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Results and Challenges2008April 2009

ContentsForeword 3Summary 4Energy prices 5Efficiency in the energy sector 13The work of DERA and decisions The electricity sector 27The natural gas sectorThe district heating sectorInternational work General framework 35International activities of the DERA SecretariatMembers of DERA 40The DERA Secretariat 42Case processing and user satisfaction 43The Energy Board of Appeal 45Budget and Finance 46Other authorities in the energy area 47Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 20081

2 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

ForewordAuthority, which commenced a new four-year tenure on 1 January 2008.--Uffe Bundgaard-JørgensenChairman of DERAAmongst other things, this has been achieved through regulation of gridfrom the markets and thereby exacerbate the framework conditions. Inenergy market and thus its function.-their nature, and how to remediate them. DERA will continue its cur---Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 20083

Summarytionalactivities and DERA’s other activities and results are illustrated Average consumer prices of energy rose in 2008. Average pricesof natural gas rose most, by about 13 per cent compared with2007, while average prices of electricity rose by about 10 per cent.Average prices of district heating rose least, by about 5 per cent. There are marked differences between the efficiency of the electricitygrid companies. Analyses by DERA in “Results and Challenges2007” showed that this also applies for the natural gas sector andthe district heating sector. In order to improve efficiency in the electricity sector, DERA setoverall efficiency requirements for the electricity grid companiesof almost DKK 80 million (almost 3 per cent of their controllablecosts). This is a tightening-up compared with 2007, when efficiencyrequirements were about half of the 2008 requirements. Comparisons between the Danish electricity grid companies andthe Swedish, Norwegian and Dutch confirm that there are furtherpotentials for efficiency improvements amongst the least efficientDanish electricity grid companies. There are indications that having fewer electricity grid companiesmay improve efficiency. The results of an analysis by DERA ofmergers in the sector suggest that mergers have resulted in loweroperating costs, especially for the smaller companies in the sector.4 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

Energy pricesfectedby trade in CO 2 2allowances will have increasied Average prices of natural gas, district heating and electricity rosefrom 2007 to 2008. The price of natural gas rose by about 13 percent, the price of district heating by about 5 per cent, while theprice of electricity rose by about 10 per cent. The price increases,not least for natural gas and district heating, are related to theturbulent prices on the energy markets in 2008. There are still only few private households exploiting the free electricitymarket - just over 2 per cent in 2008 - but the trend is rising.The low rate at which people change supplier is primarily becausethere is generally no great financial incentive to change. The range of products on the free market increased as suppliersconcentrated more closely on product development and innovation,for example on various forms of “green” electricity productsand similar.-and gasDanish Energy Regulatory Authority · 20085

DERA.Figure 1 Average price for supply-obligation natural gas, 2005 - 2008VAT 25%DistributionCO 2taxNatural gas taxGas priceDKK per m 310,009,008,007,006,005,004,003,002,001,000,002006 2007 2008Note: The figure shows the price of natural gas including energy taxes and VAT.Source: own calculations. The price has been calculated as weighted annual average for thethree a relatively low level towards the end of the year as a reaction to the6 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

Figure 2 Variation in the price of supply-obligation natural gas, 2008(monthly average)DKK per m 310. Own calculations.Note: Weighted averageDistrict heating 2 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 20087

Figure 3 Average district heating costs in DKK incl. VAT (130m 2 house)DKK per m²15,00014,00013,00012,00011,0002005–2006 2006–2007 2007–2008Note: The price has been calculated on the basis of the actual settlement prices for the 2007/2008heating season, incl. VAT.Source: The Danish District Heating Association ”Fjernvarmepriserne i Danmark i 2008”.toryconnection for customers.--8 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

-ELECTRICITYSupply obligation electricityThe Danish Energy Agency has granted a number of companies asupply obligation. This commits companies to supplying electricityto all customers within their area who have not changed electricitysupplier. The prices of supply obligation electricity are controlledby DERA.all consumers could freely buy on the Danish retail market. Previously,-Table 1 Changed supplier 2005 - 20072005per cent2006per cent2007per cent2008per centPercentage oftemplate customers*who havechanged supplier1.1 1.25 2.87 2.8* Template customers are households and small companies with a consumption of less than100,000 kWh/year.The change rate in 2007 was affected by the fact that an electricity supplier ceased trading inQ1 2007.Source: Association of Danish Energy CompaniesDanish Energy Regulatory Authority · 20089

1 Figure 4 Changes in supply-obligation price 2006 – 2008total price of electricityincl. VATDKK per kWh2.302. DERA electricity price statistics 2008Jan 06Mar 06May 06Jul 06Sep 06Nov 06Jan 07Mar 07May 07Jul 07Sep 07Nov 07Jan 08Mar 08May 08Jul 08Sep 08Nov 08Jan 091The PSO tariff primarily covers a price supplement for renewableenergy and decentralised plants as well as research funds and administrationof these funds. In periods with high electricity prices, thePSO tariff will be low because environmentally friendly10 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

Figure 5 Composition of the price of electricity (Oct. 2008)20 %30 %33 %9 %EnergyGrid paymentSubscriptionTaxes and payment forpublic service obligationVAT8 %Source: DERA electricity price statisticsDanish Energy Regulatory Authority · 200811

--12 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

Efficiency in the energy sectorIn 2008, benchmarking was only carried out for the electricity the electricity sector show: There are marked differences between the efficiency of all types ofgrid company in the electricity sector. The differences in efficiencyare significantly higher than would normally be seen in competitivemarkets. DERA’s analyses in “Results and Challenges 2007” showed that thisalso applied for the natural gas sector and the district heating sector. For 2008 DERA imposed efficiency requirements on the electricitygrid companies of almost DKK 80 million. This corresponds to areduction in the revenue caps of about 1.2 per cent, and it is moredemanding than 2007, when the total revenue cap requirementwas about DKK 45 million, corresponding to 0.7 per cent of thecompanies’ total revenue caps. Comparisons between the efficiency of the Danish electricity gridcompanies and the Swedish, Norwegian and Dutch confirm thatthere are further potentials for efficiency improvements amongstthe least efficient Danish electricity grid companies. Mergers can improve the efficiency of the electricity grid companies.The preliminary results of an analysis of the significance of mergersin the sector suggest that mergers have resulted in lower operatingcosts, especially with regard to customer administration.Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 200813

Efficiency in theelectricity sectorFigure 6 Spread in the efficiency of electricity grid companies 2007Least efficientAverageMost efficientIndex250200150100500Regional transmission Distribution Transformer AssociationsNote: The figure shows the index for the cost efficiency of the electricity grid companies, a highindex means high efficiency; low index, low efficiency. The average has been calculated as thevolume-weighted average of the benchmark values for each category of grid company. Thisexpresses the average efficiency for the category in question.Source: Own calculations on the basis of efficiency analysis-the data.14 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

DERA has calculated the standard deviation 2 Figure 7 Spread in the efficiency benchmark of electricity grid companies(standard deviation)25201510Standard deviationThreshold value forpotential efficiencyimprovements50Regional transmissioncompaniesDistributioncompaniesTransformerassociationsthan the threshold value of almost 10 which is used as an indicator of .-transformer associations.2Standard deviation is the square root of the variance. The varianceshows by how much individual observations vary in relation to theaverage. A high variance and therefore high standard deviation meansthat the observations are very spread.3See “Konkurrenceredegørelse 08”, Competition Authority 2008, Energy Regulatory Authority · 200815

UncertaintyThere is some uncertainty in the calculation of the indicators in theCompetition Report. In part there is uncertainty in the data foundation,and in part the goals are theoretical so a high spread may be dueto other aspects than the weak pressure of competition in the sector.There is not the same uncertainty in the data foundation for DERA’sanalysis of the electricity grid companies. In addition to this, DERAadjusts for extraordinary costs and differences in framework conditionswhich would otherwise affect the spread and be part of theexplanation.The results of the analysis can therefore be taken as a strong indicator that--in more detail in the section on the electricity sector.16 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

etc. will take effect from 2010. On the basis of the current benchmarks,--and distribution. DERA determines which costs are necessary and canfor the heating sector. This foundation is not yet ready, however, andtherefore the heating sector was not benchmarked in 2008. 4 -Efficiency in thenatural gas sectorEfficiency in theheating sectorInternational comparisonof the efficiencyof electricity gridcompanies 54Note that all the analyses were carried out on the basis of 2006 data,as this was the only data available for all the countries.5Sweden utilises another BM model than Denmark, but DERA hasconverted the Danish spread model so that it is comparable with theSwedish results.Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 200817

tries.As not all of the countries asked benchmark their electricity grid-Spread of efficiency initiatives- Figure 8 Spread in cost efficiency of the Danish and Swedish electricity gridcompaniesSpread0.177Sweden0.235Denmark0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25Source: own calculations.Note: The Danish values for the spread in figure 2 are not identical with the values in table 2.All the data in the analysis has been standardized so that the spreads calculated on the data arecomparable across country borders. The values in figure 8 are calculated on 2006 figures, whilethe spreads in table 2 are calculated on 2007 figures.the electricity sector.-6The Danish data does not include transformer associations. Includingthese in the data could very likely lead to an even higher spread in thelarge weight asto the distribution companies would not give a fair view.18 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

the individual countries 7 , cf. table 2.Table 2 Spread of key figures 2006OPEX/customerOPEX/kmDep./customerDep./kmTotalExp./customerTotalexp./kmDenmark 21.51 61.52 41.97 37.91 22.98 53.93The Netherlands10.06 30.82 16.26 34.58 8.30 30.47Norway 34.47 30.84 26.86 38.99 28.69 29.31Sweden 28.66 43.19 39.75 54.12 26.88 42.51Source: own calculations.Note: All the data in the analysis has been standardised/scaled so that the spreads calculated onthe data are comparable across country borders.Extreme observations (outliers) have been excluded from the relevant data. One company hasbeen taken out of the data for the Netherlands because of this, while three, eight and five havebeen taken out for Denmark, Norway, and Sweden respectively.7 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 200819

---The significanceof mergers forthe efficiency ofthe electricity gridcompaniesmerged since the turn of the millennium. DERA will therefore examine--20 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

dures, including the services which could be outsourced. An analysis of 8 shows that thisIn order to examine the issue of economies of scale, DERA has looked atTable 3 Link between size (grid volume) and index for cost efficiency (totalcosts) 2007Grid volumeDKK mill.0-5050 -100100 -150150 -200> 200Number of companies 43 10 3 4 5Averageindex for costs0.97 0.79 0.75 0.73 0.83Note: only distribution companies.Source: own calculations.8Bogetoft, P. & Grammeltvedt, T.E.: Mergers in Norwegian ElectricityDistribution – A Cost Saving Exercise.Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 200821

9 in 2007 are all the results of-Figure 9 The five largest merged companies’ percentage of the total operatingexpenses for all distribution companies, 2002 and 2007Other companies57%53 %Merged companies 43 %47 %2002 2007--9Electricity grid companies are usually divided into three types: regionaltransmission companies, distribution companies, and transformer associations.Regional transmission companies typically operate theirelectricity grid at a higher tension level, often between 30 kV and 150kV, while distribution companies primarily operate an electricity gridat tension levels below 30 kV. Transformer associations are smallercompanies, typically characterised by operating an electricity gridvalued at DKK 1 mill. or less.22 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

Table 4 Index of the changes in relative operating expenses for four mergedcompanies in 2002, 2003, 2006, and 2007 (2002 = 100)*Company Year of merger 2002 2003 2006 2007A 2006 100 112 151 108B 2006 100 91 81 77C 2004-2006 100 95 82 95D 2006-2007 100 90 96 111* The total share of distribution companies’ total operating expenses in 2002 = 100Note: DERA is not in possession of validated data on the total operating expenses of distributioncompanies in 2004 and 2005.For companies C and D “Year of merger” is a period of several years with several mergers.nies,cf. below.Table 5 Frequency and duration of power cuts for four merged electricitycompanies 2006-2007Frequency ofpower cutsDuration of power cuts(minutes)Company 2006 2007 2006 2007A 0.20 0.41 12.44 33.41B 0.43 0.67 21.97 45.57C 0.73 0.68 50.41 41.38D 0.23 0.21 14.62 8.40Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 200823

there was more excavation damage in 2007.kV grid in 2007, and these affected many end users, as they occurred inof the merger. Therefore there are no immediate indications that mergersforcedif it could be demonstrated that, by merging, electricity grid com---on customer administration.24 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

Figure 10 Index of changes in expenditure on customer administration forall distribution companies as well as for three merged companies for 2002to 2007 (customer administration expenses in 2002 = 100)160140120100806040All distribution companiesCompany XCompany YCompany Z2002002 2003 2006 2007Note: The figure has not been adjusted for changes in prices and salariesSource: own 2002-2007 therefore indicates that mergers may have the followingeffects: merger. -These indications are good reason for DERA to analyse more thoroughlythe grid-volume model used by DERA for annual benchmarking of theDanish Energy Regulatory Authority · 200825

10 .-at more detailed description of the grid volume model is available(in Danish) in the decision by DERA of 27 October 2008 on reductionsin the 2009 revenue cap for electricity grid companies ( Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

The work of DERA and decisionsRight of appeal - status as a partyAs the supervisory authority, the DERA secretariat considers all enquiriesto assess whether there is reason to suspect that mattersconflict with the law. If this is the case, the matter is processed,irrespective of whether or not it is a formal complaint. If there is noreason for suspicion, the matter can be rejected, again irrespectiveof whether or not it is a formal complaint.To have status as party in a case before DERA, in accordance with thePublic Administration Act one must have a significant and individualinterest in the case. This has been confirmed in a number of decisionsmade by DERA on right of appeal, and hearings of parties further tosimilar decisions by the Energy Board of Appeal.In cases concerning general terms and conditions or prices regardingan energy enterprise, all the consumers using the enterprise will usuallyhave the same significant interest in the case. Therefore it will bean exception for a consumer to have an individual interest separatefrom the other consumers using the enterprise, and thus qualify forstatus as party.The same criteria apply for appeals to the Energy Board of Appeal.The basis for administrative processing of cases is therefore that anyonecan have their case assessed by an independent administrativeauthority, but only those with status as party can bring the case forfurther administrative processing.Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 200827, and in addition to this, large cases and casesThe electricity sectorwere decided by the Secretariat. The following are some of the cases ofThe revenue cap of the electricity grid companies in 2009---controllable costs.-28 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

Internal monitoring programmes (IM programmes)from exercising discriminatory behaviour.-Examination of the increases in tariffs at DONG Energy CityElnet A/S-DKK 7 mill.regarding the information submitted for the 2004 regulation year. DERAingincome” which should not have been there.Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 200829

agreed with the DERA secretariat, so that the Authority could assess thecase again on the correct foundation.The case had not been concluded in early 2009.New LegislationThe following amendments to the regulatory foundation were madein 2008: Amendment to the Electricity Supply Act on 17 June 2008by Act no. 465The amendment means that section 37a of the Electricity SupplyAct on the annual statements to DERA now also covers activitiespursuant to the Municipal District Cooling Act (Lov om kommunalfjernkøling). Amendment to the Electricity Supply Act on 17 June 2008by Act no. 503The amendment primarily relates to the activities municipalitiescan carry under the Electricity Supply Act. The amendmentstipulates that activities carried out in connection with municipalactivities pursuant to the Electricity Supply Act must be closelyrelated with such activities. For example, municipalities will continueto be able to operate road lighting activities in connectionwith their electricity grid company.The amendment adjusts the regulations for setting-off the statesubsidy to municipalities when the municipality implements companyreorganisations. Executive Order no. 1297 of 15 December 2008 on reportsand statements by municipalities pursuant to sections 37and 37a of the Electricity Supply Act, and sections 23l and23m of the Heating Supply ActThe Executive Order simplifies the previous regulations applicablefor the annual reporting to DERA by municipalities.30 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

In 2008, DERA decided six cases in the gas area, and 252 cases wereThe natural gas sectorChanged balance conditions for the natural-gas transmissionsystemis now considering the an excess demand for BSAs, an auction will be carried out. Before’s emergency supply concept for natural gas-for “emergency cut-off consumers”.of the discount for emergency cut-off consumers, which is set by auction.Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 200831

2 mill. m together in order to come over the 2 mill. m criticism and debate amongst consumers, and some have chosen notNew LegislationThere were no amendments to the regulatory foundation for thenatural gas area in 2008.The districtheating sectorcases were decided by the Secretariat. The following are some of theBudgets and financial statements of district heating plants inthe Mid-Jutland regionthis, DERA decided to carry out a thorough review of the budgets andOverall status for Mid-Jutland region; end 2008investigation and the case has been closed.32 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

–ageis carried forward in the system from year to year. Appropriation of surplusesby a decision by the annual general meeting. Depreciation Liquid funds – There is a lot of money in accumulated excess coveragethe consumers. Revalued plant balanceFree and tied-up capital in district heating plants-Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 200833

-DERA has worked out a basis for such a statement, i.e. a list of the districtby the Secretariat. Plants can voluntarily decide to base their statementthen submit the statement to DERA.New LegislationThe following amendments to the regulatory foundation for theheating area were made in 2008: Act no. 503 of 17 June 2008 amends the following provisionsof the Heating Supply ActSection 21(1) such that DERA can stipulate regulations on auditor’sreports on notifications, and that DERA can order a notification,Section 33(1) under which DERA can issue default fines for noncompliancewith orders pursuant to section 21(1),Section 34(1) under which anyone who omits to issue informationon conditions covered by the Heating Supply Act can besanctioned,Section 23l(2) on the possibility for municipalities to conductcertain company reorganisations without set-off against the blockgrant, andSection 23m(1), authority to lay down regulations on when anactivity is deemed to be material in relation to application by amunicipality on maintenance of ownership interests. Executive Order no. 1297 of 15 December 2008 on reportsand statements by municipalities pursuant to sections 37and 37a of the Electricity Supply Act, and sections 23l and23m of the Heating Supply Act Executive Order no. 31 of 29 January 2008 on connectionetc. to collective heating supply plants Act no. 465 of 17 June 2008 introduced regulations on municipaldistrict cooling34 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

International work-the ERGEG.General frameworksion.The two organisations have the same members and coordinate theirNordREGInternational activitiesof the DERA Secretariat-challenges in this work, which has continued throughout 2008 and willgo on into 2009.climate and environment targets on reducing CO 2emissions.Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 200835

Expansion of the electricity transmission grid is responsible for long-term planning of the overalltransmission grid, including for expansion in accordance with theframework conditions and guidelines issued by the authorities.Investments in the electricity transmission infrastructure are shownbelow. Management of the operation of the system, securing adequateproduction capacity and incorporating large amounts ofwind and decentralised production are crucial factors in the plannedinvestments.Investments in the electricity infrastructure (DKK mill.)ContractorProjectscompleted2008Projects 0.0 2,762.0 4,211.6FynsNet 150 kV 0.0 0.0 14.8NV Net 0.0 117.1 277.5Midtjyske Net 22.1 70.0 144.6Sydøstjyske Net 4.8 1.3 21.1Syd Net 2.7 53.8 45.5Vestjyske Net 150 kV 0.0 95.7 321.0SEAS-NVE Net 12.8 0.5 57.0SEAS-NVE Trans. 15.1 680.0 109.0KE Transmission 0.9 1.0 3.0Dong Energy 0.0 32.0 0.0Regional grids 0.0 0.0 143.8Total 58.4 3,813.4 5,348.9-36 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

in close cohesion with initiatives at EU level to integrate the energymarkets. This cohesion was stressed by energy ministers when they metmarket integration.---electricity system constantly in balance.CEER/ERGEG--the gas and electricity markets as well as the tasks of the Agency itself.around the turn of 2011.Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 200837

encourage further integration of the energy markets in Member States.ERGEG’s Regional Initiative was launched in early 2007 and it has alevel, work is continuing to ensure convergence of the regional initiatives.exclusively by the owner.the wholesale markets for gas and electricity, in 2008 the organisationfocused very much on the interests of the retail markets and consumers.The energy-market directives and regulations contain a large number of-38 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

to realise the vision of a common energy market. The large number ofcontinuing national markets are more or less effective for the wholesalemers in the retail market still leaves a lot to be desired.Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 200839

Members of DERADERA was established in 2000 as a regulator acting without instructionstal,business and consumer matters.members of DERA for the next four-year term. On the same date, PrebenSchou, business economist, and Jørgen Aamand, engineer, resigned asmembers.-and in dialogue with sector organisations, other authorities etc.Members of DERA as at 1 January 2008Uffe Bundgaard-JørgensenChairmanJacob Erik HolmbladVice-ChairmanLone JohnsenMA, directorMember,Anders LarsenMemberMemberMembermanagerMemberTorben RiberMogens Arndt40 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

Back row from left: Jacob Holmblad, Anders Larsen, Torben Riber, UllaNeergaard, Uffe Bundgaard-Jørgensen, Lone Johnsen.Front row from left: Jens Sejer Sørensen, Mogens Arndt, Jens RoesgaardDanish Energy Regulatory Authority · 200841

The DERA Secretariat-DERA.Finn Dehlbæk, deputy director generalELECTRICITY GAS HEATINGRune Moesgaard, head of divisionElectricity, including regulationof transmission and grid companies, (electricity),international work in the electricityareaCarsten Smidt, head of divisionNatural gas, international worketc. in the natural gas area (natural gas), supply-obligationelectricity, developmentof benchmark analysismethods (electricity, gas)Kamma Eilschou Holm Jonassen,head of divisionHeating, legal quality assurance,legal assessments, the EnergyBoard of Appeal statistics, EUCommunity law, Energy SuppliesComplaint Board42 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

Case processing and user satisfactionCase processing timesCases processed by DERA 2007 and 20082007 2008Decision Briefing Decision BriefingElectricity 6 6 11 3Natural gas 5 5 6 2District heating 8 8 12 2Cross-sectoral 4 4 1Total 23 23 30 72007 2008New cases 1001 1224Decided cases 962 1155Cases being heard 640 709Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 200843

In 2008, both the number of new cases received and the number of casesbeing heard at the end of the year was similar to 2007.User surveyThe user survey of the DERA secretariat stakeholders for 2008 is basedUser satisfaction is generally higher than the level for 2007. In eight ofthe areas in the survey, user satisfaction has increased, while it has gonedown in two areas.44 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

The Energy Board of Appealthe decision of DERA.Number of cases 2006 2007 2008Brought before the Board of Appeal 34 47 99Decided by the Board of Appeal 22 41 112Of these:upheld 14 21 30annulled/amended/remitted 4 13 59dismissed by the Board of Appeal 3 7 59concluded without judgment 1 12 6Rate of cases reversed 22 % 38 % 36 %The rate of cases reversed is calculated as the total number of cases an-less cases dismissed.Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 200845

Budget and FinanceIn accordance with the three energy Acts, the costs of DERA’s work arethe DERA Secretariat are listed in the table below:Amount DKK ’000 2007 2008Salaries 23.736 20.415Other operating costs 9.097 8.976Total expenditure 32.833 29.391 11 .-and external consultants among other things.Fees accounts 2008 (DKK ’000) Electricity Gas Heating TotalAccumulated unspent fees b/fwd -3.045 4.077 504 1.536Total fee income 2008 11.878 6.317 10.535 28.730Total fees available in 2008 8.833 10.394 11.039 30.266Expenditure in 2008 14.249 4.944 10.188 29.381Accumulated unspent fees c/fwd -5.416 5.450 852 88511Calculations based on registrated time spent on professional mattersand overhead and with a total of 1.924 hours per year for an employee.46 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

Other authorities in the energy areaThe Department of the Ministry of Climate and EnergyThe Danish Energy Agency economic, environmental and health context.The Energy Board of Appealof the legislation.The Competition CouncilThe Energy Supplies Complaint Board-forbrugerklagenævnslovenDanish Energy Regulatory Authority · 200847

The Danish Energy Regulatory Authority:Results and Challenges 2008This publication is available from:The Danish Energy Regulatory AuthorityNyropsgade 301780 Copenhagen V, DenmarkTel.: +45 72 26 80 70Fax: +45 33 32 61 44Email: et@dera.dkwww.energitilsynet.dkThis publication can be found on the Ministry of Climate and Energy and on the DERA website www.energitilsynet.dkNumber printed: 1,600ISBN printed Danish edition 978-87-7029-389-1ISBN electronic Danish edition 978-87-7029-390-7ISBN printed English edition 978-87-7029-391-4ISBN electronic English edition 978-87-7029-392-1Ministry of Climateand EnergyFrederiksholms Kanal 271220 Copenhagen K,DenmarkTel.: +45 33 92 33 55Fax: +45 33 12 38 93Email: mailto:kemin@kemin.dkwww.kemin.dkPhotos: Cover Masterfile/Scanpix,Members of DERA Bjarne HansenDesign: Schultz GrafiskPrinted in Denmark, April 2008 by Schultz GrafiskWeb: Schultz GrafiskTranslation: GlobalDenmark a/sThe DanishEnergy RegulatoryAuthority (DERA)Nyropsgade 301780 Copenhagen V,DenmarkTel.: +45 72 26 80 70Fax: +45 33 32 61 44Email: et@dera.dkwww.energitilsynet.dk48 Danish Energy Regulatory Authority · 2008

Danish Energy Regulatory AuthorityNyropsgade 30DK-1780 Copenhagen VDenmarkTel.: +45 72 26 80 70E-mail:

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