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Oceans of noise - Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society

Oceans of noise - Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society

Spherical or Geometrical

Spherical or Geometrical spreading loss (TL g )Spherical spreading loss assumes a uniform or homogenous environment that is typical of deep waters(>2000m). Sound from a point source will spread outward as spherical waves, and intensity variesinversely with the square of the distance from the source:⎛ R ⎞TL g= 20log⎜⎟⎝ RR < R10 ⎠Where R is the range in metres of the receiver from the source and R 0 is a reference range, usually 1m.With spherical spreading, sound levels decrease by 6dB if distance is doubled and by 20dB whendistance increases by a factor of 10. R 1 is the range in metres at which spherical spreading stops andcylindrical spreading begins.Sea surfaceR 1SourceRReceiverSeabedFigure 2.9. Spherical spreading. Note that for spherical spreading to occur R 1 > R. (adapted fromhttp://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/navy/docs/fun/part08.htm)23

Cylindrical spreading lossCylindrical spreading is appropriate when the medium is non-homogenous. Non-homogenousmediums are typical of stratified or shallow coastal waters (

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