Members of the Advisory Council on International Affairs

Members of the Advisory Council on International Affairs

ong>Membersong> ong>ofong> ong>theong> ong>Advisoryong> ong>Councilong> on International AffairsChairProng>ofong>essor R.F.M. Lubbersong>Membersong>Prong>ofong>essor F.H.J.J. AndriessenA.L. ter BeekProng>ofong>essor C.E. von Benda-Beckmann-Droogleever FortuijnProng>ofong>essor G. van Benong>theong>m van den BerghDr O.B.R.C. van CranenburghProng>ofong>essor C. FlintermanProng>ofong>essor E.J. de KadtDr B. KnapenOfficial advisorsF.A.M. Majoor (Ministry ong>ofong> Foreign Affairs)B.W. Bargerbos (Ministry ong>ofong> Defence)SecretaryF. van BeuningenP.O. Box 200612500 EB The HagueThe Neong>theong>rlandsTelephone + 31-70-348 5108/6060Fax + 31-70-348 6256E-mail AIV@minbuza.nlInternet

CountryIs ong>theong>re aparliamentarydefencecommittee?Is ong>theong>re ageneralresearchbureau forparliament?Is ong>theong>re adefenceresearchbureau forparliament?Are independentstudiesperformedfor majorgovernmentcontracts?Are ong>theong>re anyindependentresearchinstitutes?AdditionalinformationItalyYesThe House ong>ofong>Representativesong>ofong> parliament(i.e. ong>theong>Camera Deputati)has itsown researchdepartmentwith a staff ong>ofong>about 40(known as ong>theong>Servizio Studi).No–Parliamentmakes regularuse ong>ofong> researchinstitutes manyong>ofong> which receiveat least onethird ong>ofong> ong>theong>irfunding in ong>theong>form ong>ofong> governmentgrants.–AustriaYes–There aregovernmentresearch centresthat ong>theong>parliament isalso entitled touse.Yes. Althoughthis is technicallyfeasible,it has not actuallybeen donefor some considerabletime.––SwitzerlandYes–NoNo––It is clear from ong>theong> information we have received that none ong>ofong> ong>theong> countries in questionhas an institute that is capable ong>ofong> carrying out defence research on behalf ong>ofong> parliament,as is described in ong>theong> motion tabled by Mr Zijlstra and Ms van ‘t Riet. In thissense, ong>theong> Neong>theong>rlands is no different from oong>theong>r countries. At ong>theong> same time, in somecountries support staff have been attached to a parliamentary defence committee.There are seven countries that have some sort ong>ofong> general support service for ong>theong> membersong>ofong> ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Representatives. Such support varies tremendously in scale,ranging from ong>theong> US Library ong>ofong> Congress, which does much more than simply supportCongress (and ong>theong> Congressional Research Service, that provides Congress with informationservices) to ong>theong> relatively small-scale Wissenschaftliche Dienst ong>ofong> ong>theong> GermanBundestag or ong>theong> Service des Etudes et de la Documentation ong>ofong> ong>theong> French Assemblée.The type ong>ofong> support provided also varies, ranging from research studies, wheong>theong>rindependent or not, to ong>theong> extraction ong>ofong> data from public sources. Finally, not all parliamentshave a tradition ong>ofong> seeking advice from external consultants in order to form anopinion on certain issues.13

considering ong>theong> practical issues involved, such as funding, ong>theong> availability ong>ofong> expertstaff and ong>theong> anticipated cost in proportion to ong>theong> expected results. 17The AIV believes that a more practical solution – and one that could be implemented inong>theong> short term – would be to create some sort ong>ofong> body that could match supply withdemand instead ong>ofong> an independent institute undertaking academic research. This bodywould be relatively small and its prime task would be to commission existing researchinstitutes and universities (both in ong>theong> Neong>theong>rlands and abroad) to perform studies, orto use oong>theong>r means in order to give ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Representatives access to ong>theong> expertiseit needs. The body should have a staff ong>ofong> between three and five specialists,recruited from universities, research institutes and/or centres ong>ofong> military expertise,who would only need to devote a limited part ong>ofong> ong>theong>ir time to ong>theong>ir work for this body.They should be sufficiently qualified to act as knowledge brokers between ong>theong> House ong>ofong>Representatives and ong>theong> defence research infrastructure in both ong>theong> Neong>theong>rlands andabroad. It is ong>theong>refore vital to recruit authoritative experts who are familiar with securityand defence issues (i.e. policy, international and European cooperation, organisationalissues, funding, staffing, procurement, etc.). Legislative and oong>theong>r measures should betaken to guarantee ong>theong> independence ong>ofong> ong>theong>se experts.This could meet ong>theong> need expressed by ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Representatives for a systemthat is capable ong>ofong> dealing with defence research issues that ong>theong> House wishes toaddress. The House ong>ofong> Representatives must, however, be prepared to assume responsibilityfor formulating research briefs: ong>theong>se should explain what it wishes to know,why this is important in ong>theong> light ong>ofong> future decisions and by which date it needs to haveong>theong> data in question. It is important to realise that it takes time to complete aresearch project and to generate ong>theong> relevant data. In oong>theong>r words, ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Representativesmust look ahead when formulating its research requests. This can only beachieved if ong>theong> experts in question are in regular contact with members ong>ofong> ong>theong> House(for example, ong>theong> permanent defence committee). Moreover, this type ong>ofong> consultation –between ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Representatives and external experts – may also encourage ong>theong>House to take a proactive attitude in commissioning research studies so as to takeaccount ong>ofong> defence issues that it may well need to debate in ong>theong> future.17 The following table is intended to give ong>theong> reader an impression ong>ofong> ong>theong> size ong>ofong> existing research institutesand ong>theong>ir budgets (ong>theong> figures in question are based on emails received from ong>theong> institutes concerned):Name ong>ofong> institute Number ong>ofong> staff Annual budget(approximate figure)(approximate figure)Neong>theong>rlands Institute ong>ofong> 60 NLG 10.9 millionInternational Relations ‘Clingendael’Rand Corporation 1,100 (including 700 USD 140 millionresearchers)Stiftung für Wissenschaft und Politik 110 (including 35 DEM 16 millionresearchers)Bonn International Centre for 35 (including 15 DEM 4.5 millionConversion (BICC)researchers)International Institute for 43 GBP 2 millionStrategic Studies16

Recommendation:Given that ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Representatives has called on ong>theong> government to examine ong>theong>options for creating a defence research capacity, ong>theong> AIV urges ong>theong> government to concentratenot on establishing an institute to conduct independent research, but on findinga way ong>ofong> matching ong>theong> demand from ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Representatives with ong>theong> supplyong>ofong> defence expertise in ong>theong> Neong>theong>rlands and abroad. The AIV recommends that ong>theong> governmentrecruit a select group ong>ofong> experts to act as knowledge brokers between ong>theong>House ong>ofong> Representatives and ong>theong> defence research infrastructure in ong>theong> Neong>theong>rlandsand abroad.IV.2Concluding remarksThe AIV believes that it is basically up to ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Representatives to decide onong>theong> nature ong>ofong> ong>theong> defence research capacity that is to be created. We have alreadyexplained in Section III ong>ofong> this report that ong>theong>re is a body ong>ofong> opinion in ong>theong> House ong>ofong>Representatives in favour ong>ofong> ong>theong> establishment ong>ofong> an evaluation or research unit. It isnot yet clear wheong>theong>r such a unit will also encompass defence research, and if so,when, and wheong>theong>r ong>theong> mission ong>ofong> such an evaluation agency or general research unitwill be compatible with ong>theong> need for a defence research capacity as set out in ong>theong>Zijlstra and van ‘t Riet motion. A case could be made, however, for incorporating adefence research capacity into ong>theong> evaluation or research unit which ong>theong> House ong>ofong>Representatives itself wishes to set up.As long as ong>theong> picture remains unclear, ong>theong> AIV is prepared to place its own expertiseat parliament’s disposal and thus, where required, help to bridge ong>theong> gap between ong>theong>House ong>ofong> Representatives and ong>theong> defence knowledge infrastructure as described inSection V.1. The AIV does not regard this as anything more than a stopgap solution,ong>theong> details ong>ofong> which could be discussed once ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Representatives concludesthat it does indeed wish to use ong>theong> AIV’s services as a knowledge broker. This arrangementcan only be temporary because it would oong>theong>rwise pose a threat to ong>theong> AIV’s abilityto perform its primary role, i.e. making strategic policy recommendations on a broadrange ong>ofong> foreign policy and defence issues.Against this background, ong>theong> AIV would like to take this opportunity to remind ong>theong>House ong>ofong> Representatives that it enjoys ong>theong> same right as ong>theong> government to ask ong>theong>AIV for its opinion on matters relating to government policy. These include both defenceissues and oong>theong>r international issues. Indeed, all ong>theong> research topics listed in Section Iwould form suitable subject matter for AIV advisory reports on government policy. Withong>theong> exception ong>ofong> ong>theong> technical aspects ong>ofong> defence procurement in a narrow sense, ong>theong>topics in question have a sufficiently strong link with government policy for ong>theong> AIV tobe able to produce a report on each ong>ofong> ong>theong>m should this be required.17

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE STATES-GENERAL1999-2000 session26 900 2000 Defence White PaperNo. 7MOTION TABLED BY MEMBERS ZIJLSTRA AND VAN ‘T RIETPresented during ong>theong> debate on ong>theong> White Paper on14 February 2000The House,having heard ong>theong> deliberations,whereas ong>theong>re is no capacity in ong>theong> Neong>theong>rlands forconducting research into defence issues in ong>theong> broadestsense ong>ofong> ong>theong> word,requests ong>theong> government to examine how to create such aapacity and to report to ong>theong> House accordingly,and proceeds to ong>theong> order ong>ofong> ong>theong> day.ZijlstraVan ‘t Riet

Annexe IIFact-finding study conducted in ong>theong> frameworkong>ofong> ong>theong> report on defence research capacity1 Introduction2 Country-by-country survey2.1 USA 32.2 Canada 42.3 Germany 52.4 UK 72.5 France 82.6 Belgium 102.7 Norway 102.8 Denmark 112.9 Sweden 132.10 Spain 142.11 Portugal 152.12 Italy 162.13 Austria 172.14 Switzerland 17

1 IntroductionThe motion tabled by MPs Zijlstra and Van ‘t Riet and ong>theong> request for advice on ong>theong> creationong>ofong> an independent defence research capacity made pursuant to this motion, may be seenagainst ong>theong> background ong>ofong> parliament’s broader desire to strengong>theong>n its own scrutinisingrole. It would appear that parliament needs more support in order to address ong>theong> increasinglycomplex social and political issues facing it. This study contains information on ong>theong>support provided to national parliaments in a number ong>ofong> countries: ong>theong> USA, Canada, Germany,ong>theong> UK, France, Belgium, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Austriaand Switzerland. This information was obtained from ong>theong> Dutch embassies in ong>theong> countriesconcerned, which were asked to answer ong>theong> following list ong>ofong> questions:1 Does ong>theong> parliament in ong>theong> country where ong>theong> embassy is located have its own researchbureaus that help it to scrutinise government policy? The AIV is interested specifically inresearch that is conducted prior to political or parliamentary decision-making. If suchbureaus exist, how are ong>theong>y organised (i.e. in terms ong>ofong> number ong>ofong> staffing, budget andfunding)? (See sections x.x.2 below.)2 Is ong>theong>re a research bureau geared specifically towards defence policy in ong>theong> countrywhere ong>theong> mission is located? If so, does it concern itself solely with technical issues ordoes its remit extend to general policy matters? How is it organised? (See sections x.x.3below.)3 Does ong>theong> parliament in ong>theong> country where ong>theong> embassy is located commission independentresearch when decisions have to be taken on major spending items (such as ong>theong>purchase ong>ofong> large weapon systems)? If so, who undertakes this research? (See sectionsx.x.4 below.)4 Are ong>theong>re any independent defence research institutes in ong>theong> country where ong>theong> embassyis located? If so, do ong>theong>y concern ong>theong>mselves primarily with technical issues (as in ong>theong>case ong>ofong> ong>theong> Neong>theong>rlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) or are ong>theong>y gearedmore towards policy matters (as in ong>theong> case ong>ofong> ong>theong> Clingendael institute in ong>theong> Neong>theong>rlands)?What is ong>theong> relationship between such institutes as a group and between ong>theong>institutes and parliament? (See sections x.x.5 below.)The answers to ong>theong> above questions are set out below on a country-by-country basis. Wehave tried to stick as closely as possible to ong>theong> wording used by ong>theong> embassies. We shouldpoint out that not all questions were answered in all cases.2

2 Country-by-country survey2.1 USA2.1.1 Parliamentary committeeThe Committee on ong>theong> Armed Services is ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Representatives committee thatdeals with defence-related issues. It consists ong>ofong> ong>theong> following sub-committees: ong>theong> Subcommitteeon Military Installations and Facilities, ong>theong> Subcommittee on Military Personnel, ong>theong>Subcommittee on Military Procurement, ong>theong> Subcommittee on Military Readiness and ong>theong>Subcommittee on Military Research and Development.2.1.2 Research bureauThe Library ong>ofong> Congress plays a pivotal role in relation to information services and policyresearch. Its main priority is to give ong>theong> members ong>ofong> ong>theong> US Congress access to knowledgeand creativity. It is widely recognised that ong>theong> size and scope ong>ofong> ong>theong> collections held by ong>theong>Library ong>ofong> Congress are way in excess ong>ofong> that which is needed simply to perform an informationand research role for ong>theong> US parliament. Facilities for ong>theong> general public and academicusers are unparalleled. ong>Membersong> ong>ofong> Congress can use ong>theong> Library’s CongressionalResearch Service, which specialises in giving oong>theong>rs access to information.The parliamentary committees ong>ofong> ong>theong> US Congress can use ong>theong> services ong>ofong> ong>theong> Committeeon ong>theong> Budget for research into budgetary aspects. The Committee on ong>theong> Budget isresponsible for monitoring all research into ong>theong> effects ong>ofong> expenditure that is related toexisting or proposed legislation and for initiating and evaluating research into tax spending.Finally, ong>theong>re is also a Congressional Budget Office that actually does ong>theong> practical workinvolved.2.1.3 Defence research bureauThe US Congress does not have a research bureau that concerns itself exclusively withdefence issues.N.B. Our respondent at ong>theong> embassy said that ong>theong>re were no examples ong>ofong> ‘independent’studies initiated by Congress. On ong>theong> oong>theong>r hand, both ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Representatives andong>theong> Senate obtain information by holding hearings at which experts and research institutesare invited to express ong>theong>ir views on certain subjects.2.1.4 Independent research studies in connection with major government contractsThe Department ong>ofong> Defence has a wide range ong>ofong> technical testing and evaluation facilitiesthat are comparable to those available to ong>theong> Neong>theong>rlands Organisation for AppliedScientific Research.The Americans spend much more than ong>theong> Europeans on R&D. There are competitive tenderingprocedures for defence contracts and products supplied by ong>theong> defence industry areregularly subjected to comparative surveys.2.1.5 Independent research institutesThere are a large number ong>ofong> independent institutes in ong>theong> USA that conduct research intodefence and related fields. Many ong>ofong> ong>theong>m work in conjunction with interest groups andchannel ong>theong>ir output through parliamentary lobbies. The latter are sometimes founded forong>theong> sole purpose ong>ofong> attaining a specified object and lead relatively short lives.3

The Brookings Institution in Washington D.C. is one ong>ofong> ong>theong> better known independentresearch institutes 1 and seeks to act as a bridge between ong>theong> academic world and policymakers.Although ong>ofong>ten branded a government think-tank, it is independent ong>ofong> government 2and is in ong>theong>ory also at ong>theong> disposal ong>ofong> parliamentary committees.Oong>theong>r well-known independent research institutes are:– ong>theong> Rand Corporation;– ong>theong> Centre for Strategic and International Studies;– ong>theong> Carnegie Endowment for International Peace;– ong>theong> Institute for Defence Analysis.2.2 Canada2.2.1 Parliamentary committeeThere are three committees in Canada that are active in ong>theong> domain ong>ofong> security anddefence: ong>theong> Standing Committee on National Defence and Veterans Affairs, ong>theong> StandingCommittee on Foreign Affairs, and ong>theong> Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and InternationalTrade.2.2.2 Research bureauThe Library ong>ofong> Parliament (LP) acts as a parliamentary research bureau. It consists ong>ofong> twoprincipal branches:– ong>theong> Parliamentary Research Branch, that performs research and analyses, and makespolicy recommendations to members ong>ofong> ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Representatives and parliamentarycommittees;– ong>theong> Information and Documentation Branch.The LP has a staff ong>ofong> about 280 and had a spending budget ong>ofong> CAD 20.5 million in 1999.The Canadian parliament’s website contains extensive information on ong>theong> services providedby ong>theong> LP, its mandate, etc. Please see for furong>theong>r information. (See also ong>theong>LP Performance Report for 1998-1999.)2.2.3 Defence research bureauCanada does not have a parliamentary research bureau that concentrates exclusively ondefence issues. From time to time, parliament sets up a Special Committee (consistingeiong>theong>r ong>ofong> a number ong>ofong> members ong>ofong> ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Commons or a mixture ong>ofong> members ong>ofong> bothHouses) to study a particular issue. In February 1994, for example, a Special Joint Committeeong>ofong> ong>theong> Senate and ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Commons was formed to examine Canadian defencepolicy. The Committee spent a period ong>ofong> six months collecting information both in Canadaand in oong>theong>r countries. In response to ong>theong> resultant report, ong>theong> government published its1994 Defence White Paper, substantial parts ong>ofong> which were in line with ong>theong> recommendationsmade by ong>theong> Committee.1 It is involved in both research and teaching.2 The Brookings Institution is in fact funded by philanthropic foundations, private-sector firms andprivate individuals.4

2.2.4 Independent research studies in connection with major government contractsSee above under 2.2.1. As far as ong>theong> respondent was aware, no independent researchstudies are commissioned.2.2.5 Independent research institutesThe federal government operates a policy-oriented Security and Defence Forum. Thisprogramme, managed by ong>theong> Ministry ong>ofong> Defence, has three basic aims:(a) developing and supporting Canadian expertise in security and defence matters;(b) stimulating informed public debate;(c) fostering communication between ong>theong> Ministry ong>ofong> Defence, ong>theong> armed forces and ong>theong>academic community.Two key components ong>ofong> this Forum are ong>theong> Centres ong>ofong> Expertise and ong>theong> Chair ong>ofong> DefenceManagement Studies. Although ong>theong>y are subsidised by ong>theong> government, ong>theong>y enjoy full academicfreedom in setting ong>theong>ir research agendas. There are currently 12 Centres ong>ofong> Expertise;ong>theong>se are based in various Canadian universities and receive government grants worthbetween CAD 45,000 and CAD 100,000 per annum. In many cases, ong>theong>se grants form ong>theong>core ong>ofong> a Centre’s funding and are supplemented by funds from oong>theong>r sources. Each Centredevelops its own expertise in one or more aspects ong>ofong> defence or security studies. The ideais that ong>theong>ir work should ultimately lead to a greater degree ong>ofong> affinity with defence andsecurity issues in academic circles and in general terms help to furong>theong>r knowledge andunderstanding ong>ofong> ong>theong> defence and security challenges facing Canada.The Chair ong>ofong> Defence Management Studies was created to develop ong>theong> knowledge and skillsthat are required to manage current defence policy. Key issues in this respect are decisionmakingon defence issues, financial management and budgeting, capital expenditure anddefence procurement, ong>theong> defence industry and civil-military relations.The Security and Defence Forum also funds a number ong>ofong> study grants and traineeships forundergraduate and postgraduate courses relating to Canadian defence and security. It alsoawards modest grants in support ong>ofong> projects initiated by individuals or institutions, such asconferences, seminars, individual research studies and papers.The Ministry ong>ofong> Defence also funds a number ong>ofong> oong>theong>r institutions that are active in thisparticular field, such as ong>theong> Centre for Conflict Studies, ong>theong> Canadian Institute ong>ofong> InternationalAffairs, ong>theong> Canadian Institute ong>ofong> Strategic Studies and ong>theong> Conference ong>ofong> DefenceAssociations.Finally, ong>theong>re is a technical bureau known as ong>theong> Defence Research and DevelopmentBranch. This is based on Ottawa and is comparable to ong>theong> Physics and Electronics Laboratoryong>ofong> ong>theong> Neong>theong>rlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research.2.3 Germany2.3.1 Parliamentary committeeIn Germany, ong>theong> Defence Committee is ong>theong> parliamentary committee that is responsible fordealing with matters relating to defence legislation and also for scrutinising ong>theong> activities ong>ofong>ong>theong> armed forces.5

In addition to ong>theong> personal assistants ong>ofong> ong>theong> members ong>ofong> ong>theong> Bundestag, each parliamentaryparty has specialist researchers ong>ofong> its own working in its party ong>ofong>fice (ong>theong>re are generallyone or two researchers in each parliamentary party covering security policy and defence).2.3.2 Research bureauThe Bundestag has its own Wissenschaftliche Dienst, or Scientific Agency, which provides‘comprehensive information and expert advice’ in response to requests made by individualmembers ong>ofong> ong>theong> Bundestag. It is a relatively small unit, with three members ong>ofong> staff beingresponsible for handling matters relating to defence and security. Acting on requests fromBundestag members, ong>theong>y compile ‘Kurzberichte’ that are frequently based on externalsources ong>ofong> information.2.3.3 Defence research bureauThere is no defence research bureau that works solely on behalf ong>ofong> ong>theong> German parliament.2.3.4 Independent research studies in connection with major government contractsNone. There are two prime sources ong>ofong> information that parliament ong>ofong>ten uses in relation todecisions on major defence contracts: ong>theong> government and competitors.2.3.5 Independent research institutesThere are a large number ong>ofong> independent research institutes in Germany, dealing with bothtechnical aspects and security policy. Most ong>ofong> ong>theong>se are more or less fully governmentfunded(eiong>theong>r by ong>theong> federal government or by ong>theong> relevant state government), with subsidiestaking ong>theong> form ong>ofong> eiong>theong>r direct budgetary support or a shareholding. A small number ong>ofong>institutes have a formal link with ong>theong> government. In no case, however, is ong>theong>re a formalrelationship with parliament.The Frauenhong>ofong>er Gesellschaft, which is subsidised by ong>theong> German Ministry ong>ofong> Defence, isa well-known umbrella organisation for technical research. It has 47 specialist institutesunder its wing that obtain ong>theong>ir funding partly in ong>theong> form ong>ofong> subsidies, but also – and toan increasing degree – from commercial work. Some ong>ofong> ong>theong> more familiar names are ong>theong>Hydroakoestisch Institut, ong>theong> Deutsche Institut für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) and ong>theong> Institutfür die Chemie der Treib- und Explosivstong>ofong>fe (ICT).There is also ong>theong> IABG in Ottobeuren, near Munich. This is owned by ong>theong> Bayerische Landesbank,which is in turn a state corporation. The IABG has a sizeable defence branch, includingong>theong> Zentrum für Europaïsche Strategieforschung, and has close links with ong>theong> Bavariandefence industry (notably DASA and Kraus Maffei Wegmann).As far as security policy is concerned, one ong>ofong> ong>theong> leading research institutes is ong>theong> Bundesakademiefür Sicherheitspolitik, which is formally part ong>ofong> ong>theong> German Ministry ong>ofong> Defence.The staff ong>ofong> ong>theong> Bundesakademie are all ong>ofong>ficially civil servants.Oong>theong>r important bodies are ong>theong> Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik (SWP, which was alsoinvolved in ong>theong> Ebenhausen seminar, ong>theong> Deutsche Gesellschaft für Auswärtige Politik(DGAP) and ong>theong> Hessische Stiftung für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung. Although all threehave civil-law status, ong>theong>y are neverong>theong>less dependent on ong>theong> government for most ong>ofong> ong>theong>irresources. They are not allied with any specific political party or movement. Distantly relatedto ong>theong>se institutes is ong>theong> Bonn International Centre for Conversion (BICC), which is activein a highly specialised field and from time to time publishes studies on its own initiative tostimulate public debate, for example, when ong>theong> Bundestag was debating ong>theong> Eurong>ofong>ighter.6

Finally, ong>theong>re are ong>theong> Politische Stiftungen. These are typically German institutions, and performa broader role than ong>theong> research institutes operating under ong>theong> aegis ong>ofong> ong>theong> Dutchpolitical parties. Most ong>ofong> ong>theong>m have a staff running into hundreds ong>ofong> people; togeong>theong>r, ong>theong>yhave an aggregate budget (which is allocated by ong>theong> central government) ong>ofong> approximatelyDEM 200 million. Although ong>theong>y are formally independent, ong>theong>ir recommendations generallytend to be in fairly close keeping with ong>theong> philosophy espoused by ong>theong> political party withwhich ong>theong>y are associated:– Friedrich Ebert Stiftung: SPD;– Konrad Adenauer Stiftung: CDU;– Heinrich Böll Stiftung: Greens;– Friedrich Naumann Stiftung: FDP;– Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung: PDS.It should be stressed that ong>theong>se ‘stiftungen’ have only limited expertise in defence issuesin a strict sense, and that relatively little practical use is made ong>ofong> ong>theong>ir research capacity inthis particular area. They tend to play a more prominent role in analysing security policy.2.4 United Kingdom2.4.1 Parliamentary committeeWhen parliament decides to examine ong>theong> government’s policy on defence issues (e.g. ong>theong>Strategic Defence Review, policy on Kosovo and policy on weapons ong>ofong> mass destruction),this is generally done by ong>theong> relevant House Select Committee, in which all parties are representedin proportion to ong>theong>ir status in ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Commons. These Select Committeeshave far-reaching powers to take written or oral evidence from experts both from within government(e.g. civil servants and military personnel) and from outside (e.g. external expertsand academics). The Defence Select Committee ong>ofong> ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Commons is ong>theong> parliamentarycommittee that is concerned specifically with defence policy.2.4.2 Research bureauAlthough ong>theong> British parliament does not have a research bureau ong>ofong> its own, it does have avery extensive library that is staffed by expert librarians (comparable with ong>theong> Library ong>ofong>Congress in ong>theong> US). This library has a total staff ong>ofong> about 200 and a special InternationalAffairs and Defence Section (IADS) with five researchers and eight supporting staff.Although only ong>theong> equivalent ong>ofong> 1.5 full-time staff actually specialise in defence in ong>theong> strictsense, extra manpower may be drafted in as and when ong>theong> need arises, as in ong>theong> case ong>ofong>ong>theong> crisis in Kosovo, when four ong>ofong> ong>theong> five researchers were working more or less constantlyon Kosovo. The library’s research departments are predominantly demand-driven. At ong>theong>same time, existing documentation is regularly updated and researchers also seek toanticipate future developments (for example, ong>theong>y are currently preparing a report on NMD).The library has a total spending budget ong>ofong> GBP 8 million per annum. Although ong>theong> librarydoes not make clear exactly how much ong>ofong> this is spent on research into security issues, itis possible to make a rough estimate ong>ofong> ong>theong> amount in question by working on ong>theong> assumptionthat ‘1.5’ people out ong>ofong> a total staff ong>ofong> 200 are employed full-time on defenceresearch.MPs ong>ofong>ten cite ong>theong> library as a source in statements and questions, and its staff areregarded as being authoritative in terms ong>ofong> ong>theong>ir knowledge and expertise.7

2.4.3 Defence research bureauThe British parliament does not have a research bureau specifically for defence issues.It is important to note that ong>theong> Select Committees have ong>theong>ir own expert staff. The SelectCommittee for Defence employs five people on a full-time basis, including support staff.These cost approximately GBP 150,000 per annum in salaries, plus expenses (for travel,etc.). The amount ong>ofong> expenditure incurred by ong>theong> entire Committee in 1998-1999 wasapproximately GBP 126,000. Our respondent estimated that total expenditure averaged inong>theong> order ong>ofong> GBP 300,000 per annum. Temporary staff may also be used for reporting purposes.2.4.4 Independent research studies in connection with major government contractsNone.2.4.5 Independent research institutesThere are a number ong>ofong> good research institutes operating outside parliament that specialisein security and defence matters. They vary in terms ong>ofong> ong>theong>ir degree ong>ofong> independence,but are all used with great regularity by parliament. The leading institutes are listed below,beginning with ong>theong> least independent:– ong>theong> Royal United Services Institute (RUSI), that has links with ong>theong> Ministry ong>ofong> Defenceand undertakes research studies exclusively in ong>theong> domain ong>ofong> defence and security;– ong>theong> Royal Institute ong>ofong> International Affairs (RIIA, also known as Chatham House), whichspecialises in international relations, including security issues;– ong>theong> fairly recently founded Centre for European Reform, that focuses on Europeanissues, including (but not primarily) security and defence issues;– ong>theong> authoritative International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), which is fully independentand examines defence and security in a broad sense.There are also a number ong>ofong> universities where research is undertaken into defence andsecurity issues.2.5 France2.5.1 Parliamentary committeeIn France, parliamentary scrutiny ong>ofong> government policy is ong>theong> joint preserve ong>ofong> ong>theong> AssembléeNationale and ong>theong> Senate. There are currently 577 representatives in ong>theong> Assembléeand 321 Senators. Parliamentary scrutiny ong>ofong> defence policy is exercised by ong>theong> permanentdefence committee ong>ofong> ong>theong> Assemblée and ong>theong> Senate.Both chambers have six permanent committees each covering a specific area, including foreignaffairs and defence. These committees have a permanent staff who are responsiblefor performing preparatory and supporting work. The committees also undertake researchprior to political decision-making.2.5.2 Research bureauThe permanent defence committee has a staff ong>ofong> seven. These are all ong>ofong>ficials with expertisein ong>theong> field ong>ofong> defence, and each ong>ofong> ong>theong>m has his or her own specialist field. They compilefiles and perform research in support ong>ofong> ong>theong> committee’s work. They can also performa number ong>ofong> practical jobs that would oong>theong>rwise be performed by MPs, i.e. ong>theong>y can act onbehalf ong>ofong> ong>theong> defence committee. Our respondent was unable to provide any information on8

ong>theong> size ong>ofong> ong>theong> committee’s spending budget, but did say that ong>theong> committee was paid forby ong>theong> Assemblée itself.The Assemblée also has a research bureau ong>ofong> its own, although this is not geared specificallytowards defence. This institute is known as ong>theong> ‘Service des Etudes et de la Documentation’and acts as ong>theong> Assemblée’s information desk. It is divided into four divisions,each ong>ofong> which covers a particular field and is headed by a Secretary. Under ong>theong> Assemblée’sconstitution, ong>theong> ‘Service’ is responsible for supplying representatives with ong>theong> informationong>theong>y need in order to carry out ong>theong>ir mandate. This information is supplied in ong>theong>form ong>ofong> studies, files and answers to questions on specific issues.The ‘Service’ has a staff ong>ofong> 36, all ong>ofong> whom are accountable to ong>theong> Assemblée’s speakerand clerk. The four ong>theong>matic divisions are as follows:– culture, work and public health;– social security;– economic and financial affairs;– legal and administrative affairs.The cost ong>ofong> ong>theong> Service des Etudes is borne by ong>theong> Assemblée. We were not able to obtainany information on ong>theong> size ong>ofong> ong>theong> Service’s annual spending budget.2.5.3 Defence research bureauThe French parliament does not have a research bureau working specifically on defenceissues.2.5.4 Independent research studies in connection with major government contractsNone.2.5.5 Independent research institutesThere are a number ong>ofong> institutes operating outside parliament that undertake research intodefence issues:– The Centre de la Documentation de l’Armement (CEDOCAR) is part ong>ofong> ong>theong> Ministry ong>ofong>Defence. Its prime concern is arms issues, and it deals with technical, political andstrategic aspects. Its main clients are ong>theong> Ministry ong>ofong> Defence itself and ong>theong> Frenchdefence industry. Although it is not customary for ong>theong> Assemblée to ask ong>theong> Centre toanswer questions in relation to policy matters, ong>theong> members ong>ofong> ong>theong> Assemblée do haveaccess to its well-equipped library.– In addition, ong>theong> Ministry ong>ofong> Defence funds a number ong>ofong> technical schools and colleges,such as ong>theong> prestigious École Polytechnique in Paris.– The Institut Français des Relations Internationales (IFRI) is ong>theong> counterpart ong>ofong> ong>theong> Clingendaelinstitute in ong>theong> Neong>theong>rlands. The main difference between ong>theong> two is ong>theong> closelinks that exist between ong>theong> IFRI and ong>theong> French private sector, which provides part ong>ofong> itsfunding. The IFRI’s activities include organising seminars, performing research on internationalrelations and publishing on subjects in ong>theong>se fields.These institutes do not enjoy particularly close links with ong>theong> French parliament. Obviously,ong>theong> members ong>ofong> ong>theong> Assemblée do have access to ong>theong> information ong>theong>y gaong>theong>r, but we weretold by ong>theong> Assemblée that it seldom makes use ong>ofong> recommendations from independent,external organisations when taking decisions.9

2.6 Belgium2.6.1 Parliamentary committeeIn Belgium, parliamentary scrutiny ong>ofong> defence policy is a matter for ong>theong> National DefenceCommittee.2.6.2 Research bureauThe Belgian parliament does not have its own research bureau to help it to scrutinise governmentpolicy.2.6.3 Defence research bureauAs far as ong>theong> embassy is aware, ong>theong>re is also no research institute in Belgium that isgeared specifically towards defence issues.Despite ong>theong> absence ong>ofong> a research bureau that is capable ong>ofong> supporting parliament withregard to defence policy, ong>theong> government, and more specifically ong>theong> Minister ong>ofong> NationalDefence, does have a centre that debates and conducts research into security issues. TheDefence Study Centre is part ong>ofong> ong>theong> Royal Higher Defence Institute (established by RoyalDecree ong>ofong> 8 October 1998). However, undertaking ong>theong> type ong>ofong> in-depth research describedin ong>theong> letter requesting ong>theong> AIV to produce a report is not its principal object.2.6.4 Independent research studies in connection with major government contractsAs far as major public contracts are concerned, ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Representatives, and morespecifically ong>theong> Ad-Hoc Committee on Army Procurement, exercises its own supervisorypowers. This is not simply a matter ong>ofong> performing post-factum checks, as ong>theong> committee isalso entitled to advise ong>theong> minister.2.6.5 Independent research institutesAlthough ong>theong> Royal Institute for International Relations (KIIB) is an independent researchinstitute, its activities are by no means policy-related or intended as preparatory work forgovernment policy, as is ong>theong> case with ong>theong> Clingendael institute in ong>theong> Neong>theong>rlands. Thestaff ong>ofong> ong>theong> KIIB do, however, contribute to a journal called Internationale Spectator.2.7 NorwayBroadly speaking, ong>theong> Storting, ong>theong> Norwegian lower chamber, does not have any resourcesat its disposal that it can use to fund independent research (i.e. oong>theong>r than through governmentchannels) on defence issues. Apparently, this has never been a topic ong>ofong> debate.Moreover, ong>theong> members ong>ofong> ong>theong> Norwegian parliament do not have ong>theong> backing ong>ofong> enoughstaff to be able to properly interpret any additional information generated by such independentresearch. The government, too, does not really have any advisory bodies that could beregarded as genuinely independent. Noneong>theong>less, it was recently decided that, where ong>theong>price tendered for a particular government contract was in excess ong>ofong> NOK 500 million, ong>theong>tender should be assessed by an ad-hoc committee ong>ofong> independent experts. However, thisapplies specifically to ong>theong> price, and not to ong>theong> underlying policy.2.7.1 Parliamentary committeeThe Standing Committee on Defence is ong>theong> committee in ong>theong> Norwegian parliament thatdeals specifically with defence policy.10

2.7.2 Research bureauThe Storting does not have any research bureaus ong>ofong> its own. Parliamentary scrutiny relatesprimarily to matters ong>ofong> a financial, administrative and managerial nature, and is exercisedafter raong>theong>r than before decision-making. Obviously, all decisions on defence matters areprepared by ong>theong> Standing Committee on Defence, which is entitled to ask ong>theong> Minister ong>ofong>Defence for additional information or research data. The minister may in turn seek expertadvice before presenting such information.2.7.3 Defence research bureauNone. The Norwegian defence structure does include a ong>Councilong> for Defence Research,however. This consists ong>ofong> five members, with a former Chief ong>ofong> Defence Staff in ong>theong> chairand ong>theong> four oong>theong>r members being civil servants ong>ofong> good repute. The ong>Councilong> is responsiblefor scrutinising ong>theong> consistency ong>ofong> ong>theong> government’s funding, policy-making and programmesin broad terms and is entitled to present alternatives. In practice, ong>theong> ong>Councilong>’sservices are at ong>theong> disposal ong>ofong> ong>theong> Norwegian government in general and ong>theong> Minister ong>ofong>Defence in particular, as well as ong>theong> military establishment in general and ong>theong> Chief ong>ofong>Defence Staff in particular, but not ong>theong> Storting. Our respondents were unable to saywheong>theong>r ong>theong> latter was a result ong>ofong> custom or regulation.Norway also has an Institute for Defence Studies, ong>theong> Norwegian equivalent ong>ofong> ong>theong> DutchClingendael institute, but geared exclusively towards defence issues. Although it labelsitself as an independent institute, it is in fact assisted and supervised by a number ong>ofong> bodiesincluding ong>theong> Ministry ong>ofong> Defence and ong>theong> University ong>ofong> Oslo. The Institute’s main task isconducting research into defence and security issues, although it is mainly active afterraong>theong>r than before decision-making. All research is undertaken on a fee-paying basis.2.7.4 Independent research studies in connection with major government contractsAs we have already mentioned, ong>theong> Storting does not seek advice from research bureaus,not even in ong>theong> case ong>ofong> major government contracts. Noneong>theong>less, it was decided this yearthat, where ong>theong> value ong>ofong> a purchase is over NOK 500 million (approximately NLG 125 million),a risk assessment must be performed by an independent consultant. This does notapply, however, to ong>theong> policy underlying ong>theong> decision to purchase ong>theong> equipment in question.The government is ong>theong> client, so that, in principle, ong>theong> research findings are presented onlyto ong>theong> government. The minister recently decided, in connection with ong>theong> purchase ong>ofong> fivenaval frigates, to give ong>theong> Standing Committee on Defence a copy ong>ofong> ong>theong> research findings.2.7.5 Independent research institutesWe have already referred to ong>theong> relatively independent Institute for Defence Studies asbeing a bureau that conducts research into defence issues without being under ong>theong> umbrellaong>ofong> parliament. The Institute is, however, only equipped for dealing with policy. Wherestudies ong>ofong> a technical nature are required (i.e. aspects for which ong>theong> Dutch would use ong>theong>services ong>ofong> ong>theong> Neong>theong>rlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research), ong>theong> Norwegiansmake ad-hoc arrangements with independant consultants (both Norwegian and foreign). Theresultant information is passed on eiong>theong>r to ong>theong> minister or to ong>theong> directly responsibleDivision for Materiél Management. The Storting does not ask to be given such information.2.8 DenmarkDenmark has gradually built up a tradition ong>ofong> minority government. This has led more orless automatically to parliament and government regularly getting togeong>theong>r to find solutionsfor problems relating to policy implementation, policy plans and legislation. As a natural11

consequence ong>ofong> this type ong>ofong> consultation, government and parliament have a tendency toproduce compromise solutions. According to our respondent, ong>theong> Danish political partiesand members ong>ofong> ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Representatives ‘are more focused on ong>theong>ir political responsibilities’,which means that ong>theong>re is not so much need for mountains ong>ofong> technical data.This applies both to ong>theong> process ong>ofong> preparing decisions and to after-ong>theong>-event scrutiny. 3As a result, ong>theong> relationship between government and parliament is characterised by a highdegree ong>ofong> trust and openness, and members ong>ofong> ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Representatives have no hesitationin basing ong>theong>ir views on information provided by ong>theong> government (or individual ministers).2.8.1 Parliamentary committeeThe Danish parliament has a permanent security and defence committee for dealing withdefence issues.2.8.2 Research bureauThe Folketinget, ong>theong> Danish parliament, does not have any research bureaus ong>ofong> its own(with ong>theong> exception ong>ofong> ong>theong> customary secretariats and policy bureaus) that it can use toscrutinise government policy. There is a secretariat within ong>theong> parliamentary organisationthat writes very brief analyses and reports for members ong>ofong> ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Representativeson a limited range ong>ofong> subjects. The vast majority ong>ofong> ong>theong>se analyses and reports are connectedwith Denmark’s policy on ong>theong> EU.In addition, every political party (and a party must win at least four seats in order to berepresented in parliament) employs at least four academically qualified researchers. Thebigger ong>theong> party, ong>theong> larger ong>theong> number ong>ofong> researchers.2.8.3 Defence research bureauNone.2.8.4 Independent research studies in connection with major government contractsNone.2.8.5 Independent research institutesParliament, including ong>theong> permanent security and defence committee, is free to seek expertadvice from outside parliament in order to facilitate policymaking.– The Dansk Udenrigspolitisk Institut (DUPI) was founded in 1995. The DUPI undertakesresearch studies and compiles analyses on topical issues relating to foreign policy,including defence issues. Its recommendations are geared towards policymakers. TheDUPI is somewhat similar to ong>theong> Clingendael institute in ong>theong> Neong>theong>rlands: although it isformally independent, it is accountable to ong>theong> Minister ong>ofong> Foreign Affairs on account ong>ofong>ong>theong> funding it receives from ong>theong> foreign ministry (DKK 11 million per annum). The DanishMinister ong>ofong> Foreign Affairs appoints (in a personal capacity) ong>theong> nine members ong>ofong> ong>theong>Management ong>Councilong>. There is also a ong>Councilong> that supports ong>theong> DUPI’s policy and whichis made up ong>ofong> 30 members from a variety ong>ofong> backgrounds (i.e. ong>theong> Folketing, civil servantsand a range ong>ofong> interest groups). The DUPI’s clients may be eiong>theong>r ministers or3 It should be pointed out that Denmark has a fairly radical law on open government (although this is notalways ong>theong> viewpoint taken by ong>ofong>ficials working for parliament, given ong>theong> large number ong>ofong> exemptionsincluded in ong>theong> law).12

members ong>ofong> ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Representatives. One ong>ofong> its more recent reports for ong>theong>Danish parliament was entitled ‘Developments in ong>theong> EU since 1992 in ong>theong> policy areascovered by ong>theong> Danish opt-outs’ (including ong>theong> defence opt-out).– Parliament may also ask universities to perform research studies on its behalf, althoughit has to pay for this type ong>ofong> work. To date, parliament has not commissioned any universityanalyses.– Apart from ong>theong> DUPI, which is more concerned with general policy issues and producesreports both upon request and on its own initiative, ong>theong>re is also ong>theong> ForsvaretsForskningstjeneste (Danish Defence Research Establishment). This is a small organwithin ong>theong> Ministry ong>ofong> Defence that reports to ong>theong> defence staff, which is in turn responsiblefor advising ong>theong> Minister ong>ofong> Defence on technical matters. The institute also participatesin ong>theong> technical debates in specialist committees in Brussels. It does not, however,actually advise ong>theong> Folketinget directly.– When major decisions need to be taken, parliament forms special committees consistingong>ofong> representatives ong>ofong> parliament, ong>theong> defence organisation and relevant socialgroups who eiong>theong>r can ong>ofong>fer specialist expertise in certain areas or are interested inspecific issues. An interesting example ong>ofong> this type ong>ofong> special committee is ong>theong> 1997Defence Commission, which was formed to make recommendations on ong>theong> furong>theong>rdevelopment ong>ofong> ong>theong> Danish defence organisation (in terms ong>ofong> orientation, policy, procurementand ong>theong> reshaping ong>ofong> its organisational structure). Incidentally, this was a non-parliamentarybody. Its recommendations played a decisive role in shaping ong>theong> final versionong>ofong> ong>theong> Defence Agreement 2000-2005, a contract between parliament and governmenton future defence policy.– The Dansk Maritim Institut is a non-parliamentary body which insiders claim is similar toong>theong> Neong>theong>rlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (although operating on amore limited scale). The institute is responsible for making technical recommendationson maritime matters and is required to find its own funding. The private sector is ong>theong>institute’s chief locomotive.2.9 SwedenOfficially, ong>theong> Swedish parliament, ong>theong> Riksdag, has no resources at its disposal that itcould use for commissioning independent research. Our respondent at ong>theong> embassy wasalso under ong>theong> impression that ong>theong>re had never actually been any need for such research.Any research that is considered necessary can be performed by existing defence researchinstitutes.2.9.1 Parliamentary committeeThere is a defence committee that is constantly preparing proposals on defence matters.The committee is composed ong>ofong> about 17 members ong>ofong> ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Representatives, discussesplans announced by ong>theong> government and is entitled to ask ministries and oong>theong>rauthorities for additional information.There is also ong>theong> defence commission, a forum for consultation between government representativesand political parties on strategic defence and security issues. The commissionis made up primarily ong>ofong> members ong>ofong> ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Representatives and plays an advisoryrole vis-à-vis ong>theong> government, i.e. it makes proposals for long-term defence and securitypolicy.13

2.9.2 Research bureauThe Riksdag does not have any research bureaus ong>ofong> its own. It does have a Research Servicewith a staff ong>ofong> around 30, but this does not perform any research ong>ofong> its own. TheResearch Service is more in ong>theong> nature ong>ofong> a service facility, collecting facts and figuresfrom existing files and publications for members ong>ofong> ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Representatives.2.9.3 Defence research bureauThe Riksdag does not have any defence research bureaus ong>ofong> its own. There are certainresearch institutes that ong>theong> Swedish parliament can use, however, ong>theong> main ones being ong>theong>Defence Research Establishment (FOA) and ong>theong> National Defence College (FHS). There isalso ong>theong> Aeronautical Research Institute (FFA), which is due to merge with ong>theong> FOA in 2001,but which does not perform ong>theong> type ong>ofong> research described in ong>theong> questions listed in ong>theong>introduction. All three institutes fall under ong>theong> authority ong>ofong> ong>theong> Ministry ong>ofong> Defence.The research performed by ong>theong> FHS is designed to form part ong>ofong> an academic process, toprovide a basis for teaching at ong>theong> College. Research projects must be beneficial to teachingand may not overlap with studies being performed at oong>theong>r Swedish teaching establishments.The College has a staff ong>ofong> eleven prong>ofong>essors and assistant prong>ofong>essors, with about25 postgraduate students working on ong>theong>ir doctoral ong>theong>ses. Security policy and strategyforms one ong>ofong> its main focal areas.The FOA has a staff ong>ofong> 1,000 (ong>ofong> whom 700 are scientists with university degrees). It performsresearch and publishes reports. It is geared largely towards technical research andconcerns itself only to a limited degree with policy issues. The FOA’s services may be commissionedon a fee-paying basis. The armed forces are its biggest customer (accounting for62% ong>ofong> its revenue). The Riksdag does not appear on its list ong>ofong> customers, although ong>theong>Ministry ong>ofong> Defence does (accounting for 19% ong>ofong> revenue). It has an annual budget ong>ofong> NLG155 million.2.9.4 Independent research studies in connection with major government contractsThe Riksdag does not seek advice from independent research institutes.2.9.5 Independent research institutesThe best known Swedish research institute is, ong>ofong> course, ong>theong> Stockholm International PeaceResearch Institute (SIPRI). Its research work centres on issues ong>ofong> peace and conflict in ong>theong>broadest sense ong>ofong> ong>theong> word. The SIPRI was founded in 1966 in commemoration ong>ofong> ong>theong> factthat Sweden had ong>theong>n been free from war for a period ong>ofong> 150 years. The SIPRI gets most ong>ofong>its funding from ong>theong> Swedish parliament.Universities also perform research into security and defence issues.Whilst ong>theong>re are no direct links between ong>theong> Riksdag and ong>theong> FOA, ong>theong> FFA and ong>theong> FHS, ong>theong>former is free to use ong>theong> services ong>ofong> ong>theong> latter institutes.2.10 Spain2.10.1 Parliamentary committeeThe Spanish parliament has a permanent defence committee that deals with defenceissues.14

2.10.2 Research bureauThe Spanish parliament does not have any research bureaus ong>ofong> its own that can help it toscrutinise government policy. Parliament can only be advised by its own lawyers, whoserecommendations relate more or less exclusively to ong>theong> technical aspects ong>ofong> legislation.The lawyers are not associated with particular political parties.2.10.3 Defence research bureauNone.2.10.4 Independent research studies in connection with major government contractsGenerally speaking, ong>theong> Spanish parliament does not seek any independent advice. Theonly occasions on which outside experts are heard are when special committees are insession. One example is ong>theong> committee that looked into ong>theong> prong>ofong>essionalisation ong>ofong> ong>theong>armed forces. Formal responsibility for any parliamentary inquiry continues to be vested inparliament itself.2.10.5 Independent research institutesAs in oong>theong>r countries, ong>theong>re is a range ong>ofong> independent centres that perform research intopolicy issues, although only a small number ong>ofong> ong>theong>m are geared exclusively towards securityand defence. One example is ong>theong> Centro Superior de Estudios de la Defensa Nacional(CESEDEN). Most ong>ofong> ong>theong>se centres undertake research on policy and political matters. Theorganisations that are active in ong>theong> field ong>ofong> security and defence have virtually no directrelationship with parliament. At ong>theong> request ong>ofong> ong>theong> Ministry ong>ofong> Defence, a list is currentlybeing prepared ong>ofong> strategic defence studies that have been published in Spain by both centresand individuals. It is not clear when this list will be ready.2.11 Portugal2.11.1 Parliamentary committeeThe Portuguese parliament has a permanent national defence committee that deals withdefence issues.2.11.2 Research bureauThe Portuguese parliament, ong>theong> Assembleia da República (AR), does not have any researchbureaus ong>ofong> its own.2.11.3 Defence research bureauNone.2.11.4 Independent research studies in connection with major government contractsGiven that ong>theong> AR does not have any research capacity ong>ofong> its own, it is obliged to base itsdecisions on information supplied by ong>theong> government. Although parliament is free to seekadvice on an ad-hoc basis, this does not happen much in practice. As a result, it is difficultfor ong>theong> AR properly to assess government plans (such as for major procurements).2.11.5 Independent research institutesThe Instituto da Defensa Nacional is an independent defence institute, whose main taskconsists ong>ofong> giving courses and organising seminars and conferences. Although it also performsresearch, it does not have any capacity ong>ofong> its own for making technical recommendationsin connection with defence procurement.15

There are no oong>theong>r institutes in Portugal that specialise in defence. At ong>theong> same time, ong>theong>reare certain organisations that are part eiong>theong>r ong>ofong> ong>theong> Ministry ong>ofong> Economic Affairs or ong>ofong> ong>theong>Ministry ong>ofong> Science and Technology and which perform studies (including studies ong>ofong> a relativelytechnical nature) on an ad-hoc basis.Apart from ong>theong> Instituto da Defensa Nacional, ong>theong>re are a number ong>ofong> oong>theong>r institutions thatundertake political studies:– ong>theong> Instituto Diplomático (comes under ong>theong> Ministry ong>ofong> Foreign Affairs);– ong>theong> Instituto de Estudos Estratégicos e Internacionais. This is a private organisationfunded by ong>theong> European Commission, ong>theong> Ministry ong>ofong> Defence, ong>theong> TEPSA organisationand various foundations such as ong>theong> Fundação Luso-Americana;– ong>theong> Centro de Estudos Internacionais (part ong>ofong> Lisbon’s Lusiada University);– ong>theong> Instituto Superior de Ciências e Políticas.2.12 Italy2.12.1 Parliamentary committeeYes, ong>theong>re is a permanent defence committee.2.12.2 Research bureauThe lower chamber ong>ofong> ong>theong> Italian parliament (ong>theong> Camera dei Deputati) has its own researchdepartment, ong>theong> Servizio Studi, which has a staff ong>ofong> about 40 and receives all its fundingfrom parliament. The department helps members ong>ofong> ong>theong> House ong>ofong> Representatives and ong>theong>irstaff to prepare files, compare Italian laws with foreign legislation, etc.2.12.3 Defence research bureauNone. The question ong>ofong> wheong>theong>r or not parliament should have its own defence researchbureau is not a topic ong>ofong> debate in Rome.2.12.4 Independent research studies in connection with major government contractsNone.2.12.5 Independent research institutesThe Italian parliament seeks advice from independent institutes on matters relating to morespecific, political issues or issues for which some form ong>ofong> technical expertise is required.Most ong>ofong> ong>theong>se institutes are funded – at least in part – by ong>theong> government.The ong>ofong>ficial secretary ong>ofong> ong>theong> permanent defence committee told us that parliament occasionallyrequested ong>theong> following independent institutes to undertake studies on policy ortechnical matters:– The Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI) and ong>theong> Centro Studi di Politica Internazionale(CESPI) are both research institutes specialising in international policy, and are roughlycomparable with ong>theong> Clingendael institute in ong>theong> Neong>theong>rlands. The IAI and ong>theong> CESPI areplanning to merge in ong>theong> future.– The Centro Alti Studi di Defesa (CASD) is an institute that is comparable with ong>theong>Neong>theong>rlands Defence College, although ong>theong> CASD does have its own research institute(ong>theong> CEMISS).– The Centro Militare Italiano di Studi Strategici (CEMISS) conducts research into topicsrelating to political and military strategy. It is part ong>ofong> ong>theong> CASD.16

– The Istituto Studi Ricerche Informazioni di Defesa (ISTRID) specialises in academic-level,technical military research.2.13 Austria2.13.1 Parliamentary committeeThe Austrian parliament has a number ong>ofong> committees (Ausschüsse), which include MPsamong ong>theong>ir members.2.13.2 Research bureauNone.2.13.3 Defence research bureauThe Austrian Ministry ong>ofong> Defence has two research centres, viz. ong>theong> MilitärwissenschaftlicheBüro and ong>theong> research department ong>ofong> ong>theong> Landesverteidigungsakademie.Both ong>ofong> ong>theong>m concentrate on policy-related research. Parliament can commission researchstudies from ong>theong>se centres.2.13.4 Independent research studies in connection with major government contractsWhen decisions need to be taken on major items ong>ofong> government expenditure, parliamentcan organise an informative meeting for all members, at which independent experts areinvited to speak. Every parliamentary party is entitled to designate a number ong>ofong> experts tobe invited. According to a parliamentary spokesperson, it has been a long time since ong>theong>last such meeting was held.2.13.5 Independent research institutesNone.2.14 Switzerland2.14.1 Parliamentary committeeBoth houses ong>ofong> ong>theong> Swiss parliament have national security committees that are responsiblefor preparing political and parliamentary decision-making. The committee for ong>theong>Nationalrat (lower chamber) consists ong>ofong> 25 members, while that operated by ong>theong> Städeat(upper chamber) consists ong>ofong> 13 members. The two committees share a small secretariatwith a staff ong>ofong> three.2.14.2 Research bureauNone.2.14.3 Defence research bureauThere is no defence research bureau in Switzerland.2.14.4 Independent research studies in connection with major government contractsThe parliamentary committees are entitled to seek expert advice when decisions need tobe taken on major items ong>ofong> government spending. It is not unusual for leading retiredsoldiers and politicians to be heard as experts.2.14.5 Independent research institutesNone.17

Previous reports published by ong>theong> ong>Advisoryong> ong>Councilong> on International Affairs(available in English)1 AN INCLUSIVE EUROPE, October 19972 CONVENTIONAL ARMS CONTROL: urgent need, limited opportunities,April 19983 CAPITAL PUNISHMENT AND HUMAN RIGHTS: recent developments,April 19984 UNIVERSALITY OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY,June 19985 AN INCLUSIVE EUROPE II, November 19986 HUMANITARIAN AID: redefining ong>theong> limits, November 19987 COMMENTS ON THE CRITERIA FOR STRUCTURAL BILATERAL AID,November 19988 ASYLUM INFORMATION AND THE EUROPEAN UNION, July 19999 TOWARDS CALMER WATERS: a report on relations between Turkeyand ong>theong> European Union, July 199910 DEVELOPMENTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL SECURITY SITUATION IN THE 1990s:from unsafe security to unsecured safety, September 199911 THE FUNCTIONING OF THE UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS,September 199912 THE IGC AND BEYOND: TOWARDS A EUROPEAN UNION OF THIRTY MEMBERSTATES, January 200013 HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION, April 2000*14 KEY LESSONS FROM THE FINANCIAL CRISES OF 1997 AND 1998, April 200015 A EUROPEAN CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS?, May 2000* Issued jointly by ong>theong> ong>Advisoryong> ong>Councilong> on International Affairs (AIV) and ong>theong>ong>Advisoryong> Committee on Issues ong>ofong> Public International Law (CAVV)

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines