TAG 167WEB

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TAG 167WEB

The Australian GeologistNewsletter 167, June 2013Registered by Australia PostPublication No. PP243459/00091ISSN 0312 4711Managing Editor Sue FletcherTechnical Editor Bill BirchProduction Editor Kate Hawkins, Twofoot Group PLSend contributions to tag@gsa.org.auCentral Business OfficeExecutive Director Sue FletcherSuite 61, 104 Bathurst Street,Sydney NSW 2000Telephone (02) 9290 2194Fax (02) 9290 2198Email info@gsa.org.auGSA website www.gsa.org.auFeature p27Tasmanian Museum —Rock walls and roller coastersTasmania's geology on displaySpecial Report 1 p30The appearance anddisappearance of a smallgeology schoolApplied Geology at SAIT/UniSADesign Alan Taylor, The Visible Graphic WordsTypesetting Joan Taylor, The Visible Graphic WordsPrinted by Ligare Pty LtdDistributed by Trade Mailing & Fulfilment Pty LtdSpecial Report 2 p33Australian Earth SciencesConvention 2014Newcastle, NSWFRONT COVERA wide-angle aerial photographof the Gosses Bluff impactstructure, Northern Territory(diameter approximately 24 km,age end Jurassic — 142.4 ± 0.8 Ma),taken by Reg Morrison. Initialobservations by Keith Crook andPeter Cook in 1967 were followedby systematic mapping by DanMilton (USGS) and Andrew Glikson,with seismic, gravity and airbornemagnetic studies by the Bureau ofMineral Resources (now GeoscienceAustralia). The crater-like structureresults from erosion of soft sandstoneand shale in the core of thecentral uplift dome. This image isfrom the book The asteroidimpact connection of planetaryevolution by Andrew Glikson,which is advertised for review inthis issue of TAG. Image courtesyReg Morrison.2 From the President3 Society UpdateBusiness ReportGovernance Changes UpdateFinance and risk reportLetters to the EditorFrom the AJES Editor’s DeskEducation & OutreachStratigraphic ColumnHeritage Matters18 News from the Divisions20 News from the Specialist Groups21 News26 Recognition36 Special Report: Geoscientific DataWarehouse40 Obituary43 Book Reviews46 Calendar47 Office Bearers48 Publishing Details


From the PresidentTis is an exciting time to be part of the GeologicalSociety of Australia. New governance structures arerare opportunities to guide the direction of the Societyfor years to come. While new management structures can bedaunting, and many cannot see the need for such radicalchange, we must also recognise the opportunities to steer theSociety in new directions. Structures that applied over 60 yearsago may not be as relevant today as they were at the birth ofour Society. Back then, members saw serving the GSA as aprivilege, and many sought to become involved. T oday, manyDivisions struggle to attract members to serve on committeesand the same faces keep cropping up year after year . Clearlythere needs to be a renewal of the structures.We are finalising a new governance document to go beforethe membership in the coming months. The document has beenchecked by various people in order to comply with Rules forsocieties such as ours, and to address some seriousshortcomings of the previous Rules in the light of currentlegislation. In a world where litigation is rife, committees suchas ours need the protection that the Associations IncorporationAct 1991 provides, but only if ourRules and procedures are inaccordance with the legislation.While none of us foresees legalissues arising, it is best to beassured that you are covered incase something goes wrong.As well as formulating Rules to comply with legislation, thecurrent changes provide us all with an opportunity to shape thefuture of the GSA. We in the Federal and Divisional committeeshave been involved in the process of rewriting the Rules. You —the members — have also had the chance to review what is inthe new documents. In order for the new governance to beimplemented during the life of the current Committee, theRules need to be ratified and will be implemented — ifapproved — at the next Annual General Meeting in the middleof the year. Following this approval, the Committee will thenimplement the new procedures so that the next Committee iselected in 2014 using the new Rules.One of the major changes relates to how the FederalExecutive is to be run. A Governing Council is to be elected foreither two or four years, and will undergo renewal every twoyears. Many members of the Governing Council will be electeddirectly by the State membership, giving the membership agreater say in how the Executive is to be run. The other Stateswill get their turn in two years time. The incoming Chair andTreasurer will come from the Governing Council. This modelwill give membership a more direct say in the Executive, and isgood for our members.I encourage you all to become involved and vote on thenew Rules when the opportunity comes around. It is importantfor all of us to be comfortable with the new Rules and thedirection they are going to take the Society . Your involvementwill ensure the Society can move forward into the 21st Century.LAURIE HUTTONPresident2 |TAG June 2013


Society UpdateBusiness ReportDivisions have held their Annual General Meetings, withthe inevitable committee changes taking place. The GSAaudit has been completed and while they seem like‘smallish things’, in the main scheme of things the changesrequire time and effort on the part of a small group of members— especially the Treasurer of each group. This is the second yearof the consolidated financial reports and I’d like to take thisopportunity to thank the Treasurers and Committee members forcollating the information and working with the Executive Officeto ensure we meet our reporting requirements. The Divisional andBranch work is usually done by a small core of members locatedin a State, Territory or region. Their activities vary from organisingmonthly talks, producing newsletters and other publications andevaluating Honours students, to holding mini-symposia or workingwith other societies on larger scale events, as with the everpopularannual SA Explorers Conference and Ekka in Brisbane.Here is a snapshot of some of the interesting talks we hopeyou managed to catch (apologies if I have not included all talks).GSA members have a lot of talent — why not go to these talksas an opportunity to connect with others in the geosciencecommunity or learn something new.l Groundwater evolution in the Lower Murrumbidgeecatchment, by Bear McPhaill Coastal geology — mapping and applications, by VerityRollasonl The 2012 AK Denmead Lecture: Re-awakening theMt Carbine tungsten mine, by Andrew Whitel Tropical megafauna — new discoveries in the north, byScott Hocknulll The 2013 AK Denmead Lecture: The Eastern Australianbauxite province, by Ian Levyl Bacteria–metal (–mineral) interactions with a focus onthe biogeochemistry of gold, by Gordon Southaml The importance of geology in mineral discoveries, byKevin Willsl Dating Snowball Earth on King Island, by Clive Calverl The Petermann Orogeny: syntectonic sediment pulseacross the Centralian Superbasin and beyond traced bydetrital zircon ages and Lu–Hf isotopes, by Peter Hainesl Victoria: last frontier in the quest for whale origins, byErich Fitzgeraldl An Early Pleistocene hyper-diverse fossil sclerophyll flora:implications for the distribution of plant species diversity,by Kale Snidermanl Highstand sand transport to deep water by longshoretransport, tidal and gravity processes, by Ron Boyd,Kevin Ruming, Marianne Sandstrom and ClaudiaSchroder-Adamsl PACE: redefining geoscience partnerships, by Miles Daviesl 100 years of Antarctic science: Scott’s tragic race for theSouth Pole, T Griffith Taylor and the 1912 Canberraconnection, by Gavin Youngl Peak global resource production: is there a problem? byDavid Denhaml Shaping the nation: a geology of Australia, byRichard Blewett.As well as talks, Divisions and Specialist Groups organisedexcursions, symposia and field trips, including:l Trip to Glovers Bluff and Weld River area, Tasmanial SA Explorer’s Symposiuml The Brisbane Ekkal Tours under Parliament House in Canberral Coastal excursions from Batemans Bay to Ulladulla, to theShoalhaven, to Lake George and to important geologicalfeatures in Canberral Yorke Peninsula Field Trip.ISSUE COPY FINISHED INSERTSARTSEPTEMBER 2013 29 Jul 9 Aug 23 AugDECEMBER 2013 25 Oct 1 Nov 8 NovMARCH 2014 31 Jan 7 Feb 28 FebJUNE 2014 28 Apr 2 May 23 MayTAG June 2013| 3


We write our columns nearly two months before you receiveyour copy of TAG and that means sometimes we are writingabout future events as if they have happened — with fingerscrossed that they actually happen when scheduled. Sometimesthe timing is a little out, though, and in the December andMarch TAGs I flagged changes to the AJES online access to takeplace in March. Circumstances were not that kind to us — wewere behind by a month and when we uploaded some of thedata we encountered a few hurdles. My thanks go to the patientmembers who waited for us to resolve the issue, and while thesolution is not optimal it is easier to navigate than the vouchersystem. Retired members and members working outsidegovernment departments or tertiary institutions were mostaffected. Again, thank you for your patience.The 2014 Australian Earth Sciences Convention (AESC 2014)is in the planning stages and the first circular was distributed inApril. We welcome you to join us in Newcastle on 7–1 0 July2014. For more details, please refer to pages 33-35. The websiteis now live www.aesc2014.gsa.org.au.During March, April and May we had a bit of fun withFacebook, stimulating a geological conversation amongmembers, non-members, students, academics, travellinggeoscientists and an interested general public. A Committeemember floated the idea for me to call for images and articleson the theme of ‘my favourite outcrop’, which would bepublished in TAG. I thought Facebook might be a moreimmediate medium so we started uploading the odd outcropphoto, hoping for comments — and slowly they started tricklingin. On page 24 you can see some of the images we used recently,with comments from all over the globe: people postedcomments on a geological feature while waiting for a flightconnection or when they logged on to check upcoming talks.While Facebook is typically used for ‘social’ media, it has provento be a great place to share information and chat about rocksand geological features. So if you have the opportunity log on,why not join the dialogue (I don’t want to say ‘conversation’). Orbetter still, send me a couple of your geological images ofinterest. There is always someone with a few spare momentswho wants to see photos of rocks and think about the geologicalforces that created those rocks and landscapes.Finally, congratulations to the W estern Australia Divisionfor their 500th issue of their bi-monthly newsletter TheWA Geologist (WAG). If you missed it go to the W A Divisionweb page at http://www.gsa.org.au/divisions/wa.html.SUE FLETCHERExecutive Director4 |TAG June 2013


Society UpdateGovernance changesAfter extensive consultation with the Divisions, Branchesand Specialist Groups, we have been progressingthrough the GSA Constitution (Society Rules) changes.Before the Annual General Meeting all financial members of theGSA will receive ballot papers for the Constitution changes. Weurge all members to carefully review the documentation and voteon the future of the Society. The changes to the GSA Constitutionare designed to bring the GSA in line with modern Constitutionsand include:l clearly defined Definitions and Interpretationsl Objects of the Societyl improved equity into the area of Discipline timing andstandardsl provisions to use technology opportunities and transparencyin relation to meetings, notifications, electronicallytransmitted signatures and the opportunity to approveresolutions circulated to the members of the Committeel clarification of membership criteria and categoriesl improved member rightsl clarification of the delegation of powers to committeesincluding Divisions, Branches and Specialist Groupsl transparent voting process to ensure Divisions arerepresented on the Governing Councill inclusion of postnominalsl standardised terminology so the GSA Rules comply withall legal requirements in Australia, including new legislationpassed in December 2012 governing the not-for-profit sectorl indemnity clause for the Governing Councillorsl transition from the current model to the Governing Councill provision for streamlining the current process forconsolidating the accounts.The constitutional changes have been approved by the GSAExecutive Committee and are supported by the Divisions,Branches and Specialist Groups. The proposed new Constitutionwill be made available to all members in July. Members can votedirectly by attending the AGM, or alternatively by nominatinga proxy who can be the Chair , (to ensure voting), or anothermember who is likely to attend the meeting. The law does nothave provision for a postal ballot for a special resolution.Approval of the new Constitution will require 75% approval fromthose members casting a vote.Finance and risk report —Consolidation of the 2012 accountsOverviewThe status of GSA as a singular legal entity requires submissionof audited, consolidated accounts to the Office of RegulatoryServices, which administers the Associations Incorporation Act1991. The 2012 year is the second year of consolidated nationalreporting and now that we have confidence in the process it istimely to communicate the resulting financial information tomembers. It provides a revealing snapshot of the Society.Preparation of these accounts requires collation of thefinancial information for the calendar year from eight Divisions,two Branches and thirteen Specialist Groups. It is a substantialtask for the Central Business Office because these entities differwidely in size, scope, activities and capacity . Those differencesare reflected in the accounts. The Divisions and Branches providebank statements, quarterly bank reconciliations and income/expenditure documents for auditing and review by the GSAaccountant, and incorporation into the national accounts on aquarterly basis. Specialist Groups provide equivalent informationon a six-monthly basis.The considerable variation in the GSA income andexpenditure during the calendar year means that it is the annualconsolidated accounts that provide the most reliable measure ofthe GSA fiscal performance. The Central Business Office providesthe Executive Committee with monthly financial accounts for theCentral organisation of the Society and these reports arecumulatively compared with its annual budgeted operatingexpenditure and income of >$0.5 million. That annual cashbudgeting process is aimed at achieving a small surplus.Consolidated Profit and LossFor the 20 12 audited financial year , the GSA reported thefollowing:Income: $1 038 024Expenses: $717 936Net profit: $312 275, including a one-off dividend of $251 000from the International Geological Conference (IGC).The Divisions and Branches collectively recorded a profit of$74 048. The Specialist Groups recorded a loss of $12 745, incontrast to a profit in 2011. Central operations recorded a smalloperating profit of about $19 328 which was then dwarfed bythe IGC dividend.JIM ROSS on behalf of the Governance Committee—Ian Graham, Laurie Hutton, Jim Ross, Chris Yeats andSue FletcherTAG June 2013| 5


Consolidated Balance SheetThe consolidated balance sheet for GSA assets gives combinedtotal equity (member equity) of $2 793 828. These assets are heldin a mixture of cash (in bank accounts, cheque accounts,investment portfolios and fixed term deposits), investments andunsold publications held as inventory . This total can be brokendown into the GSA operating units as follows: the Centralorganisation has net assets of $834 347, the eight Divisions total$803 593 (ranging from $4 453 to $406 361), the two Branchestotal $4 750, and the 13 Specialist Groups total $1 148 457(ranging from $2 527 to $489 592). The difference between theconsolidated total equity ($2 793 828) and the individually listedequity above is $2 682. The difference is a result of eliminatingvalues that sit on both the Central office and the accounts forthe Divisions, Branches and Specialist Groups and is removed toensure there is no double-counting.Investments held in the GSA Central investment platformtotalled $830 771 at year end and although dominantly consistedof Central funds (about 80%) it also includes investmentsmanaged on behalf of three Divisions (Queensland, SouthAustralian and Tasmania) and four Specialist Groups (ASG, SGEG,SGTSG and AAP). It remains open to include additional funds tobe managed on behalf of any operating unit of the Society.Comments on theconsolidation processWhen the consolidation process was introduced in 2010 to enablelegal compliance, the Divisions and Specialist Groups wereinitially asked to consolidate their finances into a single bankaccount managed by the Central Business Office. Most Divisionsand Specialist Groups insisted on maintaining their separate bankaccounts, which they could control, and that wish has beenrespected. However, it has resulted in some complexity that relieson the timely participation and assistance of each T reasurer.Unsurprisingly, the financial information provided by theDivisions and Specialist Groups varies widely in quality, completenessand timing. This variation and the resulting delays have ledto a significantly increased workload for the Central BusinessOffice staff and consultants.The contributions of the Treasurers of Divisions, Branches andSpecialist Groups to consolidation of the accounts areappreciated and the outcomes will enable more effectivestrategic decision-making to support modernisation and growthof the Society . However, current arrangements need to bestreamlined to reduce the workload at both ends, minimise delaysand avoid the extra work that results from incomplete and tardyresponses from some T reasurers. The voluntary nature of thiswork is acknowledged, and one logical development is to enablethe Executive Officer of the Society to have ‘view only’ authorityto access all Society bank accounts, but no authority to actuallyoperate these accounts. This access should simplify a significantcomponent of the consolidation process to the benefit ofindividual Treasurers and the Central Business Office. Furthermore,transferring all bank accounts to the bank the Centraloffice banks with (National Australia Bank) would further streamlinefinancial reporting and reduce costs to the Society , whileretaining autonomy for the Divisions, Branches and SpecialistGroups.Making GSA assets workThe value of the consolidated assets of the Society indicatessignificant success by Divisions, Specialist Groups and the Centralorganisation in accumulating funds over time. This capacity is instark contrast with the absence of any current Society-widespending initiative to strategically strengthen our membershipand our profession.If our funds are viewed as a means to an end, then goodadministration is not necessarily linked to an increasing balanceof funds. To her credit, the GSA’s Executive Director, Sue Fletcher,has recently proposed some worthy initiatives for investing someof the IGC dividend in the future of the Society and these areunder consideration by the Executive.Then there is the curious case of the opportunity provided bythe new Australian Curriculum for which the Foundation toYear 10 (F–10) subjects are currently being rolled out around thecountry. The science component of the new F–1 0 curriculummust now reflect the inclusion of Earth and EnvironmentalScience as the fourth senior science subject for Years 11 and 12,and it is due for introduction in about 2015. These developmentsprovide us with a unique opportunity to support both primaryand secondary school teachers and students who are unlikely tohave access to adequate resources without some form of externalsupport. Experience in WA indicates that there will be a strongneed for this support. In 2010, Council approved the Executive’srecommendation that Divisions be subsidised by Central fundson a dollar-for-dollar basis to provide supporting initiatives forthe new curriculum within their State or T erritory. However, todate there has been only one call, to match W A Divisionalexpenditure of $2 500.6 |TAG June 2013


Given the prominence of geoscience and resource issues overmost of the last decade it is surprising that GSA membership hasshown little growth. Ours is an aging Society in a time-poor era,one that is crying out for reinvigoration of our offerings andprofile. The Society’s current strong asset base, further enhancedby the windfall from the 34th IGC, provides us with an opportunityto initiate significant change to modernise the organisationand make it more relevant, engaging and attractive to Australia’slarge population of practising geoscientists. However , therequired change cannot be driven solely by the NationalExecutive — we require ideas, enthusiasm and initiative acrossall levels of the GSA. The resources are available — what remainsto be seen is if you, the members of the GSA, rise to the challengeto proceed.CongratulationsBill!Bill Birch waselected Presidentof the RoyalSociety of Victoriaon 28 March 2013.JIM ROSS on behalf of the Finance and Risk Committee2013 EXPLORATION SAFETY ROADSHOWTRAVELLING YOUR WAYThe 2013 Exploration Safety Roadshow is the sixth in an annualseries presented by Resources Safety.The event is an opportunity to confer with Resources Safety staff onissues of concern, hear the latest news about safety performance,and network with other industry participants.Key features of this year’s program will be discussions of therecently released exploration drilling code of practice and explorationaudit tools. Workshops will also cover:Managing fibrous minerals – what should you look out for?What do you need to know about lifting, rigging and dogging onexploration sites?Bringing out the worst in improvisation – when homemadetooling goes wrongStored energy – what is it and why should you be wary?The roadshow will be presented at the following venues:Kalgoorlie – Wednesday 24 July 2013Perth – Friday 26 July 2013Registrations are from 8:00am. Both events start at 8:30am,finish at 3:30pm and include morning tea and lunch.It is a free event but attendees must registerin advanceFor further information visit www.dmp.wa.gov.au/eventsor contact Resources Safety:Telephone: (08) 9358 8154Email: RSDComms@dmp.wa.gov.auwww.dmp.wa.gov.au/resourcessafetyTAG June 2013| 7


Society UpdateNew membersThe GSA welcomes the following new members to the Society.May you all have a long and beneficial association with the GSA.If you want to know more about membership of the GSA pleasecontact info@gsa.org.au or ring 02 9290 2194.ACTS TUDENTTim HobernNSWM EMBERPaul FreemanChloe FrenchA SSOCIATEGreg ArandtS TUDENTTimothy CrawleyMitchell DillonNTM EMBERStefan KrausKristian MastermanQLDM EMBERTanya Jude-EtonChristine MurrayS TUDENTJacob HarveyNikki LimpinCasey MaskillScott MullerMaija RaudseppSAM EMBERGunther LonguevilleS TUDENTDonnelly ArchibaldJacqueline BeersworthMichael BarnesKamini BhowanyMatthew BoschJason BoxallJessica BrowneNatasha BysterveldBrianna ClarkPeta ClarkeKiana DayPhilippe DupavillonNick EckertRyan FanningMatthias GrockeDarragh HobanLise JensePaige LiebichStacey LockThomas MehrtensMichael StepanStephanie SunLaura WongVICS TUDENTSarah DyerMathias EgglsederJanenie MohganSarah MoserNgoc NguyenDharam PalPhillip RobertsonBenoit SaumurWAM EMBERJames BartleRamli OsmanG RADUATEAmy YatesS TUDENTMarlene WoligroskiLost membersMail for the following members has been returned to the GSA.If you know these members and have their contact details,please email info@gsa.org.au or call 02 9290 2194.Thanks in advance for your assistance.Jenna DohertyStuart EllarRufus HenryJeremy HillToshiyuki IijimaStephen ParkesRachael RobertsMax RohrmanLiam ShearerGerhard PauwelsGlen PhillipsHelen Williams8 |TAG June 2013


Letters to the EditorHydrogeologic climatemanagementA Climate Management Statement byGSA is needed to identify past and futurecontributions that otherwise could beneglected. Geologists such as RL Jackdefined the Great Artesian Basin justin time to provide water during theprolonged ‘King Drought’ compounded byextreme temperatures. Landscapes andwildlife as well as stock and communitieswere able to hang on around supplybores and their lengthy drains. ExplorerL Leichhardt (a geo-ecologist) was perhapsfirst to advocate in print the use and landscapingof Australian riverine aquifers fordrought management by pastoralists.Hydrogeologic filter landscapes benefitproductivity as well as climatemanagement by retaining nutrients,colloids and soil-forming minerals. Filterlandscapes facilitate recharge of subsoilmoisture and unconfined aquifers, soreducing destructive runoff. Moisture andwater are recycled during dry seasons.Productive browse groves can then benefitclimatic conditions by reflection ofinfra-red radiation and reduction of dusthaze which can retard cloud formationand can cause adverse atmosphericthermal layering.Geological design and placement of filtergroves is not a simple matter. Geologistsneed to work with other Earth Scientists,including those in agriculture, forestry,engineering and environmental ecology.As hydrogeologic climate managementcan be productive, there is less needfor long-term financial input by thecommunity and governments. Howeverthey will need to come on-side. A ClimateManagement Statement by the GSA couldgo further, also developing guidelinesfrom the geological record and geologygenerally.ERIC HEIDECKEBrisbaneGSA Climate ChangeStatementI was interested to read the four Letters tothe Editor of TAG in the last issue(TAG 166, March 2013), commenting onthe Geological Society of Australia’s draftStatement on Climate Change, prepared onbehalf of the Executive Committee byBrad Pillans. All four respondentsdisapproved of that statement.In my opinion the statement presentsa balanced view of both sides of theargument on the hypothesis ofanthropogenic global warming (AGW).The Executive is to be congratulated ontheir courage, knowing that the revisedstatement would be condemned by AGWbelievers who will only be satisfied by astatement that is fully supportive of theAGW hypothesis, without presenting anycontrary views. The previous GSA statementon climate change ignored theopinions of many members of the Society(probably a majority) who are scepticalabout AGW. A previous executivecommittee had dealt with this issue byconducting a poll of members askingwhether or not the Society should havea position statement on climate change,but failing to ask the key question ofwhether members agreed with the existingstatement. The result was that a clearmajority of respondents (75.6%) agreedthat the Society should have a positionstatement on climate change.The then-President of the Society,Brad Pillans, toured Australia to presenthis own views on AGW, while invitingcomment from audiences regarding theiropinions on the issue. I don’t know aboutthe reaction in other States, but manymembers at the Western Australianmeeting made it clear that they aresceptical about AGW. An independent pollof members of the Society (conducted in2010) showed that a majority (53% of626 members who responded) did notagree with the Society’s positionstatement. The Executive then agreedto withdraw that statement from theSociety’s website, but by then it had beenpicked up by other websites and continuesto be freely available.Surely no rational person could disagreethat any statement by the Society on sucha contentious issue needs to reflect thevarious views of its members. Indeed thestatement by Brad Pillans does just that.For the interest of readers, my own viewsas a ‘sceptic’ (known to some AGWbelievers as a ‘denier’) can be summarisedas follows:l Modern global warming is a fact; it hascontinued, with stops and starts, sinceabout 1850, the end of the Little IceAge.l Geological evidence shows that theEarth’s climate has always beenchanging, due to natural causes, forbillions of years.l Climate changes were much greater atmany times in the geological past thanthose being experienced today, andAGW could not have been a factor inthose past changes.l Historical evidence shows that therehave been large changes in climateduring the past two millennia, entirelydue to natural causes — including theMedieval Warm Period (AD 950 to1250, when wine grapes were grownas far north as Yorkshire and theNorsemen colonised Greenland) and theLittle Ice Age (AD 1550 to 1850, whenthe Thames periodically froze over, seaice extended into the Zuyder Zee, andthe Norsemen had to leave Greenland).l The presence of CO 2 in the atmosphereis vitally important to life on Earth, andincreasing levels stimulate plantgrowth.l CO 2 is a known greenhouse gas and itscontent in the atmosphere is risingsteadily due to the burning of fossilfuels — but there is no acceptedscientific method to separate naturalcauses of climate change from any thatare due to the rising levels of CO 2 .l There was no global warming during theperiod from the 1940s to the early1970s, and again from 1999 to thepresent, despite ever-increasing levelsof CO 2 in the atmosphere.TAG June 2013| 9


l During the 1970s serious concern wasexpressed by some that the Earth wasabout to descend into a new ice age,which contrasts with the views of AGWbelievers today that the Earth is aboutto experience catastrophically hotconditions and rising sea levels.l Others now contend that Solar factorsare more important than has generallybeen recognised, and the pattern ofrecent sunspot cycles is similar to thatexperienced prior to the Maunder andDalton Solar Minima, so that some solarphysicists predict that cooling of 1–2 o Cwill occur during the next few decades.I doubt that these issues can be resolvedconclusively in the near future. Althoughthe President of the [IntergovernmentalPanel on Climate Change] IPCC, RajendraPachauri, has conceded that the rise inglobal temperatures has stalled for thepast 14 years, he contends that this trendwill need to continue for at least another30 or 40 years for it to invalidate theAGW hypothesis. Some invoke the‘precautionary principle’ in seeking to takeaction to reduce CO 2 levels in the atmosphere,and Australia is in the forefront inthat regard. However, in any case, Australiaproduces only about 1.5% of globalCO 2 emissions, and if it could entirelyeliminate its generation of CO 2 that wouldhave no significant effect on the world’sclimate.PHILLIP PLAYFORDEarly days of AustraliangeoheritageGeological heritage work by the GSAbegan in Australia in the 1960s but wasnot a part of the International GeologicalCongress held in Sydney in August 1976.At least, not officially!Reading through some material from the1976 IGC meeting, I came across myannotated program and found that twoinformal but now historical meetings wereheld at the Sydney IGC.By 1975 there were individual subcommittees in most GSA Divisions, withmuch work going on in NSW, SouthAustralia, Victoria and Queensland.In July 1974, two years before the SydneyIGC, Colin Branch had been invited by theGSA Council to accept appointment asNational Convener of a new FederalCommittee for the Preservation ofGeological Monuments. He was to take onthe responsibility of maintaining liaisonwith the locally formed subcommittees.And at the Sydney IGC, two informallunchtime meetings were held, and I foundI had written them into my copy of theofficial printed program:Wednesday, 18 AugustGeol. Monuments Room A11 1.30pmThursday, 19 August1.00pm Geol. Monument A.11And in my 1994 report on the history ofthe Geological Heritage Committee(published by the GSA) I briefly recorded(p.32) that “Colin Branch arranged a seriesof informal lunchtime meetings ofDivisional subcommittee conveners … withdiscussion of Queensland and SouthAustralian work”.Perhaps someone else has notes fromthose discussions, or has a better memorythan I have?As a result of those 1976 Sydneydiscussions I organised a symposium onGeological Conservation in Australia atthe Second Australian GeologicalConvention at Monash University,Melbourne in 1977, and a succession ofnational meetings on geological heritagewith symposia and workshops were tofollow. The Federal Committee is nowknown as the Standing Committee forGeological Heritage, and Margaret Brocxis the current Convener.So the 2012 Brisbane IGC was in a sensethe 36th anniversary of the first time theConvener of the Federal Committee andDivisional Subcommittee members met todiscuss geoheritage. Perhaps we can lookforward to a 40th anniversary meeting onGeoheritage in Australia in August 2015?BERNIE JOYCEFormer Convener of the StandingCommittee for Geological Heritage, GSASnowy Mountains SchemeThe interesting article on the SnowyMountains Scheme by Robert Goldsmithhighlighted some important aspects of thedevelopment of engineering geology inAustralia, and indeed internationally, witha rock quality scheme, which, I believe,improved that developed earlier by KarlTerzaghi.Robert Goldsmith rightly deals with theimportance of the understanding andimportance of rock bolting and relatedmatters, much of which owed its developmentto the enthusiasm and work of DanMoye and his perceptive staff. [In] thisrespect he indicates three fundamentalissues: classification of weathering,diamond drilling [and] improvement ofthe Lugeon test. I suspect that the tripletubecore barrel was adapted from thedesign by Ken Mosher and Brian Vitnell ofthe Joint Coal Board, and its implementationin the Hunter Valley a little earlier.Robert Goldsmith mentions briefly, inpassing, ‘state of stress’, and later the useof two-dimensional photo-elastic modelsfor stress analyses. I believe that the majorachievement by the [Snowy MountainsAuthority] SMA geological team was inrecognising that horizontal stress in thelarge power stations, and indeed withinthe rocks of the Snowy region, oftengreatly exceeded the vertical stress, anopinion that would have been almostheretical just a few years earlier.This awareness was carried to Sydney, andI seem to remember David Jordan pointingout that similar horizontal stress wasdistorting the wall of the Kings CrossRailway Station, which we visited duringits construction.Dan Moye possibly had an inkling of thisproblem when he began his career atWarragamba, where he probably workedwith his near-namesake, the engineerMoyes, who studied the phenomenon of‘valley bulging’ there, and he probablytalked about it with his university teacher,WR Browne, who, although notremembered as an engineering geologist,nevertheless was quite in demand for hisexpertise, consulting on both the HumeReservoir and Warragamba. Browneacted at Warragamba for many years,and was probably largely responsible forthe decision to move the damsite to itspresent position.10 |TAG June 2013


In his summary of the geology, might Ibe permitted to differ from the author insuggesting that uplift occurred much earlierthan the Cenozoic.While Robert Goldsmith’s article isdevoted to the engineering geologyaspects of the Snowy Scheme and theperiod during which this occurred, hementions the period during which theScheme was carried out, beginning in1949.It should not be forgotten that prior tothe passing of the Snowy MountainsHydro-Electric Power Act 1949 somerelevant geological work had been carriedout by the Geological Survey of NewSouth Wales. Although it is possiblypushing matters back too far to includethe 1937 work on Snowy geology byCharles Mulholland as preparatory, hiswork on tunnels and damsites at Jindabynein 1941 was certainly relevant. Theextensive regional surveys by members ofthe NSW Survey from 1950 to 1955(Len Hall and Dick Relph (still with us)[and] Col Adamson, Jim Lloyd,Cliff McElroy (all deceased) and numerousothers) carried out in difficult conditions,was important to the project. Geologistsfrom the then Bureau of MineralResources also contributed to the regionalmapping program in the same period, andRick Wilkinson in Rocks to Riches (1996)gives a detailed description of theCommonwealth/State story relating tothe Snowy Scheme.In 1950 the SMA wasn’t yet in ‘fullswing’, and the Adaminaby Dam work wascarried out by the NSW Department ofPublic Works, with geology done by theNSW Geological Survey. I was one ofthose assisting Adamson on an alidadesurvey of the first proposed site for theAdaminaby Dam, which was soon movedto its final site.The early mapping of the Toolong area,carried out under Len Hall, proveddifficult as there was no military map ofthe region and a base map compiled bythe NSW Lands Department from SnowLease maps was the best that could bemanaged. As it turned out the map did notfit the assigned coordinates, and adjustmentshad to be made. However air photoswere invaluable.Charles E Marshall, Ken Glasson, possiblyDenis Bell (UNSW), Jim Standard andI were among numerous geologists whoconsulted for various companies contractedto undertake the construction ofspecific projects during the 1950s–1960s.Recent visits to some of the damsitesand the Murray 1 Power station revivedmemories of much interesting anddemanding work. Although my owninvolvement with the Snowy Scheme wasslight, I still have a sense of satisfaction inviewing particular damsites and knowingthat I had some involvement.Joe Whiting (NSW Survey) used to quotethe words of a former Survey Director,‘The Count’ (LF Harper), when standing onthe bank of the Burrinjuck Dam, on whichhe had advised, “it’s nice to see your workcomplete”.DAVID BRANAGAN(now in the ‘glowing’ period of ‘if Iremember correctly!’)Snowy Mountains SchemeEditor’s commentThe Editor has received a letter fromKen Sharp in response to the article inTAG 166 by Robert Goldsmith on theSnowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme.Ken was the second geologist to join theSnowy Mountains Authority (SMA), thenhe became Chief Geologist on the SMAand later on the Snowy MountainsEngineering Corporation (SMEC); heretired in 1990.Ken has drawn the Editor’s attention to anumber of errors in this article that heconsiders to quite serious and cannot beignored. For example, the photo titledTumut 2 power station is actually Tumut 1power station; the main Civil Engineeringcontracts were Schedule of Rates contracts,not lump sum; and the first flatjack, in situ stress measurements weredone in the exploratory tunnel at T1Power Station before, not after, constructionof the main underground chamber.Ken does acknowledge that an enormousamount of the Snowy Story involvingengineering geology has not beenadequately documented, but says it cannotbe summarised in a three-page article. Hesuggests the following references:Packham GH (Ed) 1969. The geology ofNew South Wales. The Journal of theGeological Society of Australia vol 16pt 1. This volume includes a number ofsections on the Snowy Mountains byMoye, Sharp and Stapledon. Facingpage 92 is figure 3.6, a geological map ofthe Snowy Mountains area. Most majorfeatures of the Snowy Scheme are shownon this figure but it was compiled in 1963,before the scheme was completed. Some ofthe four 1:250 000 geological sheetscovering the region were also publishedbefore the scheme was completed. (Theseare the Wagga, Tallangatta, Canberra andBega–Mallacoota sheets.)Wyborn D, Owen M and Wyborn L 1990.Geology of the Kosciusko National Park(1:250 000 scale map). Bureau of MineralResources, Canberra. This article showsSnowy tunnels and dams.A website on Daniel Moye, who was ChiefGeologist on the SMA until he resigned in1967, at http://www.daniel-moye.org/dan_moye_ remembered/index.php?include=obituary.Another informative article entitled‘Engineering geologists honoured’ waspublished in The AusIMM Bulletin No 4,August 1993, p 25‒26. (The article wasalso published in TAG but an omissionhad to be corrected in the following TAG).Editor’s note: Should he so wish, RobertGoldsmith will have the opportunity torespond to Ken’s comments in a futureissue of TAG.Geology by consensusIt was only in 1963 that US geologistGene Shoemaker noted the surficialsimilarities between underground nucleardetonation sites at Yucca Flats, Nevadaand the Barringer Crater in neighbouringArizona. From there, the plausibility ofextraterrestrial impacts was establishedand a concept once overwhelminglyrejected by geologists became accepted asfact. The arrival at this consensus was notsmooth: starting with Galileo Galilei itfollowed almost four centuries of long andtortuous argument characterised by adistinctly unscientific rancour fuelled byreligious zeal.TAG June 2013| 11


But if ever there was a ‘closer’ to thisargument, it came in the form of theasteroidal impact over Chelyabinsk,Russia, on 15 February 2013. Tellingly,this fascinating event was not capturedon myriad cameras choreographed byprescient prize-winning scientists, augustprofessors or Nobel laureates. Alas, eventhe boffins let the side down. No, theevidence was inadvertently collected by abunch of amateurs armed with dash-cams,doing something else, viz., going abouttheir daily lives. The cognoscenti and paidhelp didn’t even see it coming becausethey were singularly focused on asteroid2012 DA14.Perhaps the brouhaha that doubles asdiscourse in your Letters section regardingthe GSA Statement on ‘Climate Change’should be viewed with the above historyin mind. This statement is in keeping withthe spirit of Albert Einstein’s remark that“… the important thing is not to stopquestioning”BOHDAN (BOB) BURBANLos Angeles, 2013Climate Change Statement(TAG December 2012)I ask the four correspondents (AndrewGlickson, Martin J Van Kranedonk,Malcom Walter and John Veevers TAG166) who wrote in opposition to thedraft GSA Climate Change Statement(TAG 165), which of the geological factsenunciated in the Statement they wouldtake issue with? Perhaps they wouldprefer to see them swept under the carpetas they may be seen to contradict theirown positions on the anthropogeniccontribution to climate change. Pejorativeterms such as “deniers” and “contrarians”are used. Nobody is denying climatechange, only the significance of fossilfuel emissions as a major causal factor.Galileo, among other great scientists ofthe past, was a contrarian.No doubt your correspondents would haveapplauded the original Position Statementpublished in TAG 152, September 2009which endorsed strong action to reducehuman fossil fuel emissions. This statementwas concocted by the ExecutiveCommittee of the time who consulted withthemselves and very few other members.When it was published purporting torepresent the views of the GSA,expressions of outrage and threats ofresignation were received from a numberof members. Two members undertook toconduct an informal poll of the membershipand contacted over 2000 membersinviting them to respond to two questions:1) Did they agree with the PositionStatement? 2) Were they approached toexpress an opinion?. 27% of thosecontacted gave a meaningful response toQuestion 1 of which 53% opposed theStatement and 47% supported it. OnQuestion 2 only 2% of respondents statedthat they were consulted on the Statement.This survey showed two things:opinion within the GSA membership isdeeply divided and consultation of themembership by the then Executive wasvirtually nil. Full results of this survey areoutlined in “Letters to the Editor” in TAG156, September 2010. In the same issuethe then Executive confirmed that theywould be conducting a poll of themembership on the issue, an undertakingthey subsequently reneged on.With the election of Brad Pillans asPresident the new Executive withdrew theoriginal Position Statement and initiateda new poll. Perhaps bearing in mind thedivisiveness created by the originalStatement the questions put to themembership did not directly ask foropinions regarding human inducedclimate change although separatesubmissions on this subject wereencouraged. The questions were morealong the lines of whether the GSA shouldhave any position on the issue. The reporton this survey is summarised in TAG 158,March 2011. 75.6% of the respondentsagreed that the GSA should have aposition on climate change althoughI strongly believe that the vast majority ofthis 75.6% would only support a GSAposition that was in accordance with theirown personal views, as witness the lettersof the four critics that I am responding to.John Veevers suggests that because suchorganisations as the Geological Society ofAmerica, Geological Society of Londonand American Geophysical Union havestatements on climate change we shouldautomatically jump on board and followthem. I disagree. I have not read thesestatements but I would lay odds that theywere produced in the same way as ourown original statement, by a small groupof committee members and not necessarilyreflective of the opinion of the majority ofthe general membership.I also can criticise the new Draft PositionStatement. Perhaps there should have beenmore detail on past climate changes andtheir causes but this would have been atthe expense of conciseness. There werelines of evidence I would have like to haveseen included that were omitted. Howeverthere was no attempt to go beyond ourfield of expertise and piggyback on theopinions of organisations of otherdisciplines and there were no predictionsas to which direction climate change maytake. This is to be applauded. I accept thatno organisation should adopt a publicposition on which up to 50% or moreof its members may be in vehementdisagreement with. The Draft PositionStatement as presented outlines anumber of geological facts that few in ourprofession could seriously disagree with,facts which the general public may betotally unaware of and which are ofmaterial significance to the climatechange debate. The reader is left to takethese into consideration when formulatinghis or her own opinion on climate change.To this extent the Draft Statement serves avery useful purpose and I support it.JOHN GEARYREFERENCESIN LETTERS:In the interests of space, Letters to theEditor will no longer include referencelists. TAG asks correspondents to use shortweblinks or author’s names and dates assources for technical information in thebody of the letter.DISCLAIMER:The Geological Society of Australiaencourages letters from members. Theletters do not necessarily represent theopinion of the Society.12 |TAG June 2013


Society UpdateFrom the AJES Editor’s deskTender for publication of AJESIn 2012 the GSA Executive Committee decided that we shouldapproach the market to determine the best publisher forfive years with possible extension for another five yearsbeginning in 2014. AJES has been published for GSA by T aylor& Francis since 2005, and from 1984 to 2004 by Blackwells (nowWiley). Prior to 1984 GSA published AJES as a stand-alonejournal. Over that time AJES has expanded from four issues peryear in 1984, five in 199 1, six in 1993 to eight in 200 7. Usingcommercial publishers has allowed AJES greater penetration intothe science market, particularly through online access outsideAustralia.During 2012 we undertook a strategic planning meetingwith Taylor & Francis and several members of the Editorial Board(4 April in Canberra) and canvassed some of the options at theEditorial Board meeting that was open to all members heldduring the IGC (7 August in Brisbane). At the Brisbane meetingwe decided to immediately offer authors the option of goldopen-access and to include in the tender document an offer ofboth online and hard copies of AJES, to explore full-colouroptions for print and to investigate improved online access formembers. The journal would retain its current format, with eightissues and about 1120 pages per volume. The publisher’s financialmodel would be a profit-sharing arrangement with the GSA.The tender documents were distributed on 2 November 2012with a closing date of 30 January 20 13. Five publishersrepresenting small to large publishers submitted tenderproposals. A committee made up of Chris Fergusson, Chris Yeats,Sue Fletcher and I assessed the tenders and short-listed twopublishers for interview.Interviews were conducted in Sydney on 20 February 20 13with some issues later clarified by email. Recommendationsto the Executive Committee of GSA were submitted forconsideration at their meeting on 30 April 20 13. There was aconsiderable delay between the interviews and the decisionbecause I was on holiday for most of March but both companieswere advised of our timeframes at interview.The GSA Executive Committee accepted the recommendationof the tender evaluation committee to accept the T aylor& Francis offer, which includes printing in full colour at no costto authors. The Executive Committee also accepted therecommendation to print in Singapore, creating savings for theGSA.The Taylor & Francis offer alsoinvolves the creation, at no cost to theGSA, of a Society portal forimproved member access to thejournal through the GSA web page. Asthis portal would be on the GSA web page the GSA would retainownership of the portal. This portal would reduce some of theissues that members, particularly retired members, have whenthey access GSA outside a government department or university(which have one account enabling all employees access to AJES).Upcoming in AJESAJES Volume 60/3PF Rey: Opalisation of the Great Artesian Basin (centralAustralia): An Australian story with a Martian twist.RA Glen: Refining accretionary orogen models for theTasmanides of eastern Australia.RA Glen, RJ Korsch, R Hegarty, A Saeed, Y Poudjom Djomani,RD Costelloe & E Belousova: Geodynamic significance of theboundary between the Thomson Orogen and the LachlanOrogen, northwestern New South Wales and implications forTasmanide tectonics.FR Fontaine, H Tkalcic & BLN Kennett: Crustal complexityin the Lachlan Orogen revealed from teleseismic receiverfunctions.AJES Volume 60/4K Mills, P Gell, P Hesse, R Jones, P Kershaw, R Drysdale &J McDonald: Paleoclimate studies and natural resourcemanagement in the Murray–Darling Basin I: past, present andfuture climates.K Mills, P Gell, J Gergis, P Baker, M Finlayson, PL Hesse,R Jones, P Kershaw, S Pearson, P Treble, C Barr, M Brookhouse,R Drysdale, J McDonald, S Haberle, M Reid, M Thoms &J Tibby: Paleoclimate studies and natural resourcemanagement in the Murray–Darling Basin II: unravellinghuman impacts and climate variability.LF Dean & P De Deckker: Recent benthic foraminifera fromTwofold Bay, Eden NSW: community structure, biotopes anddistribution controls.GE Williams, VA Gostin & JR Prescott: Stratigraphy and opticaldating of Pleistocene coastal deposits in the Port Campbellaustralite strewn field, SW Victoria.MJ Rickard & IS Williams: No zircon U–Pb evidence for aPrecambrian component in the Late Eocene Yavunatrondhjemite, Fiji.TAG June 2013| 13


Also on the wayL Bagas, R Boucher, B Li, J Miller, P Hill, G Depauw, J Pascoe& B Eggers: Paleoproterozoic stratigraphy and goldmineralisation in the Granites–Tanami Orogen, NorthAustralian Craton.WK Witt, SG Hagemann & C Villanes: Geochemistry andgeology of spatially and temporally associated calc-alkaline(I-type) and K-rich (A-type) magmatism in a Carboniferouscontinental arc setting, Pataz gold mining district, northernPeru.WK Witt, SG Hagemann, J Ojala, C Laukamp, T Vennemann,C Villanes & V Nykanen: Multiple methods for regional-tomine-scale targeting, Pataz gold field, northern Peru.Vale Keith ScottKeith Scott died suddenly on 23 April 20 13. He was 64.A University of Adelaide graduate, K eith had an exemplaryresearch history with CSIRO that began in 1969. He workedprincipally in regolith mineralogy and geochemistry throughoutAustralia, particularly in Mount Isa, the Yilgarn, theDrummond Basin and the Lachlan Foldbelt. In 20 11 Keithpublished a paper in AJES on the geochemistry of rutile fromthe Kalgoorlie Goldfields.Keith was a valued member of CRC LEME, with closecontacts in many of the affiliated organisations, and wasgreatly respected by the exploration industry with whichhe collaborated throughout his career . After retiring fromCSIRO, Keith was a CSIRO Honorary Fellow and a VisitingFellow at The Australian National University (ANU) where hecontinued to actively pursue his scientific interests. Heworked on research projects from exploration in regolithterrains to the origin of dust with Richard Greene in the ANUFenner School of Environment and Society. He co-supervisedHonours and Masters students, and was a major contributorto the annual Minerals Technology Education Council (MTEC)Honours short course at the ANU. With Colin P ain, Keithedited the 2009 book Regolith Science and was a member ofthe Editorial Board of the 20 12 Geoscience Australiapublication Shaping a Nation: a geology of Australia.Keith was a good friend for more than 30 years andprovided advice and encouragement to me as Editor of AJES.We had almost daily contact over many years when we woulddiscuss editorial issues and other world problems.He will be sadly missed.Australian Journal of Earth SciencesiFirstiFirst is Taylor & Francis’ proprietary earlyonline-publication system, which makes newknowledge available to researchers in theshortest possible time.iFirst reduces the time from article submission topublication, making papers available for authors andreaders earlier and for longer.These papers can be published online through iFirst assoon as the production process is complete, ensuringsubmission-to-publication times are shortened. iFirstarticles published with page spans can be cited asusual, because all final publication information(publication year, volume number, page spans) isalready available. iFirst articles published as“Forthcoming Articles” can be cited using theirDOIs, in addition to the article and journal titles.To view accepted articles on the AJES websiteclick on the iFirst icon on the right hand side ofthe website: www.ajes.com.auJournal AlertsYou can subscribe to journal alerts to keep up-to-datewith AJES and many similar journal titles available fromTaylor & Francis.To register for this free service visit:www.informaworld.com/alertingANITA ANDREWEditor-in-Chief AJESAJES.Editor@gsa.org.auScan for the latest GSA news.14 |TAG June 2013


Society UpdateEducation&OutreachMore than 12 months ago the Gonski Report was handedto Government with a recommendation that $5 billionextra was needed to ensure schooling outcomes inAustralia improve. Now as I write, the Federal and StateGovernments are negotiating funding packages that may see theGonski Report become something of a reality. Unfortunately thereare two issues bearing down on this important reform. First, theFederal Government has partly funded its proposal by reallocatingscarce resources from university funds, which will alienate manyin the tertiary education sector who would otherwise championthis much-needed boost to school education. Second, with afederal election due this year and State and Federal relationshipsrarely bipartisan, it is inevitable that this proposal and manyother education-related promises will become politicised.Consequently, it is unclear just what this reform will ultimatelymean for education generally and science education specifically.I suspect it will remain unclear until the dust has settled on thefederal election and the new government, whatever its politicalbias, stamps its authority on this initiative.No matter what the outcome of the election and thesubsequent way the proposed reform may ultimately be dealtwith, it is incumbent on us as members of the science community,the education community and the general public to ensure ourpolitical leaders understand the cost of doing nothing to improveAustralian education as well as the cost of robbing tertiary Peterto pay pre-tertiary Paul. It is now easier than ever to let youropinions be known through social media and direct contact withcandidates for elected office. To quietly sit on the sidelines is nolonger an option we can afford to adopt.In the previous issue (TAG 166, March 2013) I wrote that thenew Earth and Environmental Science (EES) course is set tobecome the fourth senior subject, equivalent in weight anddegree of difficulty to the other three: Biology , Chemistry andPhysics. I am still reviewing how tertiary entrance scores arecalculated across Australia but scores are not the whole story;many university science faculties also set prerequisites additionalto minimum scores. Simply put, they require a senior student tohave completed one of Biology, Chemistry or Physics with othersubjects including English in this list. The exact nature of the listvaries among institutions and some have no prerequisites as faras I can tell.We know that students interested in studying science atuniversity will study science subjects at school and usually choosethose subjects that they are interested in. These students canexpect to pass (and in so doing achieve a good university entrancescore) and they need to pass in order to meet prerequisitesset by their universities of choice. The question I have is, “Willthose universities that do set (one of) Biology , Chemistry orPhysics as prerequisites also now set senior EES as an acceptableprerequisite, and if not, why not?”University entrance requirementshave dominated students’ choice ofsenior subjects at school for manyyears and I don’t think that will end anytime soon. However ,should EES not be adopted as an acceptable prerequisite alongwith other senior science subjects by universities that set them,EES will not be an attractive option for schools to teach or forstudents to enrol in. This may become the ultimate barrier to thesuccessful roll-out of EES nationwide. I am interested to hearfrom anybody in a science faculty where prerequisites are set andwhat, if anything, their faculty is planning to do as EES rolls outnationally. I am also keen to hear from any science faculty thatalready has EES in its ‘one of’ list.GREG McNAMARAGeoscience Education and Outreach ServicesSend all comments to Greg McNamara atoutreach@gsa.org.auAUSTRALIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCEAWARDS FORSCIENTIFIC EXCELLENCENominations are being sought for the2014 HADDON FORRESTER KING MEDALsponsored by Rio Tinto for research inmineral explorationThe Medal is one of the Academy’s prestigious careerawards for life-long achievement and outstandingcontribution to science.Criteria can be found at www.science.org.au/awards/ s/awards/haddon.htmlPlease contactawards@science.org.auaufor nomination formsor further informationClosing date 29 July 2013TAG June 2013| 15


Society UpdateStratigraphic ColumnInternational connectionsDo you know where the Australian StratigraphyCommission (ASC) fits into the international scene?The ASC is a voting member of the InternationalSubcommission on Stratigraphic Classification (ISSC), which isone of a number of subcommissions of the InternationalCommission on Stratigraphy (ICS). This in turn is part of theInternational Union of Geological Sciences. While most of theinternational communication is by email these days, there weremeetings of the ICS and the ISSC at the 34th IGC in Brisbane lastAugust, and there will be a face-to-face gathering of stratigraphersat the 1st International Congress on Stratigraphy in Lisbonin early July 2013. I look forward to hearing from any Australiansable to attend.The ASC focuses on lithostratigraphy , but we do keep awatching brief on other kinds of stratigraphic classification too,such as biostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphyand magnetostratigraphy. As part of the ISSC, we receivenewsletters from time-to-time. These often include details ofrecent papers of relevance.The most recent newsletter included three papers publishedby the Geological Society of America:Zalasiewicz J 2013. Chronostratigraphy and geochronology:a proposed realignment. GSA Today vol 23(3), p 4–8.Walker JD, Geissman JW, Bowring SA, Babcock L 2013. TheGeological Society of America Geologic Time Scale. GeologicalSociety of America Bulletin vol 125 (3–4), p 259–272.Raymond LA, Webb Jr F, Love AB 2012. Mappability,stratigraphic variation, and diagenetic problems in sedimentarymap unit definition and field mapping. Geological Society ofAmerica Bulletin vol 124 (11–12), p 1762–1772.The first paper discusses the difference between geochronologicalunits (spans of time) and chronostratigraphic units(bodies of rock that show relative time relations through physicalevidence). This distinction has generally not been a major issuefor Australian geologists, but it is always helpful to have discussionpapers like this.The second paper provides some interesting history on thedevelopment of both North American and international timescales, as well as discussion on recent advances and remainingstratigraphic challenges. While it may seem a little surprisingthat the Geological Society of America still sees a need to publishtheir own formatted time scale, and it does follow the subdivisionsand boundary ages used in the InternationalChronostratigraphic Chart, the time scale does help to clarify theappropriate terms to use for time, showing early, middle and lateepochs, as opposed to the lower, middle and upper series shownon the International Chronostratigraphic Chart.The third paper discusses some of the practical issues a fieldmapper must face in defining or redefining units. Althoughreference is made to the North American Stratigraphic Code andNorth American examples are used, generally at about 1:25 000scale, I think most, if not all, of the issues discussed are relevantto Australian situations too. The authors discuss scale andmappability and consider the use of detailed studies in regionalmapping. They discuss the use of diagenetic features in definingunit boundaries such as between dolostones and limestones, andissues with poorly exposed terrains, facies changes, variations inthickness (is the unit generally thick enough to be called aFormation?), variable contact types (gradational, interfingering,sharp) and variable diagenesis.The authors conclude that while the problems of fieldmapping are not new, units must be mappable in the field, at themap scale, not just in exceptional exposures or from detailedstudies. They conclude that formations should reflect the generalnature and stratigraphic position of the type section but notnecessarily the exact stratigraphy , that poor exposure andvariability may result in the need for hybrid ‘lumped’ units(although I would like to think that Australian stratigraphers aregenerally better at using Groups for this) and that the variabilityof diagenetic features means that these features should be usedwith caution in defining units.I encourage you to read these papers in full, and to considerwriting about Australian examples of stratigraphic issues (theLoxton–Parilla Sands perhaps, or the Mount Bruce Supergroup?)and potential solutions.CATHY BROWNNational Convener, Australian Stratigraphy Commissionc/- Geoscience AustraliaGPO Box 378, Canberra ACT 2601cathy.brown@ga.gov.au or cathyeb@netspeed.com.auOther Stratigraphy Commission contacts are available at:http://www.gsa.org.au/management/standing_committee.htmland online access to the database throughhttp://www.ga.gov.au/products-services/data-applications/reference-databases/stratigraphic-units.html orhttp://tinyurl.com/8wfjqzv16 |TAG June 2013


Society UpdateHeritage MattersThe International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)World Parks Congress is being hosted by Australia inSydney 12–19 November 2014. The congress presentsitself as an exceptional opportunity for the GSA to make a majorand lasting contribution towards establishing recognition, by theIUCN, that geology is a component of nature in managingbiodiversity in conservation areas. The 20 14 IUCN World ParksCongress (IUCN WPC) has been marketed as “the world’ s mostinfluential gathering of people involved in parks and protectedarea management”.The International Standing Committee for the IUCN WPC hasextended an invitation to the GSA, ProGEO (European Associationfor the Conservation of Geoheritage at http://www.progeo.se)and the International Association for the Promotion of Geoethics(IAPG at http://www.iapg.geoethics.org/) to participate inStream 1 – ‘Reaching Conservation Goals’ and other potentialSteams where applicable. Stream 1 is the only science-basedstream in the congress.GSA, ProGEO and IAPG will be making the case that bioticsystems, especially vegetation, are strongly linked to habitats,variable landforms, soils and hydrologic processes because:Geology is a part of Nature and therefore should berecognised as part of IUCN’s objective in conservingbiodiversity such that geology then becomes a core part ofParks management.Our objective in participating in the WPC is to engage the global‘Parks’ community in adopting an ‘ecosystem approach’ in thebroadest sense of its meaning, involving geology , geodiversityand biology — and taking geological features, landforms and soilsas an integral part of the whole nature conservation asset.In Australia, the GSA Geological Heritage Subcommittee(NSW Division), in collaboration with P arks NSW and inconsultation with the Blue Mountains W orld Heritage Team,proposes to develop a program that will lead to the inclusion ofgeology in the Global Parks Biodiversity Strategy. Since the WPCwill be held in Sydney, we plan to use the Blue Mountains WorldHeritage Area as a case study. This case study would include anexcursion to the Blue Mountains from the Lapstone Monocline,visiting some key sites a moderate distance into the plateau, todemonstrate:l geology underpinning landscape developmentl hydrological processes that need to be understood forecosystem managementl geodiversity underpinning biodiversityl geoheritage as a component of Parks management.In addition, it is proposed to:l develop an audiovisual presentation that encapsulates theabove principles with global examples addedl develop a map-sized pamphlet that encapsulates the aboveprinciples with global examples (to be provided to all WPCattendees)l engage a prominent, inspirational speaker to present theseprinciples. Possible speakers might include, for example,Iain Stewart or Sir David Attenborough.If we are successful in making the case that there is a need toinclude geology in the IUCN WPC Biodiversity Strategy — that is,that it is beneficial to conserving biodiversity (as is alreadyoccurring in a number of other countries) — the benefits to theIUCN Parks initiative will result in increased funding andopportunities for:l Earth Science researchl environmental forecastingl education and trainingl sustainable tourism based on the geoparks conceptl management of sites of geoheritage significancel integrated multidisciplinary environmental planning andmanagement, and landscape management.Other contributions at the WPC may include the valuing ofgeology, geodiversity and geoheritage as components of P arksmanagement.The IUCN World Parks Congress is timely in that it builds onthe successful sessions on Geoheritage held at the 34th IGC heldlast year. If our proposal is adopted by IUCN, it will help raiseawareness among biologists and ecologists, change the way Parksare managed and change the face of environmental, ecologicaland landscape management.Draft Geoheritage policyOn another matter, a revised Draft Geoheritage policy , whichincludes comments from members and the GeologicalHeritage Subcommittees from each State, has been finalised bythe Standing Committee. It is available on the GSA website atthe Heritage link.MARGARET BROCXConvenorStanding Committee for Geological Heritagegeoheritage@iinet.net.auTAG June 2013| 17


Newsfrom the DivisionsACTEarth Science educationThrough the hard work of a small group ofinterested members including Doug Finlayson,Éva Papp, Leah Moore, Mike Rickard, GavinYoung and Wolf Mayer, the ACT Division hascontinued to offer a wide range of EarthScience activities and field trips for thegeneral public and, especially, school children.Primary school activities have included theDivision’s fossil painting event for NationalScience Week and Éva’s term-long‘Prehistoric Canberra’ program where childrenlearnt about rocks and fossils as well asgeneral geological principles. The childrenwent on to produce two large paintings nowdisplayed in the CSIRO Discovery Centre.The Division has collaborated with a numberof local and national organisations to provideexcursions and talks. Popular events havebeen geological walks in central Canberraorganised by Acton Walkways, tours underParliament House to see the Camp HillSandstone/Black Mountain unconformity,and the Conservation Council’s geologicaltreasure hunt on Gossan Hill. The Division hasprovided excursions in and around Canberrafor the Australian Naturalists Conference,the CSIRO Discovery patrons and theSpectra 2012 Symposium participants.Mike Rickard and Leah Moore led the fieldtrips. Another member, Caroline Prévot, usedthe local knowledge she had gained on thesefield trips when she took 20 of her NarrabundahCollege students on excursions along thecoast from Batemans Bay to Ulladulla, to theShoalhaven, to Lake George and to importantgeological features in Canberra. The excursionsallowed the students to study igneous,sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.Students saw ancient marine environments inUlladulla, the effects of erosion along theShoalhaven River and evidence of tectonicevents such as folding and faulting at MyrtleBeach, Lake George and State Circle. The fieldtrips, plus maps and time scales, help thestudents build an understanding of the localgeological history, especially that of theLachlan Orogen and the Sydney Basin.Students prepared reports and posters for anexhibition at school. They will investigate therole of water in the weathering and erosionof reliefs by working on the granulometry ofsands in Shoalhaven and Myrtle Beach in thelaboratory.Regrettably, Mike Rickard has decided he canno longer clamber over rocks as he oncecould, so has discontinued his very popularUniversity of the Third Age geology courses,which always included a visit to the majorfeatures of Canberra’s nearest sea-coast.We hope someone else will soon feel inspiredto carry on where Mike left off.JOHN ROGERSChair, ACT DivisionNarrabundah Year 11 and 12 science students formulating their hypotheses about the relative ages ofthe dykes at Bingie Bingie Point. Image courtesy Caroline Prévot.18 |TAG June 2013


SAGeoNight‘GeoNight at the Pub’ is a chance for graduates,students and industry professionals toget together and socialise in an informalsession. This monthly get-together aims tobring together people from across all EarthScience disciplines at a social evening at theGriffin’s Head in the Adelaide CBD. The nighthas been going for over 6 months and isproving to be popular, with 30 to 40 peopleattending regularly. Geo-talk is encouraged;however industry experience is not necessaryas we encourage people from all sectorsof industry, government and study toparticipate.This event is proudly supported by the GSA SADivision and is held on the first Thursday ofevery month.[L–R] AusIMM Chair Mark McGeough, Daniel Tanti (BHP Billiton), Matt Grooby (Oz Minerals),Amy Suto (Golder Associates) and GSA SA Division Chair Kevin Wills.GSA SA Division–AusIMMjoint student BBQThe annual joint GSA–AusIMM student BBQ,held on 21 March, was well attended as usual.This popular event is always a great chance toget together with other associations and tomeet undergraduate students. The quality ofthe presentations by recent graduates wasexcellent. GSA SA Division Chair, Kevin Wills,welcomed the students and gave backgroundinformation on the GSA. Kevin also revealedthe new SA Division banner, which will beused at GSA SA Division events. The AusIMMChair, Mark McGeough, introduced the graduatespeakers from the University of Adelaide:l Matt Grooby, Graduate Metallurgist,Oz Mineralsl Amy Suto, Graduate EnvironmentalScientist, Golder Associatesl Daniel Tanti, Graduate Geologist,BHP Billiton.The speakers took the crowd on a virtual tourfrom Prominent Hill to the Pilbara via thebeaches of South Australia. The AusIMMAuxiliary hosted the BBQ following thegraduate presentations, while GSA SA Divisionprovided the drinks.More than 100 students attended. Thesestudents (and many promising younggeologists among them) showed a lot ofinterest in both organisations, based on thenumber of laminated stratigraphic recordreference cards given away on the night.A big thankyou must be given to the AdelaideUniversity Geological Society and AusIMMStudent Chapter who assisted with the set-upand packup.ANNA PETTSAmy Suto and Kevin Wills with the GSA SADivision banner.Enjoying the student BBQ, Kevin Wills chats withsome of the GSA’s newest student members fromthe University of Adelaide — [L–R] Matt Bosch,Georgia Mathews, Alicia Caruso and Jesse Clark.Images courtesy Anna Petts.TAG June 2013| 19


Newsfrom the Specialist GroupsSpecialist Group inTectonics and StructuralGeology (SGTSG)Call for award nominations intectonics and structural geologyThe Executive Committee of the SGTSG isseeking nominations for three awards in thefield. The Carey Medal is issued by the Societyand will be presented at the next AustralianEarth Sciences Convention in Newcastle,NSW (7–10 July 2014). The Hobbs and Powellmedals are awarded by the Specialist Groupat the next SGTSG meeting in Thredbo, NSW(2–8 February 2014). Nominations are due by31 August 2013. The choice of recipient is atthe sole discretion of the SGTSG ExecutiveCommittee, which also reserves the right tonot to make an award.SW Carey MedalA medal awarded at the Australian EarthSciences Convention to a person distinguishedin the field of tectonics (sensu lato).Nominations and further information areavailable at:http://gsa.org.au/recognition/swcarey.html.Bruce Hobbs Medal forStructural GeologyThis medal may be awarded at each regularfield conference of the SGTSG for excellentcontribution to structural geology. For furtherinformation, visit http://www.gsa.org.au/recognition/specialist.html.Chris Powell Medal forPostgraduate Research inTectonics and Structural GeologyThis medal may be awarded at each regularfield conference of the SGTSG for an outstandingresearch paper arising from postgraduateresearch on some aspect ofstructural geology or tectonics. For furtherinformation, visit http://www.gsa.org.au/recognition/specialist.html.GORDON LISTERChair SGTSGgordon.lister@anu.edu.auGeological Society of AustraliaANNUAL GENERALMEETINGTuesday, 13 August 2013 at 6.00pmThe Theodore Club(333 Adelaide St, Brisbane)on Level 13Items to be tabled for theAGM include the 2012 Financialaccounts and auditors reportand constitutional changesto the GSA.Prior the AGM all financialmembers of the GSA willreceive documents for thespecial resolution to bevoted on at the AGM.Drinks and snacks are availableon Level 1 from 5pm20 |TAG June 2013


NEWSIn the news this issuen ANU digs deepn UNCOVER updaten International Geological Correlationn Program (IGCP)n GSA Facebook rocksn Australian Tertiary Educatorsmeet againANU digs deep forNational Rock GardenIt’s official — The Australian National University (ANU) is to bean Education Partner of the National Rock Garden (NRG) inCanberra. On Tuesday 23 April, ANU Vice-Chancellor , ProfessorIan Young, signed a Memorandum of Understanding with theNRG and also announced $100 000 funding towards the project.Dean of the ANU College of Physical and MathematicalSciences, Professor Andrew Roberts, said, “In Australia, we owemuch of our national prosperity to our geological resources. TheNRG is a great way to communicate to the general public aboutAustralia’s geological heritage. As one of the world’s great EarthScience research establishments, it makes sense for ANU topartner with the Geological Society of Australia in the NRG.”2013 is shaping up as a busy year for the NRG, culminatingin an NRG inauguration event on Sunday 13 October , duringEarth Science W eek, as part of the Centenary of Canberracelebrations. Not to be confused with an opening ceremony ,which is still some years away , the inauguration will mark thearrival of the first big rocks on-site — eight to be exact, if thingsgo according to plan.It is proposed that an important element of the NRG will bethese eight large rocks, one from each State and T erritory, tocommemorate Federation. The ‘Federation Rocks’, as they havebecome known, will be displayed permanently and prominentlynear the NRG entrance and form a centenary link to the six-sidedCanberra Foundation Stone, laid in March 19 13. The NRG hasasked for ACT Government assistance in funding the FederationRocks.Recently, the NRG appointed well-known landscapearchitects, Taylor Cullity Lethlean (T CL), to produce the NRGmaster plan that will be publicly released at the NRG inaugurationin October. TCL has been responsible for creating outstandinglandscape designs for major national projects, including theNational Arboretum in Canberra and the Australian Garden inMelbourne. The recently completed Stage 2 of the AustralianGarden is of a similar size to NRG — about 6 hectares — andcomprises 11 precincts, each with a different theme. The precinctapproach, analogous to rooms in a museum or gallery , is beingexplored for the NRG. T CL has used rocks to stunning effect inAustralia Garden, Cranbourne, Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria.Image courtesy Sue Fletcher.TAG June 2013| 21


Dean of the ANU College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, ProfessorAndrew Roberts, and Professor Brad Pillans after signing the Memorandumof Understanding between The Australia National University and theNational Rock Garden. Image courtesy The Australian National University.parts of the Australian Garden, so we are confident that they willdevelop an NRG master plan with a ‘wow’ factor . Sue Fletcher,GSA Executive Director, who visited the Australian Garden earlierthis year, says, “TCL’s work at the Australian Garden is impressive.TCL is more than capable of working with us to develop a masterplan worthy of the NRG.”Meanwhile, the NRG Steering Committee continues to seekout suitable rock specimens for inclusion in the garden and yoursuggestions are always welcome. However , while it is ourcommitment to display very large rocks — up to 20 tonnes — werecognise that not all rocks will be obtainable in that size. Forthat reason, the NRG master plan will include provision fordisplay of smaller rock specimens that nevertheless have greatstories to tell. Size matters, but not always!Finally, we are asking all GSA members to consider writing acontribution for ‘Rock of the Month’. Do you have a favourite rockwith an interesting story that can be published in TAG and alsofeatured on the NRG website? Tell us in 200–400 words, includea photo and email your contribution to rockgarden@gsa.org.au.BRAD PILLANSUpdate on UNCOVER — May 2013UNCOVER grew out of an initiative of the Australian Academy ofScience (2010), which recognised that much of Australia’s wealthis derived from mining orebodies that were discovered in the nearsurface many decades ago. As those deposits are mined out,Australia faces a serious decline in its mineral sector, and thereforeits economy, if new deposits are not found. Y et much ofSearching the Deep Earth: A vision for exploration geoscience in Australiawas launched by Minister Martin Ferguson AM MP at the 34th InternationalGeological Congress. Image credit Dietmar Müller. Publication copyrightAustralian Academy of Science.Australia remains under-explored because around 7 0% of it iscovered by regolith and sediments. UNCOVER sets out a newvision for Australia’s Earth Scientists to cooperate in an innovativestrategic venture in order to bring competitive advantage toAustralian mineral exploration (Australian Academy of Science,2012). The UNCOVER document was launched in August 2012 bythe former Federal Minister of Resources and Energy The Hon.Martin Ferguson AM MP at the International Geological Congressin Brisbane (Ferguson, 2012).Four science themesUNCOVER has identified four science themes that will help tofocus the effort to stimulate new greenfield exploration in areasunder cover. These themes will be bound together by an activenetwork involving the exploration industry , service providers,researchers and government geoscience agencies at Federal,State and Territory levels.The four science themes are:l Characterising Australia’s cover — new knowledge toconfidently explore beneath the coverl Investigating Australia’s lithospheric architecture — awhole-of-lithosphere architectural framework for mineralsystems explorationl Resolving the 4D geodynamic and metallogenic evolution ofAustralia — understanding ore deposit origins for betterpredictionl Characterising and detecting the distal footprints of oredeposits — towards a toolkit for minerals exploration.22 |TAG June 2013


Establishing a research networkUntil now, UNCOVER has been working in a development mode,with people from all sectors participating in a working group.They have now set up the process to shift UNCOVER to a moreoperational mode. In May , the first step was taken, with theAcademy agreeing to a new management structure led by anExecutive Committee. The Executive Committee will compriserepresentatives from the major stakeholders:l the exploration industryl universitiesl CSIROl the Geological Surveysl the geoscience societiesl the Academy as the initiator of UNCOVER.The Academy will announce the names of the people appointedto the UNCOVER Executive Committee on the UNCOVER website(Australian Academy of Science, 20 12) when appointments arecomplete.Filling in details of the themesThe four science themes provide a skeleton of what has to bedone to improve the success rate of mineral discovery. One of thenext steps is to fill in the details of these themes. The strategywill be in two stages.First, although the UNCOVER themes were defined by workinggroups of people from all sectors, a larger stakeholder group willbe consulted. This will take two forms: a formal survey by aconsultant engaged for the purpose, and a questionnaire at theUNCOVER website that members of the sector can fill in and sotake part.Second, the results of the survey will be used to tease out thenature of discussions of the four themes at the UNCOVERConference, which is planned for mid-October 2013. Details willbe advertised on the UNCOVER website. In summary , theUNCOVER Conference will be a ‘by-invitation workshop’ whereinterested people submit a case to receive an invitation. Themeswill be examined first by presentations to get attendees’ thoughtsfocused. These will be followed by structured and unstructuredbreak-out and discussion sessions. Rapporteurs will be appointedto summarise the results of the conference, and the conferenceresults will form the basis for a strategic approach to the firstyears of UNCOVER’s operational life.For more information, or to obtain a hard copy of theUNCOVER document, please contact Fiona Leves onuncover@science.org.au.RICHARD BLEWITTREFERENCESAustralian Academy of Science, 2010, at http://www.science.org.au/events/thinktank/thinktank2010/index.htmlAustralian Academy of Science, 2012, UNCOVER website athttp://www.science.org.au/policy/uncover.htmlThe Hon M Ferguson AM MP, 2012, 8 August, at http://minister2.ret.gov.au/MediaCentre/Speeches/Pages/ResourcingTomorrow.aspxInternational Geological CorrelationProgram (IGCP)Report on IGCP Project 559 supported by a grant fromthe Australian IGCP CommitteeIGCP Project 559 ‘Crustal Architecture and Images — Structuralcontrols on landscapes, resources and hazards’ aims to bridge thegap between scientific effort and the public interest and give a realinsight into the nature of the major geological processes in the outer50–70 km of the Earth that directly affect our lives.In September 2012, with financial support from the AustralianIGCP Committee, I participated in the SEISMIX 2012 InternationalSeismic Symposium, and visited the Sinoprobe office in Beijing,China. SEISMIX meetings are biennial events that provide opportunitiesfor seismologists and related specialists from all continents tomeet to discuss advances in seismic profiling acquisition, processing,interpretation and data integration. The previous SEISMIX 2010meeting took place in Cairns, Australia.During SEISMIX 2012, I presented a paper on GeoscienceAustralia’s recent seismic work related to the Carbon Capture andStorage (CCS) Program and chaired a symposium session. As a result,I received a very useful update on the latest developments in theCCS-related seismic investigations, particularly in Spain, and in deepcrustal seismic research globally. During the post-symposium fieldtrip I gained an excellent overview of the geology , geomorphology,nature and culture of the Yangtze Three Gorges area and the easternmargin of Tibetan Plateau from the 2nd to the 3rd topographyplatform in China.After the symposium and field trip I returned to Beijing to visitthe Sinoprobe office, and to discuss results from several projects ofthis program relevant to Geoscience Australia’s work. The SinoprobeProgram is the Chinese government-funded Earth Science programwith the overall aim of exploring the composition, structure andevolution of the continental lithosphere beneath China and toexplore the processes causing earthquakes, geo-hazards and naturalresources. Learning about the experience of this program and gainingaccess to its data is important for Australia. Although Australiaacquires high-quality deep seismic reflection and magneto-telluricdata to understand the structure and evolution of the AustralianContinent, we do not currently have a comparable program.Geoscience Australia’s presentations at the Sinoprobe office werewell attended by Sinoprobe staff, who also made presentations andparticipated in the discussion. As a result of this visit, ProfessorShuwen Dong proposed signing a Memorandum of Understanding(MOU) between Geoscience Australia and Sinoprobe. Preparation ofthis document is currently underway at Geoscience Australia.The same IGCP grant also allowed me to travel to P erth inOctober 2012 to present a workshop for industry and academia tomaximise benefits for IGCP Project 559 from the new AustralianNational Pool of Ocean-Bottom Seismographs (OBSs), whichAustralia will obtain for the first time in 2013. These OBSs are suitablefor multi-scale experiments at sea and for onshore–offshorecombined observations in a style similar to that of one of theSinoprobe projects. T wenty broadband OBS instruments will beTAG June 2013| 23


purchased for short and long-term deployment to a maximum waterdepth of 6 km. The instruments will be made available to Australianresearchers through the ANSIR Earth-imaging national researchfacility, with only the costs of mobilisation and deployment to bemet. It is anticipated that the OBS facility will greatly improve theresearch capabilities of Australian scientists in the area of Earthimaging, offshore exploration and natural hazard assessment.ALEXEY GONCHAROVGeoscience AustraliaGSA Facebook rocksDuring March and April we invited friends of GSA Facebook to uploadphotos of their favourite outcrops for discussion. Here are two imagesthat attracted comments and conversation.Wasp Head FormationGary Lewis posted a picture of a dyke that cuts through thePermian Wasp Head Formation at South Durras in MurramarangNational Park, NSW. The dyke is about 75 cm thick, and showsbeautiful chilled margins (rusty looking sides). In the centre are2–3-mm-sized crystals of plagioclase. The dyke is well eroded on thenorthern side of Wasp Head and can only be seen as a ‘trench’ inthe rocks. Here on the southern side where it is more protected, theoriginal igneous rock remains. Further to the south it has erodedaway, forming a canyon that cuts a headland before it joins a largerfeeder dyke that runs perpendicular and trends east–west. The extentof the dyke is around 500 m. The base of the Sydney Basin lies justless than a kilometre away.Here is a link to the Earthcache site:http://www.geocaching.com/seek/cache_details.aspx?wp=GCHFT2China Wall, WAMatthew Kindervater posted this image of an outcrop at the ChinaWall location, 6 km along the Duncan Highway from Falls Creek, WA.Because quartz is more resistant to erosional and weatheringprocesses than the surrounding rock, this rock has broken down overtime, leaving the quartz outcrop behind.LEFT: Dyke intruding the Permian Wasp Head Formation at South Durras inMurramarang National Park, NSW. Image courtesy Gary Lewis, GeologicalSociety of America.RIGHT: China Wall near Halls Creek, WA. Image courtesy Matthew Kindervater.24 |TAG June 2013


Australian Tertiary Educatorsmeet againThe second meeting of Australian tertiary geoscience educators, heldin Townsville in January this year, continued the enthusiasm of the2012 inaugural meeting, exposing a new cohort of Australianuniversity lecturers to this emerging, dynamic group. Importantly ,the group agreed on a name. We are now officially the AustralasianUniversity Geoscience Educators Network (AUGEN) — an appropriatelygeological acronym. With the simple goals of providing amechanism of connection between academics teaching ingeoscience in Australia, the meeting proved again to be a vehicle ofcollegial exchange, recognition of the common challenges andopportunities we share despite our different locations, sharing ofteaching and learning ideas, and enthusiastic discussion.Hosted at James Cook University’ s Earth and EnvironmentalSciences School, about 30 participants experienced the tropicalsummer before Semester 1 commenced. A balmy evening overlookingthe water from The Strand with a few cool drinks was awonderful start to the two-day meeting. The meeting addressed fourmain themes: Flexible Learning, Innovative T eaching, DisciplineExpertise and Industry Needs, and Fieldwork Challenges. Speakers inthe first two themes showed examples of how they tackled problemsof teaching remote and disparate groups of students, engagedcontemporary student cohorts in more ‘lectorial’ style learningenvironments compared with the traditional lecture model, andembraced the IT realm in course delivery by integrating web-basedsoftware and resources into the curriculum. There was much discussionon how new innovations of mass delivery of curriculum via theinternet in programs such as massive open online courses (MOOCs)may impact the current university teaching model. As with mostdiscussions involving geoscience teaching, there is always consensusthat providing adequate field experience (and exposure to rocks ingeneral in a lab, a box set or in the field) is essential and difficult toreplace in an online setting.The theme of discipline expertise in teaching, or lack thereof,particularly in relation to the dearth of geophysics expertise inAustralian universities, highlighted the need for better alignmentbetween Australian economic and social trends, most commonlyreflected in industry workforce demands, and undergraduateofferings and teaching capabilities in Australian universities.Presentations from academics and industry participants identifiedthe disjunction between the fast rates of industry change and theslower response in human resourcing, and consequently studentoutput and expertise, within academic institutions. The topic ofprofessional accreditation in geosciences in Australia and the roleacademics should be playing in consideration (and ultimately implementation)was also discussed. This is an area Australian academicshave not been engaged in to a large extent in the past but probablyshould be considering more seriously at school and faculty levels.This second meeting was generously sponsored by a range ofAustralian professional geoscience bodies including the AustralianGeoscience Council, AusIMM, Australian Institute of Geoscientists,Geological Society of Australia Qld Division, Australian Society ofExploration Geophysicists, Australian Geoscience InformationAssociation, Minerals Council of Australia, James Cook UniversityEconomic Geology Research Unit (EGRU) and Queensland Universityof Technology (QUT). One significant outcome of this meeting wasthe recognition that Australia’s geoscience professional bodies aredeeply interested in geoscience teaching in our universities and howwe as educators will impact the future of geoscience in this country.The network participants were greatly appreciative of the financialsupport of these groups to facilitate a meeting such as this, as wellas their active contribution to discussions throughout the meeting.The positive feedback and enthusiastic mood with whichparticipants left the meeting heading into the start of Semester 1for 2013 bodes well for the continuation and development of thisnetwork. Future activities for this year include development of a webpresence for the network and preparation for the next meetingin 2014, to be hosted by QUT in Brisbane. If you would like moreinformation on the network or to be added to the mailing list, contactus: maree.corkeron@qut.edu.au, linda.nothdurft@qut.edu.auor jessica.trofimovs@qut.edu.au.MAREE CORKERONGSA andfacebookFor national news and eventsfollow the GSA on facebook:Geological Society of AustraliaTAG June 2013| 25


RecognitionCongratulations Daniel WoodPDAC Thayer Lindsley AwardSEG Conference keynote speakerDaniel Wood [L] was presented with the Thayer Lindsley Award from theProspectors and Developers Association of Canada at PDAC on 4 March 2013in Toronto, Canada. The award was presented by Peter Legein [R], PDAC 2013Convention Planning Committee Chair. Image courtesy Prospectors andDevelopers Association of Canada.Daniel Wood [L], Distinguished Lecturer and Fellow of the Society ofEconomic Geologists, was a keynote speaker at the Society of EconomicGeologists (SEG) Conference in Lima, Peru in September 2012. The incoming2013 SEG President Antonio Arribas [R] applauds after the keynote address.Image courtesy Society of Economic Geologists.SME Dreyer AwardSend your contribution to the TAGcolumn ‘Forum’, where GSA memberscan voice their opinions, advice,criticism and recommendations.Daniel Wood [R] was presented with the Dreyer Award from the Societyfor Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (SME) at the annual conference on27 February 2013 in Denver, Colorado. The SME President for 2012,Drew Meyer [L], presented the award. Image courtesy Society for Mining,Metallurgy & Exploration.26 |TAG June 2013


FeatureTasmanian Museum –Rock walls and roller coastersUnderstanding the Rock wall recently installed in theTasmanian Museum and Art Gallery (TMAG) requires a littlebackground.Museums are in a tight spotMost museums worldwide are in some difficulty, with declining funding,staff and visitors. In our youth they were a place to visit regularly (forsome of us at least) to spend time looking at cases with large, systematic,unchanging collections and learn from them how the world works(pre-internet). Nowadays the displays are relatively minimalist withrelatively small, ‘arty’, thematic short-term displays, with more interpretationand hands-on exhibits but less diversity. Also, many museumsare amalgamated with art galleries and are generally their poor cousins,struggling to get a fair share of funding, while even in the museumsections, the natural sciences are usually distinctly subordinate toanthropology and history. Earth Sciences can be greatly dominated bythe biological sciences.Museums like TMAG in smaller regional centres suffer particularlyfrom the lack of staff and funds to mount significant displays, eventhough these museums are often custodians of wonderful material. Thegeological curator of TMAG retired in 2005 and was not replaced. However,two part-time Honorary Associate positions — Don Squires (fossils)and Ralph Bottrill (minerals) — were offered to help keep an eye on thealmost priceless geological collections dating back to the late 1800s.TMAG redevelopmentIn 2008 the Tasmanian Government promised $200 million to redevelopthe museum, something greeted enthusiastically by most people, thoughthere was some sadness to see the place stripped and so many greatspecimens buried back in the compactuses. However , after about$10 million had been spent on plans and designs, the funding was cutto $30 million following an economic decline in the State. Naturally thismeant that the building and archaeological studies, which had alreadycommenced, had to be cut short and money for new exhibits and staffbecame almost non-existent.Discussions about the new displays started in 20 11 and mostlyrevolved around finding 100 iconic objects representing Tasmania, someWunderkammer-style (ie, non-thematic) window displays of randomitems from the collections, and some initially vague themes of Tasmanianhistory and nature. Planning seemed mostly controlled by design andfinancial constraints rather than scientific ideas. However, the scientificstaff persisted in getting some scientific input, particularly at the urgingof Mineral Resources Tasmania (MRT) scientist David Green. Staff agreedsome geological input was needed to complement the biologicalmaterial, including a selection of minerals and fossils, particularly toaccompany Gondwanan concepts.To this end we sought ideas far and wide. The University of Tasmaniaand the Geological Survey (now MRT) responded with good ideas; themanagement of these organisations kindly supported some of their staffmembers joining a committee for coordinating display ideas. Thiscommittee was interesting as it was made up of biologists, geologists,designers, managers and facilitators. One of our first actions was toargue strongly that the main science gallery should include geology, andso the ‘Earth & Life Gallery’ was born.The committee began in earnest in April 20 12. Some great ideaswere considered — plate tectonic models, interactive geological displays,a recreated mine adit, a black-smoker model, a time line walk or driveleading to the museum, and a mural of polished stones. Many were tooexpensive, difficult or large, but the mural theme struck a chord.The Rock wall idea evolvesThe mural idea spawned possibilities like a mosaic map of T asmania, adrystone wall, a time line or a stone floor. Then Garry Davidson came upwith the idea of a geological cross-section made of T asmanian rockscovering a wall. Although we thought this was an exciting concept,there was some feeling that it was too expensive and would take toolong. The museum also raised some pertinent concerns whether the walland floor could hold this object. The design people also had peculiarRock wall detail showing rock types and suggesting faulting.Image courtesy TMAG.TAG June 2013| 27


Garry Davidson [L] and Ralph Bottrill [R] choosing rocks for the Rock wall.Image courtesy Ruth Mollison.The ute’s full. Image courtesy Ralph Bottrill.Preparing the rocks for cutting. Image courtesy Ralph Bottrill.concerns about having ‘dirty rocks’ in a museum making crumbly messeson the floor and damaging children’ s heads! Luckily the MuseumDirector, Bill Bleathman, jumped at the idea and promised the moneyif we could prove the practicality , and have it done by the opening inmid-February 2013.Garry started work to put together , at UTAS, a small square ofdifferent polished slabs mounted on a board. This took a few months tocreate. There was a lot of argument about whether it should be apolished or rough-faced wall; eventually the polished model won.Calculations on the weight (about 9 kg/panel) indicated that the wallhad to be scaled down to about 1.6-m square, with 16 panels(40 cm × 40 cm) mounted in a metal frame on a wall. A design wasdrafted and refined into an arrangement that appeared aestheticallypleasing as well as relatively geologically accurate (at least vaguely —trying to recreate recognisable folds, faults and unconformities in rockswas not simple with our budget!). The panel showed a good representationof Tasmanian stratigraphy, fairly flat-lying at the top, and quitedeformed at the base, with various intrusions and some mineralisation.The Precambrian and Cambrian rocks are dealt with fairly simply ,unfortunately, lest it looked totally chaotic. A quote from Brad Rizzolloof Heritage Stone for the cutting and polishing was accepted in aboutOctober 2012; something he may have regretted at times later duringthe construction!Rock road-tripsThe museum’s designers hoped we could buy the stone off-the-shelffrom Heritage Stone or other stone masons, but commercial stockcomprises mostly imported materials and the rocks we wanted weregoing to take considerable time visiting quarries or the bush aroundTasmania to find. Rock trips, yeah! Luckily our workplaces were verysupportive. Heritage Stone had some nice Coles Bay granite and localsandstone. Our team had access to UTAS and MRT collections for suitablerocks — and we did find some great ones there! We needed large samples— at least 0.5–1 m — to enable cutting suitably sized slabs to showsatisfactory continuity in the final panels.Our first road trip was in November 20 12 to the HBMI Quarry atLeslie Vale to source large blocks of dolerite, a principal rock constitutingTasmania, and some beautiful hornfelsed fossiliferous mudstones withglacial dropstones. The quarry management, especially John Sherburd,were incredibly helpful with extracting and loading nearly a tonne ofsamples, as shown in a photograph of the tail-heavy ute, which had tothen negotiate the winding road back to the depot.The next trip was to the Boral Bridgewater Quarry , where themanager, Mike Pilcher, helped us obtain and load some great T ertiarybasalt with agate-like, calcite-filled amygdales.In December, Garry and I fitted in a geology conference in Strahanwith more collecting, taking two vehicles. With help from DehneMcLaughlin, Mike and Eleanor Phelan (who donated some beautifulstichtite in serpentine) and Richard W olfe we collected some goodcarloads of useful rocks: Ordovician conglomerate, Cambrian volcanics,serpentinite and ore samples. We had thought about a truck and cranebut were concerned about the cost and logistics. It’s amazing what youcan lift with a bit of grunting and groaning, and what you can carrykeeping a straight back, tightening those core muscles. Amazingly ourbacks and knees are still intact! W e had some long days, but luckilypeople waited with a forklift to help us unload back in Hobart (andwondered how we managed to load it all!).28 |TAG June 2013


Installing the frame on the completed Rock wall. Image courtesy Ruth Mollison.We were told the opening would be delayed a month, to mid-March2013, giving us some breathing space. After Christmas, however , themuseum considered cancelling the project if we didn’t get all the rockscollected. Heritage Stone did not want to start the cutting and polishinguntil all stones were together, and the deadline for completion was mid-February. Several more field trips around the State took in Bicheno,Rossarden and Maydena — mostly on our weekends. Some trips took inquarries, others looked at roadside cuttings and coastal outcrops. W emostly found loose material — no geological heritage sites were damaged!The Rock wall emergesFinally we appeared to have enough rock (several tonnes) to commenceconstruction, and with fingers crossed we left them to Brad to cut into15-mm slabs. Many had structural problems — it broke our hearts to seesome wonderful rocks disintegrate under the saw , despite Brad’s bestefforts. We had to take an extra trip for some spare material; howeverBrad’s skill showed through and all the stone was slabbed and polishedsatisfactorily (the sandstone was left unpolished). The slabs were thentrimmed to shape, a tricky manual job . Then we fitted these pieces asa mosaic to match the plan. Some pieces went in with the wronggeological orientation, with some recutting needed, but eventuallyall pieces fitted together very well. (And we refuse to listen to anygeologists tell us of any geological inconsistencies …)Brad fitted the pieces in the metal frame and delivered it to the museumon deadline day. Hanging it in the old Hunter Gallery was a challenge,as the wall was not quite flat. Fault lines were another challenge— we had considered leaving gaps or thin black strips of rock but eventuallysettled on copper strips, which worked satisfactorily , and thesewere added after hanging. I think we all breathed a big sigh of relief andhad a quiet drink after it was finally hung.Scaffolds were bundled out for the official opening. Visitors offeredpositive comments. Because some people thought it was merely a decorativemosaic, we wrote an information panel and index a few weekslater. It has been described as a ‘rock quilt’ by some — not a bad analogy!But we do hope the panel helps teach visitors about the structure of theEarth and how Tasmania was formed.Where to from here?Some more integration with concepts of Gondwana and plate tectonics,as well as life sciences, would be useful at some stage. Better displaysare desperately needed, with themes and interpretation, showing howgeology and minerals affect our landscapes, land uses, homes andtechnology; ultimately geology and minerals affect all parts of our lives.While architecture and design are all very well, many people still cometo museums to learn and see interesting and beautiful objects from ournatural world.One thing we need to get better at is realising that the Earth is partof our natural heritage, and while mining is very vital to our economy ,modern technologies and way of life, very little from the mines finds itsway to museums nowadays. Most of the good minerals and geologicalspecimens in the TMAG were found over a hundred years ago. Mostmodern mines open and close, producing millions of tonnes of ore, buta specimen is rarely preserved for posterity. Spectacular specimens worththousands of dollars are crushed for a few cents worth of ore; preservationof any specimen is usually considered robbery from the mine ratherthan the national heritage it should be. Hopefully we can work togetherbetter in future.The National Rock Garden in Canberra is working on a similar theme,collecting iconic rocks from around Australia to educate people abouthow the land we live on was formed and used, and how it affects us all.We thank everyone who assisted in this endeavour , including thestaff of the museum, especially Ruth and Cathy; Nicky, who really madeit happen; staff at MRT, UTAS and Norske Skog; as well as our longsufferingfamilies!RALPH BOTTRILL and GARRY DAVIDSONTAG June 2013| 29


Special Report 1The appearance and disappearanceof a small geology schoolFate of a small geology school —Applied Geology at SAIT/UniSA,1969–2005Geology in the broad sense has been taught at the University of SouthAustralia (UniSA) and its predecessor institutions, the South AustralianSchool of Mines and Industries and the South Australian Institute ofTechnology (SAIT), from the foundation of the School of Mines andIndustries in 1889. Initially, it was taught largely as a service subject tothe Mining Engineering Diploma program. What we are concerned withhere is the Applied Geology degree course that commenced in 1969 andclosed with the final third-year geology classes taking place in 2005,although a few students needed to complete odd subjects in subsequentyears.Applied Geology commencesThe Applied Geology program commenced in the late 1960s partly as aresponse to the nickel boom of the time. Numbers of undergraduategeology students increased dramatically in all Australian tertiaryinstitutions that taught geology and related subjects. In the 1960sgeology was taught at SAIT as a service subject by people such as WallyFander. The Applied Geology course commenced in 1969 with the newlyappointed Peter Hancock (engineering geology) as the sole lecturer ,supported by Errol Stock as tutor.David Carver arrived in 1969 as technical officer and remained atSAIT/UniSA until 2011. Peter had a huge workload because apart fromthe first-year Applied Geology students, he had to prepare new lecturesand teach separate subjects for mining engineers, metallurgists andtown planners. In mid-1970 Peter left to join Layton Associates in NewZealand, but retained links with SAIT, as in the summer of 197 0–1971he arranged industry experience for several SAIT students, supervised byStan Joyce, in the Fiordland area of New Zealand.In 1970 Stan Joyce (geochemist/petrologist) and Bernie Farrow(geophysicist) joined the staff, with the new Head of Applied Geology ,Colin Branch, arriving in August 1970. David Jones (economic geologist)and Jim Jago (stratigraphy/paleontology) arrived in 197 1. Our firstsecretary, Ann Boos, was also appointed in early 197 1; all staff werethen in their twenties and early thirties.These appointments were really just in time because 1971 was thefirst year in which all three years of the Applied Geology course weretaught, with the first students graduating at the end of 1971 being JohnKeeling (joined the SA Mines Department), Grant Ellis (petroleumgeology) and Dick Ralston (secondary teaching). In addition there was aneed to teach the various service courses for students of mining andcivil engineering, metallurgy, surveying and town planning; 197 1 wasan extremely busy year because everyone was preparing lectures andlaboratory exercises for the first time. In addition, new field excursionsand field camps had to be organised. Colin Branch spent much of theyear preparing an accreditation document in order to convert the thenDiploma in Technology in Applied Geology into a Bachelor of AppliedScience in Applied Geology. This document was approved by an accreditationpanel in 1972 with accreditation of the course dating from 1973.The first year of the initial Applied Geology course comprised mainlygeology, physics, maths and chemistry; that is, a traditional sciencecourse. The second year included geophysics, maths, surveying andmining engineering as well as geology subjects. The third year waslargely geology and geophysics with all students having to do a fieldbasedmapping project of about 15 days in their own time. Over theyears these mapping projects covered much of the Adelaide Hills andwere used by the Geological Survey of South Australia in their regionalmapping program.Higher degrees and industry liaisonThe applied nature of the Applied Geology degree was emphasisedthrough a compulsory work experience component, staff consulting,mine visits and a third-year mapping camp in an area of a volcanogenicmassive sulfide (VMS) deposit and active exploration that included corelogging. A feature of all of the science and engineering programs at SAITwas the presence of strong industry liaison committees that fittedin with the industry-linked ethos of SAIT . These committees providedvaluable advice as to the direction that the various degree programsshould take, particularly at the time of course reaccreditations thatoccurred every five years. Applied Geology’s Industry Liaison Committeewas made up of industry and government geologists as well as academicstaff. At this time SAIT was part of the College of Advanced Educationsector of the tertiary education system.In 1973 a geology Honours program was accredited andcommenced, although due to pressure from the traditional universities,it was termed a Graduate Diploma in Applied Geology rather than aBachelor of Applied Science (Honours) in Applied Geology; this terminologydid not come into effect until 199 1. A Masters degree wasintroduced in 1978, although PhDs were not awarded until SAIT becamepart of UniSA in 1991.Changes in location and academicstaffThe Department of Applied Geology commenced operations in theBonython Jubilee Building of the City Campus of SAIT at the corner ofFrome Road and North Terrace. At the end of 1971 it shifted to a largerarea on the ground floor of the Playford Building. At this time AppliedGeology was the last Science or Engineering School left on the CityCampus, with all other such schools located at a new campus at TheLevels (now Mawson Lakes) about 11 km north of the Adelaide CBD.30 |TAG June 2013


Applied Geology staff in early 1976. Standing[L–R], Colin Branch, David Carver, Greg Drew,Stan Joyce, Bob Wiltshire, Ann Boos,Jim Jago. In front, Bernie Farrow.On top, David Jones. Images courtesy JimJago.David Stapledon with a visitor in the mid-1980s.At the start of 1972 Bob Wiltshire was appointed as Lecturer inMetamorphic Petrology/Structural Geology; a couple of years later GregDrew (mineragrapher) was appointed as a tutor. This meant that AppliedGeology now had seven academic staff, which turned out to be the maximumnumber ever attained. For the first two or three years studentnumbers were quite good, but as the exploration boom declined so didstudent numbers, although almost all of the Applied Geology graduatesthen and subsequently were successful in gaining employment. In theearly 1970s both Colin Branch and Jim Jago were awarded ARC grants,some of the first to be awarded to SAIT staff.A major change took place in May 1976 when Colin Branch and StanJoyce moved to other positions, Colin as Deputy Director of the SouthAustralian Mines Department and Stan as Head of Applied Geology atQUT. The well-known engineering geologist David Stapledon commencedas Head of Applied Geology in early 1977.A second major change was the shift of Applied Geology to TheLevels Campus during Week 3 of Term 3, 1978. Although this occurredin the middle of teaching, very few classes were missed. Applied Geologywas shoehorned into the Metallurgy Building with the transition quitesmooth largely due to the tact of David Stapledon and Ian K etteridge,Head of Metallurgy. However, an initial setback occurred when thenew first-year geology laboratory was flooded to a depth of severalcentimetres during the first week at The Levels.An advantage of moving to The Levelswas that Applied Geology was now withall other science and engineeringdisciplines at SAIT, although a downsidewas that we were no longer close to thethen-excellent Barr Smith Library ofAdelaide University. Another advantage ofmoving to The Levels was that all thebuildings were less than ten years old andin much better condition than those of theCity Campus.In 1979 David Jones returned toindustry (Newmont) and was replaced by Max Frater. At about the sametime Greg Drew left to join the SA Mines Department and was replacedby David Hilyard (igneous geology) who remained until early 1985 whenhe took a position with the Geological Survey of PNG. David wasreplaced by Steve Fermio, who remained for about 18 months beforemoving to industry and being replaced by P eter Boult (petroleumgeology) in 1988. By the late 197 0s, student numbers had droppedconsiderably, but increased again in the early 1980s as a result of thegold boom.The Gartrell SchoolAlthough there had been various administrative changes within SAIT ,Applied Geology was largely unaffected until 1987 when Applied Geologycombined with Mining Engineering and Metallurgy to form theGartrell School. The school was named after Professor HW ‘Spog’ Gartrell,who held joint appointments in Mining and Metallurgy at Adelaide University(Lecturer 19 15–1938, Professor 1939–1945) and The SouthAustralian School of Mines and Industries (Director of the BonythonLaboratories 1934–1945). At the same time, David Stapledon went to ahalf-time appointment and Jim Jago became Head of Applied Geology.The formation of the Gartrell School was supported by the building ofa Mining Engineering wing (completed in 1990) to the MetallurgyBuilding; this meant that for the first time all mining-industry relateddisciplines were housed in one building. At this time the Gartrell Schoolowned the Kanmantoo Mine about 60 km east of Adelaide.In 1985 the National Centre for Petroleum Geology and Geophysics(NCPGG; now the Australian School of P etroleum) was formed withHonours, Masters and PhD students first enrolling in 1986. The NCPGGwas a joint venture between Adelaide University, Flinders University andSAIT, although eventually Flinders University and then SAIT/UniSAdiscontinued their involvement. However , while the associationcontinued a number of SAIT/UniSA PhD, Masters and Honours studentsgraduated in petroleum geology through the NCPGG. On the retirementof Professor JB Evans, a mining engineer and initial Head of the GartrellSchool, Bruce Webb, the Director of the Australian Mineral Foundation,was appointed as a part-time Chair of School in 1991.TAG June 2013| 31


UniSA is formedA major reorganisation of tertiary institutions in South Australia in January1991 resulted in the formation of UniSA, which comprised SAIT and theMagill, Salisbury and Underdale campuses of the South Australian Collegeof Advanced Education (SACAE). The Salisbury Campus of SACAE taughtgeology for students planning to be secondary school teachers and asa service course for students intending to work as park rangers and in similarjobs in environmental management. For some years after 199 1 theteaching of geology at the two campuses was combined with BobWiltshire becoming Course Coordinator for Applied Geology . Eventuallythe Salisbury Campus was closed and John Cann (modern sedimentology/paleontology) and Mark Bishop (geomorphology) joined Applied Geologyat The Levels. The Professor of Metallurgy, Ken Strafford, became Head ofthe Gartrell School in 1994 on the retirement of Bruce Webb.Further administrative changes in 1996 saw the Gartrell School becomepart of a School of Engineering that comprised Applied Geologyand Mining, Metallurgical, Mechanical, Electrical, Electronic, Civil andComputer Systems Engineering. After about three years this large andunwieldy school was split up and Applied Geology became part of theSchool of Geosciences, Mining, Metallurgical and Civil Engineering, amuch more sensible arrangement. Throughout all of these changes,student numbers in Applied Geology, Mining Engineering and Metallurgyremained relatively low , which resulted in increasing pressure onretaining or replacing staff. Despite the addition of the Salisbury staff,the Applied Geology staffing situation continued to deteriorate with theretirement of David Stapledon in 1994, Bernie Farrow in 1997 and thedeparture of P eter Boult to join Origin Energy . John Cann took aretirement package in 1997 but continued doing some teaching in anadjunct capacity. It should be noted that throughout the running of theApplied Geology course considerable assistance was obtained from outsidespecialist lecturers such as Bernie Milton, K en Wrigglesworth,Bridget Youngs, Neville Alley, Clint Foster and Sun Xiaowen.Prior to the late 1990s, The Levels campus was physically isolated,with the Parafield Airport to the north, a marginally successful technologypark with lots of open space to the south, a very busy Main NorthRoad to the east and sheep paddocks to the west; very few people outsideThe Levels knew its exact location. However, in 1998 the real estatedevelopment company Delfin released the first land of the upmarketMawson Lakes housing project accompanied by abundant advertisingthat often mentioned the presence of a university campus. This wasessentially free advertising for the campus, which changed its name tothe Mawson Lakes campus of UniSA.Administrative reviewsAlthough the staffing situation was becoming serious, a positivedevelopment was the commencement in 1996 of a five-year doubledegree in Mining Engineering and Applied Geology . Initially this wasquite successful with good student numbers in the double degree withminimal effect on the Applied Geology or Mining Engineering singledegree numbers. A second five-year double degree in Civil Engineeringand Applied Geology commenced in 200 1, but attracted few students.However, with the decline of the mining industry in the late 1990s andthe first years of the 21st century, student numbers in Applied Geology,Mining Engineering and Metallurgy also declined. Throughout the timebefore and after the formation of UniSA there had been what appearedto be continual reviews of the various science and engineering schools.This usually resulted in some form of time-consuming administrativereconstruction and the appointment of an increasing number ofadministrators to the detriment of teaching and research, although infairness to the university administration some of this was due toever-increasing government demands for information.In 2000, one of these reviews stated that another member of theApplied Geology staff needed to leave and in early 2001 Jim Jago tookearly retirement, but stayed on in an adjunct capacity; meanwhile,uring 1999–2001 John Cann was a visiting academic at Johns HopkinsUniversity, Baltimore, USA. Bob Wiltshire continued as Program Directorfor the Applied Geology single degree, the Applied Geology–MiningEngineering double degree as well as the Mining Engineering degree.Also in early 2001 Max Frater left to join the Northern Territory GeologicalSurvey and later that year was replaced by Solomon Buckman.Applied Geology degree closesIn early 2003 as a result of yet another review , a decision was takento stop the teaching of Applied Geology , Mining Engineering andMetallurgy. The last intake of Applied Geology degree students occurredin 2003 and the last graduating class was in 2005. In February 2007 BobWiltshire took a retirement package and joined Jabiru Metals, butremained in an adjunct capacity . Ironically the decision to close themining-industry related programs coincided with the start of the presentexploration boom, which has continued to this day after a slight hiccupduring the 2008–2009 Global Financial Crisis. Mining Engineering is nowthriving at Adelaide University.Although the Applied Geology degree course was closed down, it stillremains possible to do Honours, Masters or PhDs in geology at UniSA.Geology continues to be taught at UniSA as a service subject. Ironicallythere are now more students doing the six available Earth Science/Geologyservice subjects than were ever doing geology at the time of the variousApplied Geology degree programs. Since 2003 Applied Geology has beenpart of the School of Natural and Built Environments, which also comprisesCivil Engineering, Building, Planning, Environmental Science, Surveyingand Geoinformatics. The only full-time geology staff members are nowIan Clark (originally with SACAE) who is heavily involved in administrationand Tom Raimondo (appointed July 2011) with support from adjunct staffJohn Cann, Jim Jago, Barry Cooper (formerly of PIRSA) and until recentlyHaggis Shackleton (originally with SACAE).In essence the fortunes of the Applied Geology program werecontrolled by Federal Government policies. In the early days of the Schoolthere was encouragement for growth and expansion. However, over timethere was what appeared to be a change in emphasis with universitieschanging from academic institutions to business enterprises. Despitedemands for increased class sizes and a reduction in teaching hours(especially for ‘expensive’ activities such as practical classes and field trips)staff had to show that quality had actually improved. Although the AppliedGeology program attracted only a relatively small number of studentsthroughout its life, it fulfilled a niche within South Australia to providean excellent program for students who were interested in careers asgeologists, particularly as exploration and engineering geologists.AcknowledgementsColin Branch, John Cann, Bernie Farrow , Peter Hancock, John Keelingand Carol Dadswell are thanked for their assistance in compiling thisinformation.JB JAGO and RG WILTSHIRESchool of Natural and Built EnvironmentsUniversity of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 509532 |TAG June 2013


Special Report 2Australian Earth SciencesConvention – AESC 2014The Geological Society of Australia invites you to participate in theAustralian Earth Sciences Convention 2014 in Newcastle.AESC 2014 will be held in Newcastle, a vibrant port city that ischaracterised by its working harbour , beautiful surf beaches andproximity to many of Australia’s most prestigious wineries. It is thegateway to the Hunter Valley — heart of the Sydney Basin coalfields,centre of power generation for New South W ales and home of theNSW Institute for Frontier Geoscience, a joint initiative of theUniversity of Newcastle and the NSW Department of Trade and Investment.Combined with the city’ s focus on energy efficiency viathe Federal Government’s ‘Smart Grid, Smart City’ initiative and theCSIRO Energy Centre, Newcastle is an ideal site for our convention— Sustainable Australia.The convention will focus on energy, basin geology, geodynamics,resources and the environment. Dedicated symposia include the 39thSymposium on the Advances in the Study of the Sydney Basin andComparisons & Contrasts in Circum-Pacific Orogens.AESC 2014 offers all geoscientists a unique opportunity forprofessional development and a chance to hear firsthand the latestdevelopments in geosciences.Earth Scientists recognise that the key to sustaining Australiansociety, the economy and environment into the future lies in an understandingof the make-up, structure and deep-time history of thecontinent.We welcome you to participate in the AESC 2014 convention inNewcastle and look forward to seeing you next year.ThemesAESC 2014 will feature the following themes.EnergyIncreases in the global demand for energy have been drivingadvances in the efficiency of coal and conventional hydrocarbonextraction, while also spurring the rapid growth of interest inunconventional hydrocarbons. Future energy supplies are likely toinclude all fossil fuels, nuclear sources, and significant increases inthe use of renewable energy and cleaner alternatives. Building onthe public debate that will be stimulated by the ‘Energy 2050’ publicforum to be held with AESC 2014, the Energy theme will encompassEarth Science perspectives on energy sources, exploration andextraction methods, and environmental consequences and solutions.ResourcesIn an era of increasing demand for mineral resources from thedeveloping Asian economies, and declining rates of discovery of newdeposits, new mineral exploration strategies are vital. In response tothese trends, a national collaboration network (UNCOVER), focusedon exploration geoscience research, has been established under theauspices of the Australian Academy of Science. The four majorresearch initiatives of this collaboration are characterising Australia’scover, investigating Australia’s lithospheric architecture, resolvingthe 4D geodynamic and metallogenic evolution of Australia, andcharacterising and detecting distal footprints. Any other aspect ofexploration geoscience will be included, such as new technologiesand new methods of data interpretation. Presentations are invitedfrom academic, government agency and industry sectors.TAG June 2013| 33


Living EarthLife has fundamentally influenced the development of the Earth,making it unique with respect to its planetary neighbours. The LivingEarth theme will investigate the evolution of life as witnessed in thefossil record; consider novel methods to supplement traditionalpaleontological approaches; investigate the major events in theevolution of life, the hydrosphere and atmosphere; and drawcontrasts and comparisons with other planets.Bald Rock Monolith, Warwick. Image courtesy © Copyright The State of NewSouth Wales through Industry & Investment NSW.EnvironmentEarth’s environment is a dynamic and responsive system with a longgeological record of change and an immediate and future impact onsociety, particularly in an Australian context. High-resolution recordsof past climates (including outcomes of the International OceanDrilling Program), assessments of the state and future of our groundwaterand surface-water resources, predictions of the response ofthe Australian environment to climate change, and studies specificto the Australian arid and semi-arid zones will be major elements ofthe Environment theme.Service and CommunityThe Earth Sciences have an ongoing role of service by informing,influencing and supporting Australian society, as well as a proudhistory of education and research. The Service and Community themewill address the geoscience response to distributed grid computingand cloud storage, the dissemination of geoscience information in ahigh-bandwidth environment, the continuing and evolving role ofgeoscience outreach and education, geohazard studies and their rolein protecting the community , the contributions of geotourismand geoheritage, and the historical record and influence of EarthScientists.Dynamic PlanetToday’s Earth is the sum of 4.5 billion years of geological processes.The Dynamic Planet theme will address the geodynamic evolutionof Australia and other continents from the Hadean to the present;the evolution of the Earth–Moon system and the meteoritic impactrecord; the expression of the circulation driven by the Earth’ s heatengine in lithospheric plate tectonics, mantle dynamics anddifferentiation, and core evolution; the processes that governdeposition and deformation in intracratonic settings; processesof crustal growth and recycling at convergent margins and in othersettings; geophysical and geochemical evidence of the structure andcomposition of the deep subsurface; and the influence of all of theseelements on the formation and distribution of mineral and energyresources.Symposia39th Symposium on the Advances in theStudy of the Sydney BasinInitiated by the University of Newcastle in 1967, the long-runningseries of symposia on Advances in the Study of the Sydney Basin hasbecome a well-established focal point for the discussion of researchfindings and other studies of academic, industrial and communityinterest for one of the most significant geological provinces inAustralia.The 2014 symposium aims to continue this role, with broadcoverage of fundamental geology; coal, coal seam gas, mineral,energy and groundwater resources; developments in geologicaltechnology; and geological aspects of the natural and urbanenvironments.Comparisons and Contrasts inCircum-Pacific OrogensFundamentally different tectonic evolution models have been appliedto circum-Pacific orogenic belts, depending on location in either theeastern or western Pacific realms. For example, for the last threedecades, North American Cordilleran models have focused on accretionof suspect oceanic terranes to grow the orogen, whereas morerecent models for the southwest Pacific have focused on growth byprotracted slab rollback and intermittent contraction (tectonic modeswitching). These have been applied to the P aleozoic Gondwananorogens now exposed in Australia, Antarctica and New Zealand.What is the geological evidence for these competing models?Can each model be applied to either side of the Pacific? If not, whynot? What insights can be gleaned from Andean tectonic evolution,which seems to be dominated by subduction–erosion processes? Arethere fundamentally different geodynamic drivers that permit thissupposed contrasting tectonic evolution across the Pacific?This special session of AESC will explore these questions and relatedissues on circum-Pacific tectonic evolution.Public forum — Energy 2050:the future of energy in AustraliaAs part of AESC 2014, a public forum ‘Energy 2050: the future ofenergy in Australia’ will be held on Monday 7 July at 7.30pm at theCivic Theatre, Newcastle.Why the forum?An abundance of relatively cheap energy has been the critical supportcomponent of the quality lifestyle we enjoy in Australia — itpowers the cars we drive, the appliances we use in our homes andthe industry we rely on for creature comforts and wealth creation.Most of this energy comes from fossil fuels. For example, coal accountsfor over one-half of Australia’s domestic energy production:34 |TAG June 2013


Devonian Mega Folds, Tamworth. Boxwork Iron Pattern, Newcastle. Coalminers with Pit Horses Lymington Colliery, Newcastle.Images courtesy of © Copyright The State of New South Wales through Industry & Investment NSW Minerals Division.about 90% of NSW electricity comes from coal. But fossil fuelresources (oil, gas and coal) come at a cost to the local environmentand probably to the global climate. Moreover , we live on a finiteplanet, so the shift from the industrial era to the sustainability eramust come if we are to maintain our lifestyles through the 2 1stCentury and beyond. Alternative renewable sources of energy areavailable, but many of these have their own limitations in terms ofcapacity, environmental effects and high production costs. At presentthey represent less than 5% of our energy production. Moreover, theimpacts of energy production, particularly coal mining, are stronglyfelt by local communities when mines encroach on urban areas andvaluable agricultural land. Thus, the key themes are the future ofenergy resources in Australia, and the social impact of our transitionto a secure renewable energy future. These are key national issuesand will increasingly become global issues.So, what does the future hold for Australia? What are the bestresources or alternatives to secure a reliable energy future and whatare their environmental effects? Are alternatives really viableand what are the implications of transitioning society into the‘sustainable era’?Speakers at ‘Energy 2050’ have intimate knowledge of theirrespective industries, or have a vision of where we need to be in2050. Presentations will be followed by a public question and answerperiod, and then possibly by the ABC’ s Q&A television program onthe same topic. The evening will commence at 7.30pm at Newcastle’sfamous Civic Theatre, run for two hours, and end at 10.30pm at theclose of Q&A.Why Newcastle?The Hunter region, with its capital Newcastle, has been coinedthe ‘Energy Hub of Australia’, reflecting its high rates of energyproduction and ongoing potential underpinned by vast reserves ofcoal and coal seam gas (CSG). But it is also where coal miningintensification and CSG exploration impinges on an ever-expandingurban zone and critical agricultural clusters, including the equineand viticulture industries.Conflicting land use issues are probably more strongly focused herethan any other region of Australia. The competing land use issueshave created a high level of community uncertainty and concernabout environmental and water resource impacts. In response,the Federal and NSW Governments have introduced tough newregulations, which will change the way coal mining and CSGexploration take place in NSW for the next 20 years. Partly inresponse to these regional imperatives, the University of Newcastlehas launched a long-term whole-university research project focusedon achieving the balanced social, environmental and economictransitions required in the Hunter region during the next twodecades. These are the key issues to be discussed at the 2050 forum.AESC 2014 venue — NewcastleThe convention will be held at the historic Newcastle City Hall, inthe heart of Newcastle. The City Hall is situated close to transportand is within walking distance of the CBD.Opened in 1929, Newcastle City Hall is one of Newcastle’s mostprestigious buildings. Its architecture includes sandstone walls andcolumns, marble staircases, a clocktower, a sweeping staircase anda ballroom. The AESC will be using the entire Hall for the four-dayduration.Located nearby are numerous points of interest: NewcastleMuseum, Art Gallery, Civic Theatre, Nobbys Headland, Fort Scratchly,walking and cycling pathways, parks and beaches.The City of Newcastle has a rich history and following Europeansettlement, has re-invented itself many times, from penal station tocoal town, steel city, live music city, working port and more recentlya centre for energy innovation.Newcastle is the gateway to the resource-rich Hunter Valley andis adjacent to the southern part of the New England Foldbelt. HunterValley wines are highly acclaimed.Registration andexpressions of interestAbstracts deadline: March 2014Presentations: oral and posterRegistration: late 2013/early 2014Workshops and field trips: The convention invites proposals forshort courses, workshops and field trips.Exhibition: The convention will host an exhibition and welcomescompanies and businesses to participate so they can promote theemerging opportunities in their organisation, State or Territory.Supporters: The organising committee invites companies,institutions and technology providers to support this meeting.Expressions of interest: aesc2014@gsa.org.auConvention location: Newcastle City Hallwww.aesc2014.gsa.org.auTAG June 2013| 35


Special Report 3Geoscientific Data Warehouse –accessing and delivering NSWgeoscience dataIn September 20 12, the Minerals Resources unit of NSWDepartment of T rade and Investment released its newGescientific Data Warehouse (GDW) on the internet. The GDWis the culmination of the COGENT II project (2008–2012) toidentify, validate, consolidate and store geoscientific datasets ofthe highest data integrity secured in perpetuity. This representedthe first step in fulfilling the vision of “providing on demandaccess to all validated (non-confidential) corporate geologicaldata stored by Mineral Resources from a single spatial-basedinterface”. The GDW provides access to geoscientific informationto attract investment for mineral and petroleum exploration anddevelopment and help inform land use decision-making, a majorrole of the Mineral Resources unit.The COGENT I project (1995–1999), funded by the NSWGovernment’s ‘Discovery 2000’ initiative, started the transfer ofdata to a central, secure environment. COGENT II is a majorproject of the continuing initiative now called ‘New Frontiers’,which continues the government program of pre-competitivegeophysical surveys, data compilation and delivery , frontiermapping and interpretation.The GDW is the delivery vehicle for data captured and storedin the geoscientific database application system. Now that thissystem is in place, users of the GDW will see a steady stream ofnew and updated datasets from nightly replication.How it worksThe GDW uses Google Earth technology to enrich the functionalityand experience of discovering geoscientific data in NSW .Integrating the 3D and layer transparency features of GoogleEarth with geo-referenced field photos and microphotographsprovides a ‘virtual field’ experience for the user. This experienceis shown in the figure that displays data in Google Earth alongwith simple queries within web pages.The geoscientific data held in the new database is primarilypoint data such as field observations, structural readings,geochronology and non-confidential data from explorationreporting. However, the GDW spatial interface also has layers forgeological and metallogenic maps and geophysical imagery(geolocated at all zoom levels), current mineral, coal andpetroleum titles as well as title applications for minerals, coaland petroleum. The GDW also contains a link to the newGeoscience Product Catalogue and to the DIGS database (ofexploration and geoscience reports and maps).For those who wish to bypass the spatial interface,comprehensive text-based search facilities are available, includinggeoscientific database data and reports as well as data and imagesstored in the DIGS database. These are all complemented by adownload facility that supports download in multiple formatsincluding shape files, TAB files and CSV.Maps for mobile devicesA new feature in November 2012 was the addition of a facilityto download free statewide geological maps and geophysicalimagery to smartphones and tablets. This is a one-off file downloadover an internet connection. However , the feature doesnot require an internet connection to display, therefore makingthese maps available in areas without internet reception. GPStechnology embedded in smartphones allows the user to instantlyview maps or imagery at their location. Maps used are NSW1:1 500 000 surface geology, total magnetic image and ternaryradioelement image. This facility has proven to be very popularand more maps will be made available for download on anongoing basis.AccessThe public GDW can be accessed at http://dwh.minerals.nsw.gov.au/CI/warehouse.The entry page has links to demonstration videos and feedbackforms.For maps for mobile devices go to http://dwh.minerals.nsw.gov.au/CI/warehouse/view/mobileapps.DataData migration was prioritised with respect to value and risk. Forexample, radiogenic isotopes were considered the highest prioritybecause of the cost of re-collecting and reanalysing samples,along with storage of records in multiple versions of spreadsheetson the computer network and on individual computers. Resourceswere allocated to compile, model and migrate data based on theirpriority. All data have been secured and there is a work plan forimplementing the data into the GDW . As a result of finiteresources, not all data have been implemented in the GDW atthis stage, as shown by the two tables accompanying this article.36 |TAG June 2013


Data implemented as of 28 February 2013Dataset Description RecordsRadiogenic isotopes Sample and analytical data for U–Pb, K–Ar, Ar–Ar, Re–Os and 2 169 samplesSm–Nd isotopic studiesPetrological collection Catalogue and description of thin sections of rock samples 93 126 thin sectionsDrillholes — minerals Minerals drilling (mostly industry exploration data plus 44 117 collarsdepartment stratigraphic) including collar, survey andlithology dataDrillholes — petroleum Petroleum wells — department and industry (coalseam gas, 864 collarsoil, gas) including collar, survey, lithology, other downhole dataDrillholes — coal Coal drillholes (department and industry) including collar, 56 303 collarssurvey, lithology, other downhole dataExploration geochemistry Analytical data for down-drillhole assays reported by 2 668 997 samples— downhole assay exploration companies (represent data from 96 717 drillholecollars compiled from industryexploration reporting)Exploration geochemistry Sample and analytical data for geochemical surveys reported 773 817 samples– surface samples (stream by exploration companies(stream sediments, soils,rock chips and Niton)Photographs — Embedded location and metadata for image bank 2 500 photosfield photosField observations Geological observations, measurements and sample data by 114 140 locationsdepartment geologistsData planned for implementationDataset Description RecordsSeismic Shot points, line coverage, SEG Y file format and imagery Approx. 45 000 line kmfrom onshore and offshore seismic surveys (approximately (2500 surveys)2500 surveys for about 45 000 line km)3D geologyVector data representing geological (geophysical) featuresbelow the Earth’s surface in 3D spacePetrophysics Petrophysical properties of rocks (magnetic susceptibility, Approx. 5 000 recordsdensity and radioelements)Whole-rock geochemistry Sample and analytical data for whole-rock geochemical Approx. 25 000 recordssamplesPaleontology Sample and descriptive data for fossil samples in NSW to aid Approx. 65 000 recordsstratigraphic and age discriminationsStable isotopes Sample and analytical data for S, O and other stable Approx. 3 500 recordsisotopic systemsPolished blocks Sample and descriptive data for polished blocks of Approx. 1 775 recordsmineral samplesEconomic rocks Sample and descriptive data for economic mineral samples Approx. 30 000 recordsin NSWRadiogenic isotopes Sample and analytical data for Pb–Pb isotopic studies Approx. 2 000 records(Pb–Pb)TAG June 2013| 37


Case study–drillhole dataThe GDW provides access to non-confidential stratigraphic, coal,mineral and petroleum drillhole information from across NSW .Currently all drillhole data, with assay analysis from drilling, arestored using Micromine’s Geobank geological data managementsoftware. All data are stored in tables in Geobank so data can bemigrated from both historical sources and the current datatemplate. Non-confidential data are replicated nightly fromGeobank to the GDW.The first priority of COGENT II is to store location informationfor drillholes. Data captured include coordinates, title, company,date, purpose, end-depth and Geological Survey (GS) reportnumber for further information via DIGS. The next priority isto capture downhole information such as assay , lithology,geophysical and survey data. The focus to date for capture ofthese data for minerals drilling has been the Cobar P eneplainBioregion, to assist mineral explorers and land use planning.A wealth of drillhole data for NSW is available via the GDW. Image courtesy Ian Percival.38 |TAG June 2013


In the GDW, drillhole locations may be viewed by type (coal,mineral or petroleum), whether they are stored in departmentcore facilities (WB Clarke Geoscience Centre at Londonderry andEC Andrews Core Facility at Broken Hill), and whether they havebeen hyper-spectrally scanned or have associated lithology data.As with other GDW datasets, the data can be queried, viewed inGoogle Earth, and downloaded into geographic informationsystems (GIS) or database software.The availability of drillhole data will allow explorationcompanies to easily access existing drillhole and associated assayand lithology information for their area of interest, and similarlyallow department staff access to subsurface geological informationacross NSW.Drilling by the departmentHoles drilled by the department include coal resource evaluationdrilling, petroleum wells and regional stratigraphic programs.For example:l A regional drilling program was conducted by thedepartment under the ‘Discovery 2000’ initiative to assesspetroleum potential of the Darling Basinl 138 shallow air core holes were drilled east of Cobar in thelate-1990s as part of the ‘Exploration NSW’ initiative toimprove geological understanding of the area.Exploration drillingReporting of exploration drilling on coal, mineral and petroleumtitles to the department is mandatory . Since the late 1990s,minerals drilling activity has been reported by digital submissionin data templates in line with the Australian Requirements forthe Submission of Digital Exploration Data. Data are nowuploaded to Geobank routinely , with all minerals explorationdrilling now stored in Geobank. Before digital submission,exploration drilling was submitted in hard-copy reports, scannedinto raster format and archived in DIGS. Under the ‘New Frontiers’initiative, contractors have been extracting drilling informationfrom DIGS and populating Geobank.Ongoing workThe GDW simplifies the discovery and accessibility of freegeoscientific information to aid mineral and energy exploration,inform land use decision-making and enhance ongoing geoscientificresearch in NSW. To enable future enhancements, a keyfeature of the GDW is a feedback form for users to provide commentsand suggestions for improving the site and data available.Contact detailsFor more information contacttrisha.moriarty@industry.nsw.gov.auTeam Leader, Knowledge ManagementGeological Survey of New South WalesD COLLINS, P GILMORE, J GREENFIELD, T BARLINand S MEAKINGeological Survey of New South WalesNSW Trade & Investment516 High Street, Maitland, NSW 2320TAG June 2013| 39


O B I T U A R YAlec Francis Trendall1928–2013Alec Trendall died peacefully at home in Springhaven, near Denmark, WA, aftera short illness. The announcement placed in the West Australian newspaper byhis family aptly describes him: “He was a gentle man with an amazing intellect,who was a respected geologist, cheesemaker extraordinaire and an eternalexplorer and seeker of knowledge.”Alec Trendall was born in Enfield, Middlesex, UK, on 8 December 1928, theyoungest of a family of four: two girls and two boys. Alec’s father worked at theRoyal Arsenal at Enfield Lock and moved to the Rifle Factory at Ishapore,Calcutta, India, to work when the post-W orld War I depression hit the UK. In1925 the family resettled in Enfield, but 10 years later his parents and the twoboys returned to Ishapore and the two girls remained in the UK to continue theireducation under grandparental guidance. In India, Alec and his brother attendedSt Joseph’s College, North Point, a boarding school in Darjeeling. The scenicHimalayan environment there stimulated alife-long empathy with mountains, wild andremote environments, and most importantly, rocksand geology.Returning to the UK in 1937 he completedsecondary education at Luton Grammar School,where his enthusiasm for geology was reinforcedAlec Francis TrendallBSc (Hons) (London) ARCSPhD (Liverpool), DSc (London),DSc (hc) (Curtin)8 December 1928—4 April 2013and encouraged by his geography master. In 1946 Alec won a Royal Scholarshipto the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London, where he graduatedBSc (Hons), ARCS in 1949.Imperial College was a stimulating place to be. HH Read (the respectedinternational figurehead of the ‘granitisation’ movement) was head of thedepartment; John Sutton and Janet Watson were working on their PhDs on theLewisian rocks of Scotland, and the structural geologist W ally Pitcher was ademonstrator. But the person who was to have the greatest influence on Alec’scareer was Robert Shackleton, who arrived fresh from mapping in Fiji in 1948to teach a unit in petrology — although the essential message of this coursewas that the best way to understand the Earth was to get out into the field,make good maps, study the rocks in as much detail as possible, and interpretthe evidence on its own merits rather than rely on received opinion. Shackletonsupervised Alec’s Honours thesis, which involved the complete remapping ofAchill Island, off the west coast of County Mayo.In 1949 Robert Shackleton was appointed Professor of Geology at theUniversity of Liverpool, and invited Alec to join him as a PhD student. Alecjumped at the chance. His research topic was ‘The origin of albite gneisses’ in abelt of low-grade Dalradian metasedimentary rocks in the Scottish Highlandsand Achill Island.In early 1951 Duncan Carse wrote to Robert Shackleton — a distant cousinof the Antarctic explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton — asking whether he knew ofany young geologist, such as a PhD student, who might volunteer to join asix-man expedition to South Georgia that he was organising to survey this majorsub-Antarctic island. Shackleton discussed Carse’ s letter with Alec, who wasinstantly attracted by the opportunity: Carse and Alec met in London,appropriately on-board Scott’s ship Discovery! So began Alec’s association withSouth Georgia geology.Alec Trendall ‘...cheesemaker extraordinaire’. Image courtesy PE Playford.Carse led three South Georgia Surveys — 1951–1952, 1953–1954 and 1955–1956 — which aredocumented in detail in Alec’ s book Putting SouthGeorgia on the Map, published in 2011. Alec was amember of the first two expeditions. On the 195 1–1952 expedition, “Alec … disappeared down a hole inthe snow!” — actually a bergschrund — and sustaineda severely dislocated left knee which necessitated his being sent back to Englandfor specialist treatment. In Alec’s own words, written 61 years after the event:“The unknown time between falling into the hole and finally emerging at thetop marked a dividing point in Alec’s life. He had escaped death on the first dayof January 1952 by a chance of probably one in billions (how can it becalculated?). He had gone down overconfident, naïve, and too quick to ignorethe advice of others. Although he didn’t know it, his experiences during the restof 1952 were to leave him a different person.”During Alec’s recuperation Carse asked whether he was interested in goingto South Georgia for the 1952–1953 season. Alec declined because: (1) hissurgeons advised against strenuous use of his left leg for a year; (2) he neededto write up not only his PhD thesis but also the results of the 1951–1952 fieldwork;(3) he had been offered a lectureship at K eele University; and (4) inhospital he had met Kathleen Waldon, a nurse who had played a major part inhis rehabilitation, and whom he planned to marry. However, South Georgia continuedto call him and Alec accepted Carse’ s invitation to join the 1953–1954expedition while at Keele and sailed south just two months after his marriage.Alec’s geological work was published in two Falkland Island DependenciesSurvey (FIDS) Scientific Reports, The geology of South Georgia I and II. The BritishAntarctic Survey (the successor to FIDS) subsequently published a detailed mapof the island in 1987, the work involving 1 1 geologists over eight years. Theaccompanying text stated: “The memoir is dedicated to Alec T rendall, whoshowed us all the way”, a testament to the detailed observations he had madeon the two expeditions he took part in.On his return from South Georgia, and after writing up his geological results,Alec joined the Geological Survey of Uganda (at that time one of the ColonialGeological Surveys) in 1954 as a field geologist. Most of his geological work wasin the Karamoja District in northeast Uganda, a sparsely inhabited plateau of40 |TAG June 2013


arid savannah about 1 000 m above sea-level, part of the Mozambique Belt,with scattered Cenozoic volcanic mountains rising to 3 000 m. Alec and hisfamily lived in bush camps, first in tents and later with the luxury of a caravan.All three children, Jasper, Justin and Lucy, were born in Uganda. His fieldwork inUganda was published in a number of Geological Survey of Uganda Records andReports as well as a much-cited paper on laterite entitled ‘The formation ofapparent peneplains by a process of combined lateritisation and surface wash’published in Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie in 1962.With Ugandan independence looming, Alec sought new pastures andaccepted a position with the Geological Survey of Western Australia (GSWA) aspetrologist, moving to Perth with the family in May 1962. He had little idea thatthe banded iron-formations (BIFs) of the Hamersley Group were to become aconsuming interest for the rest of his geological career . This interest grew outof an investigation into the blue asbestos (crocidolite) occurrence in the BIFs ofthe group in which he was the lead researcher from 1964. It rapidly becameapparent that a study of the origin of the BIFs was an important part of thisinvestigation, particularly as these rocks are the primary source of the iron oredeposits that were being actively explored and developed at that time. This workculminated in GSW A Bulletin 119 The iron formations of the PrecambrianHamersley Group, Western Australia, with special reference to the associatedcrocidolite, co-authored with John Blockley.In pursuing his investigations into BIFs, Alec made many trips abroad tostudy similar deposits in South Africa, North America, Europe, India and Brazil.His 1968 paper ‘Three great basins of Precambrian banded iron formationdeposition: a systematic comparison’ (published in the Geological Society ofAmerica Bulletin) was a summary of the first study tour . Alec considered thatthe microbanding in the BIFs were chemical evaporitic varves and in 1969 heapplied for and received a Churchill Fellowship that enabled him to furtherdevelop a global context for the geology of the BIFs. One of the results from thetrip was his 1971 Presidential Address to the Geological Society of Australiaentitled ‘Revolution in earth history’, where ‘revolution’ referred to the annualjourney of the Earth around the Sun — a typical ‘Trendallism’!Alec received worldwide recognition for his work on BIFs and was invitedto participate in one of the Dahlem Conferences organised by the FreieUniversität in Berlin. The proceedings of this 1983 conference were subsequentlypublished with a joint editorship of HD Holland and AF Trendall under the titlePatterns of Change in Earth Evolution. He contributed to and jointly edited (withRC Morris) a book in Elsevier’s Developments in Precambrian Geology series IronFormation: Facts and Problems.Alec recognised that work on the Precambrian rocks of W estern Australiadepended on accurate geochronological data. He had long been of the opinionthat a numerical nomenclature for the Precambrian would enable Precambrianstratigraphy to ‘start anew’, rather than follow the approach used in thePhanerozoic. He articulated this in his 1966 paper ‘T owards rationalism inPrecambrian stratigraphy’ (published in the Journal of the Geological Society ofAustralia). In 1968 he and John De Laeter (Head of Applied Physics at theWestern Australian Institute of T echnology (WAIT), now Curtin University)established a joint program whereby GSWA supplied the samples and WAIT didthe analyses using, initially, the Rb–Sr technique. Well-defined problems wereselected and the resulting papers were published mainly in the GSW A AnnualReports. Over the years other techniques were added. One interesting outcomeof this work was the dating of the ‘oldest rocks’ in the Mt Narryer and Jack Hillsregions — summarised in De Laeter and Trendall’s 2002 paper ‘The oldest rocks:the Western Australian connection’, published in the Journal of the Royal Societyof Western Australia.Alec was appointed Deputy Director of GSW A in 1970 and was Directorfrom 1980 to 1986. In 1986 he took the unusual decision to step down asDirector to become a Principal Geologist and concentrate on geological research.Alec Trendall in the field — note the safety gear. Image courtesy Alec Trendall.This resulted in GSWA Report 42 The Woongarra Rhyolite — a giant lavalike felsicsheet in the Hamersley Basin of Western Australia published in 1995 and GSWABulletin 144 Geology of the Fortescue Group, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia,co-authored with Alan Thorne and published in 2001.One initiative during his term as Director was to produce an updatedaccount of the geology and mineral resources of the State. This was a large taskand was uncompleted when Alec retired. However, his successor as Director, PhilPlayford, gave Alec the task of overseeing the completion of what becameMemoir 3 Geology and mineral resources of Western Australia, which waspublished in 1990 along with a new State geological map.Alec was active in a number of scientific societies: Secretary of the WesternAustralian Division of the Geological Society of Australia from 1963 to 1965and President from 1969 to 1971, Editor of the Journal of the Royal Society ofWestern Australia from 1965 to 1969 and President from 1973 to 1974, Chairof the Perth Branch of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy in1980 and Chair of the Organising Committee of the Perth Conference in 1979.He was also a Fellow of the Geological Society of London and the GeologicalSociety of America.After retirement in 1990 Alec continued his geological work, particularly ingeochronology, and was an Adjunct Professor in the Applied Physics Departmentat Curtin University, continuing his collaboration with John De Laeter . Thisculminated in the multi-authored ‘SHRIMP zircon ages constraining thedepositional chronology of the Hamersley Group, W estern Australia’ publishedin the Australian Journal of Earth Sciences in 2004. He crystallised his ideas onTAG June 2013| 41


the origin of the continents in a 1996 paper ‘A tale of two cratons: speculationson the origin of continents’ published in the Royal Society of Western Australia’sDe Laeter Symposium volume.He was eventually able to return to the place and time that stimulated hisinterest in geology when he was offered the chance to write an account ofDuncan Carse’s expeditions to South Georgia. In 200 7 he was fortunate to beable to travel to South Georgia to commemorate Duncan Carse’s achievements.The changes between his first visit in 195 1 and his last in 2007 are implicit inthe title of an SBS documentary of the trip: Antarctica – the Great Meltdown.His book was privately published in 2011 under the title Putting South Georgiaon the map.Alec received many honours in recognition of his contributions to geology.He was awarded a DSc for his work on BIFs by the University of London, theClarke Medal of the Royal Society of New South W ales in 1977 and the GibbMaitland Medal by the Western Australian Division of the Geological Society ofAustralia in 1987. Trendall Crag in South Georgia is named after him.Alec always maintained an interest in languages, including MandarinChinese and Russian. He was sufficiently fluent in Russian to be able to delivera geological paper in that language at an International Symposium in Kiev . Anaccomplished keyboard player he carried a clavichord (the smallest keyboard hecould find, but still not really portable) into the field in Uganda and subsequentlybuilt a spinet, a harpsichord (his son Justin painted the sound board) and a fortepiano from kit sets. I was privileged to hear him play the harpsichord; the beautifulsound from it a tribute to his skill, not only as a player but also as a builder .In 1995 Alec and Kath moved to Springhaven, a property near Denmark onthe south coast of WA, where they planted fruit trees, oak trees and banksiasand ran a small herd of goats. Here he added cheesemaking to his many interestsand I believe perfected a local version of the traditional ash-coated pyramid.Sadly I never tasted his goat cheese.Truly a man of many talents. We shall not see his like again.This account of Alec’s life was compiled by Tony Cockbain and is basedon an auto-obituary started in Albany Hospital on 19 January 2013,supplemented by details from Alec’s book Putting South Georgia on the map,with assistance from Kathleen and Jasper Trendall, and John Blockley.Books for reviewPlease contact the Geological Society of AustraliaBusiness Office (info@gsa.org.au) if you would liketo review any of the following publications.NewThe Asteroid Impact Connection of PlanetaryEvolution with Special Reference to LargePrecambrian and Australian ImpactsG Gliksonwww.springer.comRe-advertisedGemstones of Western AustraliaJM Fetherston, SM Stocklmayer and VC StocklmayerDestiny or Chance RevisitedSR TaylorFrom Geomechanics to Geoid Tectonics:the analysis of major geological processesPM JamesGeomechanics Applied to thePetroleum IndustryJean-Francis Nauroywww.editionstechnip.comEssays in Honour of Frederico Waldemar Lange,Pioneer of Brazilian Micropaleontology ContinentEP Bosetti, Y Grahn, JHG Melowww.editorainterciencia.com.brMinerals, Metals and Sustainability:meeting future material needsWJ Rankinwww.publish.csiro.auClean Energy, Climate and CarbonPeter J Cookwww.publish.csiro.auFrom the Geological Societyof LondonThe publishing details for the following titles are allpublished by the Geological Society of Londonwww.geolsoc.org.uk/bookshop or enquiries@geolsoc.org.uk.SP293 Metasomatism in Oceanic andContinental Lithospheric MantleM Coltorti and M GregoireSP337 Petrological Evolutionof the European Lithospheric MantleM Coltori, H Downes, M Gregorie & SY O’ReillySP343 Dinosaurs and Other Extinct Saurians:an historical perspectiveRTJ Moody, E Buffetaut, D Naish & DM MartillSP358 Comparing the Geological andFossil RecordsAJ McGowan & AB SmithSP362 Military Aspects of HydrogeologyEPF Rose & JD Mather42 |TAG June 2013


Book ReviewsA Short Introduction toClimate ChangeT EggletonCambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013,240 pagesISBN 978-1-107-61876-3 (Paperback)This timely (or perhaps overdue?) book promisesa clear, balanced and well-documentedexplanation of the science of climate change.It not only lives up to this promise but alsoprovides inspiration and context for scientistscontributing to our society. It achieves this byproviding easy-to-read and well-constructedscientific foundations so readers cancontribute thoughtful substance to their owninternal debate as well as society’s debateand discussion on the topic.The book commences with the scenariothat motived the book’s author. Manygeoscientists would empathise with this: asimple, informal question about the realityof human-induced climate change. What isinspiring here is that it encapsulates one ofthe roles for scientists in our society — as thesage custodians of enquiry. It also highlightsthe challenge of a simple question seldombeing met with a simple answer. From herethe author takes the reader on a journeythrough some of the scientific observations ofhistorical changes in the Earth’s response tochanging climate. Some of these are remarkablecases of earlier annual flowering, earliergrape harvests, acceleration of caterpillar lifecycles and reduction in the freezing of watercanals in Europe. The book then providesseveral chapters about the main processesand controls on climate and its variations.These chapters are a credit to the authorand his balanced scientific distillation andcommunication skills. Complicated processes,such as Milanković cycles, sunspot cycles,El Nino and La Nina, greenhouse gases, sealevelchange and paleoclimates are wellexplained and presented. There are wellresearchedand representative, peer-reviewedreferences that substantiate the content aswell as offering pathways for further readingand investigation.This approach of balanced voice of reasonamong controversy has been a feature ofTony’s previous books, such as how he dealtwith definitions of terms, such as ‘laterite’, inhis editorial leadership of the Regolith Glossary.Tony is not a meteorologist or climatologist;he is a geologist (and one of the world’sleading mineralogists and regolith geologistsat that!) but he uses his fundamentalscientific grounding to offer clear andbalanced explanations in a very readableand thought-provoking format. In reading thebook I felt that I was receiving a humble giftof clarity and understanding from the author.As an Australian, I found further connectionfrom the many examples coming from ourown country, which reinforces that we are allpart of a global system.A further highlight of the book is the waythat the author addresses the publishedarguments and claims that do not support(or ‘deny’) human-induced global warming(in particular Ian Plimer and Bob Carter).These are addressed thoughtfully and frankly.It will be interesting to see the next phase ofdiscussion on this topic, particularly fromAustralian authors on both sides of thedebate. I suspect the discussion is not over bya long shot (nor should it be), but hopefullythis book is successful in raising the bar ofjustified scientific reasoning on the topic.It’s important to know that this book is outthere. I hope that it is widely read and usedas an introductory foundation to enquiry,knowledge and discussion on climate change.A scientist’s legacy is not always measured byformal citations and equivalent ‘factors’, butsometimes instead by his or her engagementwith and contribution to our lifestyle andsociety. This book meets a level of excellencethat translates into popular discussion, ourfuture existence and well-being. Thank youTony for taking the time to write this bookahead of the many other journal manuscriptsyou could have written. I strongly recommendthis book to all members of the GeologicalSociety of Australia, as well as to many of myfriends and family who want to understandhow things work and ‘what is going on withall this’ climate change science and debate.STEVEN HILLUniversity of AdelaideFaulting, Fracturing andIgneous Intrusion in theEarth’s CrustA volume in honour of EM AndersonD Healy, RWH Butler, ZK Shipton & RH SibsonGeological Society of London, SpecialPublication 367, London 2012, 253 pages.ISBN 978-1-86239-9, ISSN 0305-8719The book contains 16 papers/chapters dealingwith aspects of faulting and seismic activity,tectonic situations and fluid pressure changesand relationships using examples from verydiverse locations. Indeed, the papers offer amost varied collection of cases and casehistories — which is the true value of thisvolume — on which one can add personalexperience and thoughts.Although the book includes ‘igneousintrusion’ in the title, this aspect is very thinlycovered. Read it for fracture mechanisms andstress concepts.The book was conceived as an appreciationof EM Anderson and several papers dealextensively with the implications of his work.While interesting, these are perhaps a littledated and often lack the balance of morerecent thinking. Most contributions, however,extend Anderson’s ideas or even avoid orignore them altogether and offer very moderntheory and observations. The introduction bythe editors provides a solid summation.Several papers point out the major flaw inAnderson’s argument, in particular his failureto fully appreciate the role of gravitationalforces. These are crucial in ‘tensional’environments and examples are providedhere. The paper by Tingay et al describingfaulting in evaporates in the Nile Delta pointsout many shortcomings in classical theory.Other papers examine various issues,including discussion of stress deflectionabout salt diapirs (King et al), pore-pressurefactors and other stress changes duringorogeny (eg, Van Noten et al) or stressdeflections during folding (eg, Healy et al);these are extremely valuable and are worththe price of the book. They give the readermodern insights to integrate with classicalviews. I suspect that some of these paperswill become ‘classics’ in their own right.TAG June 2013| 43


In all, this book contains a rounded view ofdeformation theory. Although the papers aredrawn from a wide geographic distribution,Australian interest may be focused onthe paper about the recent Christchurchseismicity, and the three Australian papersdiscussing the (southern) Australiancontinental margin (Macdonald et al, Tassoneet al and Tuitt et al).The volume concludes with a reproductionof Anderson’s classic 1905 paper. This is avery worthwhile addition. The book will beof interest to most structural geologists.DE LEAMANLeaman Geophysics, HobartNatural Hazards in theAsia–Pacific Region: recentadvances and emergingconceptsJP Terry & J Goff (Eds)Geological Society of London, SpecialPublication 361, London 2012, 225 pages.ISBN 978-1-86239-339-4This Geological Society Special Publication isa well-presented hard-copy book with 17 independentchapters, thankfully an index anda liberal mix of colour and grey-scale figures.The first two papers, by the editors, serve asthe introduction. Their very first paragraph,second sentence, reads, “In the past few yearswe have not only experienced the 2004Indian Ocean tsunami, but also the 2006Java, 2007 Solomon Islands, 2009 NewZealand, 2010 Chilean and 2011 Tohokuearthquakes and tsunamis”.One might have expected then that the bookwould include papers about earthquakesbut, sadly for me, not so. The editors havecompiled an interesting set of papers ontsunamis, cyclones, landslides, volcanoesand monsoonal floods, reflecting theirresearch interests. There is one paper aboutearthquake catastrophe insurance: all aboutinsurance, not earthquakes.The book was published in 2012 but thereis neither mention of the 2009 Samoanearthquake and tsunami, nor of the 2010–2011 New Zealand earthquake sequence inChristchurch (except for a one-liner in thecatastrophe modelling paper). The countrywith one of the longest coastlines borderingthe Pacific, Australia, doesn’t rate a mentionin the index. Neither do so many other countriesof the region such as Papua New Guinea,which are so vulnerable to natural hazards.The title is rather misleading, which thepublishers should have noticed; perhaps itshould have been ‘Selective samples ofnatural hazards in …’.Having got that off my chest, the papers aremost interesting, covering non-seismichazards in Taiwan, Thailand, India,Philippines, Indonesia, French Polynesia andthe broad North Pacific and South Pacificwith a strong emphasis on tsunamis andcyclones/typhoons. The two papers onvolcanoes in Indonesia and the Philippineswere particularly interesting, the latterfocusing on the risk to a nuclear powerstation less than 5 km from an activevolcano and near an (active?) fault, a ratheralarming scenario with Manila only 60 kmaway.The point is strongly made that in estimatingnatural hazards we should be focusing on thepossible big events rather than just thelargest event known from the historicalrecord. Paleotsunami and paleoseismologystudies are essential tools in forecastinghazards or feeding catastrophe insurancemodels, work that imitates what volcanologistshave been doing for decades dating theorganic history of volcanoes.I am not sure who will buy this book otherthan non-seismologist natural hazardresearchers. The papers present only a limitedcoverage of the very wide Asian and Pacificregions.KEVIN McCUEAdjunct Professor,Central Queensland UniversityThe Mystery of theGiant CrystalsA DVD film by Javier TruebaWritten and Presented byJuan Manuel Garcia Ruiz.Madrid Scientific Films, 2010.Duration approximately 50 minutesJP Terry & J Goff (Eds)The soundtrack to this DVD is supplied in fourlanguages, so initially a choice has to bemade from English, Spanish, French andItalian; subtitles are also available in Germanand Japanese.Most viewers will be expecting images of thefamous selenite crystals in the lead, zinc andsilver Naica mine operated by IndustriasPeñoles in Chihuahua, Mexico. But that is notthe sole topic as the DVD commences withcrystals in Spanish mines at Segobrigaand Almeria, and also in the Chilean ElTeniente mine.Segobriga, Central SpainThe opening segment is a ten-minute videoof a Roman mine in Central Spain fromwhich one-centimetre-thick cleaved slabs oftransparent gypsum were extracted forwindow closures. Crystals suitable for theseartefacts were found to be up to 2.1 m (7 ft)long, claimed to be the largest such crystalsever found anywhere. Within this part thereare re-enactments of the Roman extractionmethods complete with actors in perioddress! Towards the end of the segmentthere are explanations of some elementarycrystallographic properties.Almería, Southern SpainPart 2 is a seven-minute segment concerninga 19–20th Century mine in which, 50 yearsafter it was closed, mineral collectorsdiscovered a huge geode — 7.6 m (25 ft)2.1 m (7 ft) 1.5 m (5 ft) — large enough tobe climbed into. It is lined with the mostbeautiful transparent gypsum crystals — andthe images of these justify the viewing of asegment that requires patience to waitthrough the display of school childrenundertaking experiments.Naica mine, Northern MexicoPart 3 is a four-minute introduction to theNaica Mine in Mexico, during which thereare images of the renowned Cave of Swordscavity that was discovered in 1910. Butrather distractingly the discussion of Naica isinterrupted to deviate to a mine in Chile.El Teniente mine, ChileSo Part 4 is a segment on this copper mine,claimed to have the longest galleries in theworld, amounting to 2 575 km (1 600 miles)in length. Some interesting historical imagesare followed by those taken in the Cave ofCrystals — a cavity lined with pyrite andbarite crystals and crossed by giganticcrystals of gypsum up to 7.6 m (25 ft) inlength. Interesting as this locality is, itpresents an unfortunate distraction from themain subject of this DVD.44 |TAG June 2013


Naica mine, Northern MexicoThe final 20-minute Part 5 returns to, and isdevoted to, the Naica mine and particularlyto the Giant Crystal cave, which wasdiscovered in 2000 by miners excavating anew tunnel at a depth of 290 m. In 1975 thislevel was drained of the hot water in whichthe crystals grew. To maintain that situationwater has to be pumped out at a rate of87 m 3 (23 000 gallons) per minute.Within the cavern are gypsum crystals up to12 m (39 ft) in length, 4 m (13 ft) in diameterand 55 tonnes in weight. These crystals arenot being mined but are available forscientific research so there is access througha steel door (later replaced by a plexi-glasswall), which has been built across theopening into the cave.In the early part of this segment theresearchers claimed to be restricted to eightminutevisits as air temperatures reach up to58°C (136°F) with 90 to 99% humidity.Scientists are seen clambering among thehuge crystals without protective clothing andexperiencing ‘Turkish bath’ conditions thatfog spectacles. Well-presented animatedgraphics are used to explain the geologybut few examples and results of scientificresearches are discussed. The studiesmentioned are those being undertaken bygeologists in Barcelona to examine theisotopic compositions of anhydrite andgypsum, and by scientists in Granada tomeasure the rate of growth of crystals placedin the mine waters.ConclusionThe content of this DVD is unlikely to satisfyprofessional geologists and might appeal tohigh school students. But the images aresharp so if you would like to learn about occurrencesof very large gypsum crystals inthree places other than Naica then this DVDmay be well worth watching.However the information on the main topic,Naica, is out-of-date and has been supersededby the content of five 10-minute videoclips that are available online for no cost at:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KSbId57pzm4http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=co3jDaWzxUchttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=my0pDEzyjBchttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZcuMek9Dcu0http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kf6ChGLC8EsThe soundtracks are informative but a bitover-hyped; the images are staggering.PETER C RICKWOODUniversity of New South WalesHot Deserts: engineering,geology and geomorphologyMJ Walker (Ed.)Engineering Group Working Party Report, EngineeringGeology Special Publications 25, GeologicalSociety of London, London, 2012,424 pagesISBN 978-1-86239-342-4Despite the seeming lack of water within hotdeserts over lengthy periods, these regionsare remarkably dynamic, and particularly soduring and following brief intervals of rainfall.Given the diversity of desert landscapes,however, this volume concentrates on ‘hot’mid-latitude arid and hyper-arid desertswhere rainfall is uncommon and typically lessthan 250 and 25 mm per annum, respectively.This beautifully produced and well-illustratedvolume provides a general overview of thegeomorphological characteristics of hotdeserts in terms of their global distribution,the geomorphological processes occurring indesert environments and the suite of landforms,sediments, soils and regolith commonto these regions. The central focus is onunderstanding the general characteristicsand processes in these environments so thatengineering strategies such as constructionactivities can be sensitively undertaken in amanner that reconciles the dynamism ofthese landscapes. The broad scope of thework means that it will appeal to geomorphologists,geologists and engineers.The work reveals the considerable range oflandforms resulting from eolian, fluvial andpedogenic processes, as well as the role ofsubsurface water and the precipitation ofsalts. These overviews are very comprehensiveand presented to highlight the implicationsfor engineering structures. As Charman pointsout in the introduction, early westerndesignedbuildings in the Middle Eastexperienced rapid deterioration due to alack of awareness to the nuances ofgeomorphological processes in hot desertenvironments, as well as not considering theuse of traditional building materials. Inparticular, the damaging effects of saltcrystallisation associated with capillary risethrough soils had been under-appreciatedand is very well illustrated within the volumein terms of the damage sustained to buriedpipes within only a few years of burial.Similarly, other challenges relate to thestability of concrete, due to the effects ofsalt heave and the obvious issues relating toactively migrating desert sand.Chapter 1 sets out the scope and terms ofreference of the Engineering Group WorkingParty in the study of hot deserts, whichculminated in the production of this volume.A fold-out map accompanies the chapter,illustrating the global distribution of hotdeserts. The defining features of desertregions, causes of aridity and the factorsresponsible for the diversity of desert regionsare explored in chapter 2 as well as a briefconsideration of the record of long-termclimate change recorded in desert environments.The final section in chapter 2 exploresthe challenges that face human settlementsin desert environments, particularly in thecontext of population growth. Chapter 3provides a very comprehensive treatment ofgeomorphological processes and resultantlandforms in deserts. Topics covered includeweathering processes and resultant forms,eolian processes and landforms, deserthydrology and fluvial landforms, the influenceof subsurface water and the subtleties ofsabkha, playa and salina environments.Hazards and the desert ground model areexplored in chapter 4. Hazards are consideredin terms of both a suite of natural events andalso human-induced events relating totechnological developments. An elegantaspect of this chapter is a photographiccatalogue of representative desert landformsat a range of spatial scales and of contrastingorigin (eg, due to structural, weathering,erosional and depositional processes).Potential hazards associated with these landformsare briefly outlined. Chapter 5concentrates on the description of soils androcks within desert landscapes and provides abrief overview of regolith and duricrusts,primarily within an applied, engineering context.The application of remote sensing andgeographic information systems (GIS) in thestudy of hot deserts is examined in chapter 6.This chapter explores the general strategies informulating a research project within a hotdesert environment from the early ‘deskbased’survey design stage, followed by fieldreconnaissance through to the effectiveapplication of GIS technologies. Groundinvestigation, testing and interpretation ofresults are explored in chapter 7. A rangeof analytical approaches for subsurfacesediment analysis from simple trial pits todrilling and geophysical methods aredescribed. Several case studies are presentedand a general summary is provided for arange of analytical techniques and thecommon sources of error in their application.TAG June 2013| 45


The engineering behaviour of desert soils iscovered in chapter 8, which examines the mechanicalcharacteristics of soils under contrastingmoisture conditions. The role ofexpansive clays, salts and the mechanics ofcemented soils are also considered. The finaltwo chapters examine materials for constructionin deserts and engineering design andconstruction. This is followed by appendix A,a fold-out block diagram model of theessential geomorphological features of desertenvironments and a comprehensive glossary ofgeological, geomorphological and engineeringterms. Overall, this is an excellent work providinga very comprehensive and authoritativeoverview of hot desert landscapes that willappeal to a wide audience. It will be ofimmediate appeal to civil engineers working inthese environments and can be applied in arange of teaching contexts in applied geology,geomorphology and engineering.COLIN V MURRAY-WALLACEUniversity of WollongongShaping a Nation:a geology of AustraliaIn TAG 166 (March 2013), a book review onShaping a Nation incorrectly stated the bookweighed 8 kg. In fact, the book only weighs4.4 kg — not such a weighty tome.The book includes a major resource in theaccompanying DVD.Also not included in the review was thatShaping a Nation is available for free atANU EPress. [—Eds]Editor’s correctionIn TAG 166 (March 2013),Special Report 2 Earth ScienceWestern Australia stated theauthorship was Jim Ross andJo Whelan. The authorshipshould have been published asJo Whelan and Jim Ross.Calendar201314–19 JulySpecialist Group inGeochemistry, Mineralogy &Petrology (SGGMP) —Rocks, Reef and RainforestMission Beach, Qldhttp://sggmp2013.webs.com/15–19 JulyPractical Aspects of ReservoirEngineeringUNSWhttp://www.petrol.unsw.edu.au22–26 JulyFundamentals of theOil & Gas IndustryUNSWhttp://unsw.edu.au11–14 AugustASEG–PESA 2013 —23rd International GeophysicalConference and ExhibitionMelbourne, Australiahttp://www.aseg-pesa2013.com.au11–14 SeptemberMines & Wines 2013Orange Ex-Services Club, NSWhttp://www.aig.org.au25–27 SeptemberInternational Symposium onSlope Stability in Open PitMining and Civil EngineeringSofitel Brisbane, Central Hotel,Queenslandhttp://www.slopestability2013.comGSA members can attend thisGNS conference at member rates— ask how!24–27 NovemberGeosciences 2013University of Canterbury, Christchurch,New Zealandhttp://www.geosciences2013.org.nz20142–8 FebruaryMeeting of the Specialist Groupin Tectonics and StructuralGeologyThredbo, NSWWelcome BBQ and cricket match Sunday2 FebruaryEmail Gordon Listergordon.lister@anu.edu.au7–11 JulyAustralian Earth SciencesConvention — AESC 2014Geological Society of Australia biennialconferenceNewcastle, NSWWant to earnadditionalincome?The GSA is looking formembers in each state to selladvertising space in TAG andGeoz. Members will receivea percentage of eachadvertisement sold in TAG.Contact Sue at sue@gsa.org.aufor more information.46 |TAG June 2013


Geological Society of Australia Inc. Office Bearers 2012–2014MEMBERS OF COUNCILAND EXECUTIVEPresidentLaurie HuttonDepartment of Natural Resources andMines (DNRM)Vice PresidentIan GrahamUniversity of New South WalesSecretaryVictoria GallagherTreasurerDavid TrezisePast PresidentBrad PillansAustralian National UniversityHon EditorAustralian Journal of Earth SciencesAnita AndrewCOUNCILLORS OF THEEXECUTIVE DIVISIONMichelle CooperGeoscience AustraliaKaty EvansCurtin UniversityJohn RogersAustralian National UniversityChristine EdgooseNTGS – Dept. Primary Industries,Fisheries & MinesJohn GreenfieldDept. of Industry and Investment -Primary Industries & EnergySTANDING COMMITTEESGeological HeritageNational ConvenorMargaret BrocxAustralian StratigraphyCommissionNational ConvenorCathy BrownSTATE CONVENORSACT, External TerritoriesAlbert BrakelNew South WalesLawrence SherwinGeological Survey of New South WalesNorthern TerritoryTim MunsonNorthern Territory Geological SurveyQueenslandIan WithnallGeological Survey of QueenslandSouth AustraliaWayne CowleyPrimary Industries & ResourcesSouth AustraliaTasmaniaStephen ForsythVictoriaFons VandenBergWestern AustraliaRoger HockingGeological Survey of Western AustraliaDIVISIONS ANDBRANCHESAustralian Capital TerritoryChair: John RogersAustralian National UniversitySecretary: Tim HobernGeoscience AustraliaNew South Waleswww.nsw.gsa.org.auChair: Ian GrahamUniversity of New South WalesSecretary: Dioni CendonANSTONorthern TerritoryChair: Christine EdgooseNorthern Territory Geological SurveySecretary: Jo WhelanNorthern Territory Geological SurveyQueenslandwww.qld.gsa.org.auChair: Ian WithnallGeological Survey of QueenslandSecretary: Aldo van HeeswijckSalva ResourcesSouth Australiawww.sa.gsa.org.auChair: Kevin WillsSecretary: Anna PettsFlinders MinesTasmaniaChair: Garry DavidsonCODESSecretary: Mark DuffettMineral Resources TasmaniaVictoriawww.vic.gsa.org.auChair: David CantrillRoyal Botanic GardensSecretary: Adele SeymonGeoScience VictoriaWestern Australiawww.wa.gsa.org.auChair: Trevor BeardsmoreGeological Survey of Western AustraliaBroken Hill BranchChair: Barney StevensGeological Survey of New South WalesSecretary: Kingsley MillsHunter Valley BranchChair: John GreenfieldGeological Survey of New South WalesSecretary: Phil GilmoreGeological Survey of New South WalesSPECIALIST GROUPSApplied Geochemistry SpecialistGroup (SGAG)www.sgag.gsa.org.auChair: Louisa LawranceSecretary: Craig RuglessAssociation of AustralasianPalaeontologists (AAP)www.es.mq.edu.au/mucep/aap/indexPresident: Gregory E. WebbUniversity of QueenslandVice-President: Jim JagoUniversity of South AustraliaSecretary Gilbert PriceUniversity of QueenslandAustralasian Sedimentologists Group(ASG)Chair: Bradley OpdykeAustralian National UniversitySecretary: Sarah TynanAustralian National UniversityCoal Geology (CGG)www.cgg.gsa.org.auChair: James BeestonSecretary: Joan EsterleEarth Sciences History Group (ESHG)www.vic.gsa.org.au/eshg.htmChair: Peter DunnSecretary: John BlockleyEconomic Geology Specialist Groupsgeg.gsa.org.auChair:Chris YeatsCSIROSecretary: Rob HoughCSIROEnvironmental Engineering& Hydrogeology Specialist Group(EEHSG)Chair: Ken LawrieGeoscience AustraliaSecretary: Steven LewisGeoscience AustraliaGeochemistry, Mineralogy &Petrology Specialist Group(SGGMP)www.gsa.org.au/specialgroups/sggmp.htmlChair: Hugh O'NeillAustralian National UniversitySecretary: Kurt KneselUniversity of QueenslandGeological Education (SGE)Chair: Greg McNamaraGeoscience Education& Outreach ServicesPlanetary Geoscience SpecialistGroup (SGPG)Chair: Graziella CaprarelliUniversity of TechnologySolid Earth Geophysics SpecialistGroup (SGSEG)www.gsa.org.au/specialgroups/sgseg.htmlChair: Nick RawlinsonGeoscience AustraliaSecretary: Richard ChoppingGeoscience AustraliaTectonics & Structural GeologySpecialist Group (SGTSG)www.sgtsg.gsa.org.auChair: Gordon ListerAustralian National UniversitySecretary: Richard BlewettGeoscience AustraliaVolcanology (LAVA)www.es.mq.edu.au/geology/volcan/hmpg.htmlChair: Rick SquireMonash UniversitySecretary: Karin OrthUniversity of TasmaniaTAG June 2013| 47


The Australian GeologistBackground informationThe Australian Geologist (TAG) is a quarterly member magazine which includes society news,conference details, special reports, feature articles, book reviews and other items of interest to EarthScientists. Each issue has a long shelf-life and is read by more than 3000 geologists, geophysicists,palaeontologists, hydrologists, geochemists, cartographers and geoscience educators from Australiaand around the world.Schedule and deadlines for 2013–2014I SSUE COPY FINISHED A RT INSERTSSeptember 2013 29 July 9 August 23 AugustDecember 2013 25 October 1 November 8 NovemberMarch 2014 31 January 7 February 28 FebruaryJune 2014 28 April 2 May 23 MayArtworkMaterial can be supplied electronically via Email or mail CD (MAC or PC). The advertisements orphotographs can be sent as jpeg, eps or tiff. W ord files are not accepted as finished art (pleaseconvert to pdf). Do not embed logos, images/pictures in W ord documents. 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Where typesetting is required, only one typesetting fee is charged for multiple advertisements.Please note that an additional 10% GST applies to all advertising.DETAILS 1 ISSUE 2 ISSUES TYPESETTINGFull Page250mm deep x 180mm wide (Type area)Full page Trim 275mm x 210mm plus 5mm BleedColour $1350 $1280 $tbaSpot colour Price on requestBlack and White $750 $703 $tba1/4 Page 125mm deep x 88mm wideBlack and White $200 $180 $tba1/2 Page Horizontal 125mm deep x 180mm wideBlack and White $375 $350 $tba1/3 Page Horizontal 80mm deep x 180mm wideBlack and White $290 $270 $tba2 Column Horizontal 125mm deep x 119mm wide(3 Column Page) Black and White $410 $390 $tba1 Column Vertical 250mm deep x 57mm wide(3 Column Page) Black and White $410 $390 $tbaINSERTS (as supplied) PER ISSUEPER ISSUEA4 size $1285 $1180Colour Advertorials or Feature ArticlesThree to four page colour advertorials are accepted at a negotiable cost.It is requested however that these articles have a geological theme.Black and White Advertorials Cost negotiable.Contact Sue Fletcher, Executive Director Geological Society of Australia IncSuite 61, 104 Bathurst St, Sydney NSW 2000Tel: 02 9290 2194 Fax: (02) 9290 2198 Email: info@gsa.org.auPublishing DetailsGENERAL NOTEThe Australian Geologist (TAG) is published by the Geological Society ofAustralia Inc four times a year, March, June, September and December.COPYRIGHTThe Publication is copyright by the GSA Inc unless specifically statedotherwise. However, material in this issue may be photocopied by individualsfor research or classroom use. Permission is also granted to useshort articles, quotes, figures, tables, etc, for publication in scientificbooks and journals or in other scientific newsletters provided acknowledgementis made. For permission for any other use or publication oflonger articles please contact the Honorary Editor.Every effort has been made to trace and acknowledge copyrightholders of material in this publication. If any rights have been omitted,apologies are offered.The Geological Society of Australia Inc is a learned Society . TheAustralian Geologist is published by the Geological Society of AustraliaInc, to provide information for the members and a forum for theexpression of their professional interests and opinions. Observations,interpretations and opinions published herein are the responsibility ofthe contributors and are not necessarily supported by the GeologicalSociety of Australia Inc or the Hon Editor.While the Hon Editor and the Geological Society of Australia Inchave taken all reasonable precautions and made all reasonable effortsto ensure the accuracy of material contained in this publication theaforesaid make no warranties, expressed or implied with respect to anyof the material contained herein.BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCEAdvertising/Membership: All business enquiries and correspondencerelating to advertising space, inserts and/or subscription matters,should be addressed to the Business Manager of the Society .EDITORIAL MATTERSContributions: All editorial enquiries or contributions should be sent totag@gsa.org.au or mailed to the GSA business office.Contributions are preferred as email. MS W ord documents for PC(or compatible) are the preferred file attachment. Photos, maps, etc,should be submitted as separate files and saved as either a .tif .pdf or.jpg at a resolution greater than 300 dpi. If contributors produce afile greater than 3MB it would be appreciated if they could be copiedto CD and forwarded to the Hon Editor . Short clearly typedcontributions (up to ~1000 words) are accepted, should a member beunable to send an email. The editor reserves the right to reject, reviseand change text editorially.Photographs: Cover photograph submissions should preferably bedigital taken at a resolution greater than 300dpi. W eb resolutionimages and colour prints (unless exceptional) are not of sufficientquality for full colour printing.Colour transparencies are also acceptable. Photographs for articlesmay be prints, slides or digital images; they may be black and whiteand colour.Back issues are available for sale at $5 plus postage andhandling. To order email publications@gsa.org.au48 |TAG June 2013

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