Between the Tag and the Screen - Arkitektur- og designhøgskolen i ...

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Between the Tag and the Screen - Arkitektur- og designhøgskolen i ...

6 B C H A P T E R 4 : C O N N E C T I N G S R - R F I D A N D D E S I G NDetailing near-field materialFollowing I will combine all SR-RFID-related findings from articles 1, 2 and3 into the near-field material. To create this new model of near-field materialI use design affordances as they were presented in article 1 as a starting point(Nordby & Morrison, 2010). These comprise need-related designaffordances, instrumental design affordances and operational designaffordances. As mentioned previously, such offerings can connect toGibson’s affordances (1977), which can describe the relation between thedesigner and the material. However, Gibson’s approach may be expanded byapplying Leont’ev’s (1978) structure of activity. Bærentsen and Trettvik(2002) argue that this can be structured as three levels of affordances: needbased(motivational), instrumental and operational.Article 2 introduced form-making qualities (Nordby, 2011). These were seenas particularly oriented toward supporting motive development in industrialand interaction design. Linking this result to article 1, form-making qualitiesmay be seen as a need-related design affordance.In summing up the work of the first and second article, a name change isproposed: material-oriented instrumental design affordances may be calledform-making instruments and, consequently, the material-orientedoperational design affordances are called form-making operations. This slightreformulation of concepts aims to bring consistency to the treatment ofaffordances, form-making qualities, levels of activity and materials.The different levels of affordances may be seen as representing why, whatand how knowledge (Bærentsen & Trettvik, 2002). We may use this as aguide when analysing how our findings related to SR-RFID may be placed incontext with the overall near-field material. I will now move to organisingthe interaction techniques and models found in articles 1, 2 and 3 accordingto form-making qualities, form-making instruments and form-makingoperations.Form-making qualities for the near-field materialForm-making qualities are need-related design affordances, which constitutean efficient way to get an overview of material properties. Each represents adistinct type of spatial or temporal form made possible with near-fieldmaterial. The study found six form-making qualities that were presented inarticle 2 (Nordby, 2010): 1) tap and hold gesture, 2) multi-field relations, 3)multi-field distribution, 4) context linking, 5) field form and 6) mediationtype.The form-making qualities show in what ways the near-field material can betransformed. The six form-making qualities significantly expand ourunderstanding of shaping SR-RFID. It does so by providing a large set ofpotential form-types that may be combined in many ways. Together, the69

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