NORDIC REGION - Buro Happold
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NORDIC REGION - Buro Happold

BURO HAPPOLDNORDIC REGIONLocated in Denmark’s metropolitan capital Copenhagen, Buro Happold’s design studio isideally placed to support the countries that make up the Nordic region. The countries sharemany common traits socially, economically and culturally. The combined population ofapproximately 25 million people is geographically spread over a land area of 3.5 million km2.Our culture of delivering creative, low energy solutions with world class partners aligns wellwith the regions’ undisputed reputation for providing the best quality of life to its citizens.Emphasis on environmentally friendly cities, cultural development and the incorrigible spiritof innovation has led to a new wave of successful designers, urban planners, artists andarchitects calling the region home.2Our world class engineers combine unrivalled technical skills with a deep understanding ofthe importance of harnessing the natural environment making the Nordic region an excitingplace to work. Working together with our clients we can overcome the toughest challengesin the built environment.

KristiansundKristiansund Opera House, NorwayArchitect: C. F. Møller1


Kristiansund Opera House & Cultural CentreNorwayBuro Happold successfully won the competition todesign The Kristiansund Opera and Culture Centre.The building will house Norway’s oldest opera, datingback to 1805, which hosts annually the Opera FestivalWeeks - Norway’s largest presentation of opera andmusical theatre. The vision of the new exemplarOpera House is to create a cultural power centre inKristiansund, the capital of the region of Nordmøre.The new building design will house an opera andmusical theatre, a ballet centre, library, collegecentre, conference rooms, a restaurant, a café, and askybar. The project involves integrating two existingbuildings, one of them the former Folkets Hus. Theproject also includes a new urban space createdaround the building by connecting the cultural centrewith the pedestrian streets, squares and a nearby park.Key Project InformationClientThe Muncipality of Kristiansund FG EiendomArchitectCF Møller ArchitectsServices provided by Buro HappoldMechanical & electrical installations,structural engineering, fire engineering, lighting,building physics, sustainability, BREEAM consultantBuro Happold will be undertaking the complexintegrated engineering design and will be usingsustainable materials throughout.ImagesExterior ©CF Møller ArchitectsSection ©CF Møller Architects7

Elephant HouseCopenhagen Zoo, DenmarkThe Elephant House project provides a natural, relaxedand stimulating living environment for the herd ofincreasingly rare Asian elephants and creates betterspaces to watch and enjoy them.With separate outdoor areas for males and females,the new elephant house consists of two coveredenclosures. The enclosures are covered by steelsupportedlightweight, glazed domes which providenatural light and ventilation. The design featureof the domes ‘floating’ on their bearings, preventsthe application of horizontal thrusts to the pre-castconcrete superstructure. The enclosures are embeddedin the landscape and deeply set into the ground,ensuring excellent insulation on the perimeter walls.Key Project InformationClientArchitectCopenhagen ZooFoster + PartnersServices provided by Buro HappoldStructural engineering, mechanical & electricalinstallations, acousticsA viewing terrace circles the domes allowing visitorsto see the elephants inside the building or roaming inthe landscape. A ramped, internal promenade providesviews into the enclosures and houses an educationalexhibition space. The terrace provides support spacesfor keepers, storage areas and a food delivery zone.8



Proposal for Deichman LibraryOslo, NorwayThe Oslo Public Library, formally known as theDeichman Library is the municipal public libraryserving Oslo and is the country's first and largestlibrary. Centrally located in Oslo, Bjørvika is close tothe country’s most important public transportationintersection Oslo Central Station and the region’scommercial centre.The master plan stipulates that Bjørvika is to bedeveloped with seven public areas. These will beattractive public spaces, reserved for pedestrians,that will connect the existing rearward-situated townwith the Fjord, crosswise from the new developmentareas. Inside, the library mimics the activities unfoldingoutside; strolls, circulation, squares blended withrelaxation, contemplation and recreation.The atrium incised in the middle of the buildingmirrors the zigzag pattern of the main entrance. Fromfloor to floor the zigzag incisions shift and are notplaced symmetrically one above the other. This leavesan interesting uneven pattern when you look up/down through the building. The integrated designapproach on the project combines the architecture andengineering to provide a sustainable design solution forthe project.Key Project InformationClientArchitectHav Eiendom ASSnøhettaServices provided by Buro HappoldMechanical and electrical installations, structuralengineering, facade engineering, fire engineering,sustainability11


Bergen Arts CentreBergen, NorwayThe National Academy of the Arts (KHiB) developmentis located on the shores of lake Store Lungegårdsvann,flanked by three mountains; Fløyen, Ulrikken andLøvstakken in the city of Bergen on the west coast ofNorway. The new urban development will become animportant icon for the cultural life of Bergen.Buro Happold’s structural engineering input was ‘formfinding’ of the complex roof design to try and minimizesteel weights and structural columns while maintainingSnohetta’s vision.The site has a tough climate with regards to heavy rainfalland cold temperatures and Buro Happold completedenvironment and climate modelling on the project.This was a determining factor in the building design andform while blending into the wider landscape.Key Project InformationClientArchitectThe National Academy for the ArtsSnøhettaServices provided by Buro HappoldMechanical and electrical installations, structuralengineering facade engineering, fire engineering,sustainability14Image©Snøhetta



NørrebrohallenCopenhagen, DenmarkThe leisure and culture project “Nørrebrohallen” is apart of a larger regeneration scheme for Nørrebro inCopenhagen. The project is looking at refurbishmentof the existing building and it includes renovationof the reception area and the restaurant as well asconstruction of two new entrances.Buro Happold has delivered all engineering servicesrelated to the project including constructional changesto the existing building structure, installations andindoor climate.Key Project InformationClientArchitectKøbenhavns EjendommeSite ArchitectsServices provided by Buro HappoldMechanical and electrical installations,structural engineering, building physics,sustainability17

Kongsberg Knowledge &Cultural SquareKongsberg, Norway18The Knowledge and Cultural Square project is in thecenter of Kongsberg, a former mining town about 75kilometers southwest of Oslo, Norway.The ‘Silver Factory’ concept creates a modern factoryof culture, knowledge and public life that will createa new heart for the city. The project comprises of adesign for a cultural and teaching building totalingapproximately 24,000 m², and includes futureexpansion of other functions, such as student housing,sports facilities and businesses.The creation of the Knowledge and Cultural Squareis the first step in reviving Kongsberg’s historic westside and consolidating a disparate city centre withactive public spaces and facilities. With a dark, ruggedexterior that opens up to a warm and luminousinterior the Silver Factory brings together a variety ofeducational and cultural functions in an impressivelearning arena that frames views of the uniqueKongsberg surroundings.The different functions are stacked and overlapped tooffer both maximum efficiency and flexibility and atthe same time create an open public forum that willsparkle with the synergy and fusion of Kongsberg’sintertwining new silver: knowledge and cultureThe low energy integrated engineering strategyadopts the use of ground source heat pumps, mixedmode ventilation strategies and the adoption ofon-site renewable energy using solar collector panels,providing a sustainable design solution.

KongsbergImages©MecanooKey Project InformationClientArchitectKongsberg kommuneMecanoo Architecten withCode ArkitekturServices provided by Buro HappoldMechanical & electrical installations,structural engineering, facade engineering,fire engineering, lighting, building physics,sustainability, BREEAM consultant19


King Abdulaziz Centre for World CultureSaudi ArabiaResembling a collection of glossy stones stacked inthe desert, the five connected buildings – each withtheir own unique function and structural geometry– contain facilities including an auditorium, library,theatre, exhibition hall, museum and children’s centre.The King Abdulaziz Centre for World Culture in theEastern Province of Dhahran, will mark the 75thanniversary of Saudi Aramco, the world’s largestoil company, and has been designed to representthe history of oil in Saudi Arabia. Located on theDammam Dome, the iconic structure will stand nextto Prosperity Well No. 7, the first well in Saudi Arabia toyield oil in commercial quantities.The centre will contain 50,000m2 of cultural facilities,including museum, an auditorium, cinema, library,exhibition hall and archive.Buro Happold has carried out in depth dynamicmodelling and comfort analysis of both the internaland external environments. Through modelling ofthe facade and building envelope, heat gains havebeen minimised, with associated reductions in energyloads and carbon emissions. Wind modelling studieshave influenced the form of the buildings, helping toprevent excessive air flow velocities across externalspaces and ensuring pedestrian comfort.The project is aiming to achieve a LEED Gold ratingand has incorporated numerous energy, water,materials and wider environmental strategies toachieve this. The building is served by off-site districtcooling and uses several water recycling systemsincluding grey water and air handling unit condensaterecovery. Careful consideration has been given tomaterial selection and local materials have been usedwhere possible.Key Project InformationClientSaudi AramcoArchitectSnøhettaServices provided by Buro HappoldMechanical & electrical installations,structural engineering, ground engineering, facadeengineering, fire engineering, infrastructure, acoustics,lighting, building physics, sustainability, LEED assessorImagesInterior ©SnøhettaFacade ©Snøhetta21

Library of BirminghamBirmingham, UKThe Birmingham Library project replaces the existingCentral Library with a new state-of-the-art centre forknowledge, learning and culture fit for the 21st century,which is to be integrated with the existing RepertoryTheatre. This symbolises the city’s mission of creating a‘global city with a local heart’ and is vital in developingBirmingham’s knowledge based economy and globalsuccess as a Science City.The existing Library is the busiest public library in Britainand the city’s most visited public building. The buildingfabric of the early 1970s building requires majorrenovation work and the layout is no longer suitablefor modern day usage. The current library also housesarchives, photography and rare printed collectionsof national and international significance in storagefacilities lacking proper climate control; all issues thenew complex will rectify.Birmingham City Council’s aim is to set new standardsfor libraries in the 21st century by creating anoutstanding resource for learning, information andculture. To achieve this, the new library and the REPTheatre will join together to share a number of facilitiesincluding a new 300 seat auditorium, meeting andconference rooms, plus cafe and restaurant facilities.CABE (Commission for Architecture and the BuiltEnvironment) has been consulted during the design.The project working method has relied on the constantdevelopment of 3D models and views. This hasallowed us to quickly explain the visual impact of thebuilding. Environmental issues have been explainedthrough an illustrated BREEAM compliance matrix thatdemonstrates how an ‘Excellent’ rating will be achieved.Key Project InformationClientArchitectBirmingham City CouncilMecanooServices provided by Buro HappoldMechanical & electrical installations,structural engineering, ground engineering, facadeengineering, fire engineering, lighting consultancy,security consultancy, building physics, sustainability,BREEAM assessor, security consultant,access consultant, acoustics, traffic and transportImagesPerspective Section ©MecanooLibrary ©Mecanoo23

24Henning LarsenArchitects

Batumi AquariumGeorgiaBuro Happold, Henning Larsen Architects and AquaBlue Technologies have been appointed to design thenew Aquarium in Batumi, a prominent city on Georgia’sBlack Sea coast.The striking feature of the concept is the pebble-likeenvelope inspired by the stones on the beach atBatumi. The pebbles will be formed as reinforcedconcreteshells . The irregular geometry of the shellshas required detailed 3-D design analysis using newsoftware to create very simple construction drawings.Key Project InformationClientArchitectCARTU GroupHenning Larsen ArchitectsServices provided by Buro HappoldStructural engineering, facade engineering,mechanical & electrical installationsInternally, a stable environment is required to minimisethe impact of temperature and occupancy changes onthe condition of the tanks. Achieving this in the localclimate and with locally-maintainable technologies is achallenge which has required the sort of collaborativeworking between Buro Happold’s MEP and facadeengineers and Henning Larsen’s architects which haveyielded excellent results on other projects.Images©Henning Larsen Architects25

BURO HAPPOLDTRANSPORTtransportOld French transporter, carry or convey across (14.C)Transport infrastructure is key to unlocking the potential and value of any new development withinthe built environment especially the opportunities around masterplanning the cities of the future.It is also key to re-creating thriving economies and communities when focusing on regeneration ofexisting urban environments in the UK and worldwide.Be it the design of a station, bridge, support buildings,or any of many other structures within a transportenvironment, we have the in depth experienceto create innovative, economical and sustainablesolutions to meet our clients’ varied briefs.We have the ability to assemble a custom-designedand worldwide experienced project team, bringingtogether the best skills and talent from inside ourcompany and trusted project partners to deliver thelevel of engineering expertise required to deliversuccessfully.Our aim, as ever, is to ensure creative solutions that aretailored to the specific needs of clients, striving for thebest possible design, operational standards and easeof maintenance. An imaginative approach to designdelivers unique, advanced projects, which is a keyelement in Buro Happold’s work.Our worldwide experienced sustainability teamcontribute to the long term planning of providingsustainable solutions. We are at the forefront of lowenergy design, we strive to deliver projects that havelower carbon emissions and are more sustainable.We bring lessons learnt from our diverse range ofexperience working with owners, operators andend users from logistics and management of cargoto defining passenger requirements and passengermodelling.26

Fully clad long span trussescreate the undulating formof the curved roofArchitect's vision of a waveshaped building realised bycreating a roof that touchesthe ground in only two placesGround source heat pumpsconnected to high-efficiencyheating and cooling systemreduce energy consumptionIn the C17th Slough became akey location to change horseson stagecoaches for journeysout from LondonSlough Bus Station, Slough, UKArchitect: Bblur ArchitectureBuro Happold27


Odenplan Station RoofStockholm, SwedenThe existing Odenplan Station is being extendedand modernised to accommodate new lines for theCitybanan project. 3XN and Buro Happold are workingtogether to design a striking new canopy for theentrance which will also function as a focal point forthis important public space.Working with the restrictions imposed by tighttimescales and by a sub-structure already underconstruction, Buro Happold have developed astructural system which allows 3XN to create a curved,amphitheatre-like form.Key Project InformationClientArchitectTrafikverket/Bilfinger Berger3XNServices provided by Buro HappoldStructural engineering, building physics,lighting design, facade engineering,mechanical & electrical installationsCrowd loading, both in terms of weight and vibration,has been one of the principal design drivers in thisunusual situation where public access to the roof willbe encouraged. The structural principle is to use acurved, steel boxbeam which constantly changes itsprofile along its length to span 37.5m. The box beamis supported at both ends by walls at the only placeswhere foundations were available.Our Building Physics team used dynamic thermalmodelling techniques to assess the risk ofcondensation forming on the facade. The studieshave been used to establish the extent of heating andventilation required.Happold Lighting have designed an LED lightingscheme for the project which provides both functionaland accent lighting, using the stepped form as a focus.Images©3XN29

CopenhagenSlice showing concentration of contamination levels30

Nørreport StationCopenhagen, DenmarkThe client commissioned our Buiding Physicsteam to set up a CFD model of Nørreport subwaystation, and adjacent tunnelling, in order to supportremediation, which is being installed to reduceNOx levels in the system, through analysis andsimulations. A redevelopment of the train station andthe proposed use of new generation trains created anuncertainty about the levels of NO, NO2 and NOx. Theenvironmental authority set a basic level that shouldcomply within the boundaries of the undergroundstation and Building Physics used analysis andsimulations to test that the levels and dispersion ofthe gases complied with these regulations.Nørreport station is essentially made up of two pairsof tracks, running north-south, with walls separatingthe two pairs almost everywhere. Copenhagenis to the south, and Osterport to the north. Thetwo tracks on the east side carry the traffic thatmoves northwards and which is powered by diesellocomotives. The two tracks on the west side carryelectrically powered southward-moving traffic. It isthe diesel locomotives that produce the contaminants.The two halves communicate with each other viaa gap at the north end of the station, a pedestriansubway, and a ticket hall with associated stairs. Theoverall length of the system (station plus tunnelling) isabout 1400m.Key Project InformationClientDesignerRamboll, DenmarkCopenhagen MetroServices provided by Buro Happold• Simulations of the train station microclimate carriedout using computational fluid dynamics (CFX5.4.1)• Geometrical information (using site survey ofstairwells, ventilation, gaps between the stations,etc.) used to generate 3D model of the station• Analysis of train contaminant data to set up trainmovement and emission rates• Simulation procedures of steady state (to gainbackground velocity and pressure fields) andtransient state (to simulate the entire train journeywith recordings taken at regular intervals)3D mesh model31

Gardermoen Terminal 2Oslo, NorwayThe competition for a major expansion at Oslo’sGardermoen Airport has recently been won by NSW.Buro Happold has been appointed as part of theengineering team. The new ‘T2’ will include a terminalextension, a new pier and extensive remodelling ofboth airside and landside infrastructure.Buro Happold’s role on the project includes energyand sustainability engineering, as well as operationalplanning support. One of the key goals for the projectis to cut energy demand by 50% against the existingterminal - which is already among the most energyefficient in the world.Working to the ‘lean’ ‘mean’ ‘green’ environmentaldesign principle, Buro Happold advised on theperformance of the building envelope and helped tooptimise the building form for passive solar design andmaximum daylight penetration.Another key concept is that of the ‘dynamic buildingenvelope’ to respond to changing external conditionsboth throughout the day and across the year. Lowcarbon technologies such as snow cooling and tappinginto the natural thermal energy from an aquifer werealso key elements of the sustainability strategy.Key Project InformationClientArchitectOslo Gardermoen AirportNSWServices provided by Buro HappoldBuilding physics, sustainability32Image©NSW

OsloComputational Fluid Dynamics – Thermal Comfort ©Happold Physics33

Bergen Flesland AirportBergen, NorwayThe same successful team which delivered Oslo’sGardermoen Airport was appointed to design a majorexpansion of Flesland Airport in Bergen.The first stage is approximately 60,000 m2 includingthe refurbishment of the existing small terminal.Bergen Airport, Flesland is the second busiest airportin Norway. Upon completion in 2016, the new terminalwill have the capacity for 7.5 million passengers peryear. The airport will also be equipped with 30 aircraftstands of which 15 have direct access from the terminal,while the remaining 15 stands have remote access.The new terminal itself is a centralized concept with aconnected pier which is designed for modular growth.The present terminal will be refurbished and addedon as a satellite to the new terminal. The conceptenables the construction of the new terminal withoutdisturbing the present operations. A station for the newBergen light rail will be fully integrated in the terminal.Buro Happold's Building Physics team are providingspecialist input on the environmental strategies,thermal comfort and optimisation of the design forminimum energy consumption. The Building Physicsteam's remit includes thermal modelling, daylightanalysis, facade performance and computationalfluid dynamics. A key area of input is the design of thedouble facade on the western elevation of the pier.Key Project InformationClientArchitectAvinor ASNarud Stokke Wiig (NSW)34Image©NSW Architects


Haramain High Speed RailSaudi ArabiaStretching between Mecca and Medinah via Jeddahand King Abdullah Economic City, the brand new460km long Haramain High Speed Rail project is abold step towards a truly connected Kingdom ofSaudi Arabia. Our team have designed the four mainstations, combining efficiency and aestethics intolandmarks for the cities they are serving.This revolutionary transport system will radicallychange the way Saudi Arabians interact with theircountry, uniting the two most important religiouscities in the region. Producing the cornerstone ofthis transformatory network on an incredibly tightprogramme created a significant challenge for our team.The key to delivering such a phenomenally complexdesign in such a short period of time was thecreation of a flexible modular design. A core teamwere co-located with the architect to develop theconcept design and modular details, which were thendisseminated to our regional teams to incorporateinto the design. The scale of the stations is difficultto imagine - each of the platforms is over a quarterof a mile long. This modular approach has allowedour team to deliver these tremendous stations on alean schedule, whilst allowing flexibility in everythingfrom the spatial organisation to the incorporation oftraditional motifs.Challenging the brief to produce more efficientbuildings is something we are proud to do. A keydevelopment in this project was the creation of amodel that provides a natural ventilation solution tocooling the station platforms. Imagine no need for airconditioning in a desert country: the energy savingsare incredible. To compliment this system, our teamsalso optimised the number of roof lights to allowthe stations to be naturally lit for as long as possiblewithout any overheating and carefully consideredways to reduce energy and water use throughout allfour stations, to create buildings for the now and forthe future.Key Project InformationClientArchitectSaudi Railways OrganisationFoster + PartnersServices provided by Buro HappoldStructural engineering, infrastructure and civilengineering, geotechnical engineering, mechanical &electrical installations, bridge engineering, acoustics,transport planning, access consultancy, sustainability,IT & communications, waste management,people movement, building physicsImages©Foster + Partners37

BURO HAPPOLDCOMMERCIAL OFFICEof.ficeORIGIN Middle English: via Old Frenchfrom Latin officium 'performance of a task'There are thought to be over 3 billion people working in offices around the globe, employed in avast array of occupations and working in a wide variety and standard of accommodation. Manycommercial centres balance and integrate home, leisure and work often in one building while insome cities the central business district is king and work is the only function.With commercial sector clients being amongst themost experienced developers in the constructionworld, they need a team behind them that can speaktheir language and understand exactly what the issuesare. We can play a vital role in unlocking the potentialof a proposed site, advising the client on the bestway forward in terms of planning, funding and siteassembly so that they get the best possible value fromtheir investment.It is essential to be constantly innovative andresponsive to commercial risks and realities. Changes toworld economy set new challenges for the commercialsector – when economies shrink, demand falls andoccupiers expect better deals; when economies boom,demand outstrips supply. To overcome these volatilechallenges modern commercial office space must havebuilt-in flexibility and future-proof systems, enablingthem to accommodate the ever changing market andremain commercially viable.After completion we can monitor the performanceand usage to ensure operational efficiency and deliverthe best value over the lifetime of the building.With our multidisciplinary capabilities we canintegrate structural and installations design to makesuperior commercial buildings that cost less to runand are as sustainable as possible. We are experts atdeveloping ‘place-making’ strategies, benefiting theclient, the end user and the wider community. It’s ourbusiness – let us develop your business too.Best practice in sustainable design is a key driver inthe commercial sector – with the need to ensure acomfortable and constructive workplace, devisingmethods for heating, cooling and ventilation areimportant elements to office design. To meet andexceed national targets without breaking the bank,our specialist team work to develop sustainablesolutions to create effective, user-friendly buildingsthat are also energy efficient and economical to run.38

Co-operative HQ forms part ofnew £800m NOMA regenerationscheme in central ManchesterCombined Heat and PowerEnergy System uses Co-opgrown rape seed oilDevelopment on track to achieveBREEAM ‘Outstanding’ ratingCo-operative Headquarters, Manchester, UKArchitect: 3D Reid Image: 3D ReidSpecular reflection occurs when angleof incidence and angle of reflection areequal with respect to surface normalBuro Happold39


Lundbeck Bygning NCopenhagen, DenmarkBuro Happold and RH Arkitekter won an invitedcompetition to design a refurbished office buildingfor H. Lundbeck. The office space marks a change inapproach to Lundbeck’s organisation of the variousdepartments involved in the launch and marketing ofLundbeck’s new products and so the functionality andworking environment are of paramount importance.RH and Buro Happold proposed a relatively simple openplan building which made good use of the existingconcrete frame to create new space. At the heart of thedesign is the low-energy principle of natural ventilationwhich is made possible by the use of an atrium as aventilation chimney which draws air across the deepfloor plans from the windows on the facade.Structurally, the challenge has been to re-analyse theexisting building to prove that changes can be madewithout any problems and to integrate the meetingboxes which cantilever from the edge of the existingslabs, out into the new atrium.Key Project InformationClientArchitectH. Lundbeck A/SRH ArkitekterServices provided by Buro HappoldStructural engineering, mechanical & electricalinstallations fire engineering, acoustics,building physicsThe offices will also have a mechanical ventilationsystem which will operate in winter to allow heatrecovery and good thermal comfort.Advanced computer modelling techniques havebeen used to design the ventilation openings andthe shading systems. They have also been used toquantify the internal temperatures during the summerand to prove the flow of air through the building.Imagescantilevered meeting boxes ©RH Arkitekternew facade at dusk ©RH Arkitektercomfort temperature analysis ©Happold Physics41

Johanneberg Science ParkGothenburg, SwedenThe new building is the first part of the newJohanneberg Science Park at Chalmers University inGothenburg. The new 8,000m 2 building is an officebuilding and will form the new southern gateway tothe Chalmers University Campus. The integrated designsolution has been developed in close co-ordinationwith the design team members.Set in Gothenburg’s moderate east coast climate, thebuilding has been design to achieve BREEAM SWEExcellent standard. The sustainable design featuresinclude mixed mode ventilation systems, ground sourceheating, below ground labyrinth style air ducts and ahigh performance facade with active louvre systems.The office has been developed to achieve a daylightingfactor in excess of 4% in all working locations.Key Project InformationClientArchitectChalmers UniversityWhite ArkitekterServices provided by Buro HappoldMechanical and electrical installations,facade engineering, building physics,sustainability42Image©White Arkitekter



Nykredit Bank HQCopenhagen, DenmarkThe new Nykredit headquarters will symbolise theorganisation’s status as one of the largest mortgageand finance companies in Denmark. From the firstlevel there will be five floors of accommodation(approximately 7,500m2 of office space in total).Overall, the building will provide high qualityarchitecture in conjunction with ground-breakingenergy efficiency.The very visual and award-winning steel latticecarries the majority of the vertical load and this, inconjunction with the concrete cores, means that theinternal space is free of columns and that the buildingonly touches the ground at 3 points.The building services solution includes ground watercooling and natural ventilation. The combination of theexcellent facade and low-energy technologies meansthat the building has achieved Low Energy Class 2status according to the Danish Building Regulations.Key Project InformationClientArchitectNykredit BankSchmidt Hammer LassenServices provided by Buro HappoldBuilding physics, structural engineering,facade engineeringThe whole building is wrapped with a glass façadeto provide a crystal appearance and high level ofdaylight. The facade is a double skin system with anon conventional wide cavity, which acts as a bufferzone to the external elements. The outer skin issingle glazed whereas the inner skin is double glazed.The inner skin provides a boundary to the externalenvironment, controlling the air coming throughthe cavity. The double facade system also includesa movable, GRP shading system developed by BuroHappold and SHL.Images©Schmidt Hammer Lassen45

Wexford Council OfficesWexford, IrelandThe building, designed by NORD and Buro Happold, featuresa single facility with six pavilion buildings linked by a sharedinternal street and four sheltered courtyards surrounded by adouble façade. Our engineering approach was incorporatedinto the building structure and façade design. The buildingform and orientation optimises energy efficiency, with a doublefaçade tempering incoming air. The outer layer glass panels filterunwanted solar energy, while the windows in the inner wallmaximise air infiltration and exfiltration. The cavity between thefaçade incorporates a cleaning walkway.Each of the department blocks minimise heating loads throughinsulation, with further reduction through the glass rainscreen surrounding the building – a buffer space and thermalwrapper in winter. Furthermore, it captures solar energy, raisingits temperature 5 to 10°C above the external temperature,reducing heat loss and pre-heating incoming air. The renewabletechnology and natural ventilation set new standards in lowenergy design. The target achieved was to use 30% less energythan the current benchmark.Key Project InformationClientArchitectWexford County CouncilRobin Lee Architecture in association withArthur Gibney & PartnersServices provided by Buro HappoldStructural engineering, mechanical & electrical installations,building physics, fire engineering, acoustic, lighting,sustainabilityImage©Andrew Lee47

RWE TowerEssen, GermanyThe RWE Building in Essen is a 162m tall tower,comprising a 120m tall main building of 29 storeysnyand an additional 35m aerial. The building wasdesigned with a cylindrical plan, to allow themaximisation of natural ventilation and light toall internal spaces, while minimising the outeris a 162m tall surface tower, to consume the least energy. A double-skinin building of facade 29 storeys concept and was adopted primarily for buildinghe building was physics designed considerations to work with a mixed-modellow the maximisation environmental of strategy, as well as to give a look oft to all internal transparency.spaces, whilece to consume the leastde concept was The adopted construction of the double-skin wall comprisesics considerations an inner to work double-glazed facade, consisting of floor-tonmental strategy, ceiling as height well as to aluminium framed windows which are. openable.uble-skin wall The comprises ventilation concept for the wall relies onade, consistingmechanicallyof floor-toramedwindows which arecontrolling the passage of external airthrough air inlets, which are located on each floorlevel and exhausted through air outlets, which arer the wall relies similarly on located on the floor zone above. These inlets/he passage of outlets external take air the form of what the designers termedre located on ‘fish each mouths’. floor leveloutlets, which are similarlybove. These inlets/outletsdesigners termed ‘fish mouths’.event the passage of drivent the same time providingtionally, these had to restrictvertical direction. The energyis estimated to be some 30-alent conventional buildingzed single-skin facade, acrophobiaBut it has been reported thatandrail in the design, thetall tower,of 29 storeys andates the risk of such problemsg was designedaximisation ofernal spaces, whileume the leastt was adoptedrations to worktrategy, as well as toBuro HappoldBuro HappoldThese were designed to prevent the passage of drivenrain into the cavity, while at the same time providingsufficient ventilation. Additionally, these had to restrictthe passage of sound in a vertical direction. The energyconsumed by the building is estimated to be some 30-35% less than for an equivalent conventional buildingwhich utilises a double-glazed single-skin facade.With such a highly transparent facade, acrophobiaproblems were predicted. But it has been reportedthat despite the absence of a handrail in the design,the depth of the facade eliminates the risk of suchproblems for occupants.Key Project InformationClient URWE AG & Ruhr Kohl AGArchitect Ingenhoven Overdiek Kahlen & PartnerServices provided by Buro HappoldMechanical & electrical installations,structural engineering, facade engineeringwall comprises& Ruhr Kohl AGisting of floor-todowswhich areven Overdiek Kahlen &elies onof external airon each floor levelhich are similarlyse inlets/outlets996ermed ‘fish mouths’.passage of driventime providingese had to restrictection. The energyed to be some 30-entional building-skin facade.o Happoldilding services engineering,g, facade engineering.48e, acrophobiaeen reported thathe design, thesk of such problemshl AGiek Kahlen &

BURO educatio(n-), from the verb educareAt Buro Happold we pride ourselves in our ability to put our clients at the very heart of everythingwe do and nowhere is this more important then the education sector where the most importantstakeholders are the future generation.Just as it is to every parent, the education sector isa very high priority to us here at Buro Happold andthat is why we have a dedicated team in place whosejob it is to ensure that the most up-to-date industryknowledge is always at our fingertips to enable us touse our skills and expertise to the maximum benefitor our clients.Inspirational school design can have a hugelypositive effect on learning outcomes: motivation,achievement, productivity, enjoyment, behaviouralstandards and even life aspirations can all be liftedthrough a high quality learning environment. At BuroHappold we strive to add value to projects throughcombining our experience, our innovative approachand our real desire to make a difference to help createbright, airy educational environments that are a joyboth to teach and to learn in.Adaptability is key to successful school design in the21st Century. The character of learning environmentsand the resulting space requirements are changingand at Buro Happold we work hard to ensure thatthe buildings we are designing are not only fit-forpurposeand cost effective to build and maintain butare also future ready, able to be adapted to meet theneeds of staff and students of the next generation.We also owe it to our children and future generationsto ensure that the buildings we are developing aresustainable and tread as lightly on the environment aspossible. We try to achieve this by creating a successfulbalance of environmental, social and economicfactors – developing healthy spaces that encouragelearning and provide inspiration and delight whilstbeing cost effective and simple to build. To producea truly sustainable learning environment the designneeds to educate and enable change, the users mustfeel empowered to reduce consumption and onegood way to do this is to incorporate the buildingssustainably credentials into the curriculum; thuseducating the workforce of the future and makingthem duly proud of their surroundings.Work in this sector comes with great responsibility, it isnot just about creating buildings it is about using ourskills and experience to improve the life opportunitiesof young people – no matter what their ability orbackground. With over 100 schools projects deliveredto-date, many award winning for their design andinnovation, we truly believe that this is one sectorwhere we are definitely ‘top of the class’.50

Limited space led to the siting of theAcademy’s main hall below groundlevel, with a sports hall on top and a5-a-side football pitch on the roof!Size 5 basketball: weight 498.95g,circumference 70.49cmFloor isolated fromstructure to stop noise andvibration transmissionSt Mary Magdalene Academy Islington, UKArchitect: Feilden Clegg Bradley Studios Image: Buro Happold / Hufton + CrowOne of 48 heavy feet, notheard by pupils in examhall belowBuro Happold51

Alsion Campus, Syddansk University,6400 Sønderborg, DenmarkSonderborgConcrete structural beamsexposed throughoutbuilding, to reducetemperature extremesOpen & transparentbuilding to encourageinteraction between usersHighly sustainablefeatures beat Danishregulations by 20–30%52

Alsion Campus, Syddansk UniversitySønderborg, DenmarkSyddansk University’s Alsion campus, located inthe Danish town of Sønderborg, is an exceptionalexample of how our international experiencecombined with our specialist knowledge ofhigher education developments have achieved anoutstanding facility. As well as a striking – and RIBAaward-winning – architectural statement in its ownright, the university provides outstanding facilities forstudents while exceeding Danish energy targets. Thiswas the first collaboration between Buro Happold and3XN architects and we have since worked with themon several other major projects.3XN’s vision was for an extremely open and transparentbuilding that encourages interaction between studentsand teachers, with extensive use of glass walls andcantilevered sections. The brief also included theneed to beat local regulatory standards on energyconsumption by 30%.Ensuring safety in the event of a fire was anothermajor task, particularly with such a large, open plandesign featuring numerous atria spaces. One of thekey challenges for our facades team was to design theglass walls so that they remained visually stunningwithout affecting internal temperatures.Much of our work focused on maintaining the openplan design whilst minimising the need to installphysical fire resisting construction. Buro Happold’sunrivalled knowledge of international standardsmeant that we were able to deliver a solution thatwas a first for Demark. A bespoke high pressure watermist system was installed throughout the buildingto rapidly extinguish a fire. An extensive programmeof computer modelling and tests at the Danish FireInstitute were undertaken to demonstrate howthis exciting solution could work for the client, thearchitect and the authorities.The cleverly designed façade also provides just enoughshading to reduce solar gain while maximising theamount of daylight entering the building.The light, airy feeling throughout the Universitycreated by the open spaces and use of glass resultsin a vibrant, stimulating environment for study,while contributing to the outstanding sustainabilitycredentials. The Alsion campus sets the benchmarkfor sustainable higher education buildings not just inDenmark, but across the globe.Key Project InformationClientArchitectSyddansk University3XNServices provided by Buro HappoldMechanical & electrical installations,structural engineer, fire engineer, facade consultant,acoustic consultant, building physicsImagesThe new campus ©Adam MonkWaterfront elevation ©Adam MonkLarge, open interior spaces ©Adam Monk53

School of InformaticsUniversity of Edinburgh, UKA major landmark building, the Informatics Forum is aworld class centre for information technology researchand innovation at the University of Edinburgh. Builtover six floors around a glass atrium, the 12,000m2complex has an open design to encourage interactionbetween researchers.The Potterrow design team developed a high quality,exemplar building on this key site in the masterplan ofthis inner-city campus. Sustainability and minimisingenergy usage were key tasks for the building’s designteam, reflecting the university’s environmental policy.This aspect is founded on long life, flexibleaccommodation that can be easily adapted to futurechanges and needs. The building uses exposedthermal mass, combined heat and power, andwaste water strategies. It was also the first project inScotland to embark on BREEAM assessment throughconstruction, achieving an Excellent rating.Room depths were kept to a minimum to maximisedaylight penetration and a central atrium bringsnatural light into the heart of the building.This project was voted 'Best Building in Scotland 2008'(RIAS Andrew Doolan Award) and cited by the citycouncil as a benchmark for modern designKey Project InformationClient University of EdinburghArchitect Bennetts Associates/Reaich and HallServices provided by Buro HappoldMechanical & electrical installations, BREEAM assessor,structural engineering, fire engineering,building physics, lightingImagesEntrance elevation ©Alan McAteerAtrium ©Alan McAteerRoof terrace ©Alan McAteer54

56Schmidt Hammer LassenArchitects

City of Westminster CollegeLondon, UKReplacing the old City of Westminster College, thisRIBA award-winning building represents some ofour proudest work in the education sector. Fourseparate campuses were brought together to provideoutstanding facilities, spacious environments andcutting-edge technologies within a single holisticallydesigned, sustainable building.Creating flexible and future-centric spaces to inspirestudents throughout their learning was the keyconcept for the new City of Westminster Collegebuilding. The stunning architectural form demandedchallenging thinking to support the end result of abeautiful, enriching new college that serves both thestudents and the public.Schmidt Hammer Lassen’s vision of a simple geometricform around a dynamic, spiralling central atriumcreated one of our key challenges for the project. Thestepped design of the building’s shell and sweepinglines of the interior required a collaborative, coordinatedand multi-disciplinary relationship betweenour many services and the architects to "find theoptimum balance between economics, structures andphysics that achieved a beautifully high quality finish".Speech intelligibility and control of distractingbackground noise is vital for the good communicationof knowledge in educational buildings. Theinterconnectivity that is inherent in the design requiredan innovative solution from our acoustic engineers.The atrium at the heart of the building could easilyoverwhelm the surrounding libraries and classroomsso our experts crafted specific local solutions for eachenvironment, creating exceptional aural experiences.City of Westminster College is perfectly designedto serve the public and students with innovative,inspiring and sustainable spaces to interact, learnand grow.Key Project InformationClient City of Westminster CollegeArchitect Schmidt Hammer LassenServices provided by Buro HappoldMechanical & electrical installations,structural engineering, acoustic engineering,asset management, fire engineering,facade engineering, sustainability,disability design consultancy, building physicsImages©Adam Mørk57

Hazelwood SchoolGlasgow, UKThe project was an unique opportunity to create aninnovative design, as there is no equivalent school inEurope. Located in the Dumbreck area of Glasgow,Hazelwood provides a sympathetic, high quality,enriching and inclusive learning environment forchildren with severe sensory impairments. Our teamimplemented an environmental design strategy thatallows the pupils to comfortably make use of theirclassroom facilities without the interruption of externalnoise or solar glare, and achieves a low energy solution.Natural ventilation provides fresh air and cooling via asystem of opening vents integrated into the structureThe structural form needed to be modular to allow aneconomical design, whilst accommodating the ultimatelayout for the users. Our solution was a series of glulamtimber frames that radiate out from the setting-outpoints, with timber rafters between supporting theceilings and roof, with windows enabling natural daylightto shine through. We worked with the architects todevelop internal streets with areas specifically designed toprovide sensory and tactile cues to help children identifytheir environment. Hazelwood School has won numerousawards including a Scottish Design Award for ‘Best PublicBuilding’; as well as being Highly Commended for a ‘WorldEducation Building of the Year’ at the WAN Awards.Key Project InformationClientArchitectGlasgow City CouncilGM+AD Architects58Services provided by Buro HappoldMechanical & electrical installations, structuralengineering, access consultant, lightingImage©Buro Happold/Alan McAteer

BURO HAPPOLDHEALTHCAREhealthORIGIN Old English hælth, of Germanic origin; related to WHOLEModern healthcare buildings are inherently complex and need to satisfy a wide range of criteria– which puts Buro Happold, as an innovative consultancy with a holistic, inclusive approach, in anideal position to provide engineering design in this sector.All healthcare buildings, from hospitals to hospices,mental health units to primary care centres, must befast and economical to build and have a low carbonfootprint; they must be both future-proof and bugproof;and they must promote recovery while meetingstrict requirements for energy saving, operationalefficiency and inclusive access.With such integrated needs, integrated thinking isvital and this is at the forefront of our methods. Ourreputation for excellent creative design combines withpragmatism and good communication at all levels –be it between our teams or with our clients, architectsand contractors. This approach enables us to meet thespecialised needs of the healthcare sector, providinghigh quality, appealing buildings which meet theneeds of both today and tomorrow.We have extensive experience in creating optimalenvironments for staff and patients alike, which areproven to aid recovery and boost morale. We designin high levels of natural daylight and ventilation,enhancing these with further low energy solutionssuch as external shading systems, integrated buildingservices and passive climate control. With ergonomicopen spaces, we ensure buildings are a pleasure to workin, while helping to shorten patients’ length of stay.maximising hygiene through a keen attention todesign detail, from the segregation of high and lowrisk infection areas to clinical waste managementsystems.Our expert security and fire teams, meanwhile, makeour clients’ spend go further by reducing risk andmaking best use of the security options available, frompeople flow modelling to CCTV and access control.Green design infuses every aspect of our thinking, andour sustainability consultants work alongside our coreteams and with clients to meet the required carbonreduction targets. Specialist 3D and thermal modellingcan, for example, inform our structural and buildingservices teams when selecting the best low carbonstrategies.From the beginning we seek to identify the areas wherewe can minimise risk and reduce future costs, designingin flexibility from the outset. We are proud to workwith our clients into the future too – offering postoccupancyevaluation (POE) to ensure the building’soptimum performance – adding value not just throughdesign and construction but into the future.60Acoustic design and infection control are two vitalelements when it comes to good healthcare design.The creation of a peaceful recovery space in a busy,often noisy environment is something we specialise in,using state of the art modelling techniques to assessand improve the acoustic environment. Similarlywe take a risk-based approach to infection control,

At 56° N, the town of Balloch is atabout the same latitude as MoscowElegant atrium ‘wave’ roof consists offour separate ribbons clad in plywoodOpen, comfortable family environmentprovides respite for children with lifelimiting conditionsPurpose built children’s hospiceRobin House Children’s Hospice, Balloch, UKArchitect: Gareth Hoskins ArchitectsImage: Buro Happold / Andrew LeeBuro Happold61

First new London children’shospital for 100 yearsVoid formed by roof spans 18mhorizontally and 20m verticallyChildren benefit from abright and airy ‘hospital thatdoesn’t feel like a hospital’Approximately 6,500m 2 ofglass used in construction62Evelina Children's Hospital, London, UKArchitect: Michael Hopkins & PartnersImage: Buro Happold / Mandy Reynolds

Evelina Children’s HospitalLondon, UKBriefed to design ‘a hospital that doesn’t feel like ahospital’, Evelina Children’s Hospital provides a brightand spacious environment that is designed fun andexciting for children – who, more than any otherpatient, might feel fearful about their stay – whilealso delivering a functional, fully operational hospital.Evelina won the hearts of the public to poll amongthe shortlisted buildings for the RIBA Stirling Prize.Central to the new building is a vast open atrium,designed to create a warm, bright and cheerfulatmosphere for the children, which forms the maincommunal area. It is overlooked by every ward inthe hospital, with healthy natural daylight findingits way to every bed through the expanse of glass.This extensive daylighting also offers an additionalbenefit by saving on lighting costs. The atrium is keyin Evelina’s mission to create an open and welcomingenvironment for its vulnerable young patients.As Evelina’s defining feature, the extensive atriumpresented the structural team with fascinatingchallenges. In order to design such a large open space,with no beams and a huge glass roof, our engineershad to be truly creative. With such complicatedgeometry, we had to be in no doubt that our designwould hold up in terms of structural tolerance,buildability and the effects of any movement of thebuilding itself.To further protect the hospital’s patients, our fireengineers developed a package of passive and activemeasures to save lives in case of fire. While the openspaces created the best environment for the children,fire and smoke could spread rapidly, and the expanseof glass, if it shattered, could pose a serious dangerto life. Our team of specialists designed-in a smokesealedfaçade and toughened glass in the atrium, aswell as life-saving sprinklers. The fire strategy wasfurther strengthened by the provision of a speciallydesigned entrance for fire engines at ground level.Throughout the scheme’s development, BuroHappold worked closely with the architect, contractorand building services team to create a cheerfulenvironment promoting care and recovery for someof our youngest and most vulnerable patients – whilegenerating the innovative structural solutions ourclient both needed and deserved. Evelina won theIStructE Award for Best Healthcare Building in 2007.“The technical facilities, normally associatedwith fear, are made pleasant and inviting, anddaylight reaches every hospital bed. Here thepatient, not the institution, is given priority.”Riba SpokespersonKey Project InformationClientArchitectGuy’s and St Thomas’ Hospital TrustMichael Hopkins and PartnersServices provided by Buro HappoldStructural engineering, fire engineering63


St Olav’s HospitalTrondheim, NorwayThe Phase 2 development at St Olav's Hospital consistsof four independent blocks, integrated within theSt Olavs campus in Trondheim. The concept designfor the superstructure consists of a concrete frame,with precast modular slabs, exposed to maximise thebenefits of the thermal mass.The environmental concept design adopts the useof natural ventilation in ward blocks and extensivenatural daylighting, coupled with the thermal mass ofthe structure to deliver a low energy design. Energyis sourced from the CHP network and is linked also todistrict heating scheme and river water cooling facility.The building simulation included analysis using thetechniques of dynamic thermal modelling (DTM)and daylighting analysis in order to assess theperformance of the proposed design. The objectiveof the study was to predict likely summertimetemperatures in single bed ward rooms for bothnaturally ventilated and mechanically ventilatedscenarios. More specifically, the modelling has beenused to investigate the effects of facade orientation,exposed thermal mass, window size and glazing type.Key Project InformationClientArchitectSt Olav's Hospital GroupNarud Stokke Wiig (NSW)Services provided by Buro HappoldStructural engineering, mechanical & electricalinstallations, civil engineering, building physicsImagesCourtyard ©NSW ArchitectsFacade ©NSW Architects65

BURO HAPPOLDSPORT & LEISUREsportORIGIN late Middle English (In the sense [pastime,entertainment] ): shortening of DISPORTThe sports and leisure team at Buro Happold is dedicated to creating projects that are successfuland sustainable in the broadest possible sense. We believe sport and leisure facilities can be thecatalyst for sustainable development and regeneration of an area, providing new opportunities forall members of the surrounding community.From businesses set up within the scheme, to theimproved health and well-being of residents thatgain access to new leisure facilities, these projects cantransform an area and its people. Establishment of TheO 2entertainment district on the Greenwich peninsulain London is a great example of a suite of businessesthriving in an otherwise under-developed area.Our deep understanding of the sport and leisuresector business, including legislative frameworksand the needs of governing and regulatory bodies,enables us to drive designs to sustainable outcomesfor, and with, our clients.We appreciate that the client’s business depends onattracting the right type of consumer and giving themthe experience they want. As such, we design with theneeds of all users in mind, whether they be fan, player,owner, corporate guest or one of the maintenanceteam. The aim is to ensure each user’s journey is ofthe highest possible quality, whether that goes fromcoach to changing room to field or from tube stationto turnstile, to bar to seat.Our involvement begins with wide-ranging, highlevel advice for clients, including business planningand strategic management consultancy from ourin-house specialists. This ensures a robust businessplan and a tight brief is established, two aspects whichcontribute a great deal to the success of a project. Oursustainability experts can be brought in at this stageto ensure these principles are enshrined early in thedesign process.Secondly, at a masterplanning level, we developsustainable communities, working alongside thearchitect and based on our profound technicalunderstanding and appreciation of the businessand wider communities’ aspirations. This is achievedthrough configuring efficient infrastructure networksfor energy, water, waste and transportation.Finally, we deliver exemplary building design – beit stadium, arena, velodrome or an aquatics centre– based on a detailed understanding of how thesebuildings function, again based on the needs of thevarious users.Presenting a single, holistic team offering all theseservices saves time and reduces risk for the clientand provides the vehicle for the full range of multidisciplinaryactivities our engineers can offer. Thisrequires a level of collaboration that the design teamthrives on and has helped create a track record ofgreat achievement in the sector. This includes EmiratesStadium in London and Dublin’s Aviva Stadium, twoexamples of hugely successful and iconic buildingdesigns delivered by us.Having worked with some of the world’s leadingarchitects on venues that become the subject ofglobal attention, our team has the expertise to meetall of a client’s needs, to create buildings that deliverin terms of the business plan as well as aesthetic andfunctional quality.66

Roof contains 2,900tonnes of tubular steelSite nestles between tworailway lines in denselypopulated north LondonAll seating levels fullyaccessible; includes 250seats for wheelchair usersEmirates Stadium, Arsenal Football Club, LondonArchitect: PopulousImage: Simon WarrenBuro Happold67

Copenhagen Arena ProposalCopenhagen, DenmarkThe proposal for the large indoor multipurpose arena inCopenhagen will meet a strong local and regional needfor entertainment, cultural and sporting events facilitiesand act as a key driver of economic development.Copenhagen arena will form an important part of theimage of Copenhagen, contributing to the life of thecity, its people and visitors well into the future.The design of the facility will be focused onentertainment and the primary sports of Handball andIce Hockey, but will also be suitable for additional usessuch as small business conferences, exhibitions andsports events such as Boxing, tennis and Basketball.Key Project InformationClientArchitectRealdaniaPopulous and Dissing + WeitlingServices provided by Buro HappoldMechanical and electrical installations, structuralengineering, facade engineering, fire engineering,specialist lighting, building physics, sustainabilityThe integrated engineering design was developedduring the competition process, providing anintegrated structural and building services installationstechnical solution, providing flexibility for various sizesand types of events, performers and audiences.68


Roof can hold up to 120tonnes of lighting and riggingGreat quality sound has helpedmake the arena’s reputationOver 70% of visitors arrivevia public transport, limitingenvironmental impact70

O₂ ArenaLondon, UKDesigned to be the most technically and acousticallyadvanced concert and sporting arena in Europe, its23,000 capacity also makes it equal biggest, while1.7 million ticket sales in 2010 have seen it becomethe most popular arena in the world. The O 2Arenasits within the former Millennium Dome – alsodesigned by Buro Happold – and is part of the broaderentertainment complex called The O 2Versatility of the arena is a key part of its success. Inaddition to hosting concerts in end-stage and in-theroundcentral stage formats, it can also host a rangeof sports modes, including tennis, basketball, boxing,polo and, thanks to the integrated ice-pad in the floor,ice hockey and various ‘on ice’ shows. Use of manyremovable and retractable seating units enables quickand regular adjustment to the arena’s configurationwhile complete removal of large parts of thelower bowl creates sufficient space for gymnasticscompetitions, which will include the 2012 Olympics. Inconcert mode, our operational design allows for rapidturnaround between shows, great flexibility of riggingfor lighting and provision for eight articulated lorriesto enter the event floor simultaneously.The construction programme saw creation of abuilding-within-a-building, which was analogousto making a ship in a bottle. The 50m height limit,created by the existing fabric of the Dome, excludedthe use of cranes and so the arena’s 4,500 tonneroof, complete with specialist acoustic cladding,was assembled on trestles at ground level and thenlifted, by jacking, into place. The cladding helpedmeet one of the client’s key demands; for exceptionalacoustic performance not only in terms of soundentering or leaving the building but also the internalreverberation time so as to reduce echo.The O 2had many other implications for our designteam. These included considering the microclimatearound the Arena (taking into account movementof fresh air, temperature and condensation levels,simulating a safe level of smoke flow and fire egressstrategies), accessibility for all users and taking inservices, such as rainwater collected for reuse, fromoutside The O 2.Overcoming these challenges was a triumph for usand has led to success for the client too. It received abuilding that has proved itself commercially and interms of the audience experience – and has rapidlybecome one of the world’s most famous venues forlive entertainment.Key Project InformationClientArchitectAnshutz Entertainment GroupPopulousServices provided by Buro HappoldStructural engineering, civil engineering, geotechnicaland geo-environmental, facades, fire engineering,building physicsImages©Buro Happold/Adam Wilson71

Aviva StadiumDublin, IrelandWith a 50,000 seat capacity, this state-of-the-artbuilding at Lansdowne Road is home for boththe Irish Rugby Football Union and the FootballAssociation of Ireland and needed to accommodateboth sports at the very highest internationallevel. Built on an incredibly tight existing site in aresidential area, wrapped around the local DARTrailway line, the challenge for our team was todeliver a building that was able to house thousandsof passionate fans, in a venue of sufficient size todeliver top flight sport, entertainment, safety andcomfort, while keeping the famous LansdowneRoad atmosphere at the heart of its design.The solution to the building lies in its unique form;the team moulded the envelope to respond to itssurroundings. Our engineers designed a sweeping,complex two part roof featuring an innovative‘horseshoe’ truss, spanning over the three higher tiersand connecting to an independent shell structureover the lower north stand – the roof in effect spansthe whole perimeter of the building wrapping backon itself through 180 degrees. Aviva’s striking façadeis constructed using 19,000 sqm of polycarbonatepanels to achieve the architect’s vision for a stadiumthat reflects its waterside surroundings and showcasesthe original and unique form.72Image©Populous/Chris Gascoigne

Key Project InformationClientArchitectLansdowne Road StadiumDevelopment CompanyPopulous/Scott Tallon WalkerServices provided by Buro HappoldStructural engineering, ground engineering,civil engineering, flood risk assessment73

Sochi Winter Olympics 2014Olympic Stadium, Sochi, RussiaThe aim of this project is to provide a venue for theopening and closing ceremonies for the 2014 WinterOlympics in Sochi, Russia. There will be a legacy usefor soccer by a local team and FIFA compliance will berequired for an anticipated 2018 Soccer World Cup bid.The main Stadium venue will have 45,000 maximumseat capacity and be fully compliant with IOC,International Sport Federation, FIFA and Russian SportFederation requirements as directed by the SochiOrganising Committee.The main project requirements are:• Olympic Mode - 40,000 seats with a mix ofpermanent and demountable seating• FIFA World Cup Mode - 45,000 seats with a mixof permanent and demountable seating plus atemporary roof covering to the north and southends• Legacy Mode - 25,000 seats, all permanent withupper bowl provision to both east and west standsKey Project InformationClientArchitectOlympstroy EngeocomPopulousServices provided by Buro HappoldStructural engineering, mechanical & electricalinstallations, lighting, ground engineering, acoustics,crowd movement analysis, BREEAM assessor74Image©Populous

ABOUTBURO HAPPOLDFrom our very first project we have used our intricate knowledge of the industry to push theboundaries and achieve more. It is this commitment that sets us apart, that adds value, thatmakes us award winning. We apply the same level of complex thought and specialist expertiseto every project we work on.Buro Happold is a global, multi-disciplinaryengineering consultancy, operating out of aninternational network of offices. We providecomprehensive general and specialist engineeringconsultancy for complete developments, buildingsand their infrastructure. The diverse range of projectsthat we have been and continue to be involved inallows us to apply current best practice, resultingin a value engineering approach to the demands ofthese often challenging projects.We are at the forefront of sustainable, low energydesign solutions. Our expert teams of engineersand consultants know how to get the best out ofthe world’s precious land and resources to providefor a growing population. We are leading the way inshaping a new futureThrough our design studio based in Copenhagen,Buro Happold provides engineering and consultancyservices across the Nordic Countries. We currentlyhave active projects in Denmark, Sweden, Norwayand Finland, and developing opportunities inIceland, Greenland and the Baltic Countries.New City: Xinjiang Autonomous RegionChinaArchitect: Barton WillmoreImage: Barton WillmoreThe Kogod Courtyard at the SmithsonianNational Gallery Washington, D.C., USAArchitect: Foster + PartnersImage: Foster + PartnersEmirates StadiumLondon, UKArchitect: PopulousImage: Simon Warren76

Situated on the north bankof the River Clyde at theheart of Glasgow's formership building industryMotorised supply grilles directwarm air down in winter andsend out cool air during summerEnd walls are not load bearingallowing them to be fullyglazed & column freeRiverside Museum Glasgow, UKArchitect: Zaha Hadid. Image: Ben KirkpatrickSupporting the weight of trainsand cars; the floor is a load-bearingsuspended slab covering 800m ofservice ducts tall enough to stand inBuro Happold77

SERVICESINTEGRATED MULTI-DISCIPLINARY ENGINEERINGBuro Happold delivers world class engineering consultancy across a range of disciplines spanningbuildings, infrastructure, environment, and project management. We combine creativity with solidtechnical skills and an awareness of the key drivers that shape projects in the culture sector.BUILDINGSBUILDING ENVIRONMENTSAcousticsBuilding services engineering (MEP)Happold PhysicsLighting designSustainabilityBUILDING PLANNING AND OPERATIONSAsset managementFire engineeringInclusive designIT communications and controlPeople movementSafe & SecureBUILDING FABRICFacadesSMART solutionsStructural engineeringENVIRONMENT AND INFRASTRUCTURESPECIALIST CONSULTINGBridges and civil structuresCoastal and marineDrainage and storm water managementEarthworksFlood riskGeoenvironmentalGeotechnicalHighway engineeringPeople movementTransport planningUtilities engineeringSTRATEGIC CONSULTINGEnvironmentTransportUrban developmentWaterCONSULTINGHAPPOLD CONSULTINGStrategic planning, infrastructure and environmentUrban economicsIntegrated development planningProject and service deliveryAsset strategyOrganisational development79

HAPPOLDSUSTAINABILITYOur sustainability team provide consulting and analytical support to our global building,masterplanning and management work. The interdisciplinary team includes sustainability,low carbon and environmental modelling consultants who provide expert advice based onextensive technical knowledge and experience.Working collaboratively, we develop sustainabilityobjectives that meet and exceed expectations.This work supports the planning and delivery ofenvironmentally friendly buildings, communitiesand organisations. We design high value and lowimpact solutions that create comfortable, productiveand effective environments that are valued by thepeople that use them. Post-occupancy commissionsand academic research helps to validate andauthenticate our work, revealing the economic,environmental and social benefits of our advice.We are at the leading edge of sustainable design forthe built environment and provide expert adviceon planning and policy, regulatory requirements,procurement and future-proof business solutions.Our staff are highly experienced in undertaking bothLEED and BREEAM Assessments. Our track recordspeaks for itself:• Delivered over 40 BREEAM ‘Excellent’ buildings• BREEAM Non-domestic Assessor of the Year 2011• Highest BREEAM score for an office developmentin 2010• Highest BREEAM rated laboratory building in UK(‘Excellent’)• 3 buildings on track to achieve BREEAM‘Outstanding’We also integrate economic and social goals withinour consultation and modelling services to provideholistic solutions that meet the overall needs ofbusinesses and stakeholders.80

Summer SunPassive energy usegood penetration of sunlightinto sheltered courtyardsshading provided to limitsummer gainviews to the city‘chimney’ effectexpels used air anddrives fresh air intakethrough floorsblinds on auto controlWinter Sunsolar control glazingreduces heat gains &maximises daylightair tightness of 1 &U-values of 0.12 walls& roofssolar warming in winterbuilding management system:monitoring precence of persons, daylightcontrol of temperature, air, daylight, accessconcrete ensureshigh thermal mass forstabilising temperaturesgrey water recyclingclose to public transportstorage of recyclable wasteincluding composting fromkitchen areacovered bike storageeco-informationfor touristsground sourceaquifer coolingground water usedfor cooling buildingCHPcombined heat & poweruses gas to generateheat & electricityheat store under buildingused for heating & hotwater after storingenergy from chillersDiagram for Library of Birmingham tohighlight key sustainable features of design81

HAPPOLDPHYSICSHappold Physics is a specialised engineering and building analysis group that quantifies thefuture performance of a building while it is still being designed. Freed from uncertainty aboutpotential risks, architects and engineers are able to push the boundaries of design to deliverexceptional buildings that achieve the client’s brief.Our early involvement in a project means we canadvise the design team on how best to achieve anintegrated design that ensures maximum passiveperformance. The use of advanced simulationtechniques allows us to rapidly assess, interpretand quantify the performance of an array of designsolutions - enabling us to provided targeted adviceon building form, orientation and massing, andoptimise the facade design for enhanced thermaland solar performance. Dynamic thermal modellingand airflow simulation allows us to develop andvalidate natural ventilation, mixed mode ventilationand HVAC strategies, study radiant temperatureeffects, analyse complex environmentally complexspaces such as atria, and provide detailedassessments of thermal comfort.Our approach also involves conducting sensitivitystudies on building energy consumption and carbonemissions, enabling the impact of multiple designoptions and energy efficiency improvements tobe appraised. In this way we can identify the mostcost-effective route to ensure the design solutionmatches the client’s sustainability aspirations,programme and budget. Our load profiling andenergy modelling capabilities also allow detailedfeasibility and payback studies for on-site low carbonand renewable technologies to be undertaken.Our services include:• Passive and Low Energy Design Consultancy• Dynamic Thermal Modelling• Environmental Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)• Thermal Comfort Assessments• HVAC System Simulation and Energy Prediction• Daylight, Glare and Overshadowing simulations• Wind Engineering & External Microclimate Studies• Fume Dispersion and Contamination Modelling• Thermal Bridging Analysis82Buro Happold the engineering of excellence

ansport modellingDynamic air flow modelling to explore howbuilding form influences site conditionsHappold the engineering of excellence83

HAPPOLDLIGHTINGThrough the design of good quality natural and artificial lighting, we aim to create spaces whichensure a high level of visual perception of the built environment and influence how people useand interact with spaces during the day and also throughout the hours of darkness. Our lightingproposals will assist in creating both visually interesting and functional spaces..Lighting is a key factor in dictating the appearanceand functionality of a building and it’s surroundinglandscape. An integral part of the architecture,it needs to satisfy the client’s aspiration and thedesigner’s vision, but also deliver the appropriatetechnical performance for the space.Happold Lighting provide a complete lightingdesign service, from concept to commissioning,in which creative thinking is balanced with a solidunderstanding of technical principles and analysis.Design solutions need to work just as well inreality as they do on paper and acknowledgethat the field of lighting design has become morecomplex. Changing regulations, new materials andtechnologies and more intricate building forms arejust some of the challenges we address.Our team come from a range of backgrounds(architecture, lighting design, engineering andproduct development) and are experienced indelivering good quality design from inception tosite completion. By being involved from the outsetwe can inform and influence the design to greatlyimprove the lit quality of the environment.Our services include:• Artificial Lighting Concepts & Design• Lighting Master-planning• Detail Lighting Design andSpecification Production• Natural and Artificial Lighting ComputerVisualisation• Natural Lighting Strategies For Buildings• Lighting Control System Design• Whole Life Costing• Luminaire designWexford County CouncilImage: Buro HappoldRiverside MuseumImage: Buro HappoldPrince Square Shopping CentreImages: Buro Happold84

Main hall of The Briggait Art Centre©Alan McAteer85

HAPPOLDFIRE ENGINEERINGFire engineering is a vital aspect of all building design processes. Using expert knowledge of theresponse of people and buildings to fire, our fire engineering team facilitate architectural visionand address client needs, such as business continuity and property protection.Buro Happold develops integrated fire strategiesfor a wide variety of construction sectors, usingresearch, analysis and design flair, combined withcomprehensive code knowledge, to produce tailormadefire safety solutions suited to each project’sunique needs. We have a proven track record ofdesigning strategies that meet building regulationswhile not detracting from the building’s aestheticsor functionality.Basing our designs on sound fire engineeringprinciples, we create innovative solutions that helpto bring the architectural ‘vision’ to life and add valueto the project – substantial cost savings can be madeby reducing unnecessary fire protection, smokeventing or escape capacity. We have also pioneeredthe concept of ‘opposed airflow’ for smoke control.This requires smaller extractors and so frees up morespace for development.Computational Fluid Dynamics is used to modelthe internal spaces and assess the behaviour offire and smoke using different scenarios, as well aspredicting crowd evacuation patterns. This analysisenables us to develop means of escape via thenearest exit, including alternative routes for disabledpeople. We also consider heat build-up and the fireresistance qualities of the building structure andother materials.Fire engineering at Buro Happold has developedsignificantly since Happold Fire Engineering wasfounded. We now have fire engineers located acrossthe UK, with additional capabilities in New York andthe Middle East. A combination of internationalexperience and local knowledge enables ourengineers to respond quickly to project demandsand to fully understand the complexities of workingin local markets with the latest industry innovations.86

HAPPOLDFACADESThe building envelope is a critical area of a building’s design, with the facade engineer playinga vital role in bringing the architect’s vision to life. New cladding materials and processingtechniques are continually being developed in the search for better facade performance, makingthe design and procurement of the building envelope a highly technical and complex process –yet one that is still immensely creative.Buro Happold advises clients on the best way todevelop, design and procure the building envelope,using our knowledge of the full supply chain toprovide high level technical advice across the wholedesign process, including the choice of materials andsystems. Our aim is to achieve a cost-effective, viabledesign solution that provides top performance at thelowest possible risk.The facade makes a major contribution to thesustainability of a building, influencing both energyefficiency and the quality of the internal climate. Itis also an integral part of the building’s aesthetic,complementing the structural form and definingits visual impact on the urban environment. BuroHappold uses a rigorous methodology to resolve theinter-connected issues involved in efficient facadedesign and detailing.Our facade engineers work closely with othermembers of the project team to bring the benefitsof high-level technical knowledge to the designof the envelope. With sustainability now a keyregulatory requirement, we carefully analyse theenvironmental ‘behaviour’ of different facadedesigns using advanced techniques such as thermalmodelling, wind analysis, acoustic design, solar andglare studies.This rigorous assessment enables us to design afacade that is appropriate for both the building andthe locale. Combining our practical knowledge ofnatural ventilation, shading and daylighting systemswith environmental factors such as solar gain, windflow and weather proofing we are able to deliverwell built, high performance facades that providesuperb occupant comfort with much reduced energyand running costs.88

On Nykredit Bank HQ, the whole building is wrappedwith a glass façade to provide a crystal appearanceand high levels of daylight. The facade is a double skinsystem with an unconventionally wide cavity, whichacts as a buffer zone to the external elements.89

HAPPOLDSMART SOLUTIONSSMART offers solutions in the areas of geometry processing, form-finding, advanced analysisand digital fabrication. We have developed numerical software tools that enable us to forecastpotential problems at the early stages of the design process, making complex ideas easier andmore readily understood.As architectural design becomes increasingly morechallenging and complex in nature, Buro Happold iscontinually developing new technology to enableus to deliver original, innovative and efficient designsolutions.We are a leader in the fields of lightweight, long spanstructures with non-linear behaviour and complexforms. We have analysed and designed many suchstructures, including the Millennium Dome and theBritish Museum. Our expertise includes high-techstructures and materials, including tensile cablenets and trusses, gridshells, air inflated structures,lightweight concrete, intricate steelwork, structuralglazing and tensioned fabric membranes.Our sophisticated modelling tools & softwareincludes:SMART Form: our in-house digital prototypingsoftware which has been developed to createoptimal solutions for complex curved geometriesincluding gridshells, fabric domes and facades.Tensyl: an in-house software development thatenables us to determine the most effective form forfabric, cablenet, pneumatic and non-linear structuralsystems.SMART Sizer: an innovative tool to optimisestructural shapes, grids and member sizes.We are also collaborating with the Universities ofCambridge, Bath, UCL and Salford on several relatedresearch areas.90

In the roof at the British Museum each of the3,312 double-glazed panels is a unique triangle91

HAPPOLDMECHANICAL & ELECTRICALOur innovative design solutions embrace the latest technologies to improve a building’s performanceand sustainability. Integrated building services systems create a balanced and controllable internalenvironment; natural ventilation, heating and lighting systems are combined with active systems,such as air conditioning, to provide a high level of comfort and operational efficiency.To achieve the most appropriate solution we adopta holistic approach, considering all aspects of thedesign process from ‘abstract’ issues such as occupantwellbeing to the detailed analysis of mechanicalcomponents and the impact of environmentalregulations on the building’s form and energy usage.Using sound building physics principles and advancedmodelling techniques to analyse the envelope andspatial layout, our systems are integrated into thebuilding fabric to create functional internal spacesand balanced, controllable conditions.With buildings responsible for over 40% of all energyconsumption, sustainable design is now top of theregulatory and corporate agenda. Buro Happold hassignificant expertise in the design of environmentallyresponsible buildings. Our approach is to ‘design out’active systems wherever possible in favour of passiveinternal control methods such as natural ventilation,external shading and thermal mass.Working as part of a team we are able to balance ourclient’s aspirations with engineering (and budgetary)constraints to design high performance, low-energybuilding systems.Future flexibility for any changes of use is somethingthat always needs to be considered both in terms ofthe engineering systems and commercial viability. Toadd value to a project we can carry out a whole lifecosting of the systems and utilities to assess ongoingand initial costs of maintenance, repair, servicing andoperation, as well as social and environmental costs.This process can help the design team and the clientchoose between alternative designs, systems andstrategies and so achieve cost control and certaintyright from the start.Building services systems set the parameters for theoperational efficiency of a building and the ‘quality’ ofits internal environment92

Modelling the duct runs at Glasgow'sRiverside Museum93

Structural EngineeringHAPPOLDSTRUCTURESCombining our unrivalled creativity and ingenuity with our technical expertise, we deliver exciting,efficient structural design that goes beyond expectations. We are committed to building strongrelationships with architects, contractors and specialists, ensuring we can always offer outstandingdesign solutions and outstanding value.Combining our unrivalled creativity and ingenuity with our technical expertise, we deliverexciting, efficient structural design that goes beyond expectations. We are committed to buildingWe use the most sophisticated techniques to test ourour clients conviction in our designs. Our 3D modellingbuildings strong and relationships their performance, with meticulously architects, analysing contractors and in particular specialists, has proven ensuring benefits we can at concept always stage offer ineveryoutstandingminute detaildesignfrom materialssolutionsandandbuildingoutstanding value.eliminating and reducing risks, reducing constructionmethods to cost and sustainability, to ensure our clients programmes and making our buildings safer to buildalways have complete confidence in us. Our structural and We use the team most have sophisticated a firm belief that techniques success is to test Our 3D modelling in particular has proven benefitsfoundedour buildingson a thoroughand theirunderstandingperformance,of howmeticulouslymaterialsWith at concept our global stage experience in eliminating and knowledge and reducing we can risks, buildbehaveanalysingand structuresevery minuteare builtdetail– it isfromourmaterialsattention toand in reducing the most construction demanding of programmes climates. We approach and making every ourdetailbuildingand developmentmethods toofcostclear,andsimple,sustainability,solutionstoproject buildings as unique, safer to as build a challenge and maintain. waiting to be solved.ensure our clients always have complete confidencethat enables the successful completion of ourFrom temporary structures such as the stunning Polishin us. Our structural engineering team have aWith our global experience and knowledge westructural designs.Pavilion in Shanghai and intricate art instillations such asfirm belief that success is founded on a thorough can build in the most demanding of climates. WeVoussoir Clouds, to iconic masterpieces such as the roofOur understanding team is committed of how to eliminating materials behave risk at the andapproach every project as unique, as a challengeearliest at the British Museum and the Louvre in Abu Dhabi,possible structures point are during built a project, – it is our looking attention for ways to detail of and waiting to be solved. From temporary structuresour structural engineers can make a vision a reality.managing development costs and of reducing clear, simple, risk levels. solutions Soil and that site enables such as the stunning Polish Pavilion in Shanghai andanalysis, the successful physical modelling, completion 3D of computer our structural models, designs. intricate art installations such as Voussoir Clouds, to2Diconic masterpieces such as the roof at the Britishdrawings, materials testing – these are all used to giveOur team is committed to eliminating risk at the Museum and the Louvre in Abu Dhabi, our structuralearliest possible point during a project, looking for engineers can make a vision a reality.ways of managing costs and reducing risk levels. Soiland site analysis, physical modelling, 3D computermodels, 2D drawings, materials testing – these are allused to give our clients conviction in our designs.King Abdulaziz Center forWorld Culture KSAArchitect: SnøhettaImage: Buro HappoldVoussoir Cloud Los Angeles, CA, USADesign: IwamotoScott Architecture and Buro HappoldImage: Judson TerryRoyal Shakespeare Theatre Stratford, UKArchitect: Bennetts AssociatesImage: Buro Happold941

Rendered BIM model showing the structural'skeleton' of the Ras Al Khaimah Gateway project95

RECENTAWARDSBritish Construction Industry Awards2011Aviva Stadium:International AwardRoyal Shakespeare Theatre:Projects over £50mTheatre Royal Bath:Conservation AwardAmerican Institute of Architects2011MAS/Long Beach Mobile Art Space:Next LA Award (Unbuilt)Middle East Architect Awards2011Engineering Consultancy of the YearAino Mina (with Aedas):Sustainable Design of the YearNew London Architecture Awards2010City of Westminster College:Win, EducationRIBA Awards2012Wexford County Council Offices:Best Public Building EU Award2011Boston Museum of Fine Art:International AwardAviva Stadium:EU Award2009Regional Award: University of Edinburgh,Informatics DepartmentRegional Award: North Glasgow CollegeInternational Association of Lighting Designers2011Sperone Westwater Gallery:Award of ExcellenceAssociation for Consultancy & Engineering Awards2010ACE Engineering Ambassador of the yearArmagh North & South Ministerial OfficesJane Boyle, Buro Happold:Non domestic assessor of the year,The Civic Trust Awards2010Informatics Forum, University of Edinburgh -Win2009Eden Court Theatre, Inverness - Special MentionBluestone Unit, Craigavon Hospital, Belfast -Special MentionCarbon Trust2009Low Carbon Building Award:Loch Lomond and Trossachs Headquarters96

The Institution of Structural Engineers Awards (IStructE)2011Scunthorpe Sports Centre:Structural engineering excellence2010John Hope Gateway:Award for Arts or Entertainment StructuresScottish Design Awards2012Office Project of the Year:Wexford County Council OfficesEngineering Design Award:Riverside Museum2011Engineering Design Award:Robert Burns Birthplace Museum2010Sustainability Award:McClay Library, Queens UniversityEngineering Design Award:Riverside MuseumRICS Scotland Award2011Sustainability Category:John Hope Gateway2010Sustainability Category:McClay Library, Queens UniversityBREEAM Awards2011Offices Category:Armagh North & South Ministerial OfficesJane Boyle, Buro Happold:Non domestic assessor of the year,British Council for Offices 20102010Project Under 2000m2:57-59 Bread Street, Edinburgh2009Sustainability Award:Informatics Forum

Buro Happold ApSLavendelstræde 17D, 2.DK-1462 Copenhagen KDenmarkContact: Rod Manson, Regional DirectorEmail: rod.manson@burohappold.comTel: +44 7710 116790 / +45 29 82 01 86Contact: Jo Gamwell, Project Director - Nordic CountriesEmail: jonathan.gamwell@burohappold.comTel: +45 29 82 01 79Contact: Jake Williams, Project Director - Specialist ConsultingEmail: jake.williams@burohappold.comTel: +44 7725 786 577Buildings Environment and Infrastructure ConsultingAbu DhabiBathBeijingBelfastBerlinBirminghamBostonCairoChicagoCopenhagenDubaiEdinburghGlasgowHong KongJeddahKuwaitLeedsLondonLos AngelesManchesterMilanMoscowMumbaiMunichNew YorkRiyadhSan

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