Key Concept Chart - Pearson
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Key Concept Chart - Pearson

Periodic Table}7Group 1 elementsThese are soft light metals. They react very quicklyto water, are similar and are called alkali metals.11ILiLithiumNaSodium9IIBeBerryllium12MgMagnesium1HHydrogenTransition elementsThese are unreactive metals. They have very high melting points.They are very useful. Many of their compounds are coloured.Group VIII elements(called group 0)These are all gases. They do not form compounds.They are called noble or inert gases.Group VII elementsThese are very reactive non-metals.They are poisonous, but some of theircompounds (like table salt) are essentialfor us to live. They are called halogens.513III IV V VI VIIBBoronAiAluminium614CCarbonSiSilicon715NNitrogenPPhosphorous816OOxygenSSulphur}917FFluorineClChlorine}VIII2He10HeliumNe18NeonArArgon19K20Ca21Sc22Ti23V24Cr25 26 27 28MnFeCoNi29Cu30Zn31 32 33 34GaGeAsSe35Br36KrPotassiumCalciumScandiumTitaniumVanadiumChromiumManganeseIronCobaltNickelCopperZincGalliumGermaniumArsenicSeleniumBromineKrypton37Rb38Sr39Y40Zr41Nb42Mo43Tc44 45 46 47RuRhPdAg48Cd49In50 51 52 53SnSbTeI54XeRubidiumStrontiumYttriumZirconiumNiobiumMolybdenumTechnetiumRutheniumRhodiumPalladiumSilverCadmiumIndiumTinAntimonyTelluriumIodineXenon55Cs56Ba57La72Hf73Ta74W75Re76 77 78 79OsIrPtAu80Hg81Tl82 83 84 85PbBiPoAt86RnCesiumBariumLanthamiumHafniumTantalumTungstenRheniumOsmiumIridiumPlatinumGoldMercuryThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadon87Fr88Ra89Ac104Rf105Db106Sg107Bh108Hs109MtFranciumRadiumActiniumRutherfordiumDubniumSeaborgiumBohriumHassiumMeitnerium58Ce59Pr60Nd61 62 63 64PmSmEuGd65Tb66Dy67 68 69 70HoErTmYb71LuCeriumPraseodymiumNeodymiumPromethiumSamariumEuropiumGadoliniumTerbiumDysprosiumHolmiumErbiumThuliumYtterbiumLutetium90Th91Pa92U93 94 95 96NpPuAmCm97Bk98Cf99Es100Fm101Md102No103LrThoriumProtactimiumUraniumNeptuniumPlutoniumAmericiumCuriumBerkeliumCaliforniumEinsteiniumFermiumMendeleviumNobeliumLawrenciumKEYReactivemetalsTransitionmetalsLess reactivemetalsNon-metalsNoble gasesZig-zag lineseparates the metalsfrom the non-metals1HHydrogenatomicnumbersymbolnameExploring integrated science Exploring integrated science Exploring integrated science Exploring integrated science

Metals and non-metalsMost metals react with oxygen to form metal oxides.This process is called corrosion.Metals are mixed with other metals (and sometimeswith non-metals) to make substances called alloys.Alloys have properties that the original metals donot have. Brass, bronze and solder are examplesof alloys.Carbon is a common non-metallic element foundin all molecules of living things. Carbon can existin more than one form in the solid state. Differentforms of the same element in the same stateare known as allotropes. Carbon allotropes arediamonds, graphite and fullerene.Machines• Simple machines make work easier.• A lever is a simple machine.• You apply a small force at the effort to create a bigforce at the load.• A lever is supported at the fulcrum or pivot.• An inclined plane enables you to lift objects moreeasily and with a smaller force than if you liftedthem vertically.• The moment of force is the product of the forceapplied at a point, and the perpendicular distancefrom where the force is acting (e.g. opening a door).• The Principle of Moments states that when abeam is balanced, the clockwise motion is equalto the anticlockwise moment.Physical and chemical properties of metalsPhysical propertiesConduct heat wellGood electrical conductorsSurface is shiny whenclean – this is called lustreMalleable – they can berolled into thin sheetsDuctile – they can bepulled into thin wiresSonorous – they make asound when hitUsually solid at roomtemperature (exceptmercury)Chemical propertiesUsually have 1–3 electronsin their outer shellLose the electrons in theirouter shell easilyReact with oxygen toproduce basic oxidesGood reducing agentsPhysical and chemical properties of non-metalsPhysical propertiesPoor conductors of heat –they are insulatorsChemical propertiesUsually have 4–8 electronsin their outer shellload (large force)Electricity and magnetism• A resistor is any conductor that resists the flow ofcurrent in a circuit. Bulbs are resistors.• We measure resistance in units called ohms Ω.• In a resistor, electrical energy is changed intoother forms of energy such as heat and light.• This voltage drop across a resistor is a measure ofhow much energy is converted to heat and lightenergy in the resistor.• The current passing through a resistor is directlyproportional to the potential difference across it.• The resistance of a wire increases when it gets hot.Remember:fulcrumA spade being used as a levereffort (small force)Do not conduct electricitywellBrittle if they are solidsNot ductileDo not have a metalliclustreCan be solids, liquids orgases at room temperatureGain or share the electronsin their outer shell easilyReact with oxygen to formoxides that are acidicGood oxidising agentsR = V ; V = IR; I = VIRResistance = voltagecurrentIf several resistors are connected in series in a circuit:R = R1 + R2 + R3 + …If several resistors are connected in parallel in acircuit: 1 1 1= + + …R R1 R1Exploring integrated science Exploring integrated science Exploring integrated science Exploring integrated science

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