at work in the “full range” of activities that comprise a value chain. A gender approachto value chain analysis and development allows for the consideration of groups and individual men and women’saccess to productive activities; differential opportunities for upgrading within the chain; gender-based division ofactivities; and, how gender power relations impact economic rents among actors throughout the chain.The GATE project developed a two-pronged approach to addressing gender issues in value chain development.The first is a methodology for conducting a gender and pro-poor economic analysis of value chains. The secondmethodology provides program implementers with a framework and tools for considering how gender issues caninform the design, implementation and monitoring of USAID value chain programs.A GENDER AND PRO-POOR VALUE CHAIN ANALYSISMETHODOLOGYGATE has developed a gender-oriented value chain analysis to explore opportunities to improve market outcomes,raise productivity and wages, and to foster pro-poor growth in the sector being analyzed. Value chain analysesrecognize that various configurations of actors may influence capabilities and possess different levels of bargainingpower. GATE’s analysis focuses on the institutional arrangements that link producers, processors, marketers, anddistributors, and recognizes that power differentials among these actors may influence outcomes along the chain.Recognizing that men and women occupy different positions across the chain, GATE integrates a gender andpro-poor analysis that aims to uncover the economic, organizational, and asymmetric relationships among actors132


throughout the chain. The analysis includes the following components:✪✪ Distributional analysis: explores the value added generated along the chain and examines the returns to laborand capital and to the different actors that participate in the chain.✪✪ Segmentation analysis: assesses how the labor market is segmented by sex throughout the value chain;✪✪ Analysis of power and governance within the chain: investigates power within production and exchangerelationships across the value chain, including the power to set market prices and bargain as well asindebtedness and sub-optimal contracting; and,✪✪ Entitlements and capabilities analysis: considers factors and characteristics that mediate men’s and women’sentitlements to productive resources, and their capabilities to deploy these resources. Where possible, GATEalso examines the poverty rates and livelihood strategies of different actors in the chain.Using this methodology, GATE conducted gender value chains analyses for USAID missions in Bangladesh onshrimp and in Peru on artichokes, exploring how value is added along the chain. GATE has also applied a genderorientedvalue chain perspective in its work on sustainable conservation-oriented enterprises (SCOE) in Kenya andon cowpeas in Nigeria.GATE’S VALUE CHAIN IMPLEMENTATION METHODOLOGYValue chain development practitioners must also consider the implications of gender roles and responsibilities inprogrammatic activities and strategies. Value chain programs are commonly designed and implemented withouttaking into consideration gender roles and relations. Even if sympathetic to gender issues, practitioners often lackthe skills to grapple with the challenges involved in identifying and addressing gender issues. Moreover, the currentliterature on gender and value chains fails to provide an adequate guide on how to translate theory into programimplementation and design.In response, GATE designed a participatory methodology for value chain and gender practitioners to enhance theirunderstanding of how gender issues impact value chain and program outcomes. Influenced by some of the leadingUSAID programs on value chain development, the GATE approach considers how gender roles constrain or supportthe ability of these programs to achieve their goals. At the same, it identifies additional gender-based constraintsGENDERED PATTERNS OF RESOURCE DISTRIBUTION AFFECT SUPPLY EFFICIENCYLocated in Eldoret, Kenya Mace Foods coordinates the supply of African Bird’s Eye (ABE) chili for sale in Europeanmarkets. Smallholder farms provide Mace Foods with the raw material. Women cultivate the chilies in small gardens,while men deliver the crop to the processing plant and collect payment. Shortly after the purchase of the first crop,a decrease in the supply of ABE led Mace Foods to inquire about the on-farm production methods to assess anyconstraints. It discovered that married women farmers had abandoned chili production because they were not receivingreturns for their labor; spouses were often retaining the proceeds and using them for personal expenses. Genderedpatterns of household labor and resource distribution jeopardized Mace Foods’ ability to meet the buyer’s demand.To increase incentives for women to produce chili, Mace Foods, with the USAID Kenya Horticulture DevelopmentProgram, designed a payment system including both cash and non-cash rewards. Mace Foods distributed a poundof sugar, a desirable household commodity, along with the cash payments.Source: KHDP and MACE Food interviews, September 2008133


not usually captured in traditional market analyses. Through classroom and field exercises, the methodology leadsparticipants through a process in which they learn to ask specific questions about gender roles and relations to valuechain actors at different nodes of the chain; analyze gender-related data; and identify gender-based constraints thathave an impact on productivity, market linkages, and value chain efficiency and competitiveness.GATE piloted the methodology in September 2008 with three USAID/Kenya-funded agriculture programs involved inthe maize, dairy and horticulture sectors. The activity was repeated with two USAID/Tanzania programs in 2009.DELIVERABLESA suite of resources are being developed to provide development practitioners with an understanding of and thetools for addressing gender issues in value chain development programs. These will be available in the spring of2009 and include:✪ ✪ A Handbook for Practitioners to Support Gender-Sensitive Value Chain Development presents an approachand process for addressing gender issues in the design, implementation, and monitoring of value chaindevelopment programs.✪ ✪ Training Materials on Gender and Value Chain Development provides the presentations, exercises andresources used in the pilot trainings in Kenya and Tanzania.✪ ✪ A Methodology on Gender and Pro-Poor Value Chain Analysis outlines a process for conducting an economicanalysis of gender in value chains.✪✪ A Pro-Poor and Gender Analysis of the Shrimp Sector in Bangladesh and of the Artichoke Sector in Peru.ABOUT THE GREATER ACCESS TO TRADE EXPANSION (GATE)PROJECTThe GATE Project is a five-year (September 2004-September 2009) USAID Task Order (TO), funded by the Officeof Women in Development (WID) implemented by dTS. GATE works with seven USAID Missions to better integrategender considerations into economic growth and trade-related programs in order to help expand areas of opportunityand mitigate the adverse effects of economic and trade expansion for poor women and men. All documents andmore information on other gender and trade-related research are available for download on the USAID Women inDevelopment website at http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/cross-cutting_programs/wid/. “Addressing Gender Issuesin Global Value Chain Development” is being implemented with technical support from Cultural Practice, LLC.134


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Curt Carnemark/The World BankU.S. Agency for International Development1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NWWashington, DC 20523Tel: (202) 712-0000 | Fax: (202) 216-3524www.usaid.gov


PROMOTING GENDER EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS

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