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INTERMEDIATE – ADVANCEDEXAM ESSAYSincluding IELTS, TOEFL and Cambridgetext2 writeROBERT LEWISM.A. LINGUISTICS


how to use this book for self studyFor self-study, you should work through the book, from page one to the end, checkingyour answers as you complete each of the exercises. Begin by reading the Introductionand learn about the essay form, the key stages and the language features of the essaythat are important for this form of persuasive communication.What is the best way to study?First, find a quiet and comfortable place where you can work. You should feel goodworking there. Do a minimum of 40 minutes each day. Try to make a regular time forstudy, so that it becomes routine - the same time and place every day.You will need a dictionary to check the meaning of newvocabulary. At this level (advanced) you should use anAdvanced Learners dictionary of English - rather than abilingual dictionary. Whenever you find common or familiarexpressions that you don’t know, learn these words first.They are the “building blocks” for the more difficultvocabulary you will learn later. Develop your vocabulary,step by step. The best way to learn new words is toguess their meaning from the context, check the meaningin a dictionary, and practice using them in your writing.The topics in this book are general topics selected tohelp develop your academic vocabulary. You should alsoread widely and become familiar with other topics andissues. It is a good idea to read about topics that areless familiar to you, but still relevant for a general Englishtest, like the IELTS.By completing allthe exercises in thisbook, you are takingpositive stepstowards achievingyour goals.Remember - everypage completed is agiant step towardachieving success inessay writing.What else can I do?Find a friend who will practice speaking English with you and discuss together thetopics and issues that you read about in this book Of course, an English teacher willbe helpful when you need to have your essays corrected and get advice about anyerrors you might be making in your writing.At the end of each chapter there is a checklist of things to look for in your writing.Check that you have done all these things, and, if you need to, make changes andcorrections. Finally, it is advisable to attempt the sample essay questions provided atthe end of each chapter. By completing all the exercises in this book, you are takingpositive steps towards achieving your goals. Remember - every page completed is agiant step toward achieving success in essay writing.


terms & abbreviations/ - alternative eg. x/y =. (x) OR (y)claim- to say without proof/evidence something is truecontext- situation and circumstancesdiff.- differentdiscuss- (1) talk about, (2) consider two or more sideseg.– exampleessay- type of persuasive/written textetc.– etcetera : and so onexposition- factual writing eg. explanation, argument, etc.exam- examinationformal language– impersonal language used in formal situationsgaps– spaces where words are missinggenre- type of text. eg. recount, narrative, expositioni.e.– that isIELTS- International English Language Testing Systemintro- introductionL- leftmatch- put together, linkno.- numberpractice- purposeful activityproposition- a statement or claim that may be truep/w- per weekQ. - question or essay questionR- rightre./ref.- reference to / concerning / aboutrecommendation- final suggestion, advicerecount- retelling of past events, story about peoplestructure- form, organization into stages or stepsstrategy– a way of doing s.t., a method or techniques.o.- some ones.t.- some thingtext- a written passage, sometimes transcribed spokenvia- throughviz.- such as2 www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis


contentsI N T R O D U C T I O N T h e E s s a y 4TOPIC 1 : LANGUAGE LEARNING 7Reading & Vocabulary 8Grammar : Be Logical 12Writing practice 16Review, checklist, sample questions 23TOPIC 2 : WORK AND LEISURE 25Reading & Vocabulary 31Grammar : Be Authoritative 30Writing practice 34Review, checklist, sample questions 39TOPIC 3 : THE ENVIRONMENT 41Reading & Vocabulary 42Grammar : Reason 46Writing practice 49Review, checklist, sample questions 56TOPIC 4 : TV & COMPUTER GAMES 57Reading & Vocabulary 58Grammar : Be Cohesive 62Writing practice 66Review, checklist, sample questions 75TOPIC 5 : SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 77Reading & Vocabulary 78Grammar : Sound Reasonable 82Writing practice 84Review, checklist, sample questions 91A N S W E R S 93www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis 3


introductionWhat is an essay?The essay is a form of academic writing widely used in secondary and higher education. Thegeneral purpose of the essay is to demonstrate the importance of a given subject or issue, andpersuade an educated reader to consider the writer’s point of view on the issue.What is an exam essay? What do they examine?Exam essays, like the IELTS Task 2, test a student’s ability to think analytically, presentpersuasive arguments and thus communicate effectively in an academic context. In other words,the writer should show that they can :- answer the question, which requires the careful analysis of the question,- present and develop logical and reasonable arguments, and- communicate clearly, using appropriate language (vocabulary and grammar).What are the key stages of an essay?It is important to remember that the exam essay is a response to a given question, so it shouldanswer the question clearly and decisively. To this end, the writer makes their position clearfrom the start, and then presents a sequence of arguments in support of their position, beforefinally restating their position. These are the three key stages of any essay.KEY STAGESINTRODUCTIONPositionThe writer states their position or opinion,in response to the question/s.BODYSequence ofArgumentsA sequence of arguments is given tosupport the writer’s position.Each argument is a claim supported withreasons, facts and examples.CONCLUSIONRestatementThe writer re-states their position toconclude.The staging of the essay is (in itself) a persuasive device. Statement and repeated restatementreinforce the writer’s position. Depending on the number, strength and logical development ofarguments, any given essay will be more or less persuasive – and more or less successful.Most essays include a few optional stages, such as a ‘lead-in’ (which introduces the topic byproviding some very general background information/ideas), and the ‘preview’ stage (whichpreviews the arguments that will follow). A recommendation is optional, depending on the essay4 www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis


question. Though many essays will differ, in terms of optional staging, all essays display thesame key stages as above. The sample essay below illustrates a more complex staging of theessay genre.This essay (below) is a good example because it has a clear position statement, previews thearguments that follow, and proceeds to develop argumentation logically and coherently. Therecommendation stage follows logically from the essay question, as the writer is required todiscuss solutions to the problem of gambling.Q. What are the causes, effects and possible solutions to the problem of gambling?STAGING sample essayGAMBLINGLead-inPOSITIONPreviewSequence ofARGUMENTS1.Many people participate in gambling as a form of recreation andentertainment. It is very popular in countries, like Australia, where morethan 20 billion dollars was spent on gambling in the year 2000. However,gambling is viewed by many as a problem for society . There are causes,effects and possible solutions for the problems related to gambling.Generally speaking, there are a number of causes of gambling-relatedproblems. Many gamblers lose money and some get into debt veryquickly. They may spend all their savings, and then borrow more money,to try and get out of debt. In this way, they may get into further debt.2.The effects of gambling can be devastating on both the individual andtheir families. If gamblers get into serious debt, their families may sufferhardship and poverty as a result. Some gamblers neglect their children,whom they abandon while they spend time gambling in casinos. If theyare caught, the authorities might take their children away. Still othersmight take out their frustration on their friends or families, and possiblybecome violent.3.Solutions to the problems of gambling involve society and thegovernment. In general, people should try to help those with gamblingproblems. The government should also place restrictions on gambling, andrun education programs, to help gambling-addicts and raise people’sawareness and understanding of the related social problems.RestatementRecommendationIn conclusion, if we understand the causes and effects of gambling, thesolutions become clear . Through education and support programs , it ispossible to give people and addicts the knowledge and assistance theyneed to resist or overcome their gambling problems.In an assessment of a candidate’s essay the examiner will consider (i) whether the writeranswers the question, (ii) their expression (grammatical accuracy and vocabulary), and (iii) thecohesion of the text (including whether arguments are logically developed). Therefore, whenpreparing for a writing exam, it is a good idea to practice developing arguments on manydifferent issues and topics.www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis 5


the language features of the essayThe language features of an essay reflect the writer’s purpose, namely, to persuade the readerof their position (opinion) on a given issue. We have already mentioned that the staging of theessay is itself a persuasive device – by repeatedly stating and expanding on their arguments, thewriter is being persuasive.The language features of an essay also reflect the persuasive strategies commonly used inargumentation : be logical, reason effectively, sound authoritative and reasonable (don’texaggerate), and communicate effectively (precisely and cohesively). The relevant strategies andlanguage features are summarised in the table below :PERSUASIVESTRATEGIESLanguage Features1. Be LOGICAL CONJUNCTIONS for Listing, Addition etc.2. Be AUTHORITATIVE TECHNICAL VOCABULARY & Nominalisation3. REASON Language of CAUSE and EFFECT4. Be COHESIVE REFERENCE WORDS5. Sound REASONABLE Language of GENERALISATIONEach chapter of this book discusses one of these five persuasive strategies and relevantlanguage features as outlined above. In the Grammar unit of each chapter, furtherexplanation and exercises are provided to help the reader become more familiar with thekey language features and their effective use in writing short exam essays.6 www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis


topic 1language learning…in this chapterlearn new vocabulary and read about the topiclearn about conjunctions : being logicallearn about three types of essay questiondevelop ideas and write an essay on the topica Bizzy moment…visualise (v) to see in your mind, imaginevisualisation (n) process of imagining, in your mind’s eyewww.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis 7


eading & vocabularylanguage learning1.1 Match the word/expression with the meaning (R).1. effectively a) a positive thing, a benefit2. context b) situation, circumstances3. memorise c) way of doing s.t., technique4. method d) put into the memory5. advantage e) with a good effect, result6. interaction f) suggest, advise7. recommend g) exchange between two ..8. distinction h) relies on, conditional9. comparatively i) purpose, aim10. goal j) ability to function11. functional proficiency k) clear difference12. depends l) in comparison to s.t. else1.2 Fill the gap using expressions from 1.1 above.1. The main .goal…. of school is preparation for life.2. Many language tests are designed to assess ………………… ………………3. Success in exams, ……………….. on how hard you work.4. In the …………………… of the classroom, students can practice speaking.5. One way to prepare for the test is to ……………………..facts.6. ……………………… speaking, classroom learning is easier than self-study.7. The best ……………. for learning new words is using them!8. Sally’s teacher ……………………………. that she does more study.9. The discussion was a very positive ……………………….10. One …………………… of studying abroad is making new friends.11. When comparing two countries, the most obvious ……………… is cultural.12. Deaf people communicate …………………… using sign language.8 www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis


1.3 Complete the table below, and revise vocabulary from Topic 1:language learning.Adjective Noun Verb Adverb1. study 2. 3.learnt 4. 5. ___________6. 7. copy ___________8. 9. understand 10.11. memory/isation 12. 13.enjoyable 14. 15. 16.repetitive 17. 18. 19.20. acquisition 21. 22.23. 24. instruct 25.26. 27. teach ___________28. 29. ___________ methodicallyfunctional/ing 30. 31. 32.33. 34. 35. dependently36. interaction 37. 38.39.. recommendation 40. ___________contextual 41. 42. ___________43. advantage 44. 45.serious 46. ___________ 47.48. 49.. text ___________50. proficiency 51. ___________conversational 52. 53. ___________54. speech 55. ___________necessary 56. 57. 58.www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis 9


eading & vocabularylanguage learningThere are millions of people all over the world who formally study a foreign language,but there are comparatively few who actually learn to use the language effectively. Thereason for this is that most people study a foreign language the same way they study asubject at school. They memorise words, like facts or telephone numbers, but don’tknow how to use the words to communicate. Sometimes, their teachers do notunderstand the distinction between studying and really learning a language. The maingoal should be to teach students to use the language, not just study it.Formal classes in a foreign language, whilst popular, may not be the most effective wayto learn the language. This depends on the teacher and their methods. If the teacherrequires the students to only copy text and memorise words and grammar rules, thenthe students are not learning to use language. It is therefore not surprising thatstudents with this experience of formal classes do not speak the language very well.They have not had the opportunity to actually practice communicating.The key to successful language learning is interaction – that is, using language for apurpose in context. In some language classrooms, the lessons involve students workingin pairs or groups, and taking turns at asking and answering questions. In this way, theclassroom activity allows learners to use the language, and acquire the basics ofcommunication. Learning through interaction helps students develop their functionalproficiency, rather than just some vague or abstract knowledge of grammar orvocabulary.The importance of interaction is acknowledged in many books on learning a foreignlanguage, which recommend that students travel abroad, and learn the language in thecountry where it is spoken. The advantages are perhaps obvious. The motivation forpractise is very strong. Students have to communicate if they want to survive. They haveto do things, such as buy food, find accommodation and make travel arrangements.They are also exposed to the same language patterns many times and repeatedlypractice what they need to say. This process enables students to learn their newlanguage through using it in actual communication. (355 words)10 www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis


1.4 Reading comprehension. True or False ?1. Many students of foreign languages cannot speak the languageeffectively.T / F2. They study the foreign language without actually using it.. T / F3. All teachers understand the difference between studying andlearning a foreign language.T / F4. Formal classes are the best way to learn a foreign language. T / F5. Memorising grammar rules or vocabulary is not as helpful asinteracting in the classroom.T / F6. Students who do not practise speaking do not speak very well. T / F7. Taking turns at asking and answering questions is not helpful. T / F8. A knowledge of grammar is more important than using thelanguage.T / F9. Most books suggest it is best to learn a foreign language throughformal lessons in the country where the language is spoken. . T / F10. When students learn in the foreign country they have a strongreason to practice communication.T / F11. Students experience particular language patterns repeatedly whenliving in the country where the language is spoken. T / F12. Few books on language learning recognise the importance ofinteraction.T / F• Write down some ways you learnt English or another language.………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis 11


grammar : be logicalThe grammar focus of this unit is how to be LOGICAL or express ideas logically. Conjunctions, orjoining words, express the logical relations between ideas, and therefore help us structure anddevelop our arguments. There are two types: SENTENCE-LEVEL and STRUCTURAL CONJUNCTIONS.(i)SENTENCE-LEVEL CONJUNCTIONS join ideas within a sentence.Example 1:Example 2:Toothpaste is good for your teeth and apples are too.Brushing is healthy because it reduces tooth decay.In Example 1, the conjunction and expresses ‘addition’. (1 + 1)In Example 2, the conjunction because expresses ‘causation’. (1 -> 2)( See the table on page 15 for a list of the most common conjunctions. )1.5 Fill the gap using and, but or because.Eg. My aunt has been sick …and…. she was taken to hospital.1. The weather is fine …………. the scenery is beautiful.2. The police arrested a man ………………. he was driving recklessly.3. Marcel paints pictures ………………. nobody likes them.4. The new cars run on solar power ………………. petrol is too expensive.5. Silvy sleeps all night ………………. she sleeps in the afternoon too.6. Action films are popular ………………. cartoons are even more popular.7. Izumi was born in Tokyo ………………. she lives in New York.8. Chinese writing is very beautiful ………………. difficult to learn.9. ………………. soccer is fun to play, it is played everywhere in the world.10. Peter collects stamps ………………. he makes money selling them.Fill the gap using although, so or when.11. ………………. the bell rings, the children move off to their next lesson.12. ………………. the man fell from a tall building, he was unhurt.13. Jane wanted to learn Spanish ………………. she went to night school.14. Some Americans carry guns ………………. they can protect themselves.15. ………………. trekking in the desert one should take lots of water.16. Chocolate is bad for one’s teeth ………………. it tastes delicious.17. Young Australians can vote ………………. they turn 18 years of age.18. Sarah bought a second-hand car ………………. she turned sixteen.19. ………………. a person marries, s/he should choose their partner carefully.20. ………………. Freddie played tennis, he could not play squash.12 www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis


1.6 Match the beginnings with the correct endings.BEGINNINGSENDINGS1. Although the task is not easy2. Always seek advice3. Partly because of advertising4. Many parents work hard5. Unless forests are protected6. When children are young7. Movies are expensive to make8. Instead of being lazy9. Before visiting a country10. Though fast food is popular11. The garden is beautiful12. Sydney has many beaches13. Hung is studying English14. Yasmin got the job15. The postman was sick16. The man was not hurt17. There will be trouble18. He had a bad temper19. Because I knew my topic20. Always wash your hands21. Mexico is a big city22. Pete has been a top player23. Cycling is popular24. Fast cars are dangerous25. If vegetables are good for you26. After a year working overseas27. Too much sunshine is unhealthy28. We should see a dentist29. Shopping is a favourite pastime30. Hair cuts are expensivea) if you are confused.b) products are expensive.c) to afford a better life.d) you can still succeed.e) they are easily influenced.f) try working hard.g) it is unhealthy.h) they will be destroyed.i) learn the language!j) so tickets are not cheap.k) but Brisbane hasn’t any.l) while working part time.m) so there was no mail.n) even though a car hit him.o) if prices increase.p) and the house is huge.q) but he was still popular.r) I felt very confident.s) before you eat a meal.t) because she was the best.u) whereas Tijuana is small.v) because it is good exercise.w) unless drivers are careful.x) since he won the Open.y) as it can cause skin cancer.z) we should eat more of them.A) if you follow the fashions.B) David moved back home.C) so people cut their own hair.D) if we have a toothache.www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis 13


(ii)STRUCTURAL CONJUNCTIONS join ideas across sentences.For example:Many people clean their teeth after every meal.Consequently, tooth decay is reduced.Both types, sentence-level and structural conjunctions, are important and widelyused in academic writing. They can be classified as per the table below.CONJUNCTIONS – STRUCTURAL and SENTENCE-LEVEL1. LISTINGFirst of all / To begin withFirstly / Secondly.. ThenAfter that / Finally5. CONCESSIVE/CONDITIONALHowever / Although / unlessEven though / NonethelessWhen / If / In order to2. ADDING / REINFORCINGIn addition / Also / andas well as / In other wordsAnother / BesidesFurthermore / Moreover6. CAUSE/EFFECTIn order to / In this way / soAs a result / Because / thenConsequently / As such Subsequently /Therefore3. CONTRASTINGHowever / In comparisonBy contrast / Instead / but7. SUMMARISINGTo sum up / To concludeIn conclusion / In summary4. EXEMPLIFICATIONFor example / For instancesuch as / including8. GIVING ALTERNATIVESOn the one hand / AlternatelyOn the other hand / orNOTE –The LISTING CONJUNCTIONS are very important because they makethe order of arguments clear to the reader, and show that your essayhas a logical structure. DO NOT FORGET to leave a CLEAR BREAKbetween paragraphs and make sure your punctuation is correct!14 www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis


1.7 Fill the gap. Choose conjunctions from the box below.LEARNING ENGLISHIn my opinion, learning English is difficult. There are a number of reasons why Ithink this is true.(1)…Firstly… English is very different to my mother tongue, which is Chinese.English is not a tonal language, like Chinese. English (2)…….…… has verb tenses,(3)…………. Chinese does not. English words have many syllables, 4)…….………..Chinese characters are monosyllabic. (5)….…… the two languages are verydifferent.(6)…..……….……… reason why learning English is difficult is that English speakerstalk very fast, (7)…….……… they are difficult to understand. My teacher saysEnglish speakers use contracted or short forms, which makes it difficult if you donot know these forms. (8)………….………… problem is the vocabulary. English peoplesay something one way, but then they write it differently, using language that ismore formal. Many new words must be learnt.(9) ……………………, the differences between English and Chinese make it a difficultlanguage to learn. The vocabulary and grammar of spoken and written English(10)……………. presents difficulties.(11)………………………………, some people have a special ability for learning languages.They can pick up new vocabulary easily, and learn to speak more quickly thenothers. They do not seem to be different from other people, (12)………… languagesseem to be easy for them.another firstly also whereas another additionally alsoso therefore but another consequently also notablywww.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis 15


writing practiceThis unit looks at how to interpret the essay question, and then choose your response/position.It is important to begin with the essay question, and understand that, depending on the type ofquestion there may be a number of possible ways to answer the question. To begin with, thereare (3) BASIC TYPES of essay question:examplestypes of essay questionsWhat are the causes and effects ofsmoking?1. EXPLAINThis type of question usually begins with a WHquestionword. Here, the writer must explain theirview, supported by reasons, facts and examples.“Smoking is bad for your health.”Do you agree?2. ARGUEThe question usually includes a quote orproposition, followed by the Yes/No question, orprompt: Give your opinion. The writer chooses toeither AGREE or DISAGREE, and presents one pointof view.Discuss the “pro’s and con’s” of smoking.3. DISCUSSThe key word here is “discuss”. Usually, the writermust present two sides of the issue. There ishowever the possibility to choose just one pointof view, as in B.1.8 What type of essay question is it? (E explain, A argue, D discuss)1. A/D Should both parents work if they have children?2. ……… What are the reasons for doing further study?3. ……… Credit cards are risky. Give your opinion.4. ……… Too much hard work is boring. Do you agree?5. ……… How can people improve their health?6. ……… What are the best ways to succeed in exams?7. ……… Discuss reasons for and against gambling.8. ……… Should the environment be protected?9. ……… Advertising causes visual pollution. Do you agree?10. ……… What are the costs and benefits of travel?11. ……… Fair trade is impractical. Discuss.12. ……… How can poverty be eradicated?NOTE –Explain essays do not give you a real choice about an issue or topic.You must answer the question/s or the parts of the question fully.With Discuss and Argue questions, you can choose your position, for or against.16 www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis


A position statement is a possible response to the question.Before you decide on your response to a given question, it is sometimes helpful toconsider all the possible responses (or positions).1.9 Write down the 3 possible answers for each of these essay questions.Note: The VERB in the question is picked up in the Y/N answers.QUESTION/Sa) Should both parents work if they havechildren?POSSIBLE POSITION STATEMENTS• Both parents should work• Both parents should not work…• In some situations, both …b) Credit cards are risky.Give your opinion.• …………………………………………• …………………………………………• …………………………………………c) Too much hard work is boring.Do you agree?• …………………………………………• …………………………………………• …………………………………………d) Should the environment be protected? • …………………………………………• …………………………………………• …………………………………………e) Advertising is visual pollution.Do you agree?• …………………………………………• …………………………………………• …………………………………………f) Fair trade between rich and poor countriesis impossible. Discuss.• …………………………………………• …………………………………………• …………………………………………g) Married couples should share householdduties. Give your opinion.• …………………………………………• …………………………………………• …………………………………………h) Modern technology makes a great nation.Do you agree?• …………………………………………• …………………………………………• …………………………………………www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis 17


writing practiceIn this unit, we interpret the essay question for this chapter, and develop ideas forwriting a response. Here is the question:Q. “The best way to learn a foreign language is by studying in a foreign country.”Do you agree?This question has TWO parts or stages:(1) Issue-proposition “The best way to learn a foreign language is ……”(2) Question-prompt Do you agree?IN TERP RETA TIO NYour Answer could be :YES, I agree NO, I disagree PARTLYYes & NoThe best way to learn aforeign language is bystudying in a foreigncountry.There are other moreeffective ways to learn aforeign language, than bystudying in a foreigncountry.Learning a foreign languagein a foreign country is agood way, but there areother ways just as good.IF you decide that the proposition is PARTLY true, then you must explain:o why learning a foreign language in the foreign country is good, ando what others ways are also good for learning a foreign language, and whyThe easiest way to answer questions like this is to take ONE SIDE (yes OR no),and then develop each supporting reason/argument into a paragraph.IF, however, you decide that you disagree with the proposition, then you must saywhat other ways there are that are more effective, and why.Here’s one argument/paragraph to support the NO position on the issue :One way to learn a foreign language is by reading foreign language books. Withthe aid of a dictionary, you can learn the meaning of new words. Subsequently,by writing about the story you have read, you can be sure that you are reallylearning these new expressions. Reading stories is fun, and this is a good way tobuild your vocabulary and knowledge of stories.18 www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis


This next exercise will give you some ideas for the essay in this chapter.1.10 Tick (√) the reasons for learning a language in a foreign country.a) Students can practise speaking everyday.b) You can learn the grammar from the teacher.c) You can meet people and make new friends.d) The teacher will correct your mistakes.e) You need to communicate to get what you want.f) Students can practice before facing a real situation.g) You can build your vocabulary by reading texts.h) You can learn about the language and the culture.i) Students are more motivated to speak with locals.j) You can pick up how the local people speak.k) You can have a fun holiday and learn the language.l) You can improve pronunciation by doing drills.m) The teacher will correct your writing and homework.n) You can learn useful expressions.o) It is safe to make mistakes in a classroom.p) Students can use the language in real situations.q) You can learn in pairs or in groups.r) You can read the local newspaper.s) Students can take risks, and not feel embarrassed.t) The teacher can select tasks that are suitable.u) Students can practise by doing homework.v) Students can learn by watching TV.w) You do not have to do tests.x) The teacher cannot teach everything you need to know.y) The local people may not be friendly or helpful.z) You can learn vocabulary from a bilingual dictionary.…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Now, cross (X) the reasons for NOT learning a language in a foreign country.www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis 19


writing practiceTake 40 minutes to complete this task.Make a plan, and write your essay.Q. “The best way to learn a foreign language is by studying in a foreign country.”Do you agree?…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………20 www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis


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……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………ASK A TEACHER TO CORRECT YOUR WRITING. COMPARE WITH SAMPLE IN THE BACK OF THE BOOK.22 www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis


eviewlanguage learningchecklistDid you read the essay question carefully?Did you make a plan, and follow it?Did you write a clear POSITION statement?Did you have clear paragraphs?Did you use LISTING conjunctions?COMPARE your essay with the sample answer at the back of the book. Can yousee any differences between the two? Can you see any mistakes you havemade? Note the mistakes, and think about exercises that might help you tocorrect your mistakes? IF you have difficulty checking your writing, you might liketo ask a teacher to help!summaryThis chapter looked at how to answer the essay question. The student alwayshas choices, and must decide on a clear position. The beginning or introductionof any essay should contain a clear POSITION statement. When planning youranswer, choose your arguments carefully, and then use CONJUNCTIONS tosequence your arguments logically and effectively. This chapter introducedvocabulary on the topic of Language Learning.www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis 23


sample essay questionsIt has been said that education is the cause ofsocial inequality – of the difference between the“haves” and the “have-nots”. To what extent doyou agree with this statement?There is some debate as to whether schoolingshould be a preparation for life or work. Whatshould be the priorities of the education system,and why?Boys and girls would seem to perform betterwhen they are in separate classes. If this is thecase, shouldn’t schools be single-sex, rather thanco-educational? Give your opinion.It is easy to learn a foreign language, likeEnglish. Do you agree with this statement? Givereasons to support your point of view.Illiteracy is one of the main problems for schoolsystems in many countries. Nearly a quarter ofall students experience difficulties with readingand writing. What are the possible causes, effectsand solutions for this problem?24 www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis


ANSWERStopic 1 : language learning1.11. e2. b3. d4. c5. a.6. g7. f8. k9. l10. i11. j12. h1.21. goal2. functionalproficiency3. depends4. context5. memorise6. comparatively7. method8. recommends9. interaction10. advantage,11. distinction12. effectively1.31. studied/ious2. study3. studiously4. learning5. learn6. copied7. copying8. understood9. understanding10.understandably11.memorised12. memorise13. memorably14. enjoyment15. enjoy16. enjoyably17. repetition18. repeat19.repeatedly20. acquisitive21. acquire22. acquisitively23. instructive24. instruction25. instructively26. taught27. teaching28. methodical29. method30. function31. function32.functionally33.dependent34.dependent35.depend36.interactive37.interact38.interactively39.recommended40.recommend41.context42.contextualise43.advantageous44.advance45.advantageously46.seriousness47.seriously48.textual49.text50.proficient51.proficiently52. conversation53. converse54. spoken55. speak56. necessity57. necessitate58. necessarily1.41.T2.T3.F4.F5.F6.T7.F8.F9.F10.T11.T12.F1.51.and2.because3.but4.because5.and6.but7.but8.but9.Because10.and11When12.Although13.so14.so15.When16.although17.when18.when19.When20.Although1.61.d2.a3.b4.c5.h6.e7.j8.f9.i10.g11.p12.k13.l14.t15.m16.n17.o18.q19.r20.s21.u22.x23.w24.w25.z26.B27.y28.D29.A30.C1.7(1) Firstly(2) also(3) but/whereas(4) In addition(5) Therefore/Assuch(6) Another(7) so(8) Another(9) Finally/In conclusion(10) also(11) By contrast/However(12)but1.81.A/D2.E3.A4.A/D5.E6.E7.D8.A/D9.A/D10.E11.A/D12.E1.9 b) Credit cards are risky. / Credit cards are not risky. / Credit cards might involve somerisk, but they are generally quite safe.c) Too much hard work is boring. / Hard work isn’t boring. / Hard work can be boring.d) The environment should be protected. / The environment shouldn’t be protected. / Theenvironment should be protected, though some areas should not be protected.e) Advertising is visual pollution. / Advertising is not visual pollution. / Some advertising is visualpollution.f) Fair trade between rich and poor countries is impossible. / Fair trade between rich and poorcountries is possible. / Fair trade between rich and poor countries is possible within certainlimits.www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis 25


g) Married couples should share household duties. / Household duties should not be shared bymarried couples. / Some household duties should be shared by married couples, but not all.h) Modern technology makes a great nation. / Modern technology does not make a greatnation. / Modern technology does not make a great nation, but it helps.1.10 a)√, b)X, c)√, d)X, e)√, f)X, g)X, h)√, i)√, j)√, k)√, l)X, m)X, n)√/X, o)X, p)√, q)X, r)√, s)X, t)X,u)X, v)X, w)√, x)√, y)X, z)√/XSample Answer - STUDYING A FOREIGN LANGUAGEStudying in a foreign country is a good way to learn a foreign language, but there are otherways of learning.First of all, studying in a foreign country is a good way to learn a foreign language, becauseyou can practise speaking everyday. You must communicate to get everything you need, likefood and dink. In addition, you can meet local people, and learn how to speak like them. Youcan also learn everyday expressions that may not be in textbooks. Additionally, you can learnmore about the culture, because you are learning and speaking the language in the country.However, there are other ways to learn a foreign language, and the way you learn, probablydepends on your purpose. For example, if you want to read a lot in that language, you canbuild your vocabulary by reading more books. You can go to websites on the Internet that haveinformation in the foreign language, and read and do exercises.Another way to learn a foreign language is in the classroom, with the help of a teacher. Somestudents want a teacher to correct their mistakes, and teach them the grammar of thelanguage. Perhaps, they prefer a more analytical approach. They might also be a bit shy, sothey can build their confidence in the classroom setting.In conclusion, there are advantages in learning a foreign language in the country, but this is notthe only way to learn. Much depends on your purpose in the first place. Classrooms can be agood place to start, but learning a language in situ is beneficial..26 www.text2write.com © copyright Robert Lewis

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