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Oceans of noise - Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society

Oceans of noise - Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society

René SwiftRené is a

René SwiftRené is a research assistant at the University of Aberdeen’s Lighthouse Field Station, where he isstudying the distribution, behaviour and acoustic environment of large whales in the Faroe ShetlandChannel. Before joining the University of Aberdeen, René worked for the International Fund forAnimal Welfare’s Song of the Whale Research Team and the Hebridean Whale and Dolphin Trust.René has been involved in passive acoustic monitoring / mitigation of seismic surveys and hismaster’s thesis looked at the impact of seismic surveys on sperm whale distribution and behaviour.Lindy WeilgartLindy first became involved in undersea noise issues in 1993, when she raised concerns regarding theATOC project. She has since written articles, attended workshops and conferences, reviewed severalenvironmental impact statements and other documents, and given numerous lectures on this topic. Shehas been studying whale sounds since 1982. She received her M.Sc. (Memorial University ofNewfoundland) studying pilot whale vocalisations and behaviour, and her Ph.D. (DalhousieUniversity) researching sperm whale acoustic communication. An NSERC post-doctoral fellowship(Cornell University) allowed her to study the dialects of sperm whales in the South Pacific. She iscurrently an assistant professor and honorary research associate at the Biology Department, DalhousieUniversity, Halifax, Nova Scotia.5

  • Page 2: Oceans of Noise 2004A WDCS Science
  • Page 9 and 10: • some thoughts on the mitigation
  • Page 11 and 12: 1. IntroductionLindy WeilgartThe un
  • Page 13 and 14: 2. The physics of underwater soundR
  • Page 15 and 16: Box 1. Characteristics of sound / l
  • Page 17 and 18: Box 2. The effects of temperature,
  • Page 19 and 20: IntensityThe intensity of a sound i
  • Page 21 and 22: For water, pref = 1µPa rms, _ = 1x
  • Page 23 and 24: 2.2. Types of sound sourceSounds ca
  • Page 25: Cylindrical spreading lossCylindric
  • Page 29 and 30: Energy source(Air gun array)Sea sur
  • Page 31 and 32: driving and pipe-laying (installati
  • Page 33 and 34: produced as the bubble collapses an
  • Page 35 and 36: and broadband noise sources decayed
  • Page 37 and 38: cetaceans to high levels of acousti
  • Page 39 and 40: Navigation(transponders)7-60 180-20
  • Page 41 and 42: SONAR TYPEFREQUENCY RANGE(KHZ)AV. S
  • Page 43 and 44: them from approaching fish farm cag
  • Page 45 and 46: 3.11. Research3.11.1. Controlled Ex
  • Page 47 and 48: frequencies). These sound channels
  • Page 49 and 50: 4.3.6. Danger avoidanceMany vertebr
  • Page 51 and 52: Table 4.1. Summary of sound frequen
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    Table 4.2. Summary of sound frequen

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    5. Noise as a problem for cetaceans

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    Increased vulnerability to diseaseI

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    levels exceed the ear’s tolerance

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    5.6 A New Concern: Is noise causing

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    stranding incident suggests that th

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    The only cetaceans listed in Annex

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    6.4 The US Marine Mammal Protection

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    7. Solutions - mitigation and manag

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    2. More targeted studies into each

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    Noise pollution also needs to be co

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    ange. Therefore prey must be closer

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    identification of images collected.

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    Pierson et al. (1998) indicated a m

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    Baur, D.C., M.J. Bean, M.L. Gosline

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    Cummings, W.C., Thompson, P.O. and

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    Gedamke, J., Costa, D., Dunstan, A.

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    Lagadere, J.P. 1982. Effects of noi

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    National Research Council. 2000. Ma

  • Page 91 and 92:

    Sayigh, L.S., Tyack, P.L., Wells, R

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    Todd, S., Lien, J. and Verhulst, A.

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    December 1989, Pacific Grove, Calif

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    consider just the definition of pol

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    This evidence therefore suggests th

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    jurisdiction (“the UNEP Conclusio

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    Designation of Particularly Sensiti

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    inter alia, internal waters, the te

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    ief framework provision on pollutio

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    definitions are located in the anne

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    Questions arise as to the identity

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    opportunity for, or a hurdle to, ad

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    145 LOSC in respect of polymetallic

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    Seabed Authority) has been establis

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    One possibility is the adoption by

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    Identification and Designation of P

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    Provisions on Ships’ Routeing to

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    4. ConclusionThis paper has analyse

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    Instruments adopted under Bonn Conv

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    Appendix B - Treaties underlying re

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    Appendix C - Selected provisions of

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    abate, combat pollution of the Medi

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    Annex 2. Guidelines for commercial

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    1. Any commercial cetacean-watching

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    Annex 3. Documented examples of cet

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    Location: Sarasota, Florida, USA•

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    • Beluga whales, Delphinapterus l

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    • These results may indicate habi

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    Location: Northwest Atlantic• Nor

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    • The dolphins started to display

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    • Boats that approached within 30

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    Location: Hawaii• On rare occasio

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    Location: Beaufort Sea• Aversion

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    Location: Mexico• Gray whale voca

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    • If boats changed their speed or

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    Corkeron, P.J. 1990. Aspects of the

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    Kibal’chich, A.A., Dzhamanov, G.A

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    ates of fin whales, Balaenoptera ph

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    Annex 4.A note of the Recommendatio

  • Page 169:

    4. the inclusion of anthropogenic n

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