13.16. - FBI-Analysis of Terrorist Incidents in the United States 1986.tif

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13.16. - FBI-Analysis of Terrorist Incidents in the United States 1986.tif

U.S. Department of JusticeFederal Bureau of Investigation4lrFBI Analysis ofTerrorist Incidents inthe United States 1986Terrorist Research and Analytical CenterTerrorism SectionCriminal Investigative Division


FBI ANALYSIS OFTERRORIST INCIDENTSIN ITHEUNITED I STATES1986-his Report Was Prepared By:--errorist Research and_ Analytical ',entererror,sm SectionCriminal Investigative Division


INTRODUCTIONFor the first time since 1982, terrorist incidents inthe United States increased in number from the previous year. In1985, the FBI recorded 7 terrorist incidents, while 17 werecounted in 1986. Despite the increase, there are reasons to beoptimistic concerning the continuing effort to eradicate thethreat of terrorism in the United States.First, although the FBI recorded 17 incidents in theUnited States during 1986, an increase of i0 over the previousyear, this was the third lowest number of recorded incidentssince these statistics have been compiled. For the thirdconsecutive year, no incidents in this country were attributableto international terrorist organizations, although severalsignificant preventions of terrorist acts by these groups wererecorded.Although the number of incidents rose, the same numberof terrorist groups/organizations (3) claimed responsibility forthese acts as in 1985. In addition, analysis will show that iiof the 17 incidents were carried out by two organizations on twooccasions. Four of the incidents took place in Coeur d'Alene,Idaho on the same day, while 7 other incidents occurred in PuertoRico on a single day.In 1986, a number of successful counterterroristinitiatives have been undertaken, not only by the FBI, but byother Federal, state and local entities, thus illustratingclearly the cooperation and commitment of the law enforcementcommunity in the United States. Also, cooperation with friendlyforeign governments gives evidence to the worldwide effort toaddress this ever dangerous menace to society.-i-


PREFACEThe following definitions establish the minimum criteriaused .by the FBI to determine if criminal acts should be labeledterronst~T_c o_ris m:Terrorism is the unlawful use of force or violence againstpersons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, thecwQmn populatlo.n, .or any segment thereof, In-furtherance ofpohtlcal or social objectives.T.here are two types of terrorism in the United States:international terrorism whic~i involves terrorist activity committed bygroups or individuals who are foreilzn-based and/or are directed bvcountries or Izroup.s outside the United States or whose activitiestranscendnational boundariestrles; and domestic terrorism whichinv.olves.g(o.up.s or individuals, who are based and operat(1 entirelywithin the United 5tares and are directed at elements of ourgovernment or population without foreign direction.Terrorist Incident:A terrorist incident is a yiolent act or an act. dangerousto human life in violation of the criminal laws of the United Statesor of. any state to intimidate or coerce a ~overnment, the civilianpopu|atlpn, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political orsocial objectives.Terrorist Incident Prevented:A documented instance in which a violent act by aknown or suspected terrorist group or individual with the r~eansand a proven propensity for violence is successfully interdictedthrough investigative activity.In order to give a clearer picture of trends and thedimensions of the terrorism problem in the United States. thisreport includes a section on "terrorist-related activities. These arecriminal acts co.mmitted either in sup.port of or as a result ofterrorism, but which are not intended to intimidate or coerce infurtherance of political or social objectives. A bank robberycommitted for the purpos.e of.finan~.ing a terror!st Kroup w3uld .bean example of terrorist related-actlv,tv which falls short of meetmethe incident criteria. - "Also in this publication, an indepth examination oftrends for.the period lg8q - 1.g86 is p.resented. This series_ofcharts and suj)po.rtive an.alytical narrative outlines patterns ofterrorist activity during this time frame.INFORMATION DATE: DECEMBER 31, 1986- ii -


CONTENTSSectionGRAPHIC DISPLAY OF TERRORIST INCIDENTSChronological Listing of Terrorist IncidentsTerrorist Incidents by TypeTerrorist Incidents by Group, Nnmher and TypeUnited States Map of Terrorist Incidents1-52345COMPARISON OF TERRORIST INCIDENTSTerrorist Incidents by TargetsComparison by TypeComparisoh by Terrorist GroupTotal Nnmher of Terrorist IncidentsTotal Number of Killed and InjuredSummary of Terrorist BombingsTerrorist Incidents by RegionComparison by Trends in Terrorist IncidentsSUMMARIES OF DOMESTIC GROUPS RESPONSIBLE FORTERRORIST INCIDENTSPuerto Rican Terrorist GroupsOrganization of "Volunteers for thePuerto Rican Revolution (OVRP)Ejercito Popular Boricua(EPB) -MacheterosArmed Forces of Popular Resistance (FARP)Jewish Terrorist GroupsOther Domestic Terrorist GroupsAryan Nations AffiliatesSUMMARIES OF SUSPECTED TERRORIST INCIDENTSSUMMARIES OF TERRORIST INCIDENTS PREVENTEDUnited States Map of Terrorist Incidents PreventedMAJOR ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE TERRORISM PROGRAMInternationalDomestic6-14789i0ii12131415-2316-18181920-2122-2324-2627-313132-3733-3435-37- iii -


SectionpaqeSUMMARIES OF TERRORIST RELATED ACTIVITIESHOSTAGE RESCUE TEAMANALYSIS OF TERRORISM IN THE UNITED STATES(1980-1986)Terrorist Incidents in the United StatesGeographic Overview of Terrorism in theUnited StatesTerrorist Preventions in the United StatesThe International Terrorist Threat in theUnited StatesThe Domestic Terrorist Threat in theUnited StatesConcluding Remarks38-3940-4142-6143-4445-4950-5152-5455-5859-61- iv -


SECTION IGRAPHIC DISPLAYOF TERRORIST INCIDENTS1986- 1 -


CHRONOLOGICAL LISTING OF TERRORIST INCIDENTSIN THE UNITED STATES1986TYPE OFDATE LOCATION INCIDENTRio Piedras4-14 Puerto RicoBombing4-29 San JuanPuerto RicoAssassination9-2New YorkNew YorkTear GasBombing9-15Coeur d'AleneIdahoBombing9-29Coeur d' AleneIdahoBombing9-29Coeur d' AleneIdahoBombing9-29Coeur d' AleneIdahoBombing9-29Coeur d' AleneIdahoAttemptedBombing10-20New YorkNew York10-28FajardoPuerto RicoFirebombingBombing10-28 Fort BuchananPuerto Rico Bombing10-28SanturcePuerto RicoAttemptedBombing10-28AguadillaPuerto RicoAttemptedBombing10-28AguadillaPuerto RicoAttemptedBombing10-28MayaguezPuerto RicoAttemptedBombing10-28 BayamonPuerto RicoAttemptednomomg11-4 Puerta De TierraPuerto RicoAttemptedBombingGROUPATTRIBUTED TOOrganization of Volunteers forthe Puerto Rican RevolutionOrganization of Volunteers forthe Puerto Rican RevolutionJewish Terrorist ElementsAffiliates of theAryan NationsAffiliates of theAryan NationsAffiliates of theAryan NationsAffiliates of theAryan NationsAffiliates of theAryan NationsJewish Terrorist Elements/~erc.ito Popular .Boricu.a .acheteros jointly with theArmed Forces of PopularResistance and the Organizationof Volunteers for thePuerto Rican Revolution(same as above)(same as above)(same as above)(same as above)(same as above)(same as above)Ejercito PopularBoricua Macheteros- 2 -


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SECTION IICOMPARISON OF TERRORIST INCIDENTS-6-


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SUMMARY OF TERRORIST INCIDENTSIN THE UNITED STATES1980 - 1986DATEKILLED1980 29 1 191981 42 1 41982 51 7 261983 31 6* 41984 13 0"* 01985 7 2 101986 17 1 19* Two additional deaths resulted from the attempted arrest ofSheriff's Posse Comitatus member Gordon Kahl on June 3, 1983** One death resulted from the attempted arrest of Aryan Nationsmember Robert Mathews on December 7, 1984- l0 -


TERRORIST INCIDENTSI I IKILLED AND INJUREDI ¸ I IKILLED71980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 198626 INJURED19 19104 ~\\\'~ 401980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986* Two additional deaths resulted from the attempted arrest of Sheriff's PosseComitatus member Gordon Kahl on June 3, 1983.** One death resulted from the attempted arrest of Aryan Nations memberRobert Mathews on December 7, 1984.- ] l -


SUMMARY OF TERRORIST BOMBINGSIN THE UNITED STATES~Vear1980 - 1986D•1980 17 291981 17 421982 28 511983 14 311984 11 131985 5 71986 7 17_ - Z 2 -


TERRORIST INCIDENTS BY REGION1986WESTERN/5 F-NORTH CENTRALNORTHEASTERN. ~,,,P 2;OUTHERNPUERTO RICO10COMPARISON OF TERRORISTINCIDENTS BY REGION241980 - 1986 ~5~15991210'1111 1110532 280 8182 8384 85 86Western41 I[ ]OI-- 00080 81828384 8586North Central47I--10080 81 82 83 84 85 86Southern73* 2-780 81828384 8586North Eastern53280 81 8283848586Puerto Rico- 13 -


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SECTION IIISUMMARIES OF DOMESTIC TERRORISTGROUPS RESPONSIBLE FOR TERRORISTINCIDENTS1986*Domesl~ic Terrorist Groul)s ooeratesolely wathin the United Stat~s andhave exhibited no foreign direction.- 15 -


~ura~t~) RICAN TERRORIST GROUPSORGANIZATION OF V O ~ FOR THE PUERTO RICAN REVOIETIONThe Organization of Volunteers for the Puerto RicanRevolution (OVRP) claimed total or Joint responsibility for nlneterrorist incidents in 1986. Seven of these terrorist incidentswere claimed Jointly withthe EJercito Popular Boricua (EPB)-Macheteros and the Armed Forces of Popular Resistance (FARP).The OVRP is a self-described political-military groupin Puerto Rico whose objective is to gain independence forPuerto Rico through armed revolution. The OVRPemerged in 1978when it claimed joint credit with the EPB-Macheteros for anexplosives theft from a public works warehouse in Manati, PuertoRico. Since its inception, the OVRP has had close ties withother Puerto Rican terrorist groups with which it has claimedresponsibility for terrorist acts. The most serious of theseterrorist acts was the December 3, 1979, ambush of aUnited States Navy bus at Sabana Seca, Puerto Rico. This attackwas claimed Jointly with the EPB-Macheteros and the FARP. Theambush claimed the lives of two United States Navy personnel andleft nine others wounded. During October, 1979, the OVRP bombednumerous Government facilities. Due to its extensive use ofviolence for a number of years, the OVRPis considered to be oneof the most dangerous terrorist organizations in Puerto Rico.APRIL14. 1986Killed: 0 Injured: 0On April 14, 1986, an explosive device detonated in awomen's restroom on the University of Puerto Rico's campus.The Associated Press received a telephone call in whichresponsibility for this bombing was claimed on behalf of theOVRP. (1)APRIL 29. 1986Killed: I Injured: IAleJandroGonzalez Malave, a former Police of PuertoRico officer was assassinated in front of his mother's home.Malave died as a result of shotgun wounds which were receivedfrom a passing automobile. The mother of the victim was woundedas she exited her home to meet her son. Between April 29-30,1986, three telephone calls were received in which responsibilityfor this assassinatlon was claimed on behalf of the OVRP. On May5, 1986, four newspapers in the San Juan metropolitan areareceived communiques from the OVRP claiming responsibility forthis terrorist act. (1)- 16 -


OCTOBER 28. 1986Killed: 0 Injured: 1Between the hours of 12 midnight and 8:30 a.m., twoexplosive devices detonated and eight others were recovered atvarious locations throughout the island of Puerto Rico. Oneperson was injured at a Navy Recruiting Station. The explosivedevices were placed in military installations, recruitingstations, and Army Reserve offices. At 6:25 a.m., the AssociatedPress received a telephone call in which responsibility for thesebombings was claimed on behalf of the Ejercito Popular Boricua(EPB)-Macheteros. A communique was later recovered by the Policeof Puerto Rico in which responsibility for the bombings wasclaimed on behalf of the EPB-Macheteros, the OVRP, and the FARP.Detonated DevicesThe first explosion, a pipe bomb, occurred atapproximately 12 midnight outside the Navy Recruiting Station inFajardo, Puerto Rico. This explosion injured one individual. (1)The second explosion occurred at approximatelyl2:30a.m., in a military motor park at Fort Buchanan destroying amilitary truck. Two unexploded devices were also located in thesame general area. (I)Recovered Devices* At 2 a.m., an explosive device was found in a U.S.Army Reserve Recruiting Station in Santurce, Puerto Rico. (i)* At 7 a.m., an explosive device was found in an ArmyRecruiting Center in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico. (I)* At 7 a.m., an explosive device was found in an ArmyReserve Center in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico. (i)* At 7:30 a.m., an explosive device was found at theNational Armory in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (i)* At 8 a.m., an explosive device was found at an Army-Navy Recruiting Office in Bayamon, Puerto Rico. (i)According to Police of Puerto Rico Bomb technicians,the blasting caps of the aforementioned "recovered" devices hadexploded but due to the inadequacy of the main charge did not andcould not initiate an explosion.Another live explosive device was located at the ArmyReserve Recruiting Station in Cayey, Puerto Rico and renderedsafe. This device was deactivated prior to detonation. Location- 17 -


of this device is being claimed as a terrorist incidentprevented.EJERCITO POPUIAR BORICUA {EPB)-MACh~r~The EJercito Popular Boricua (EPB)-Macheteros claimedtotal or Joint responsibilty for elaht terrorist incidents in1986, including the seven terrorist incidents previously cited onOctober 28, 1986, which were jointly claimed by members of theOVRP and the FARP.The EPB-Macheteros emerged in 1978, and is a selfdescribed,pro-lndependence clandestine terrorist group whichoperates both alone and Jointly with other terroristorganizations in Puerto Rico. The announced goal of this groupis to obtain the independence of Puerto Rico through the use ofvlolence. This group, which is more commonly known as theMacheteros, has claimed responsibility for terrorist acts throughcommuniques or has otherwise been linked to some of the mostviolent terrorist activities in Puerto Rico. Since this group'semergence in 1978, the Macheteros have been linked to at least 18incidents including the December 3, 1979, ambush of United Statesservicemen in Sabana Seca, Puerto Rico, which took two lives andinjured nine others.~ 4 o 1986Killed: 0 Injured: 0At approximately 5:45 a.m., a local radio stationreceived three telephone calls from an unknown male claiming tobe a Machetero. He stated that there was a bomb at the NationalGuard Armory in Puerta De Tierra. The caller also indicated thata communique could be found in a nearby location. Atapproximately 6:15 a.m., another local radio station received twosimilar calls from a male claiming to be from the Macheteros. Heindicated that a communique could be found at a nearby location.It was the same as the one recovered by the first station. Inpart, this communique read as follows: "This explosive can bedismantled without complications if done before noon; time inwhich it will explode." Police explosive division personnellocated the explosive device in an air duct outside the NationalGuard Headquarters. The device was live and had approximatelythree hours time left on its timing device. It was rendered safeby the Police of Puerto Rico and was of the same construction asthe pipe bombs which were recovered on October 28, 1986. (1)- 18 -


FORCES OF POPULAR RESISTANCEThe Armed Forces of Popular Resistance (FARP), alongwith the OVRP and the EPB-Macheteros, claimed Jointresponsibility for the seven terrorist incidents which werepreviously described on October 28, 1986.The FARP is a pro-independence terrorist group whichdescribes itself as a military/political organization. The FARPfirst came to light in January of 1978, but is suspected ofhaving been involved in several robberies prior to that time.Since 1978, the FARP has been involved in terrorist incidentswhich include the ambush of a United States Navy personnel bus onDecember 3, 1979, in Sabana Seca, Puerto Rico, which was Jointlyclaimed by the FARP, the EPB-Macheteros and the FARP.- 19 -


JEWISH TERRORIST GROUPSSince 1981, a total of 24 terrorist incidents have beenattributed to groups seeking to publicize past and presentinjustices suffered by the Jewish people. While claims for someof these acts have been made in the names of the "JewishDefenders, "United Jewish Underground," and "Jewish DirectAction," 17 of the incidents have been attributed to the JewishDefense League (JDL), which is by far the most well known ofthese groups.The JDL was founded on June 16, 1968, by Rabbi MeirKahane in Brooklyn, New York, and was subsequently incorporatedin the state of New York on September 30, 1968. "Never again" isthe official slogan of the JDL. This slogan is in reference tothe JDL's adherence to the principle that unless a constantvigilance is maintained to battle against anti-Semitism, theHolocaust will reoccur.While headquartered in New York City, the JDL haschapters located in several of the larger metropolitan areas ofthe United States. The JDL is composed primarily of youngJewish-Americans who consider themselves to be a front line ofdefense against anti-Semitism, as well as being supporters of thestate of Israel. The JDL has claimed responsibility for numerousacts of violence in recent years, including arsons, bombings, andassaults directed against Soviet diplomatic establishments andpersonnel, as well as individuals associated with the American-Arab community and persons allegedly affiliated with the WorldWar II Nazi Germany atrocities perpetrated against the Jewishrace. According to claims made by individuals responsible forthese violent acts, they are perpetrated in an attempt to focusinternational attention to the plight of Soviet Jews, as well asto retaliate against previous transgressions which have beendirected toward the Jewish people. In 1986, two incidents havebeen attributed to Jewish terrorists.- 20 -


SEPT~RBER2. 1986Killed: 0 Injured: 17A tear gas grenade was released during the SovietUnion's Moiseyev Dance Company performance at the MetropolitanOpera House in New York City. Approximately 4,100 spectators,which included the Soviet ~hassador to the United States and theFirst Secretary to the Soviet Embassy in Washington, D.C., wereforced to evacuate the Opera House in order to avoid the effectsof the irritant. One woman suffered a heart attack during theevacuation process and sixteen others were treated for excessivetear gas exposure. The Associated Press received a telephonecall in which credit for this terrorist act was claimed on behalfof the Jewish Defense League (JDL). The National Chairman of theJDL later ~enied responsibility for this terrorist incident. (1)OCTOBER20. 1986Killed: 0 Injured: 0A firebomb exploded outside a concert hall at theLincoln Center in New York City where the Moscow State Orchestrawas scheduled to perform that evening. Although a call wasreceived stating "There will be no Soviet Nazi performance untilthree million Soviet Jews are freed," the caller did not identifythe group responsible. In addition, although certain.evidenceleads to suspicion of elements of the JDL, final attributlon ofthis terrorist incident must await further investigation. (1)- 21 -


OTHER DOMESTIC TERRORIST GROUPSIndividuals Affiliated With An Aryan Natlons (AN) Splinter GroupThe AN, also known as the Church of Jesus ChristChristian, was founded by Richard Butler at Hayden Lake, Idaho,in the late 19708. The AN is described as the action arm of thechurch. Butler and his group profess white supremacy and theyadvocate the elimination of blacks and Jews from society.The AN is headquartered on a fenced 20-acre compoundwhich is located ten miles north of HaydenLake, Idaho. The ANuses this location to print and distribute hate literature, aswell as provide recordings of Butler's sermons which preachwhitesupremacy and denounce blacks, Jews, and other nonwhitesthroughout the country. In addition, these messages have beendistributed to white prison gangs such as the Aryan Brotherhoodand the Aryan Special Forces. The AN acts as a disbursal and~learing house for the money obtained by the prison gangs through1legal activities in both Federal and state penal institutions.These prison groups have been known to participate in loansharking, extortion, and gambling, as well as being suspects inthe murders of other convicts and prison guards. (U).In 1986 five terrorist incidents have been attributedto right-wing terrorists. Available evidence leads to suspicionof affiliates of the AN.September 15. 1986Killed: 0 Injured: 0An explosive device resembling a pipe bomb exploded atthe residence of a Catholic Priest, Father William Wassmuth, atSt. Pius X Parish in Coeur d~Alene, Idaho. Although noorganization has publicly claimed responsibility for thisbombing, FBI investigations have linked this bombing toindividuals affiliated with an Aryan Nations splinter group. (1)S ~ 2 9 , 1986Killed: 0 Injured: 0On this date, three separate explosive devicesdetonated at the following three locations in Coeur d'Alene,Idaho:* A Federal building which houses the FBI's ResidentAgency.- 22 -


* A commercial establishment called the Luggage Rack.* A commercial establishment called Jax FamilyRestaurant.No injuries were reported at these bombing locations.Although no organization has publicly claimedresponsibility for these bombings, FBI investigations have linkedthese terrorist incidents to individuals affiliated with an ANsplinter group. (3)S ~ 2 9 . 1986Killed: 0 Injured: 0On this date, an explosive device was recovered on theroof of a building which houses an Armed Forces RecruitingStation in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. Although no organization haspublicly claimed credit for this attempted bombing, FBIinvestigations have linked this terrorist incident to individualsaffiliated with an AN splinter group. (1)Forensic evidence as well as investigation establishesthat the above five incidents were perpetratedbythe sameindividuals.- 23 -


SECTION IVSUMMARIES OF SUSPECTED TERRORISTINCIDENTS1986- 24 -


SUSPECTED TERRORIST INCIDENTS - 1986For calendar year 1986, the FBI recorded nine suspectedterrorist incidents which have resulted in no deaths or injuries.These suspected incidents include six bombings and threeattempted bombings. Below is a brief description of thesesuspected terrorist incidents.JANUARY 6.., 1986Three separate explosive devices detonated at thefollowing three locations in Puerto Rico causingminimal damage:* United States Post Office in Cidra, Puerto RicoUnited States Post Office in Guanica, Puerto Rico* United States Post Office collection box inSanturce, Puerto Rico (3)No injuries were reported at any of these locations.Additionally, on January 6, 1986, an undetonatedexplosive device was found at the main entrance to the UnitedStates Army Recruiting Center in Toa Baja, Puerto Rico. (I)• The followin~ organizations claimed responsibilityeither dlrectly or indlrectly for three actual bombings and oneattempted bombing: the Ejercito Revolucionario Clandestino (ERC)(via a telephone call); a new group composed of four tacticalguerrilla units (via a communique); and the NationalRevolutionary Front of Puerto Rico (NRFPR) (via a communique).The NRFPR communique identified the spokesman of the group as"Commando RoJo." (There is no further information available onthe ERC or NRFPR)._MARCH 17, 1986On March 17, 1986, an explosive device was found at anEsso Service Station in Ponce, Puerto Rico. No explosion orinjuries occurred as a result of this incident. On March 10,1986, a radio station received a call stating that the "CommandoRoJo" was going to begin attacking strategic locations, includingservice stations in Ponce, Puerto Rico. (1)S ~ 18. 1986On September 18, 1986, two incendiary devices werethrown through a plated glass window at the United States ArmyRecruiting Station in Toa BaJa, Puerto Rico, causing extensivedamage. A call was received in which responsibility for thisbombing was claimed on behalf of the E1 Movimiento RevolucionarioIndependentista (EMRI).- 25 -


A communique was subsequently distributed on the campus of theUniversity of Puerto Rico on behalf of the EMRI. (There is nofurther information available on EMRI). (1)OCTORRR24, 1986At approximately 10:15 p.m., a pi~e bomb explodedin the foyer area of Dimic's Restaurant and Bar in Detroit,Michigan, which is an ethnic Yugoslav establishment. Although noindividual or group has claimed responsibility for this incident,the possibility exists that the target of the bombing may havebeen a Yugoslavian delegation who were present in the restauranton the day of the bombing. (1)D E ~ 28, 1986A bomb exploded inside a military vehicle at thePuerto Rico National Guard Armory in Yauco, Puerto Rico. Minimaldamage was incurred as a result of this incident. A few hourslater, an explosive device was recovered near a mailbox outsidethe United States Post Office in Guayama, Puerto Rico. Thedevice was rendered safe. The devices appeared to be similar inconstruction to three explosive devices which were detonated atselected United States postal facilities in Puerto Rico duringJanuary of 1986. (2)Responsibility for these incidents cannot be attributedto a known or suspectmd terrorist group and for this reason theyare considered suspected terrorist incidents.- 26 -


SECTION VSUMMARIES OF TERRORISTINCIDENTS PREVENTED1986- 27 -


TERRORIST INCIDENTS ~ - 1986MAY_30, 1986Information was received from Canadian authoritieswhich indicated that Sikh terrorists intended to plant anexplosive device in an Air India facility or aircraft, either inCanada or at JFK International Air2ort in New York City.Investigations determined that New York city is the only point ofdeparture for Air India aircrafts in North America. Subsequentjoint investigative efforts by the FBI and the Royal CanadianMounted Police in Canada and the United States resulted in theidentification of five individuals believed to be involved in aplot to bomb an Air India aircraft. On May 30, 1986, Canadianauthorities arrested these five individuals and conductedsearches at eight locations in Montreal, Canada. The fivepersons arrested are believed to be Sikh terrorists and weretaken into custody in Canada and charged with conspiracy tomanufacture and utilize explosive devices with the intent tocause injury. The joint efforts of the FBI and the Canadianauthorities are believed to have interdicted a potential bombing.(i)In February 1985, the FBZ initiated an investigationinto the activities of William No,on based on information whichindicated that Norton was involved in the procurement of weaponsfor the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA). The PIRA is aviolent organization in Northern Ireland committed to achievingBritish withdrawal from Northern I::eland and establishment of a32-county united government. Investigations determined thatNorton was shipping a vehicle, along with his household goods,from the United States to Le Havre, France.On June 11, 1986, five individuals were arrested in LeHavre, France, for arms trafficking when concealed weapons wererecovered between the truck bed and camper shell. On June 18,1986, a criminal complaint was filed and an arrest warrant wasissued for William Norton. He is ~urrently in custody in Franceawaiting trial. The joint efforts of the FBI, foreign police,and intelligence services in all p~obability have prevented morethan one terrorist incident which resulted from the seizure ofWilliam Norton's vehicle. However, due to lack of documentationonly one prevention is being claimed. (i)uT~'L¥ 3j 1986As a result of FBI investigations, it was determinedthat a plan was underway to effect the escape of Oscar Lopez, theleader of the Armed Forces of National Liberation (FALN) from the- 28 -


Federal Correctional Facility in Leavenworth, Kansas. Otherinmates selected by Lopez were also to be included in the escapeplan. The FBI learned that the escape plan involved flying ahelicopter, stocked with machine guns and explosives, into theLeavenworth recreational yard. Subsequent investigation led tothe indictment of six individuals on August 20, 1986, inconnection with this matter, thus preventing a potentiallyviolent prison escape attempt. (i)JULY 28, 1986During July, 1986, a Joint investigation by the FBI andthe U.S. Customs Service (USCS) indicated that various subjectssolicited investment funds for the purpose of overthrowing theGovernment of Suriname, and attempted to take weapons and moneyout of the United States for this purpose. It was alsoestablishe~ that these persons recruited a group of individualsfrom the United States to travel to Suriname for the purpose ofoverthrowing that Government. On July 28, 1986, twelveindividuals were arrested by the USCS and FBI without incident inHammond, Louisiana, on violations of the Neutrality Act andtheArms Export Control Act. Additionally, on July 28, 1986,Tommy L. Denleywas arrested in Kenner, Louisiana, and JohnAmbielli was arrested in Lafayette, Louisiana. They were alsocharged with violations of the Neutrality Act and the Arms ExportControl Act. These two individuals were the principal subjectsin this investigation. On November 5, 1986, thirteen of thesubjects were sentenced from terms ranging from five years'imprisonment to three years' probation. The fourteenth subjecthas not been sentenced to date. Consequently, the Joint effortsof the FBI and USCS are believed to have successfully interdictedthe potential overthrow of the Government of Suriname. (i)AUGUST 5 ~ 1986Through investigative efforts, it was determined that aviolence-prone organization, the E1 Rukn Street Gang (ERSG), wasattempting to act as a surrogate for the Libyan Government,proposing to commit terrorist acts in retiLrn for financialconsideration. On August 5, 1986, the FBI, in conjunction withnumerous Federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies,effected the arrest of several ERSG members for firearmsviolations and for their involvement in the illegal purchase ofone Light Anti-Tank Weapon (LAW) rocket on July 31, 1986. Inaddition to the arrests, the FBI executed two search warrants attwo E1 Rukn locations which resulted in the recovery of forty-oneweapons, three of which were determined to be fully automatic.(1)- 29 -


OCTOBER28, 1986On October 28, 1986, between the hours of 12 midnightand 8:30 a.m., two explosive devices detonated and eight otherswere recovered and rendered safe by the Police of Puerto Rico(POPR). The explosive devices were placed in eight locationsincluding military installations, recruiting stations, and Armyreserve offices. At 6:25 a.m., the Associated Press received acall claiming credit for these bombings on behalf of the EPB-Macheteros. A communique was later recovered by the POPR inwhich credit for the bombings was claimed by the EPB-Macheteros,the Organization of Volunteers for the Popular Resistance, andthe Armed Forces of Popular Resistance.One device located at the U.S. Army Reserve RecruitingStation inPuerto Rico, was rendered safe prior todetonation Ca~ device had been located through investigativeefforts. (i)NOVEMBER24o 1986On November 23, 1985, at approximately 8:30 p.m., theSoviet Union's Moiseyev Dance Company checked into the PentaHotel in New York City. At approximately i0 p.m., heavy smokewas observed emanating from the bottom floor and hotelventilation system of the Penta Hotel. At approximately 1:30a.m., November 24, 1986, members of the New York Joint TerrorismTask Force (JTTF) observed Victor Vancier, self-proclaimednational leader of the Jewish Defense League, acting suspiciouslyin the vicinity of the Penta Hotel. Vancier was interviewed andfound to be in possession of a Smith and Wesson tear-gas grenade.Vancier was taken into custody and charged with violation ofTitle 18, USC, Section 922, possession of a firearm by aconvicted felon. (i)D E ~ 15,During the course of an FBI investigation directedagainst the Arizona Patriots, it was learned that this group hadplans to place a bomb in a Jewish synagogue in Phoenix, Arizona.The FBI, after learning of the planned bombing, was able to~revent this act of terrorist violence. Investigation by the FBInto the activities of the Arizona Patriots have resulted in thearrest of nine members of this group on December 15, 1986. (TheArizona Patriots is a right-wing group whose philosophy issimilar to that of the AN.) (i)- 30 -


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SECTION VIMAJOR ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE TERRORISM1986PROGRAM• *._.W_hjle a number of counterte.rrorisminitiatives were undertaken durmB 1986and significant.ly .en.hanced. prolpm.m..suc.cess,_ this section inc, lLudes only a~kculable, law .enforcement accompi,snmen[s sucn as indictmen[s,arrests, and convictions.- 32 -


Armenian TerrorismINTERNATIONALMAJOR INTerNATIONAL TERRORISM ACCOMPLTSI~f~RTSOn June 14, 1986, three members of the Armenian SecretArmy for the Liberation of Armenia, a Marxist-Leninist terroristgroup, were sentenced in a Canadian court in connection with a1982 assassination attempt against the Turkish Commercial Attachein Ottawa, Canada. These three individuals, and one other personagainst whom charges were later dropped, were arrested onMarch 12, 1984 by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in Ottawa,based upon information furnished by the FBI, and pled guilty.On March i0, 1986, Dikran Sarkis Berberian, a member ofthe Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide (JCAG), wassentenced to prison on charges relating to his involvement in theOctober 22, 1982 attempted bombing of the office of the HonoraryTurkish Consul in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was convictedof these charges on February 15, 1986. He may also be subject todeportation proceedings.Four other Armenians had earlier been convicted ofcharges pertaining to the acquisition, construction, andtransport of an explosive device in connection with this crime.Three of these individuals were sentenced to jail terms rangingfrom four to six years; they are currently free on bail pendingappeal. The sentencing of the fourth individual, Viken¥acoubian, is pending on an appeal of his conviction. The arrestof these individuals marked the first time JCAG m~mhers had beenarrested prior to the commission of a terrorist act.~nti-Castro TerrorismOn February 6, 1986, Omega 7 members and/or associatesAndres Garcia, Pedro Crispin Remon, and Eduardo Losada Fernandez,pled guilty in New York, New York for conspiring to murder aforeign official and conspiring to bomb arid destroy the propertyof a foreign government. They were each sentenced to ten-yearprison terms.IrlshTerrorismOn June ii, 1986, at Le Havre, France, the PoliceJudicaire Police National arl-ested five members of the IrishNational Liberation Army (INIA) at LeHavre, France. Two of thefive persons were United States citizens. These arrests were theresult of FBI information and subsequent joint operations whichinvolved several foreign police and intelligence agencies. Thefive individuals who were arrested were involved in the- 33 -


procurement of weapons at the direction of INLA for shipment toIreland. On June 18, 1986, a criminal complaint was filed and anarrest warrant issued for one of these individuals in LosAngeles, California, on a weapons conspiracy charge.On May 20, 1986, eight members and/or associates of thePIRAwere arrested without incident in the Boston area forattempting to procure automatic weapons or a Surface-to-AirMissile (SAM) on behalf of the PIRA in Belfast, Nort/~ern Ireland.In October 1986, six of these individuals pleaded guilty toconspiracy charges and received sentences ranging from two years'probation to eighteen months' imprisonment. On October 23, 1986,the remaining two defendants were convicted of illegal armsdealing and received sentences of eight and nine years'imprisonment, respectively.On April 15, 1986, a Federal grand jury in Boston,Massachusetts, indicted seven m~mbers and/or associates of thePIRA on violations pertaining to the shipment of the PIRAweaponsand/or narcotics offenses. On September 2, 1986, one of theseindividuals, who had been a fugitive since the return of theindictment, was arrested without incident at Marshfield,Massachusetts. Each of these idividuals are awaiting trial inBoston, Massachusetts.Sikh TerrorismOn May 30, 1986, Canadian authorities arrested fivepersons believed to be Sikh terrorists and charged each of themwith conspiracy to manufacture and utilize an explosive devicewith the intent to cause injury. These arrests in allprobability prevented the bombing of an Air India facility and/oraircraft. The FBI's investigation contributed substantially tothese arrests.Other InternatlonalAccomplishmentsOn March 12, 1986, five individuals were convicted oncharges relating to their involvement in a 1984 plan to stage anassassination of incumbent Honduran President Roberto Suazo. Twoother persons had previously pled guilty for their involvement inthis planned assassination attempt. On February 13, 1986,another individual had been convicted in this matter.On July 28, 1986, fourteen individuals were arrested oncharges relating to their involvement in a plan to invade thecountry of Suriname. On September ii, 1986, nine of the fourteenindividuals pled guilty to charges in connection with thismatter.- 34 -


DQ~P-~TICMAJOR DaMESTICTERRORISMA~Tm~~ranNationsOn March 19, 1986, Richard Joseph Scutari was arrestedat San Antonio, Texas. Scutari is a member of the "Order," aright-wing terrorist organization, and was sought in connectionwith the armed robbery of an armored truck on July 19, 1984, atUkiah, California. On April 30, 1986, Scutari pled guilty inSeattle, Washington. He has subsequently been sentenced to asix-year prison term.Puerto Rican Domestic Terrorismhxtensive FBI investigations have resulted in theindictment of sixteen members and/or associates of the PuertoRican terrorist group, the EPB-Macheteros. They were indicted oncharges relating to the September 12, 1983, armed robbery of $7.2million from the Wells Fargo Terminal in West Hartford,Connecticut. Thirteen of these persons have beem~ arrested andthe remaining three are fugitives. On March 21, 1986, asuperseding indictment was issued by a Federal grand Jury (FGJ)in Hartford, Connecticut, which charged three additional personsfor their participation in the March 12, 1983, robbery of theWells Fargo Department in Hartford, Connecticut. Of the nineteenindividuals, sixteen have been arrested, fourteen of whom havebeen released on bond pending trial, two remain incarcerated, andthree of the nineteen remain in fugitive status.On July 3, 1986, five arrest warrants and four materialwitness warrants were issued for individuals involved in orknowledgeable of an ongoing investigation centering around a plotto break an incarcerated FAI~ leader out of the FederalCorrectional Institution located at Leavenworth, Kansas.Investigations in this matter have identified members of a non-Puerto Rican domestic terrorist organization, the Prairie FireOrganizing Committee, and an individual formerly incarceratedwith the FAI/~ leader at Leavenworth as being actively involved inthe escape plan. Three persons were arrested on July 3, 1986,pursuant to the aforementioned warrants and charged withconspiracy to escape, interstate transportation of weapons, andinterstate transportation of explosives. They were subsequentlyreleased on bond. Two other individuals remain in fugitivestatus. On August 13, 1986, another individual was arrested oncontempt charges for failing to comply with a FGJ subpoena whichdemanded handwriting examples and major case prints. On August20, 1986, a FGJ in Chicago, Illinois, indicted all sixindividuals and charged them with conspiracy to escape from aFederal correctional institution. (The FALN is a violent,militant Puerto Rican terrorist group).- 35 -


Jewish Defense LeagueOn January 15, 1986, Craig Leitner, a former JDLmember, was arrested by the United States Marshal Service in NewYork City after a month-long coordinated investigation with theFBI. A provisional arrest warrant, which had been authorized bythe Office of International Affairs, United States Department ofJustice, had been issued for Leitner's arrest based upon anIsraeli indictment which charged Leitner with attempted murder,attempted arson, and conspiracy. Leitner had been cited byIsraeli authorities as allegedly participating in the planningand execution of six separate violent attacks upon Arabs,civilians, and/or their property in Israel, while acting inconcert with four other individuals who have been prosecuted onthese same charges in Israel.The JDL is composed primarily of young Jewish-Americanswho consider themselves to be the front line of defense againstanti-Semitism, as well as being supporters of the state ofIsrael.May 19th Communist OrganizationOn January 17, 1986, May 19th Communist Organization(MIgCO) member Marilyn Jean Buck was convicted on one count ofviolating Title 18, United States Code, Section 822(g),interstate transportation of a firearm by a convicted felon. OnApril 22, 1986, Buck received a five-year consecutive prisonsentence for this conviction. Buck, who had been wanted since1977 when she escaped from a Federal prison in West Virginia, hadbeen arrested by Special Agents of the FBI on May Ii, 1985. OnAugust 2, 1985, she was convicted of the escape and was sentencedto five years in prison to be served conse~2tively to the sixyearterm remaining at the time of her escape. (The MIgCO is aleft-wing terrorist group which openly advocates the overthrow ofthe United States Government through armed struggle and the useof violence.)United Freedom FrontOn March 12, 1985, a FGJ in the Eastern District of NewYork returned a twelve-count indictment charging sevenindividuals with responsibility for the eleven bombing-relatedincidents attributed to the United Freedom Front (UFF). Amongthose indicted were former Top Ten Fugitives Raymond Luc Levaseurand Thomas William Manning. On March 4, 1986, all defendantswere convicted of conspiracy charges and bombings of governmentand corporate buildings. These individuals were subsequentlysentenced to prison terms ranging from fifteen to fifty-threeyears. (The UFF was a left-wing terrorist group ~ublicly opposedto what members perceived to be American imperiallsm,exploitation, and/or militarism in Central America.)- 36 -


El Rukn Street GanqOn August 5, 1985, two members of the ERSG, a violencepronedomestic organization with links to the Libyan Government,were arrested without incident for firearms violations as thepair had attempted to purchase an (inert) LAW rocket. An arrestwarrant was also issued for a third ERSG m~mher who is beingsought for similar firearms violations. On October 31, 1986,four ERSG members were indicted fort heir involvement in thisterrorist-related conspiracy, which was followed several dayslater by indictment of a fifth ERSG member.- 37 -


SECTION VIISUMMARIES OFTERRORIST- RELATED ACTIVITIES1986- 38 -


TERRORIST-RK~_ ATED ACTIVITIESDuring 1986, the FBI recorded two terrorist-relatedactivities. These activities consisted of a gunfire exchange anda robbery. Below is a brief description of these terroristrelatedactivities.January 7. 1986Two males wearing dark colored clothing were observedby a member of the POPR in front of the United States Post Officein Coamo, Puerto Rico, while attempting to place a device into acardboard box. At the same time the police officer was makinghis observations, it appeared as if the two males were observingthe officer. The two individuals took the device and thecardboard box, entered a vehicle, and departed from the scene.The officer pursued the vehicle and a gltnfire exchange took placebut was unable to continue this pursuit due to bullet damagewhich thus disabled the officer's vehicle. (I)Aucjust 1, 1986The First National Bank of Rossville, Illinois, wasrobbed by two unidentified white males. The robbery was observedby the Rossville Police Chief (RPC) who ~rsued the fleeingsubjects to the Illinois-Indiana State Line. During the chase,the subjects fired upon the RPC's vehicle. He was unable tocontinue the pursuit due to bullet damage which was incurred tohis vehicle. The subjects' vehicle was later found abandoned andburning. Investigation traced the car to Marion Elise Hester,the daughter of Reverend Robert Edward Miles who is also theMidwest Director for the AN. One of the robbery subjects hasbeen identified as Thomas George Harrelson. Harrelson has aprevious conviction a bank robbery. On August Ii, 1986, acomplaint was filed ~ an arrest warrant was issued whichcharged Harrelson for an armed bank robbery. (i)- 39 -


SECTION VIIIHOSTAGE RESCUE TEAM= 40 -


HOSTAGE RESCUE TEAMThe Hostage Rescue Team (HRT) was established withinthe FBI in January 1982, by order of the Attorney General, torespond to and effectively conclude hostage situations, therebyproviding the President and the Attorney General an alternativeto the use of military force in terrorist situations. Also, theHRT is capable of responding to a major incident and/or functionswhich may be viewed as potential targets of terrorism as well asany unanticipated life-threatening situations in whichsophisticated assault and rescue procedures are deemed necessary.During 1986, members of the HRT were deployed onvarious arrest-related missions and at special events includingthe Statue of Liberty Rededication Ceremonies in July 1986.- 41 -


ANALYSIS CF TERRORISMIN THE UNITED STATES1980- 1986- 42 -


TERRORIST INCIDENTSIN THEUNITED STATES- 43 -


| IINumber of incidents6O5040TERRORIST INCIDENTS IN THE UNITED STATES1980--19864251r : i i ¸¸ i ~,302029100Jan I 81 82 June30 July 1 84 85 Dec 3180 --~ 83-" ~'83 ~-- 8642 Months 42 Months73%of Total Incidents27% of Total IncidentsIn 1980 there were 29 terrorist incidents in theUnited States. During 1981 the number of incidents increased to42 and a high of 51 incidents were reported during 1982. Becausethe number of terrorist incidents continued to increase and theactivities of both domestic and international terroristsrepresented a clear and continuing danger to the American people,Director Webster declared terrorism a national priority for theFBI during October 1982. This enabled the FBI to commitadditional resources to the investigation of terrorism and placedthe program on par with White-Collar Crime, Organized Crime andForeign Counterintelligence.Thirty-one terrorist incidents occurred during 1983, adrop of twenty from the previous year. In 1984 the number ofincidents declined to 13 and only 7 terrorist incidents occurredin 1985. During 1986 there were 17 terrorist incidents; however,on two dates and places there were multiple incidents whichaccounted for ii of 17 incidents. Overall, in the seven yearperiod from January 1980 to December 1986, the FBI recorded 190terrorist incidents. If this period is divided in half (42months), less than one-third of the total number of incidentsoccurred during the most recent 42 months.- 44 -


GEOGRAPHIC OVERVIEW OF TERRORISMIN THE UNITED STATES- 45 -


TERRORIST INCIDENTSBY REGION1980--1986"1~. --~ -- New York, N.Y.................. /--,~ / (52)[ ~ ~ ~_/~-,,~ -~ ~ Washingt3on, D.C."5Los AngelesCalifornia(9), .... Miami, Florida~ (18)/ SOUTHERN .33 4" Sa°Juao,"I~ ~ ,. , . .='~ Puerto Rico-- " ~ PUERTO RICO (13)*THE FIVE MOST FREQUENTLY TARGETED CITIES/LOCATIONS WITHIN U.S. BORDERSmIn the seven-year period of 1980-1986, 190 terroristincidents occurred in the United States and Puerto Rico. Abreakdown of these incidents shows that 72 occurred in theNortheast, predominately New York City, 57 in Puerto Rico, 33 inthe South, 22 in the West and 6 in the North Central region ofthe United States. The geographic occurrence, however, isnarrower with terrorist incidents occurring in only 15 states,the District of Col~zmbia and Puerto Rico.Most of the terrorist incidents which have occurred inthe Northeast region of the United States took place in New York.This is not unexpected since New York, particularly New YorkCity, has a high concentration of Government buildings,diplomatic establishments, national monuments and world-renownedcommercial and cultural institutions. New York City alone hasaccounted for 52 of the 190 terrorist incidents in theUnited States during this period. The terrorist groups mostactive in New York have been the Armed Forces of NationalLiberation, known by their Spanish acroyn~m FAI~, CroatianFreedom Fighters (CFF), Omega 7, Puerto Rican Armed Resistance(PRAR), Jewish Terrorist Elements, UFF, Red Guerilla Resistance(RGR), Armed Resistance Unit (ARU) and the Revolutionary FightingGroup (RFG).- 46 -


A BREAKDOWN OF TERRORIST INCIDENTSBetween 1980 and 1986WITHIN THE UNITED STATESthe terrorist groupsAND PUERTO RICOidentified above 1980-1986claimed responsibilityfor 90 percentNUMBER OFof the claimed terr- STATE/rERRITORY INCIDENTS PERCENTAGEorist incidents com- NewYork 63 33.16mitted in New York.Two of these groups, Pue~oRico 57 30.00the CFF and Omega 7, Florida 19 10.00are characterizedas international California 15 7.89terrorist groups. Washington, D.C. 14 7.37The CFF is an anti-Yugoslav organization Idaho 5 2.63committed to the es- Michigan 3 1.58tablishment of an in- lllinois 2 1.05dependent state ofCroatia. The Omega 7, Ma~achusens 2 1.05which has been inactive, NewJer~y 2 1.05was a fanaticalanti-Castro Cuban Texas 2 1.05exile group whose Colorado I .63purpose was to keep Nevada 1 .53alive the fightagainst Castro's Oregon 1 .53communist Government Pennsylvania 1 .53in Cuba. Collectively,these two groups have Tennessee I .53claimed responsibility Virginia I .~for nine terroristincidents in the TOTAL 190 "100.01New York metropolitanarea. Neither group,however, has claimed"Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100.0responsibility for a terrorist attack in the United States since1983.The FAIM and PRAR seek the independence of Puerto Ricofrom the United States. Combined, these two groups have claimedresponsibility for 16 terrorist incidents in the New Yorkmetropolitan area over the past seven years. The UFF, a leftwingdomestic terrorist group which was in opposition to U.S.political policies abroad, emerged in 1982 when it claimedresponsibility for bombings at the South African procurementoffice in Harrison, New York. Since then, this group has claimedcredit for I0 terrorist incidents. This group is now defunct dueto a well coordinated law enforcement effort. The ARU, RFG andRGR are all revolutionar~ terrorist groups which have expressedanticapitalistic and antlimperialist philosophies.- 47 -


Collectively, these groups have claimed responsibility for fourterrorist incidents in New York.Jewish terrorist elements, who are strongly motivatedby their desire to publicize the past and present plight of theJewish people have, over the past seven years, claimedresponsibility for 20 terrorist incidents in New York. Althoughclaims for many of these incidents have been made in the names ofthe "Jewish Defenders," "United Jewish Underground," and "JewishDirect Action," the majority of the incidents were ultimatelyclaimed on the behalf of the Jewish Defense League (JDL).Puerto Rico, has been the site of 57 terroristincidents. Puerto Rican terrorist groups, on the whole, aremotivated by their strong desire for the total liberation of theIsland of Puerto Rico. These organizations maintain that PuertoRico had been granted its autonomy from Spain prior to the Treatyof Paris which ended the Spanish American War. Puerto Ricanterrorist groups have generally carried out their attacks a~ainstmilitary installations and personnel, public utility companles,private businesses and law enforcement personnel.The most active of the island Puerto Rican terroristgroups has been the Ejercito Popular Boricua Macheteros (EPB-Macheteros). It and other island groups have claimedresponsibility for all the terrorist incidents in Puerto Rico.In the Continental United States, the cause of Puerto Ricanliberation has been carried on by the FAI/~. This group, which isbased in Chicago, Illinois, and New York, New York, has claimedresponsibility for i0 terrorist incidents. The last of which wasin 1982.The western region of the United States has been thesite of 12 percent of the total terrorist incidents (190) witheight percent of the total occurring in California. Furtherexamination indicates that five percent of the total incidentsoccurred in Los Angeles wi~_h nearly all of those attacks beingclaimed by Armenian terrorist groups.Armenian terrorist groups which have been or arecurrently active in Los Angeles includes the October 3Organization, the June 9 Organization, the Armenian Secret Armyfor the Liberation of Armenia and the Justice Commandos ofArmenian Genocide. Armenian terrorist groups are stronglymotivated by their desire to avenge the alleged massacre of oneand-one-halfmillion Armenians by the Turkish Government in 1915.Thus, the targets selected by these groups have generallyincluded symbols and/or institutions of the Turkish Government.The last incident in the United States claimed by an Armenianterrorist group occurred in 1982. Successes against Armenianterrorists (e.g., arrests, convictions) are in part responsibilefor this recent inactivity.- 48 -


Within the western region, five terrorist incidentswere carried out in Idaho. During September, 1986, Coeurd'Alene, Idaho, was the setting for five terrorist incidentswhich have been attributed to individual members of the rightwingterrorist group Aryan Nations (AN). The AN, also known asthe Church of Jesus Christ Christian, was founded by RichardButler, at Hayden Lake, Idaho, in the late 1970s as a religiousorganization; however, its members strongly profess whitesupremacy and advocate the elimination of Jews and blacks fromsociety.Seventeen percent of the total terrorist incidents inthe United States have occurred in the southern region. Floridahas been the setting for ten percent of the incidents, most ofwhich occurred in Miami. The Cuban anti-Castro group called theOmega 7 claimed responsibility for terrorist incidents in theMiami area between 1980 and 1983. This terrorist group, Just asCroatian and Armenian terrorist groups, profess no outwardhostility toward United States citizens. The targets forterrorist attacks selected by the Omega 7 have been restricted torepresentatives and/or ~roperty of the Cuban Government, as wellas any individual organlzation or business that has dealt with orsupported the Cuban Goverr~ent. Prosecution of members of theOmega 7 has caused the activity of this group to abate.Less than three percent of all terrorist incidents inthe United States occurred in the North Central region. In 1980the FAI~ claimed credit for the takeover of the Carter/MondaleCampaign Office in Chicago, Illinois. In 1982, the Omega 7claimed credit for the bombing of a commercial establishment inChicago and during 1982 three terrorist incidents were committedby an unknowngroup in Detroit, Michigan. Although credit fortwo of these attacks was claimed by Jewish terrorist elements,the FBI's investigation of these incidents failed to substantiatethe claims.- 49 -


T ~ O ~ I ~ T~MI=~T|O~S- 50 -


ibmTERRORIST PREVENTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES1982--1986Number of Preventions30 23252015 8 810 65 30Jan1 83 June ~ ~IY 1 85Dec 318682 84 ~ "30 MONTHS 30 MONTHS200•oof Total Preventions80%of Total PreventionsThe FBI, in cooperation with other law enforcementagencies has prevented 49 incidents from 1982 through 1986. In1982, the first year in which statistics concerning terroristincident preventzons were maintained, the FBI was successful inpreventing three terrorist incidents. In 1983, six potentialterrorist incidents were prevented, followed by nine in 1984, 23in 1985, and eight in 1986. Althoughthe number of terroristincident preventions for Calendar Year 1986 is lower than thatwhich appears for Calendar Year 1985, an examination of the fiveyearperiod reveals that the number of terrorist incidentsprevented during the last half or 30 months (July i, 1984 throughDecember 31, 1986) accounted for 80 percent of the total numberof terrorist incidents prevented in the United States since thesefigures were first maintained.- 51 -


THE INTERNATIONAL TERRORISTTHREAT IN THE UNITED STATES- 52 -


The explosivesituation in theMiddle East, oppositionto UnitedStates policiesin Europe and CentralAmerica,along with the instabilityof regimesthroughoutLatin America havegenerated a substantialnumber ofterrorist activitiesin the United States.Because of itsviolent and ,,npredictablenature,international terrorismposes athreat to thesecurity of theUnited States.There are severalinternational terroristgroupswhich have showna willingnessand a capabilityto commit violentacts in theUnited States,while other groupsare involved inthe procurementof weapons andsupport for activitieselsewhere.Armenian, Croatianand Cubanterrorist groupshave been successfullyinterdictedas a result ofarrests and convictionsof keygroup leaders andassociates. These*AN OVERVIEW OFI ~ITERNATIONAL TERRORIST GROUPNCIDENTS IN THE UNITED STATESACCORDING TO GROUP CLASSIFICATION1980-1986Armenian 24.1Unknown_ ~"~" Haitian Elements 7.4Anti-Castro ~ \ ~" Libyan 5.6Cuban Elements 38.9Anti-El-Salvadoran ~ t "~0E ements 1.9 "'~' °'" n 5.6Unknown Philippine Elements 1.9*AN OVERVIEWOF INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST GROUPNCIDENTS IN THE UNITED STATESACCORDING TO TARGET1980-1986Diplomatic)roperties 3.7 Diplomatic Persons 14.8Gr% pVe~t im: ~t.7 ~ ~~.~plomati?stablishments 24.1Educatio ~al "q..~\\ / /Facilities 1.9 ,-""----~,~I JE ntertain9ent"'~ ~ ~ . . ~ /Csta~li: rhcia: nt s 42.6*Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100.0three terrorist groups alone, have accounted for almost 75percent of the total number of international terrorist incidentscommitted in this country. Unlike terrorist groups operatingabroad, international terrorist groups operating within theUnited States have targeted a relatively small number ofestablishments or facilities associa=ed with the United StatesGovernment. Armenian terrorist groups, for example, have- 53 -


generally aimedtheir terrorist attacksagainst Turkishor pro-Turkishinterests in theUnited States. Anti-Castro Cubans, on theother hand, have attackedrepresentativesand/or propertyof the CubanGovernment, as wellas individuals, organizations,and commercialestablishmentswhich havesupported theCastro regime.Pro-Khomeini Iraniansand Pro-Qadhafi Libyansin the United Stateshave generally aimedtheir activities againstdissidents and otherswho are in opposition tothe established governmentin the Middle East.*AN OVERVIEW OFINTERNATIONAL TERRORIST GROUPINCIDENTS IN THE UNITED STATESACCORDING TO TYPE1980-1986Attempted Bombings 22.2~ Shootings9.3Bombings 51.9 -~"-'- ~~~L. Takeovers 7.4\\k ~Actual~ ~_X Fireb°mbing s5"6\ Arsons 1.9Kidnappings 1.9Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100.0The United States, because of its size, porous borders, opensociety, and involvement in the global political arena isvulnerable to terrorist operations. Potential terrorist supportnetwork@ are in place and certain terrorist groups have themotivation to commit terrorist attacks in the United States,either in opposition to U.S. foreign policy or out of hatredregarding particular ethnic groups in residence here. Despitethe successes of U.S. counterterrorism forces, the possibility ofinternational terrorist groups committing acts in theUnited States still exists.- 54 -


THE o ~M.FHS~', CU NTTEEDR Os~SA~E~'H R EAT- 55 -


include TheCovenant, The Sword,The Arm of the Lord(CSA), and the Sherriff'sPosse Comitatus(SPC). Besidesvoicing a hatred ofblacks and Jews, thesetwo groups have alsoengaged in acts ofprovocation and assaultagainst Federaland state lawenforcement officials.Several members ofthe CSA and the SPChave been a_~restedand convicted as aresult of theircriminal activities.The FALN, EPB-Macheteros, and theOVRP are major leftwingPuerto Ricanterrorist groupswhich are currentlyactive in the continentalUnited Statesor Puerto Rico.Puerto Ricanterrofistgroups, from1980 through 1986,have been responsiblefor 74 terroristincidents or slightlymore than one-half ofall the domestic terroristincidents perpetratedin theUnited States andPuerto Rico. Leftwingterrorist groupssuch as the UFF andM19CO have lost keygroup members asa result of arrest,osecution, and~carceration. Thesehave resulted in asharp decline in thenumber of terroristmincidents committed by these groups.*AN OVERVIEW OFDOMESTIC TERRORIST GROUP INCIDENTSIN THE UNITED STATESACCORDING TO TARGET1980-1986TARGETPERCENTAGEGovernment Buildings 19.9and PropertiesCommercial Establishments 12.5rEstablishments 6 6Diplomatic -1Property219 ~T°tal=-Persons 2.9---I 12.4Military 11.0Public Utilities 5.9Banks and Armored 5.1TrucksResidences 5.1Transportation Facilities 4.4Educational Facilities 3.7Recreation and 3.7EntertainmentFacilitiesOther 3.7Press and Media 2,9Public Safety and 2.9PersonnelVehicles 2.2Persons (other than 2.2diplomatic)Postal Facilities 2.2*Due to rounding, percentages may not add to 100.0- 57-


CONCLUDING REMARKS- 59 -


cooperation with other law enforcment agencies. In fact,successes against international terrorist organizations in theUnited States has been most prominent; there has not been aterrorist act committed by an international group here since1983. similarly, since 1983, there have been 12 internationalterrorist incidents thwarted. While 37 domestic terroristincidents have occurred since 1983, an additional 28 have beenprevented. As mentioned, major accomplishments have beenachieved against both international and domestic groups.Obviously, with these successes a significant amount of tragedyhas been averted.Also, the pattern which emerges from these statisticsis that the use of bombs or incendiary devices is the favoriteweapon of most terrorists. Primarily, the reasons for this arethat (1) the terrorist can set the bomb to o off at a latertime, ther~Dy mimimizing the chances of hisgor her injury andallowing for an escape and (2) potential evidence is consumed inthe explosion. The FBI has found that in the United States,especially among active domestic groups, bombs take the form ofsimply constructed devices.While return on investment is difficult to quantify inthe FBI's Terrorism Program, there has been a positivecorrelation between the amount of financial and human resourcesexpended to combat terrorism and the level of success attained incombatting the unlawful efforts of domestic and internationalterrorist groups in this country. The nlmher of terroristincidents perpetrated within the United States has decreased overthe last 42 months (July 1, 1983 through December 31, 1986),while the number of terrorist incidents prevented during the last30 months (July i, 1984 through December 3, 1986), has increased.Needless to say, it is difficult to place a value or premium onthese achievements. Few will disagree, however, that suchachievements do in fact transcend standard monetarymeasurements.- 61 -