National AFNR Career Cluster Standards

National AFNR Career Cluster Standards

– Level II—These are activities/abilities that will build on the first-levelknowledge and are skills that students possess at roughly the 11th- and 12thgradelevels.– Level III—These are activities/abilities that will build in complexity from thefirst two levels and are skills students possess at roughly the 13th- and 14thgradelevels. These skills may be obtained at the end of the high school levelin more focused programs, in which case articulation agreements withpostsecondary institutions are encouraged.Methodologies and ProcessesThe development of the National AFNR Career Cluster Content Standardsbegan with a review of the Knowledge & Skills Statements originally developedas part of the 2003 United States Department of Education (USDE) ClustersProject. The Committee began with these because the statements had beenreviewed by hundreds of educators and industry representatives as they weredeveloped. The comments of these reviewers guided the work in thedevelopment of the accompanying standards. Various iterations of the standardswere reviewed by a total of 257 agricultural educators (averaging 32 perpathway). They included 178 secondary and 79 postsecondary/universityagricultural educators, representing 39 states overall. Additionally, the standardswere validated by a total of 155 representatives of the animal science, plantscience, environmental science, natural resources, biotechnology, foodprocessing, agribusiness and agricultural power & structures industries from 32states (averaging 19 per pathway). Both of these totals exceeded the project’sspecifications. As development progressed through the review and validationprocesses, the succeeding versions became more fine-tuned.Throughout the process, the National AFNR Career Cluster Content StandardsCommittee stressed rigor and relevance both in the agricultural content coveredand in the alignment of the AFNR Career Cluster Content Standards tonational academic standards. Thus, the accompanying document includes notonly the AFNR Standards but also the alignment of the Performance Indicatorsto national academic standards. Further, these academic standards are fullystated in the Appendix that accompanies the AFNR Standards. The academicalignments were carried out using teams of both academic and agriculturaleducators. Core academic teachers are encouraged to review the NationalAFNR Career Cluster Content Standards as a way to raise agriculturalawareness within the school and the community and provide related meaningfullearning experiences for students.v

AcknowledgmentsContent standards on pages 1–7 are from LifeKnowledge® precepts, essentiallearnings, signs of success and rubrics. Copyright © 2002 by National FFAOrganization. Used by permission.LifeKnowledge is a registered trademark of the National FFA Organization.The development of the National AFNR Career Cluster Content Standards wasfunded by the National FFA Foundation. The Center for Agricultural andEnvironmental Research & Training (CAERT), Inc., was selected as thecontractor for the development of the standards. Ronald J. Biondo, FrankFlanders, and Jasper S. Lee should be acknowledged for their dedicatedcommitment as writers of the standards for the

Career Cluster: AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND NATURAL RESOURCES (AFNR)Career Cluster Skills: CS — LifeKnowledge ® and Cluster SkillsCluster Content Standard: The student will demonstrate competence in the application of leadership, personalgrowth and career success skills necessary for a chosen profession while effectively contributing to society.Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationCS.01. Performance Element: Premier Leadership: Acquire the skills necessary to positivelyinfluence others.CS.01.01. Performance Indicator: Action: Exhibit the skills and competenciesneeded to achieve a desired result.Social Studies: 4d and 4hCS.01.01.01.a. Workproductively with a group orindependently.CS.01.01.02.a. Create atask analysis.CS.01.01.03.a. Exhibit goodplanning skills for a specifictask or situation.CS.01.01.04.a. Exploreavailable resources to assistin meeting project needs.CS.01.01.05.a. Assess thephysical, financial andprofessional risks associatedwith a particular task.CS.01.01.06.a. Identify thestrengths/talents of teammembers needed to achievea desired task.CS.01.01.07.a. Setpersonal goals using theSMART goals method(Specific, Measurable,Approved by you, Realistic,Time-stamped).CS.01.01.01.b.Demonstrate the ability tocomplete a task withoutassistance.CS.01.01.02.b. Createmeasurable objectives for agiven situation.CS.01.01.03.b. Assessindividual strengths andweaknesses in planning.CS.01.01.04.b. Useappropriate and reliableresources to complete anaction or project.CS.01.01.05.b. Create aplan for performing a job thatwill minimize physical,financial and professionalrisks.CS.01.01.06.b. Assignproject parts equitablyamongst team members toachieve a given task.CS.01.01.07.b. Use avariety of strategies toevaluate goals (e.g., observe,apply, and demonstrate).CS.01.01.01.c. Workindependently and in groupsettings to accomplish atask.CS.01.01.02.c. Assessoutcomes to determinesuccess for a task.CS.01.01.03.c. Implementan effective project plan.CS.01.01.04.c. Createresources to complete anaction or project.CS.01.01.05.c. Implementa plan that minimizesphysical, financial, andprofessional risks and analyzeresults.CS.01.01.06.c. Developstrengths and talents of teammembers so that all canachieve success.CS.01.01.07.c. Evaluateactions taken and makeappropriate modifications topersonal goals.1

Level I Level II Level IIICS.01.02. Performance Indicator: Relationships: Build a constituency throughlistening, coaching, understanding and appreciating others.National AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationLanguage Arts: 12Social Studies: 4hCS.01.02.01.a. Explainhuman relation skills such ascompassion, empathy,unselfishness,trustworthiness, reliability andbeing friendly.CS.01.02.02.a. Engage in aconversation with others toidentify their interests andaspirations.CS.01.02.03.a. Identify thesteps/strategies tosuccessfully coach/mentorothers.CS.01.02.04.a. Identifycharacteristics of effectiveteams.CS.01.02.01.b. Determinehuman relation skillscharacteristics of people whoexhibit compassion,empathy, unselfishness,trustworthiness, reliability andbeing friendly.CS.01.02.02.b. Utilizecommunication skills tocollaborate in a groupsetting.CS.01.02.03.b. Perform thesteps/strategies tosuccessfully coach/mentorothers.CS.01.02.04.b. Establishteam ground rules forexpected individual behaviorson the team.CS.01.02.01.c.Demonstrate human relationskills including compassion,empathy, unselfishness,trustworthiness, reliability andbeing friendly to co-workers.CS.01.02.02.c. Engageothers in conversations torespond to an obstacle whencompleting a task.CS.01.02.03.c. Manage acoaching/mentoring program.CS.01.02.04.c. Evaluate theeffectiveness of teammembers.CS.01.03. Performance Indicator: Vision: Establish a clear image of what thefuture should look like.Social Studies: 4a, 4d and4hCS.01.03.01.a. Identify thebenefits of developing vision.CS.01.03.02.a. Use variousconceptualizing tools.CS.01.03.03.a. Analyze therisks and rewards of newexperiences.CS.01.03.04.a. Describetechniques used to buildconsensus.CS.01.03.01.b. Utilizevisioning skills to develop aplan.CS.01.03.02.b. Compareconceptualizing tools to usein a given situation.CS.01.03.03.b. Analyze acase study involving a newexperience for risk andrewards.CS.01.03.04.b.Demonstrate consensusbuilding.CS.01.03.01.c. Developvision statements and plansfor an organization.CS.01.03.02.c. Create aplan of action to complete atask based on aconceptualized idea.CS.01.03.03.c. Conduct aself-evaluation for personalreactions to newexperiences.CS.01.04.05.c. Lead ameeting or activity thatengages all participants inthe process.2

Level I Level II Level IIICS.01.04. Performance Indicator: Character: Conduct professional and personalactivities based on virtues.National AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationSocial Studies: 4c and 4fCS.01.04.01.a. Analyze acase study where integritywas demonstrated.CS.01.04.02.a. Describepersonal values.CS.01.04.03.a. Identify theconsequences of personalactions.CS.01.04.04.a. Explain thebenefits of mutual respect.CS.01.04.05.a. Practiceself-discipline.CS.01.04.06.a. Describethe benefits of servingothers.CS.01.04.01.b. Explain apersonal decision whereintegrity played a role in thedecision.CS.01.04.02.b.Demonstrate the benefits ofliving by positive values.CS.01.04.03.b. Assess thealternative outcome ofspecific actions.CS.01.04.04.b. Analyze howrespect is given.CS.01.04.05.b. Differentiatebetween habits, practicesand behaviors consistent withprinciples of self-discipline.CS.01.04.06.b. Developpersonal goals that includeservice to others.CS.01.04.01.c. Performtasks with integrity.CS.01.04.02.c. Assesspersonal values.CS.01.04.03.c. Analyze thecauses for team members toaccept or rejectresponsibility.CS.01.04.04.c.Demonstrate respect forothers.CS.01.04.05.c. Analyzeone’s level of self-disciplineand causes for lack of selfdiscipline.CS.01.04.06.c. Evaluateprofessional and personalvalues and how they areapplied in the service toothers.CS.01.05. Performance Indicator: Awareness: Desire purposeful understandingrelated to professional and personal activities.Language Arts: 1Social Studies: 1e, 4e, 10band 10jCS.01.05.01.a. Discusstrends and issues importantto the community.CS.01.05.02.a. Identify civicleadership role opportunities.CS.01.05.03.a. Explainbenefits and challenges ofworking in a diverse group.CS.01.05.01.b. Analyze theimpact of trends and issueson the community.CS.01.05.02.b.Demonstrate responsiblecitizenship.CS.01.05.03.b. Engage inactivities to help developpersonal awareness ofdiversity.CS.01.05.01.c. Articulatecurrent issues that areimportant to the local, state,national and globalcommunities.CS.01.05.02.c. Performleadership tasks associatedwith citizenship.CS.01.05.03.c. Plan anactivity that promotesappreciation of diversity.3

Level I Level II Level IIICS.01.06. Performance Indicator: Continuous Improvement: Pursue learning andgrowth opportunities related to professional and personal aspirations.National AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationScience: A4Language Arts: 8Social Studies: 4hCS.01.06.01.a. Explain thereasons for having aleadership/personal growthplan.CS.01.06.02.a. Describethe role and purpose of apersonal mentor.CS.01.06.03.a. Identify thedifferent types of problemsolving models and theirapplicability to specificsituations.CS.01.06.04.a. Use variousemerging technologies toenhance a program orproject.CS.01.06.05.a. Describethe value of being a life-longlearner and the need forcontinuous development.CS.01.06.01.b. Develop aplan that includes specificgoals for leadership andpersonal growth.CS.01.06.02.b. Identifyareas where a personalmentor could be helpful.CS.01.06.03.b. Utilize aproblem-solving model tosolve a given problem.CS.01.06.04.b. Evaluate theeffectiveness of currenttechnologies.CS.01.06.05.b. Assesspersonal motivations andtheir impact on acquiring newknowledge and skills.CS.01.06.01.c. Implementa leadership and personalgrowth plan.CS.01.06.02.c. Serve as amentor for others.CS.01.06.03.c. Useproblem solving strategies tosolve a professional orpersonal issue.CS.01.06.04.c. Makerecommendations to adoptnew emerging technologies.CS.01.06.05.c. Implementa plan to develop newknowledge and skills relatedto professional and personalaspirations.CS.02. Performance Element: Personal Growth: Develop a skill set to enhance the positiveevolution of the whole person.CS.02.01. Performance Indicator: Physical Growth: Address personal health byunderstanding, respecting and managing your body’s needs.Science: F1CS.02.01.01.a. Identify howhealthy and unhealthy foodaffects one’s body.CS.02.01.02.a. Describethe benefits, risks andopportunities associated withbeing physically fit.CS.02.01.03.a. Describepractices that must bemaintained to achieve longtermhealth.CS.02.01.01.b. Create abalanced menu to ensureappropriate proportions ofdesired nutritional elements.CS.02.01.02.b. Implementa plan for respecting one’sbody.CS.02.01.03.b. Implementa plan to achieve long-termhealth.CS.02.01.01.c. Practicehealthy eating habits.CS.02.01.02.c. Makerecommendations or changesto a personal fitness programregiment.CS.02.01.03.c. Evaluatepersonal lifestyle as relatedto long-term health.4

Level I Level II Level IIICS.02.02. Performance Indicator: Social Growth: Interact with others in a mannerthat respects the differences of a diverse and changing society.National AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationLanguage Arts: 12Social Studies: 1eCS.02.02.01.a. Discover thedifferent cultures that exist inone’s community.CS.02.02.02.a.Demonstrate proper conductand appearances for varioussettings.CS.02.02.03.a. Identify theskills needed to develop aprofessional relationship.CS.02.02.01.b. Compareand contrast the customs ofdifferent cultures.CS.02.02.02.b. Apply theskills required to presentoneself appropriately invarious settings.CS.02.02.03.b. Exhibit thebehaviors needed fordeveloping and maintaining aprofessional relationship.CS.02.02.01.c. Engage in aproject that educates othersabout different cultures fromwithin the community.CS.02.02.02.c. Presentoneself appropriately invarious settings.CS.02.02.03.c. Maintaineffective professionalrelationships.CS.02.03. Performance Indicator: Professional Growth: Develop awareness andapply skills necessary for achieving career success.Language Arts: 12Social Studies: 4aCS.02.03.01.a. Explorevarious careerinterests/options.CS.02.03.02.a. Chart thecomponents to creating abalanced work/life plan.CS.02.03.03.a. Identify theskills required for variouscareers.CS.02.03.01.b. Makedecisions to plan for apersonal career.CS.02.03.02.b. Determinethe level of non-essentialactions/tasks related topersonal and work life.CS.02.03.03.b. Developskills required for a specificcareer.CS.02.03.01.c. Implementa plan to achieve careergoals and priorities.CS.02.03.02.c. Balancepersonal and workresponsibilities.CS.02.03.03.c.Demonstrate employabilityskills for a specific career.CS.02.04. Performance Indicator: Mental Growth: Demonstrate the effectiveapplication of reasoning, thinking, and coping skills.Math: 6CScience: A4Language Arts: 4 and 8CS.02.04.01.a. Describethe skills necessary to thinkcritically and creatively.CS.02.04.02.a. Exploretools used in creativeproblem-solving.CS.02.04.03.a. Discuss theskills and techniques neededto negotiate effectively.CS.02.04.01.b. Discuss thebenefits of thinking criticallyand creatively.CS.02.04.02.b. Analyzeproblems that were solvedwell and problems that werenot solved well.CS.02.04.03.b. Analyzecase studies wherenegotiation techniques areused.CS.02.04.01.c.Demonstrate critical andcreative thinking skills whilecompleting a task.CS.02.04.02.c. Implementeffective problem solvingstrategies.CS.02.04.03.c.Demonstrate the skillsneeded to negotiate withothers.5

Level I Level II Level IIICS.02.05. Performance Indicator: Emotional Growth: Demonstrate healthyresponses to one’s feelings.National AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationSocial Studies: 4aCS.02.05.01.a. Describeskills used to cope withdifferent situations.CS.02.05.02.a. Discover thecharacteristics of selfless andcompassionate individuals.CS.02.05.03.a. Describethe factors needed to buildself confidence.CS.02.05.04.a. Analyze thebenefits of emotionaldevelopment.CS.02.05.05.a. Describesituations where seekingcounsel would be appropriate(e.g., personal, legal,financial, etc.).CS.02.05.01.b. Determinethe coping process that bestfits one’s situation.CS.02.05.02.b. Determineopportunities to demonstrateselflessness and compassiontowards others.CS.02.05.03.b. Analyze anindividual’s personal level ofself confidence.CS.02.05.04.b. Practicehabits that positively affectemotional well-being.CS.02.05.05.b. Analyze thepositive outcomes of seekingcounsel through anappropriate source.CS.02.05.01.c.Demonstrate one’s ability tocope with life’s trials.CS.02.05.02.c. Practice theskills needed to live acompassionate and selflesslife.CS.02.05.03.c. Exhibit selfconfidence while in theworkplace.CS.02.05.04.c. Developemotional well-being in otherteam members.CS.02.05.05.c. Seekappropriate counsel forspecific situations (e.g.,personal, legal, financial,etc.).CS.02.06. Performance Indicator: Spiritual Growth: Reflect inner strength to allowone to define personal beliefs, values, principles and sense of balance.Social Studies: 4c and 4fCS.02.06.01.a. Define theterms: value, beliefs, andbelief system.CS.02.06.01.b. Create apersonal belief statement.CS.02.06.01.c. Develop andnurture a personal beliefsystem.CS.02.06.02.a. Describerespectful, sensitivebehaviors that can influenceothers.CS.02.06.02.b. Explain howrespectful, sensitivebehaviors lead to increasedinfluence.CS.02.06.02.c.Demonstrate respect andsensitivity to others’ beliefs.CS.03. Performance Element: Career Success: Demonstrate those qualities, attributes andskills necessary to succeed in, or further prepare for, a chosen career while effectivelycontributing to society.CS.03.01. Performance Indicator: Communication: Demonstrate oral, written andverbal skills.Language Arts: 4, 5 and 12CS.03.01.01.a. Use basictechnical and businesswriting skills.CS.03.01.01.b. Select theappropriate form of technicaland business writing orcommunication for a specificsituation.CS.03.01.01.c.Demonstrate technical andbusiness writing skills tocommunicate effectively withco-workers and supervisors.6

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationCS.03.01.02.a. Describethe various types and uses ofresumes.CS.03.01.03.a. Develop anoutline or plan for a businesspresentation.CS.03.01.02.b. Prepare aresume.CS.03.01.03.b. Deliver abusiness presentation for apeer group (e.g., classpresentation).CS.03.01.02.c.Demonstrate effective use ofa resume as part of an effortto obtain a job.CS.03.01.03.c. Makeeffective businesspresentations.CS.03.02. Performance Indicator: Decision Making – Analyze situations andexecute an appropriate course of action.Science: A1 and A5Social Studies: 1c and 4hCS.03.02.01.a. Analyze thesteps in the decision-makingprocess.CS.03.02.02.a. Selectresources to help in theproblem-solving process.CS.03.02.03.a. Differentiatebetween ethical andunethical behavior.CS.03.02.04.a. Use aninterest inventory todetermine goals appropriateto personal passions, abilitiesand aptitudes.CS.03.02.01.b. Utilize theprocess used to reach aconclusion for a decision.CS.03.02.02.b. Determineinformation that is critical tosolving problems.CS.03.02.03.b. Practiceethical behaviors.CS.03.02.04.b. Assesspersonal skills to set goals forsuccess in a career.CS.03.02.01.c. Makedecisions for a given situationby applying the decisionmakingprocess.CS.03.02.02.c. Useproblem-solving skills.CS.03.02.03.c. Examine anethical dilemma and preparean argument for a position.CS.03.02.04.c. Implementappropriate preparation plansfor a career path based onpassion, abilities, aptitude,opportunities.CS.03.03. Performance Indicator: Flexibility / Adaptability: Describe traits thatenable one to be capable and willing to accept change.Science: A2, A6 and E2Language Arts: 7Social Studies: 8aCS.03.03.01.a. Researchcurrent and emergingtechnologies in AFNR.CS.03.03.02.a. Select theappropriate process toinitiate effective change for agiven situation.CS.03.03.03.a. Assess tothe value of providingfeedback.CS.03.03.01.b. Analyze theadvantages anddisadvantages of current andemerging technologies inAFNR activities.CS.03.03.02.b. Assess thebenefits of using the changeprocess.CS.03.03.03.b. Differentiatebetween positive andnegative constructivefeedback and realize theimportance of both.CS.03.03.01.c. Conduct aworkplace study to assessthe benefits to adaptingemerging technologies.CS.03.03.02.c. Evaluatestrategies that can be usedto manage change within theworkplace.CS.03.03.03.c. Respond tofeedback to improve asituation, skill orperformance.7

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationCS.04. Performance Element: Systems: Examine roles within teams, work units, departments,organizations, inter-organizational systems, and the larger environment.CS.04.01. Performance Indicator: Examine performance and goals to appreciateorganizations and industries within AFNR.CS.04.01.01.a. Examineperformance and goals toappreciate professionalorganizations and industrieswithin AFNR.CS.04.01.01.b. Explain themajor guidelines used byAFNR professionalorganizations to manage andimprove performance.CS.04.01.01.c. Examineeconomic, social andtechnological changes andspotlight their impact onAFNR professionalorganizations and theindustry.CS.05. Performance Element: Systems: Identify how key organizational structures andprocesses affect organizational performance and the quality of products and services.CS.05.01. Performance Indicator: Manage organizational structures andprocesses to better serve customers.Social Studies: 7aCS.05.01.01.a. List ways anorganization can beevaluated based on itscustomer satisfaction andservice operations.CS.05.01.01.b. Explain howorganization performanceincluding customersatisfaction and service/operations performance canbe improved.CS.05.01.01.c. Implementa plan to managerelationships with bothinternal and externalcustomers.CS.05.02. Performance Indicator: Examine the components of the AFNR systemsand address their maintenance requirements.CS.05.02.01.a. Developgoals and objectives for eachsystem to manageorganizational activities moreeffectively.CS.05.02.01.b. Operatetechnical tools to access,manage, integrate, evaluateand create information.CS.05.02.01.c. Implementmanagement plans toimprove the AFNR systems.CS.05.03. Performance Indicator: Research geographical data related to AFNRsystems.Math: 5CLanguage Arts: 4Social Studies: 3c and 3eCS.05.03.01.a. Presentresource data in graphicformat.CS.05.03.02.a. Utilize thedifferent types of AFNRsystems related to variousgeographical areas.CS.05.03.01.b. Interpretresource data in graphicformat.CS.05.03.02.b. Explore howAFNR systems differ acrossgeographical areas.CS.05.03.01.c. Usecomputer systems to presenttrends in resource data.CS.05.03.02.c. Evaluate theeffects of implementing anAFNR system in a differentgeographical area.8

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationCS.06. Performance Element: Examine the importance of health, safety, and environmentalmanagement systems in organizations and their importance to performance and regulatorycompliance.CS.06.01. Performance Indicator: Observe required regulations tomaintain/improve safety, health and environmental management systems.Science: F4 and F5Social Studies: 3gCS.06.01.01.a. Examinemajor health, safety, andenvironmental managementsystem components in AFNRorganizations.CS.06.01.01.b. Identify thebenefits of improved health,safety, and environmentalperformance to AFNRorganizations in currentgeographical area.CS.06.01.01.c. Assess howAFNR organizations promoteimproved health, safety, andenvironmental performanceand suggest plans forimprovement.CS.06.02. Performance Indicator: Develop a plan to maintain and improve health,safety and environmental compliance and performance.Science: F1, F4 and F5Social Studies: 9dCS.06.02.01.a. Use propersafety practices/personalprotective equipment.CS.06.02.01.b. Developplans to improve health,safety and environmentalperformance.CS.06.02.01.c. Educateother workers to improvehealth, safety, andenvironmental performancein a safe manner.CS.06.03 Performance Indicator: Provide health, safety, and environmentaloperating guidelines.Science: F4 and F5Language Arts: 4 and 5CS.06.03.01.a.Demonstrate the importanceof safety, health, andenvironmental practices inthe workplace.CS.06.03.01.b. Develop apollution/waste preventionplan to enhance safety,health, and environmentalpractices in the workplace.CS.06.03.01.c. Establish aset of health, safety, andenvironmental principles toensure a high level ofperformance.CS.06.04. Performance Indicator: Examine health risks associated with aparticular skill to better develop personnel safety guidelines.Science: F1 and F5CS.06.04.01.a. Determinethe level of contamination orinjury that would beconsidered a risk asassociated with a specific jobor activity.CS.06.04.01.b. Assess thesafety priorities for the levelof contamination or injury.CS.06.04.01.c. Implementa plan to mitigate the level ofcontamination or injuryidentified in the workplace.CS.07. Performance Element: Safety, Health, and Environmental: Demonstrate appropriatehealth and safety procedures for AFNR occupations.CS.07.01. Performance Indicator: Apply safety/health practices to AFNRworksites.Science: F1 and F5CS.07.01.01.a. Implementthe health and safety policiesand procedures relevant toAFNR careers.CS.07.01.01.b. Useappropriate personalprotective equipment for agiven task.CS.07.01.01.c. Orient agroup on safety measuresbased on the prescribedsafety guidelines.9

Level I Level II Level IIICS.07.02. Performance Indicator: Demonstrate recognized first aid knowledgeand procedures to show how they are used by AFNR industries.National AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationScience: F5CS.07.02.01.a. Informothers how to avoid placingoneself in hazardous worksituations.CS.07.02.01.b. Use first aidknowledge and proceduresrelevant to a particularsituation.CS.07.02.01.c. Complete arecognized industry-level firstaid training program.CS.07.03. Performance Indicator: Follow appropriate procedures in case of anemergency.CS.07.03.01.a. Evaluate theemergency responseprocedures for a naturaldisaster.CS.07.03.01.b. Developvarious emergency responseplan requirements for afacility.CS.07.03.01.c.Communicate theappropriate responses formedical emergencies byfollowing the approvedprocedures.CS.07.04. Performance Indicator: Assess workplace safety.Science: F5CS.07.04.01.a. Researchapplicable regulatory andsafety standards (e.g.,MSDS, bioterrorism).CS.07.04.01.b. Use safetyprocedures to comply withregulatory and safetystandards.CS.07.04.01.c. Applygeneral workplace safetyprecautions/procedures.CS.07.04.02.a. Handlechemicals and equipment ina safe and appropriatemanner.CS.07.04.02.b. MaintainAFNR facilities to promotehealth and safety.CS.07.04.02.c. Evaluategeneral workplace safetyprecautions/procedures forcompliance with regulations.CS.08. Performance Element: Technical Skills: Use tools, equipment, machinery andtechnology appropriate to work within areas related to AFNR.CS.08.01. Performance Indicator: Evaluate and select the appropriate tool toperform a given task.CS.08.01.01.a. Identifystandard tools, equipment,and safety procedures relatedto a specific task.CS.08.01.02.a. Followoperating instructions relatedto specific tools andequipment needed tocomplete a task.CS.08.01.01.b. Setup/adjust tools andequipment related tocomplete a specific task.CS.08.01.02.b.Demonstrate appropriateoperation, storage, andmaintenance techniques fortools and equipment.CS.08.01.01.c.Use toolsand equipment appropriatelyto complete a specific task.CS.08.01.02.c. Devise amaintenance plan orschedules for tools andequipment.10

Level I Level II Level IIICS.08.02. Performance Indicator: Use appropriate protective equipment andhandle AFNR tools and equipment to demonstrate safe and proper use of the toolsand equipment.National AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationScience: F5CS.08.02.01.a. Use theappropriate procedures forthe use and operation ofspecific tools and equipment.CS.08.02.01.b.Demonstrate safetyprecautions when using toolsfor a specific task aroundbystanders.CS.08.02.01.c. Operateapplicable AFNR equipmentand vehicles safely.CS.08.03. Performance Indicator: Maintain tools for efficient use.CS.08.03.01.a. Describethe conditions that cause theneed for tool maintenance.CS.08.03.01.b.Demonstrate how to replacetool parts and componentsas needed.CS.08.03.01.c. Develop andupdate a preventivemaintenance schedule.CS.09. Performance Element: Technical Skills: Compare and contrast issues affecting theAFNR industry.CS.09.01. Performance Indicator: Apply economic principles to AFNR systems(e.g., supply, demand and profit).Language Arts: 4Social Studies: 7a and 7bCS.09.01.01.a. Calculatethe effect of compoundinterest on AFNRinvestments.CS.09.01.01.b. Describethe economic impacts ofnatural resource preservationvs. use of the resource.CS.09.01.01.c. Describethe impacts of AFNRdecisions on global marketsand environmental health.CS.09.02. Performance Indicator: Apply skills with computer software toaccomplish a variety of business activities.Math: 6CScience: A3CS.09.02.01.a.Demonstrate basic computerand software systems skills.CS.09.02.01.b. Use basicsoftware systems such asspreadsheet and wordprocessing to complete atask.CS.09.02.01.c. Usediagnostic software.CS.09.03. Performance Indicator: Use technology to demonstrate the ability tonetwork and interface with technology.Science: A3 and E2CS.09.03.01.a. Use thetechnological systems toacquire information related toAFNR.CS.09.03.01.b. Showtechnical competence forefficient workplacecommunications.CS.09.03.01.c.Demonstrate the use oftechnology in linkinginformation from varioussources.11

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationCS.10. Performance Element: Technical Skills: Envision emerging technology and globalizationto project its influence on widespread markets.CS.10.01. Performance Indicator: Examine new technologies to project theirimpact in the global market of AFNR.Science: F6CS.10.01.01.a. Apply theuse of various scientificmeasurement andconversions to AFNRsystems.CS.10.01.01.b. Discuss theuse of mechatronics (such aslasers and robotics) and theirimpact on AFNR systems.CS.10.01.01.c. Evaluate theimportance of new andemerging communicationsystems and how they impactAFNR systems.CS.10.02. Performance Indicator: Relate technology advancements to the needfor Continuing Education/Career Development.CS.10.02.01.a. Utilizehistorical data, technologyand career training to predictmarket trends.CS.10.02.01.b. Applyemerging technology andcareer training to meetmarket demands.CS.10.02.01.c. Researchemerging technologies andthe opportunities they maycreate within the AFNRsystems.CS.11. Performance Element: Scientific Inquiry: Utilize scientific inquiry as an investigativemethod.CS.11.01. Performance Indicator: Recognize the questions and theory needed toguide scientific investigations.Math: 6CScience: A1 and A2CS.11.01.01.a. Formulate atestable hypothesis.CS.11.01.01.b. Design anexperiment to test ahypothesis.CS.11.01.01.c.Demonstrate procedures anda conceptual understandingof scientific investigation.CS.11.02. Performance Indicator: Design and conduct a scientific investigation.Math: 6CScience: A1 and A2Language Arts: 7CS.11.02.01.a. Design anexperiment or scientificinquiry for a specific project.CS.11.02.01.b. Implementan experimental design totest a formulated hypothesis.CS.11.02.01.c. Proposeadditional studies based onthe results of an experiment.12

Career Cluster: AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND NATURAL RESOURCES (AFNR)Career Pathway: Agribusiness Systems (ABS)Pathway Content Standard: The student will demonstrate competence in the application of principles andtechniques for the development and management of agribusiness systems.Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationABS.01. Performance Element: Utilize economic principles to establish and manage an AFNRenterprise.ABS.01.01. Performance Indicator: Apply principles of capitalism in the businessenvironment.Social Studies: 7b and 7gABS.01.01.01.a. Recognizeprinciples of capitalism asrelated to AFNR businesses.ABS.01.01.01.b.Differentiate types ofownership and outline thestructure of AFNR businessesin a capitalistic economicsystem.ABS.01.01.01.c. Executesupply-and-demandprinciples in AFNRbusinesses.ABS.01.02. Performance Indicator: Apply principles of entrepreneurship inbusinesses.Social Studies: 7dABS.01.02.01.a. Describethe meaning, importance andeconomic impact ofentrepreneurship.ABS.01.02.01.b. Classifythe characteristics ofsuccessful entrepreneurs inAFNR businesses.ABS.01.02.01.c.Demonstrateentrepreneurship, includingidea generation, opportunityanalysis and riskassessment.ABS.02. Performance Element: Utilize appropriate management planning principles in AFNRbusiness enterprises.ABS.02.01. Performance Indicator: Compose and analyze a business plan for anenterprise.Language Arts: 3, 4, 5, 7and 8Social Studies: 7hABS.02.01.01.a. Recognizequality AFNR business plancomponents that have beendeveloped using the SMART(specific, measurable,attainable, realistic andtimely) format.ABS.02.01.02.a. Identifyand observe ethicalstandards in planning andoperating AFNR businesses.ABS.02.01.01.b. Identifycomponents of businessplans and demonstrate howto write such componentsusing the SMART format.ABS.02.01.02.b. Observeappropriate laws andregulations in planning andoperating AFNR businesses.ABS.02.01.01.c. Prepareand critique AFNR businessplans.ABS.02.01.02.c. Utilizemethods of AFNR businessenterprise analysis, such asSWOT (strengths,weaknesses, opportunitiesand threats).13

Level I Level II Level IIIABS.02.02. Performance Indicator: Read, interpret, evaluate and write a missionstatement to guide business goals, objectives and resource allocation.National AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationLanguage Arts: 3, 4, 5 and6ABS.02.02.01.a. Read andinterpret mission statements.ABS.02.02.02.a. Identifythe meaning and importanceof goals and objectives inAFNR business enterprises.ABS.02.02.01.b. Identifyapproaches in creatingmission statements for AFNRbusinesses.ABS.02.02.02.b. Prepareshort-term, intermediate andlong-term goals andobjectives that are consistentwith the mission statementfor an AFNR business.ABS.02.02.01.c. Create anddisseminate a missionstatement for businessactivities in AFNR.ABS.02.02.02.c. EvaluateAFNR business goals andobjectives and makerevisions based onobservations.ABS.02.03. Performance Indicator: Apply appropriate management skills toorganize a business.Language Arts: 12Social Studies: 7fABS.02.03.01.a. Identifyorganizational structures andchains of command in AFNRbusinesses.ABS.02.03.02.a. Identifyappropriate local, state,federal, international andindustry regulations for AFNRbusinesses.ABS.02.03.01.b. Identifymanagement types in AFNRbusinesses.ABS.02.03.02.b. Prepareand deliver AFNR businesspresentations that includecustomers served, sources ofinputs and how a businessproduces goods and services.ABS.02.03.01.c. Implementmanagement approaches toassure efficiency andprofitability.ABS.02.03.02.c. Create anorganizational chart for anAFNR business.ABS.02.04. Performance Indicator: Recruit, train and retain appropriate andproductive human resources for businesses.Language Arts: 4 and 9ABS.02.04.01.a. Identifythe meaning and functions ofhuman resources in AFNRbusinesses.ABS.02.04.02.a. Identifyusual employee benefits inAFNR businesses.ABS.02.04.03.a. Explain themeaning and importance ofemployee relations, includingcommunication.ABS.02.04.01.b. Determineappropriate human resourcesfor AFNR businesses.ABS.02.04.02.b. Design acareer development andtraining plan for employees ofan AFNR business.ABS.02.04.03.b. Establishand maintain appropriaterecords and reports onhuman resources.ABS.02.04.01.c. Write jobdescriptions for specificpositions in an AFNRbusiness.ABS.02.04.02.c. Create arecruitment and evaluationprogram for employees in anAFNR business.ABS.02.04.03.c. Determineand follow appropriateregulations in recruiting, hiringand promoting personnel.14

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationABS.02.04.04.a. Identifythe meaning and nature ofemployee compensation.ABS.02.04.04.b. Design alegally compliant andcompetitive compensationplan for AFNR businessemployees.ABS.02.04.04.c. Devise acompensation plan toequitably compensate,motivate and recognizeproductivity of humanresources.ABS.03. Performance Element: Utilize record keeping to accomplish AFNR business objectiveswhile complying with laws and regulations.ABS.03.01. Performance Indicator: Prepare and maintain all files needed toaccomplish effective record keeping.Math: 5A and 6BLanguage Arts: 8ABS.03.01.01.a. Maintainproduction and agribusinessrecords.ABS.03.01.01.b. Analyzerecords to improve efficiencyand profitability of an AFNRbusiness.ABS.03.01.01.c. Applymanagement informationsystems in AFNR businessfinancial analysis.ABS.03.02. Performance Indicator: Implement appropriate inventory managementpractices.Language Arts: 8ABS.03.02.01.a. Monitorinventory to maintain optimallevels and calculate costs ofcarrying input and outputinventory.ABS.03.02.01.b. Usecomputer technology ininventory management andreporting, includingspreadsheets, databases,word processing, networkedsystems and the Internet.ABS.03.02.01.c. Applylogistics managementstrategies.ABS.04. Performance Element: Apply generally accepted accounting principles and skills tomanage cash budgets, credit budgets and credit for AFNR businesses.ABS.04.01. Performance Indicator: Use accounting fundamentals to accomplishdependable bookkeeping and fiscal management.Math: 1C, 5A and 5CSocial Studies: 7hABS.04.01.01.a. Budgetresources, as applied to theAFNR business, includingcapital, human, financial andtime.ABS.04.01.02.a. Identifyfinancial concepts associatedwith production and profit.ABS.04.01.03.a. Explain theimportance of return oninvestment for anagribusiness enterprise.ABS.04.01.01.b. Manageassets, including credit, foragribusiness goalachievement.ABS.04.01.02.b. Useaccounting information toestimate the cost of goodssold and margins on thegoods.ABS.04.01.03.b. Analyzereporting requirements forincome, property andemployment taxes associatedwith small AFNR businesses.ABS.04.01.01.c. Manageresources to minimizeliabilities and maximize profit.ABS.04.01.02.c. Evaluatecharacteristics of lines ofcredit, loan terms andalternatives in sources ofcapital.ABS.04.01.03.c. Utilizeaccountants in AFNRbusiness management.15

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationABS.05. Performance Element: Assess accomplishment of goals and objectives by an AFNRbusiness.ABS.05.01. Performance Indicator: Maintain and interpret financial information(income statements, balance sheets, inventory, purchase orders, accountsreceivable and cash-flow analyses) for businesses.Math: 1C, 5A and 5CLanguage Arts: 8ABS.05.01.01.a. Identifyaccounting information inAFNR business reporting andmanagement.ABS.05.01.02.a. Name andexplain the impact of externaleconomic factors on anAFNR business.ABS.05.01.03.a. Identifyinformation needed for anAFNR business manager tomonitor performance on adaily, weekly, monthly,quarterly and annual basis.ABS.05.01.04.a. Calculatepercentages, ratios andrelated business applications.ABS.05.01.01.b. Maintainaccounting informationneeded to prepare an incomestatement, balance sheetand cash-flow analysis for anAFNR business.ABS.05.01.02.b. Recognizehow changes in prices ofinputs and/or outputsinfluence the financialstatements of an AFNRbusiness.ABS.05.01.03.b. Interpretbusiness performance data.ABS.05.01.04.b.Summarize financial data foruse in preparing variousbusiness financialstatements.ABS.05.01.01.c. Interpretfinancial information for anAFNR business to determineprofitability, net worthposition, financial ratios,performance measures andability to meet cash-flowrequirements.ABS.05.01.02.c. Predict theconsequences of delayedpayment of expenses,prepayment of expenses anddelayed receipts on afinancial statement.ABS.05.01.03.c. Conduct abreakeven analysis for anAFNR business.ABS.05.01.04.c. Interpretand evaluate financialstatements, including incomestatements, balance sheetsand cash-flow analyses.ABS.06. Performance Element: Use industry-accepted marketing principles to accomplishAFNR business objectives.ABS.06.01. Performance Indicator: Conduct appropriate market and marketingresearch.Social Studies: 7b and 7hABS.06.01.01.a. Investigatethe meaning and methods ofmarketing in AFNR as relatedto agricultural commodities,products and services and toagricultural goods indomestic and internationalmarkets.ABS.06.01.01.b. Applybenefit/cost analysis tomarketing in AFNRbusinesses.ABS.06.01.01.c. Implementand evaluate marketingstrategies with agriculturalcommodities, products andservices.16

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationABS.06.01.02.a. Describefunctions in agriculturalmarketing.ABS.06.01.02.b. Assess thepresence of marketinginfrastructure for agriculturalcommodities.ABS.06.01.02.c. Evaluatealternative marketingstrategies, such as valueadding,branding and nichemarketing, and propose andimplement appropriatemodifications to achieveAFNR business goals.ABS.06.02. Performance Indicator: Develop a marketing plan.Language Arts: 3, 5, 7 and8Social Studies: 7b and 7dABS.06.02.01.a. Identifythe purpose, componentsand developmentalprocesses of marketingplans.ABS.06.02.01.b. Perform amarketing analysis, includingevaluation of thecompetitors, customers,international and domesticpolicy environment,regulations and rules,standards and AFNRbusiness resources.ABS.06.02.01.c. Establishmarketing plangoals/objectives, includingmonitoring, measuring andanalyzing goal achievement.ABS.06.03. Performance Indicator: Develop strategies for marketing planimplementation.Social Studies: 7b and 7hABS.06.03.01.a. Identifyand use strategies frequentlyemployed in marketingprograms, including thoseused in niche markets.ABS.06.03.01.b. Determinemarketing strategies that aremost likely to be effective inan AFNR business.ABS.06.03.01.c. Revisemarketing strategies basedon monitoring andmeasurement information fortarget customer base.ABS.06.04. Performance Indicator: Develop specific tactics to market AFNRproducts and services.Social Studies: 7b, 7g and7hABS.06.04.01.a. Explain themeaning and use of the fourPs (product, place, price andpromotion) in marketing.ABS.06.04.01.b. Developadvertising campaigns thatpromote products andservices.ABS.06.04.01.c. Implementsales goals and incentiveprograms, and identify pricingstrategies used bycompetitors.ABS.06.05. Performance Indicator: Merchandise products and services to achievespecific marketing goals.Language Arts: 4Social Studies: 7b and 7dABS.06.05.01.a. Identify,explain and organizecomponents of the salesprocess.ABS.06.05.01.b. Developeffective customerrelationships usingapproaches that areconsistent andcomprehensive.ABS.06.05.01.c. Monitormarketing approaches todetermine effectiveness ingoal achievement, and makeneeded changes in suchapproaches.17

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationABS.06.05.02.a. Developstrategies to gain newcustomers.ABS.06.05.03.a. Identifyand maintain needed salesrecords.ABS.06.05.02.b. Devisesales practices to achievegoals effectively andefficiently.ABS.06.05.03.b. Usestrategies to follow up salesto provide post-sales service.ABS.06.05.02.c. Prepareand make salespresentations.ABS.06.05.03.c. Intercept,interpret and processcustomer complaints, needsand problems with productsand services.ABS.07. Performance Element: Create a production system plan.ABS.07.01. Performance Indicator: Prepare a step-by-step production plan thatidentifies needed resources.Language Arts: 4, 5 and 8ABS.07.01.01.a. Prepare aflowchart that showsproduction processes,including the resourcesneeded for each step.ABS.07.01.01.b. Identifyand assess alternativeproduction systems and waysproducts can be produced.ABS.07.01.01.c. Adaptproduction processes basedon changing productcharacteristics.ABS.07.02. Performance Indicator: Develop a production and operational plan.Language Arts: 4, 5, 6 and12ABS.07.02.01.a. Identifythe components of aproduction and operationalplan.ABS.07.02.02.a. Identifycommon resources neededto operate a productionfacility.ABS.07.02.01.b. Evaluatethe components of aproduction and operationalplan and then revise anexisting plan.ABS.07.02.02.b. Examinelegal and industryrequirements for a productionfacility.ABS.07.02.01.c. Developand implement a productsupply and distribution planthat meets the goals andobjectives of an AFNRbusiness.ABS.07.02.02.c. Develop aproduction facility plan thatincludes building, equipment,personnel, utilities andlogistics components.ABS.07.03. Performance Indicator: Utilize appropriate techniques to determinethe most likely strengths, weaknesses and inconsistencies in a business plan andrelate these to risk management strategies.Language Arts: 12ABS.07.03.01.a. Examine abusiness plan to identifyinconsistencies and actionsto correct inconsistencies.ABS.07.03.01.b. Describeapproaches to use in revisinga business plan for improvedconsistency and realism.ABS.07.03.01.c. Revisebusiness plans as needed toassure internal consistency.18

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationABS.07.04. Performance Indicator: Manage risk and uncertainty. Language Arts: 12ABS.07.04.01.a. Determinethe meaning and importanceof risk and uncertainty withAFNR enterprises.ABS.07.04.01.b. Describealternative approaches toreducing risk, including theuse of insurance for productliability, property, productionor income loss and forpersonnel life and health.ABS.07.04.01.c. Prepare acomprehensive riskmanagement andcontingency plan for an AFNRbusiness.19

Career Cluster: AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND NATURAL RESOURCES (AFNR)Career Pathway: Animal Systems (AS)Pathway Content Standard: The student will demonstrate competence in the application of scientific principlesand practices to the production and management of animals.Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationAS.01. Performance Element: Examine the components, historical development, globalimplications and future trends of the animal systems industry.AS.01.01. Performance Indicator: Evaluate the development and implications ofanimal origin, domestication and distribution.Science: C3Social Studies: 7hAS.01.01.01.a. Identify theorigin, significance,distribution anddomestication of animalspecies.AS.01.01.02.a. Definemajor components of theanimal industry.AS.01.01.01.b. Evaluateand describe characteristicsof animals that developed inresponse to the animals’environment and led to theirdomestication.AS.01.01.02.b. Outline thedevelopment of the animalindustry and the resultingproducts, services andcareers.AS.01.01.01.c. Predictadaptations of animals toproduction practices andenvironments.AS.01.01.02.c. Predicttrends and implications offuture development of theanimal systems industry.AS.02. Performance Element: Classify, evaluate, select and manage animals based onanatomical and physiological characteristics.AS.02.01. Performance Indicator: Classify animals according to hierarchicaltaxonomy and agricultural use.Science: C3AS.02.01.01.a. Explain theimportance of the binomialsystem of nomenclature.AS.02.01.02.a. Identifymajor animal species bycommon and scientificnames.AS.02.01.01.b. Explain howanimals are classified usingLinnaeus’s taxonomicalclassification system.AS.02.01.02.b. Compareand contrast the hierarchicalclassification of the majoragricultural animal species.AS.02.01.01.c. Classifyanimals according to thetaxonomical classificationsystem.AS.02.01.02.c. Appraiseand evaluate the economicvalue of animals for variousapplications in the agricultureindustry.AS.02.02. Performance Indicator: Apply principles of comparative anatomy andphysiology to uses within various animal systems.Science: C1, C5 and F2AS.02.02.01.a. Identifybasic characteristics ofanimal cells, tissues, organsand body systems.AS.02.02.01.b. Compareand contrast animal cells,tissues, organs and bodysystems.AS.02.02.01.c. Explain howthe components and systemsof animal anatomy andphysiology relate to theproduction and use ofanimals.20

Level I Level II Level IIIAS.02.02.02.a. Diagram atypical animal cell andidentify the organelles.AS.02.02.03.a. Describethe basic functions of animalcells in growth andreproduction.AS.02.02.04.a. Describethe properties, locations,functions and types of animaltissues.AS.02.02.05.a. Describethe properties, locations,functions and types of animalorgans.AS.02.02.06.a. Describethe functions of the animalbody systems and systemcomponents.AS.02.02.02.b. Describethe functions of animal cellstructures.AS.02.02.03.b. Detail theprocesses of meiosis andmitosis in animal growth,development, health andreproduction.AS.02.02.04.b. Explain therelationship of animal tissuesto growth, performance andhealth.AS.02.02.05.b. Compareand contrast organ types andfunctions among animalspecies.AS.02.02.06.b. Compareand contrast body systemsand system adaptationsbetween animal species.AS.02.02.02.c. Describe themolecular makeup of animalcells and its importance inanimal production andmanagement.AS.02.02.03.c. Explain theapplication of the processesof meiosis and mitosis toanimal growth, development,health and reproduction.AS.02.02.04.c. Explain theimportance and uses madeof animal tissues in theagriculture industry.AS.02.02.05.c. Relate theimportance of animal organsto the health, growth andreproduction of animals.AS.02.02.06.c. Explain theimpact of animal bodysystems on performance,health, growth andreproduction.AS.02.03. Performance Indicator: Select animals for specific purposes andmaximum performance based on anatomy and physiology.AS.02.03.01.a. Identifyways an animal’s health canbe affected by anatomicaland physiological disorders.AS.02.03.02.a. Create aprogram to develop ananimal to its highest potentialperformance.AS.02.03.01.b. Compareand contrast desirableanatomical and physiologicalcharacteristics of animalswithin and between species.AS.02.03.02.b. Assess ananimal to determine if it hasreached its optimalperformance level based onanatomical and physiologicalcharacteristics.AS.02.03.01.c. Evaluateand select animals tomaximize performance basedon anatomical andphysiological characteristicsthat affect health, growth andreproduction.AS.02.03.02.c. Developefficient procedures toproduce consistently highqualityanimals, well suitedfor their intended purposes.AS.03. Performance Element: Provide for the proper health care of animals.AS.03.01. Performance Indicator: Prescribe and implement a prevention andtreatment program for animal diseases, parasites and other disorders.AS.03.01.01.a. Explainmethods of determininganimal health and disorders.AS.03.01.01.b. Performsimple health-checkevaluations on animals.AS.03.01.01.c. Performdiagnostic tests to detecthealth problems in animals.National AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationScience: C5Science: C4, F1 and F521

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationAS.03.01.02.a. Identifycommon diseases, parasitesand physiological disordersthat affect animals.AS.03.01.03.a. Explaincharacteristics of causativeagents and vectors ofdiseases and disorders inanimals.AS.03.01.04.a. Explain theclinical significance ofcommon considerations inveterinary treatments, suchas aseptic techniques.AS.03.01.05.a. Identify anddescribe zoonotic diseases.AS.03.01.02.b. Diagnoseillnesses and disorders ofanimals based on symptomsand problems caused bydiseases, parasites andphysiological disorders.AS.03.01.03.b. Evaluatepreventive measures forcontrolling and limiting thespread of diseases, parasitesand disorders amonganimals.AS.03.01.04.b. Prepareanimals, facilities andequipment for surgical andnonsurgical veterinarytreatments and procedures.AS.03.01.05.b. Explain thehealth risk of zoonoticdiseases to humans and theirhistorical significance andfuture implications.AS.03.01.02.c. Treatcommon diseases, parasitesand physiological disorders ofanimals.AS.03.01.03.c. Design andimplement a healthmaintenance and diseaseand disorder prevention planfor animals in their naturaland/or confinedenvironments.AS.03.01.04.c. Performsurgical and nonsurgicalveterinary treatments andprocedures in animal healthcare.AS.03.01.05.c. Implementzoonotic disease preventionmethods and procedures forthe safe handling andtreatment of animals.AS.03.02. Performance Indicator: Provide for the biosecurity of agriculturalanimals and production facilities.Science: F5 and F6Social Studies: 9dAS.03.02.01.a. Explain theimportance of biosecurity tothe animal industry.AS.03.02.01.b. Discussprocedures at the local, stateand national levels to ensurebiosecurity of the animalindustry.AS.03.02.01.c. Implement abiosecurity plan for an animalproduction operation.AS.04. Performance Element: Apply principles of animal nutrition to ensure the proper growth,development, reproduction and economic production of animals.AS.04.01. Performance Indicator: Formulate feed rations to provide for thenutritional needs of animals.Math: 1C and 6BScience: A4 and C5AS.04.01.01.a. Compareand contrast common typesof feedstuffs and the rolesthey play in the diets ofanimals.AS.04.01.01.b. Determinethe relative nutritional valueof feedstuffs by evaluatingtheir general quality andcondition.AS.04.01.01.c. Selectappropriate feedstuffs foranimals based on factorssuch as economics, digestivesystem and nutritional needs.22

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationAS.04.01.02.a. Explain theimportance of a balancedration for animals.AS.04.01.02.b. Appraise theadequacy of feed rationsusing data from the analysisof feedstuffs, animalrequirements andperformance.AS.04.01.02.c. Formulateanimal feeds based onnutritional requirements,using feed ingredients formaximum nutrition andoptimal economicproduction.AS.04.02. Performance Indicator: Prescribe and administer animal feed additivesand growth promotants in animal production.Science: C5AS.04.02.01.a. Explain thepurpose and benefits of feedadditives and growthpromotants in animalproduction.AS.04.02.01.b. Discuss howfeed additives and growthpromotants are administeredand the precautions thatshould be taken.AS.04.02.01.c. Prescribeand administer feed additivesand growth promotants.AS.05. Performance Element: Evaluate and select animals based on scientific principles ofanimal production.AS.05.01. Performance Indicator: Evaluate the male and female reproductivesystems in selecting animals.Science: C1 and C3AS.05.01.01.a. Explain themale and femalereproductive organs of themajor animal species.AS.05.01.01.b. Describethe functions of major organsin the male and femalereproductive systems.AS.05.01.01.c. Selectbreeding animals based oncharacteristics of thereproductive organs.AS.05.02. Performance Indicator: Evaluate animals for breeding readiness andsoundness.Science: C6AS.05.02.01.a. Explain howage, size, life cycle, maturitylevel and health status affectthe reproductive efficiency ofmale and female animals.AS.05.02.02.a. Discuss theimportance of efficient andeconomic reproduction inanimals.AS.05.02.01.b. Summarizefactors that lead toreproductive maturity.AS.05.02.02.b. Evaluatereproductive problems thatoccur in animals.AS.05.02.01.c. Evaluateand select animals forreproductive readiness.AS.05.02.02.c. Treat or cullanimals with reproductiveproblems.AS.05.03. Performance Indicator: Apply scientific principles in the selection andbreeding of animals.Math: 6CScience: A4, C2 and E2AS.05.03.01.a. Explaingenetic inheritance inagricultural animals.AS.05.03.02.a. Definenatural and artificial breedingmethods.AS.05.03.01.b. Explain theadvantages of usinggenetically superior animalsin the production of animalsand animal products.AS.05.03.02.b. Explain theprocesses of natural andartificial breeding methods.AS.05.03.01.c. Select abreeding system based onthe principles of genetics.AS.05.03.02.c. Selectanimal breeding methodsbased on reproductive andeconomic efficiency.23

Level I Level II Level IIIAS.05.03.03.a. Explain theuse of quantitative breedingvalues (e.g., EPDs) in theselection of geneticallysuperior breeding stock.AS.05.03.04.a. Explain theadvantages of majorreproductive managementpractices, including estroussynchronization,superovulation, flushing andembryo transfer.AS.05.03.05.a. Discuss theuses and advantages anddisadvantages of naturalbreeding and artificialinsemination.AS.05.03.03.b. Compareand contrast quantitativebreeding value differencesbetween genetically superioranimals and animals ofaverage genetic value.AS.05.03.04.b. Explain theprocesses of majorreproductive managementpractices, including estroussynchronization,superovulation, flushing andembryo transfer.AS.05.03.05.b. Explain thematerials, methods andprocesses of artificialinsemination.AS.05.03.03.c. Selectanimals based onquantitative breeding valuesfor specific characteristics.AS.05.03.04.c. Performprocedures for estroussynchronization,superovulation, flushing,embryo transfer and otherreproductive managementpractices.AS.05.03.05.c.Demonstrate artificialinsemination techniques.National AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationAS.06. Performance Element: Prepare and implement animal handling procedures for thesafety of animals, producers and consumers of animal products.AS.06.01. Performance Indicator: Demonstrate safe animal handling andmanagement techniques.AS.06.01.01.a. Discuss thedangers involved in workingwith animals.AS.06.01.02.a. Explain theimplications of animalwelfare and animal rights foranimal agriculture.AS.06.01.01.b. Outlinesafety procedures for workingwith animals by species.AS.06.01.02.b. Designprograms that assure thewelfare of animals andprevent abuse ormistreatment.AS.06.01.01.c. Interpretanimal behaviors andexecute protocols for safehandling of animals.AS.06.01.02.c. Implementquality-assurance programsand procedures for animalproduction.AS.06.02. Performance Indicator: Implement procedures to ensure that animalproducts are safe.AS.06.02.01.a. Identifyanimal production practicesthat could pose health risksor are considered to poserisks by some.AS.06.02.02.a. Describehow animal identificationsystems can track ananimal’s location, nutritionrequirements, productionprogress and changes inhealth.AS.06.02.01.b. Discussconsumer concerns withanimal production practicesrelative to human health.AS.06.02.02.b. Explain whyanimal trace-back capability,using individual animal andfarm identification systems,is important to producers andconsumers.AS.06.02.01.c. Implement aprogram to assure the safetyof animal products.AS.06.02.02.c. Implementan animal and/or premisesidentification program.Science: C6Science: F1 and F524

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationAS.07. Performance Element: Select animal facilities and equipment that provide for the safeand efficient production, housing and handling of animals.AS.07.01. Performance Indicator: Design animal housing, equipment andhandling facilities for the major systems of animal production.AS.07.01.01.a. Identifyfacilities needed to houseand produce each animalspecies safely and efficiently.AS.07.01.02.a. Identifyequipment and handlingfacilities used in modernanimal production.AS.07.01.01.b. Critiquedesigns for an animal facilityand prescribe alternativelayouts and adjustments forthe safe and efficient use ofthe facility.AS.07.01.02.b. Explain howmodern equipment andhandling facilities enhancethe safe and economicproduction of animals.AS.07.01.01.c. Design ananimal facility, focusing onanimal requirements,efficiency, safety and ease ofhandling.AS.07.01.02.c. Selectequipment and implementanimal handling proceduresand improvements toenhance productionefficiency.AS.07.02. Performance Indicator: Comply with government regulations and safetystandards for facilities used in animal production.AS.07.02.01.a. List thegeneral standards (e.g.,environmental, zoning,construction) that must bemet in facilities for animalproduction.AS.07.02.01.b. Evaluate ananimal facility to determine ifstandards have been met.AS.07.02.01.c. Design afacility that meets standardsfor the legal, safe, ethicaland efficient production ofanimals.Science: C6 and F6Science: F5AS.08. Performance Element: Analyze environmental factors associated with animalproduction.AS.08.01. Performance Indicator: Reduce the effects of animal production on theenvironment.AS.08.01.01.a. Evaluate theeffects of animal agricultureon the environment.AS.08.01.01.b. Outlinemethods of reducing theeffects of animal agricultureon the environment.AS.08.01.01.c. Implementmeasures to reduce theimpact of animal agricultureon the environment.AS.08.02. Performance Indicator: Evaluate the effects of environmentalconditions on animals.AS.08.02.01.a. Identifyoptimal environmentalconditions for animals.AS.08.02.01.b. Describethe effects of environmentalconditions on animalpopulations andperformance.AS.08.02.01.c. Establishand maintain favorableenvironmental conditions foranimal growth andperformance.Science: C4 and F4Science: C6 and F425

Career Cluster: AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND NATURAL RESOURCES (AFNR)Career Pathway: Biotechnology Systems (BS)Pathway Content Standard: Pathway Content Standard: The student will demonstrate competence in theapplication of scientific principles and techniques to biotechnology in agriculture.Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationBS.01. Performance Element: Recognize the historical, social, cultural and potentialapplications of biotechnology.BS.01.01. Performance Indicator: Distinguish major innovators, historicaldevelopments and potential applications of biotechnology in agriculture.Science: E2, F6 and G3Language Arts: 8Social Studies: 2b, 8a, 8cand 8eBS.01.01.01.a. Definebiotechnology and explorethe historical impact it hashad on agriculture.BS.01.01.02.a. Investigatecurrent applications ofbiotechnology in agriculture.BS.01.01.03.a. Examinepotential future applicationsof biotechnology inagriculture and comparethem with alternativeapproaches to improvingagriculture.BS.01.01.01.b. Create atimeline and use it to explainthe developmentalprogression of biotechnology.BS.01.01.02.b. Researchand report on current workbeing done in agriculturalbiotechnology.BS.01.01.03.b. Researchand report on emergingproblems and issuesassociated with agriculturalbiotechnology.BS.01.01.01.c. Researchand report on the majorinnovators and milestones inthe development ofbiotechnology.BS.01.01.02.c. Analyze thescope and impact ofagricultural biotechnology intoday’s global society.BS.01.01.03.c. Assess thefuture impact agriculturalbiotechnology could have onworld populations.BS.01.02. Performance Indicator: Determine regulatory issues and identifyagencies associated with biotechnology.Science: A1Language Arts: 4 and 7Social Studies: 10cBS.01.02.01.a. Describethe role of agencies thatregulate biotechnology.BS.01.02.01.b. Interpret themajor regulatory issuesrelated to biotechnology.BS.01.02.01.c. Research,evaluate and articulate amajor regulatory issuepertaining to biotechnology.BS.01.03. Performance Indicator: Analyze the ethical, legal, social and culturalissues relating to biotechnology.Science: A4Language Arts: 4, 7 and 8Social Studies: 10c and 10iBS.01.03.01.a. Exploreethical, legal and socialbiotechnology issues.BS.01.03.01.b. Evaluate thebenefits and risks associatedwith biotechnology.BS.01.03.01.c. Research,evaluate and articulate theimplications of an ethical,legal, social or culturalbiotechnology issue.26

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationBS.01.03.02.a. Explore theemergence, evolution andimplications of bioethics.BS.01.03.03.a. Explain themeaning of intellectualproperties as related tobiotechnology.BS.01.03.02.b. Examine anethical dilemma associatedwith biotechnology byidentifying its components.BS.01.03.03.b. Examineintellectual propertiesassociated withbiotechnology by definingtheir components.BS.01.03.02.c. Researchand debate an ethical issueassociated withbiotechnology.BS.01.03.03.c. Analyze anintellectual property issueassociated with bioethics.BS.02. Performance Element: Demonstrate laboratory skills as applied to biotechnology.BS.02.01. Performance Indicator: Maintain and interpret biotechnology laboratoryrecords.Math: 2D, 3A and 5BScience: A2 and A6Language Arts: 5 and 7BS.02.01.01.a. Maintain abiotechnology laboratorynotebook.BS.02.01.01.b. Analyzestrengths of the researchbased on data andprocedures, and proposefuture investigation.BS.02.01.01.c. Utilizeexternal reviews and comparethem to research conducted.BS.02.02. Performance Indicator: Operate biotechnology laboratory equipmentaccording to standard procedures.Math: 4AScience: A3BS.02.02.01.a. Operatebasic laboratory equipmentand measurement devices.BS.02.02.01.b. Operateadvanced laboratoryequipment and measurementdevices.BS.02.02.01.c. Calibratelaboratory equipment andconduct instrumentqualification tests.BS.02.03. Performance Indicator: Demonstrate proper laboratory proceduresusing biological materials.Science: A2, A3 and E1BS.02.03.01.a.Demonstrate basic aseptictechniques in thebiotechnology laboratory.BS.02.03.02.a. Performprocedures with biologicalmaterials according todirections.BS.02.03.01.b.Demonstrate advancedaseptic techniques in thebiotechnology laboratory.BS.02.03.02.b. Select anappropriate standardoperating procedure forworking with biologicalmaterials.BS.02.03.01.c. Performbioassays and experimentsunder aseptic conditions.BS.02.03.02.c. Develop astandard operating procedurefor a biological process.BS.02.04. Performance Indicator: Safely manage biological materials, chemicalsand wastes used in the laboratory.Science: B2, B3, F4 and F5Language Arts: 7BS.02.04.01.a. Preparesimple chemical solutionsusing standard operatingprocedures.BS.02.04.01.b. Preparebuffers, reagents, solutionsand media.BS.02.04.01.c. Verify thephysical properties of buffers,reagents, solutions andmedia.27

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationBS.02.04.02.a. Identify anddescribe hazards associatedwith biological and chemicalmaterials.BS.02.04.03.a. Maintain asafe environment by properlyidentifying and disposing oflaboratory waste.BS.02.04.02.b. Inventorybiological and chemicalmaterials, and maintainaccurate records of suppliesand expiration dates.BS.02.04.03.b. Diagram theflow of waste after it leavesthe laboratory.BS.02.04.02.c. Order, stockand maintain supplies ofbiological and chemicalmaterials.BS.02.04.03.c. Devise amanagement plan to reducelaboratory waste.BS.02.05. Performance Indicator: Perform microbiology, molecular biology,enzymology and immunology procedures.Math: 2CScience: A1, A2, A3, B2,C2, C6 and E2Language Arts: 4BS.02.05.01.a. Differentiatethe types of organisms anddemonstrate how to handlethem safely.BS.02.05.02.a. Explain thestructures of DNA and RNAand how genotype influencesphenotype.BS.02.05.03.a. Extract andpurify DNA and RNA.BS.02.05.04.a. Performsimple enzyme activity assaysto detect proteins.BS.02.05.05.a. Describehow antibodies are formedand how they can be used inbiotechnology applications.BS.02.05.06.a. Explainreasons for detectingmicrobes and identifysources of microbes.BS.02.05.01.b. Isolate,maintain, quantify and storecell cultures.BS.02.05.02.b. Explain themolecular basis for heredityand the tools and techniquesused in DNA and RNAmanipulations.BS.02.05.03.b. Performelectrophoretic techniquesand interpret electrophoresisfragmentation patterns.BS.02.05.04.b. Performprotein separationtechniques and interpret theresults.BS.02.05.05.b. Conduct anEnzyme-LinkedImmunosorbent Assay(ELISA).BS.02.05.06.b. Researchand describe the use ofbiotechnology to detectmicrobes.BS.02.05.01.c. Characterizethe physical, chemical andbiological properties ofmicrobes.BS.02.05.02.c. Analyzefactors that influence geneexpression.BS.02.05.03.c. PerformDNA and RNA manipulations,such as cloning/subcloning,blotting, sequencing andamplification.BS.02.05.04.c. Characterizethe biochemical properties ofproteins.BS.02.05.05.c. Useantibodies to detect andquantify antigens.BS.02.05.06.c. Design andperform an assay to detect atarget microorganism in food,water or the environment.28

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationBS.03. Performance Element: Demonstrate the application of biotechnology to Agriculture,Food and Natural Resources (AFNR).BS.03.01. Performance Indicator: Evaluate the application of genetic engineeringto improve products of AFNR systems.Math: 2CScience: A2, C2, E2 and F4Language Arts: 7 and 8BS.03.01.01.a. Explainbiological, social, agronomicand economic reasons forgenetic modification ofeukaryotes.BS.03.01.02.a. Describeenzymes, the changes theycause in foods and thephysical and chemicalparameters that affectenzymatic reactions.BS.03.01.03.a. Compareand contrast the use ofnatural organisms andgenetically engineeredorganisms in the treatment ofwastes.BS.03.01.04.a. Describethe benefits and risksassociated with the use ofbiotechnology to increaseproductivity and improvequality of aquatic species.BS.03.01.01.b. Diagram theprocesses and describe thetechniques used to producetransgenic eukaryotes.BS.03.01.02.b. Describeprocesses by which enzymesare produced throughbiotechnology.BS.03.01.03.b. Diagram theprocess by which organismsare genetically engineered forwaste treatment.BS.03.01.04.b. Investigateand report on geneticengineering procedures usedin the production of aquaticspecies.BS.03.01.01.c. Design andconduct an experiment toevaluate an existingtransgenic eukaryote.BS.03.01.02.c. Usebiotechnology tools ormicrobial strain selection toimprove or discover enzymesfor use in food processing.BS.03.01.03.c. Monitor andevaluate the treatment of awaste product using agenetically engineeredorganism.BS.03.01.04.c. Conductfield or clinical trials forgenetically modified aquaticspecies.BS.03.02. Performance Indicator: Perform biotechnology processes used in AFNRsystems.Science: B3, C5, D1 andE2Language Arts: 4BS.03.02.01.a. Explain thefunctions of hormones inanimals.BS.03.02.02.a. Identifyfoods produced throughfermentation.BS.03.02.03.a. Explain theprocess of fermentation.BS.03.02.01.b. Describethe processes used toproduce animal hormonesfrom transgenic organisms.BS.03.02.02.b. Compareand contrast bioengineeringand conventional pathwaysused in food processing.BS.03.02.03.b. Describethe process used inproducing alcohol frombiomass.BS.03.02.01.c. Administerhormones to enhance animalhealth, growth orreproduction, and monitorand analyze the results.BS.03.02.02.c. Processfood using biotechnology.BS.03.02.03.c. Producealcohol and co-products frombiomass.29

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationBS.03.02.04.a. Explain theprocess of transesterification.BS.03.02.05.a. Explain theprocess of methanogenesis.BS.03.02.04.b. Diagram theprocess used in producingbiodiesel from biomass.BS.03.02.05.b. Illustratethe process used inproducing methane frombiomass.BS.03.02.04.c. Producebiodiesel and co-productsfrom biomass.BS.03.02.05.c. Producemethane and co-productsfrom biomass.BS.03.03. Performance Indicator: Use biotechnology to monitor and evaluateprocedures performed in AFNR systems.Science: A2, A3, C4, C6and F5Language Arts: 7 and 8BS.03.03.01.a. Describethe selective plant breedingprocess.BS.03.03.02.a. Describebiotechnology processesapplicable to animal health.BS.03.03.03.a. Giveexamples of instances inwhich bioremediation can beapplied to clean upenvironmental contaminants.BS.03.03.04.a. Explain theuse of microorganisms inbiological wastemanagement.BS.03.03.05.a. Explain therole of microorganisms inindustrial chemical wastetreatment.BS.03.03.06.a. Explain theglobal importance ofbiodiversity.BS.03.03.07.a. Explain theconsequences of agriculturalpractices on wild populations.BS.03.03.01.b. Selectbiotechnology tools used tomonitor and direct plantbreeding.BS.03.03.02.b. Assess thebenefits, risks andopportunities associated withusing biotechnology topromote animal health.BS.03.03.03.b. Describethe use of biotechnology inbioremediation.BS.03.03.04.b. Describethe processes involved inbiotreatment of biologicalwastes.BS.03.03.05.b. Interpret theprocesses involved inbiotreatment of industrialchemical wastes.BS.03.03.06.b. Selectbiotechnology tools used tomeasure biodiversity.BS.03.03.07.b. Explain howbiotechnology tools can beused to monitor the effectsof agricultural practices onwild populations.BS.03.03.01.c. Design andconduct an experiment usingbiotechnology tools toevaluate selectively bredplants.BS.03.03.02.c. Designanimal-care protocols thatuse biotechnology tools toethically monitor andpromote animal systems.BS.03.03.03.c. Monitor andevaluate the effectiveness ofbioremediation efforts byparticipating in abioremediation project.BS.03.03.04.c. Monitor andevaluate the treatment ofbiological wastes withmicroorganisms.BS.03.03.05.c. Monitor andevaluate the treatment ofindustrial chemical wasteswith microorganisms.BS.03.03.06.c. Usebiotechnology tools tomeasure biodiversity in apopulation.BS.03.03.07.c. Analyze theimplications of biotechnologyon wild species.30

Level I Level II Level IIIBS.03.03.08.a. Explainbiomass and sources ofbiomass.BS.03.03.09.a. Defineindustrial biotechnology, anddescribe the benefits andrisks associated with its usein the manufacturing offabrics, plastics and otherproducts.BS.03.03.08.b. Assess thecharacteristics of biomassthat make it useful forbiofuels production.BS.03.03.09.b. Describethe processes used in theproduction of molecules foruse in industrial applications.BS.03.03.08.c. Evaluate thetechnologies used to createbiofuels from biomass.BS.03.03.09.c. Monitor andevaluate biotechnologyprocesses used in thesynthesis of a molecule.National AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectation31

Career Cluster: AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND NATURAL RESOURCES (AFNR)Career Pathway: Environmental Service Systems (ESS)Pathway Content Standard: The student will demonstrate competence in the application of scientific principlesand techniques to the management of environmental service systems.Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationESS.01. Performance Element: Use analytical procedures to plan and evaluate environmentalservice systems.ESS.01.01. Performance Indicator: Analyze and interpret samples.Math: 1A, 1B, 4A and 5BScience: A2ESS.01.01.01.a. Identifysample types and samplingtechniques, explain theimportance of unbiasedsampling and collectsamples.ESS.01.01.02.a. Identifybasic laboratory equipmentand environmentalmonitoring instruments andexplain their uses.ESS.01.01.01.b. Determinethe appropriate samplingtechniques needed togenerate statistical analysisdata, and prepare validchemical laboratory samplesaccording to instructions.ESS.01.01.02.b.Demonstrate the proper useand maintenance of basiclaboratory equipment andenvironmental monitoringinstruments.ESS.01.01.01.c. Analyzeand interpret results ofsample measurements.ESS.01.01.02.c. Calibrateand use laboratory and fieldequipment and instrumentsaccording to standardoperating procedures.ESS.02. Performance Element: Assess the impact of policies and regulations onenvironmental service systems.ESS.02.01. Performance Indicator: Interpret laws affecting environmental servicesystems.Science: F4Language Arts: 1 and 8Social Studies: 10cESS.02.01.01.a. Identifylaws associated withenvironmental servicesystems.ESS.02.01.01.b. Identifythe purposes of lawsassociated withenvironmental servicesystems.ESS.02.01.01.c. Abide bythe specific laws pertaining toenvironmental servicesystems.ESS.03. Performance Element: Apply scientific principles to environmental service systems.ESS.03.01. Performance Indicator: Apply meteorology principles to environmentalservice systems.Science: D2 and F4Language Arts: 8Social Studies: 3cESS.03.01.01.a. Identifycomponents and structurallayers of the earth’satmosphere.ESS.03.01.01.b.Differentiate the types ofweather systems andweather patterns.ESS.03.01.01.c. Monitormeteorological conditionsand accurately record anddocument the data.32

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationESS.03.01.02.a. Explainhow meteorologicalconditions influence airquality.ESS.03.01.03.a. Explainclimate change andrecognize signs of climatechange.ESS.03.01.04.a. Explain theearth’s balance of energy.ESS.03.01.02.b. Illustratethe formation of acidprecipitation and explain itsimpact on the environment.ESS.03.01.03.b. Prepare areport on the environmentalconsequences of climatechange.ESS.03.01.04.b. Explain thebasics of the greenhouseeffect and describe how thegreenhouse effect alters theearth’s balance of energy.ESS.03.01.02.c. Monitor airquality and accurately recordand document the data.ESS.03.01.03.c. Evaluatethe predicted impacts ofglobal climate change onenvironmental servicesystems.ESS.03.01.04.c. Explainprocesses that contribute tothe change in levels ofgreenhouse gases.ESS.03.02. Performance Indicator: Apply soil science principles to environmentalservice systems.Science: B2 and D2Social Studies: 3kESS.03.02.01.a. Explain theprocess of soil formationthrough weathering.ESS.03.02.02.a. Describethe biodiversity found in soiland the contribution ofbiodiversity to the physicaland chemical characteristicsof soil.ESS.03.02.03.a. Explainhow the physical qualities ofthe soil influence theinfiltration and percolation ofwater.ESS.03.02.04.a. Identifyland uses, capability factorsand land capability classes.ESS.03.02.01.b.Differentiate rock types andrelate the chemicalcomposition of mineralmatter in soils to the parentmaterial.ESS.03.02.02.b. Relate theactivities of microorganismsin soil to environmentalservice systems.ESS.03.02.03.b. Identifythe physical qualities of thesoil that determine its use forenvironmental servicesystems.ESS.03.02.04.b. Use a soilsurvey to determine the landcapability classes for differentparcels of land in an area.ESS.03.02.01.c. Applyknowledge of soil orders toenvironmental servicesystems.ESS.03.02.02.c. Evaluatethe uses of soilmicroorganisms inenvironmental servicesystems.ESS.03.02.03.c. Conducttests of soil to determine itsuse for environmental servicesystems.ESS.03.02.04.c. Design amaster land-usemanagement plan for a givenarea.ESS.03.03. Performance Indicator: Apply hydrology principles to environmentalservice systems.Science: D2ESS.03.03.01.a. Describethe world’s water suppliesand discuss the many usesof water.ESS.03.03.01.b. Describecharacteristics of water thatinfluence the biosphere andsustain life.ESS.03.03.01.c. Researchand debate one or morecurrent environmental issuesassociated with the suppliesof groundwater and surfacewater.33

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationESS.03.03.02.a.Demonstrate knowledge ofhydrogeology bydifferentiating betweengroundwater and surfacewater.ESS.03.03.03.a. Definegroundwater potential.ESS.03.03.04.a. Identifyenvironmental hazardsassociated with groundwatersupplies.ESS.03.03.05.a. Discussfactors that influence thevelocity of water through anopen channel.ESS.03.03.06.a. Identifythe operational componentsof a pumping or fluidmovement system.ESS.03.03.02.b. Describeinteractions betweengroundwater and surfacewater.ESS.03.03.03.b. Identifydifferences in groundwaterpotential.ESS.03.03.04.b. Describeprecautions taken toprevent/reducecontamination ofgroundwater supplies.ESS.03.03.05.b. Explainhow the velocity of waterinfluences channelmorphology and streamprocesses.ESS.03.03.06.b. Discussdesign principles related tohydraulic systems and highflowtechnologies related tofluid movement.ESS.03.03.02.c. Usegroundwater-flow equationsand Darcy’s Law to explainhow geology and meteorologyaffect groundwater andgroundwater flow.ESS.03.03.03.c. Delineategroundwater potential zones.ESS.03.03.04.c. Test anddocument the quality ofgroundwater supplies.ESS.03.03.05.c. Measureand document water flowthrough an open channel andinterpret channel-flowanalysis.ESS.03.03.06.c. Install andmaintain pumps andassociated delivery systems.ESS.03.04. Performance Indicator: Apply best management techniquesassociated with the properties, classifications and functions of wetlands.Science: C4 and F3Social Studies: 3cESS.03.04.01.a. Describethe functions of wetlands anddifferentiate types ofwetlands.ESS.03.04.02.a. Identifythe major types of livingorganisms that inhabitwetlands.ESS.03.04.03.a. Explain theimportance of wetlandmanagement, creation,enhancement and restorationprograms.ESS.03.04.01.b. Explain thecriteria for classifyingwetlands.ESS.03.04.02.b. Identifythe predominant species in alocal wetland.ESS.03.04.03.b. Identifytechniques used in wetlandmanagement, creation,enhancement and restorationprograms.ESS.03.04.01.c. Apply theHydrogeomorphic (HGM)Approach and NationalWetland Inventories (NWI) todetermine the classificationsfor local wetlands.ESS.03.04.02.c. Conduct asurvey of the predominantspecies in a local wetland.ESS.03.04.03.c. Evaluateand document the conditionof a local wetland and applytechniques to manage,create, enhance and/orrestore local wetlands.34

Level I Level II Level IIIESS.03.05. Performance Indicator: Apply chemistry principles to environmentalservice systems.ESS.03.05.01.a. Explainbasic chemistry principles.ESS.03.05.01.b. Distinguishthe characteristics ofinorganic and organiccompounds as they relate toenvironmental servicesystems.ESS.03.05.01.c. Applystandard operatingprocedures for use ofchemicals in environmentalservice systems.ESS.03.06. Performance Indicator: Apply microbiology principles to environmentalservice systems.ESS.03.06.01.a. Identifythe basic structures ofmicroorganisms and themajor groups ofmicroorganisms.ESS.03.06.02.a. Define thepurposes of bioassay tests.ESS.03.06.01.b. Describemicrobial growth in theenvironment and analyze theinfluence of environmentalfactors on microbial growth.ESS.03.06.02.b. Outlineprocedures for a bioassaytest.ESS.03.06.01.c. Collect,culture and examinemicroorganisms, followingsafety procedures.ESS.03.06.02.c. Conductbioassay tests related toenvironmental servicesystems and interpret results.National AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationScience: B2, B3 and F4Science: A2, C1 and F1ESS.04. Performance Element: Operate environmental service systems to manage a facilityenvironment.ESS.04.01. Performance Indicator: Use pollution control measures to maintain asafe facility environment.ESS.04.01.01.a. Identifytypes of pollution anddistinguish between pointsource and nonpoint sourcepollution.ESS.04.01.02.a. Describeways in which pollution canbe managed and prevented.ESS.04.01.01.b. Giveexamples of how industrialand nonindustrial pollutionhas damaged theenvironment.ESS.04.01.02.b. Conducttests to determine thepresence and extent ofpollution.ESS.04.01.01.c. Survey thelocal area for evidence ofindustrial and nonindustrialpollution.ESS.04.01.02.c. Plan anddevelop a pollutionremediation, management orprevention program.ESS.04.02. Performance Indicator: Manage safe disposal of all categories of solidwaste.ESS.04.02.01.a. Describedifferent types of solid waste.ESS.04.02.01.b. Evaluateenvironmental hazardscreated by different types ofsolid waste, solid wasteaccumulation and solid wastedisposal.ESS.04.02.01.c. Analyzeenvironmental hazardsassociated with theidentification and acceptanceof solid waste disposal sites.Science: F4 and F5Science: F1, F4 and F535

Level I Level II Level IIIESS.04.02.02.a. Discusspractical managementoptions for treating solidwaste.ESS.04.02.03.a. Definesanitary landfill.ESS.04.02.04.a. Definecompost and composting.ESS.04.02.05.a. Explain thebasic concepts associatedwith solid waste incineration.ESS.04.02.06.a. Explain theimportance of recycling.ESS.04.02.02.b. Identifycharacteristics of solid wastetreatment and recognize thebyproducts of solid wastetreatment.ESS.04.02.03.b. Explainbasic sanitary landfilloperating procedures anddesign.ESS.04.02.04.b. Explainscientific principles related tocomposting.ESS.04.02.05.b. Describethe environmental impact ofsolid waste incineration.ESS.04.02.06.b. Describerecycling methods andidentify materials that can berecycled.ESS.04.02.02.c. Collectand treat solid wastematerials.ESS.04.02.03.c. Evaluatesanitary landfill procedures.ESS.04.02.04.c. Evaluatemethods of operating acomposting facility.ESS.04.02.05.c. Evaluatemethods of incinerating solidwaste, including those usedin waste-to-energy plants.ESS.04.02.06.c. Survey andevaluate local recyclingprograms and procedures.ESS.04.03. Performance Indicator: Apply the principles of public drinking watertreatment operations to ensure safe water at a facility.ESS.04.03.01.a. Identifychemical and physicalproperties of drinking water.ESS.04.03.02.a. Definesource water quality.ESS.04.03.01.b. Illustratethe steps in the publicdrinking water treatmentprocess.ESS.04.03.02.b. Definesource water assessmentsteps.ESS.04.03.01.c.Demonstrate the use ofwater-testing instrumentsand water-treatmentequipment for processingpublic drinking water.ESS.04.03.02.c. Conductand interpret source waterassessments.ESS.04.04. Performance Indicator: Apply principles of wastewater treatment tomanage wastewater disposal in keeping with rules and regulations.ESS.04.04.01.a. Definewastewater.ESS.04.04.01.b. Diagramthe steps in wastewatertreatment.ESS.04.04.01.c.Demonstrate the use ofwater-testing instrumentsand water-treatmentequipment to treatwastewater.National AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationScience: F3 and F5Science: F4 and F536

Level I Level II Level IIIESS.04.05. Performance Indicator: Manage hazardous materials to assure a safefacility and to comply with applicable regulations.National AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationScience: F4 and F5ESS.04.05.01.a. Identifytypes of hazardous materials.ESS.04.05.01.b. Describerisks related to hazardousmaterials and describe healthand safety practices toreduce risks from hazardousmaterials.ESS.04.05.01.c. Describethe procedures for thetreatment and disposal ofhazardous materials andhazardous waste.ESS.05. Performance Element: Examine the relationships between energy sources andenvironmental service systems.ESS.05.01. Performance Indicator: Compare and contrast the impact ofconventional and alternative energy sources on the environment.Science: B6, D1 and F3ESS.05.01.01.a. Identifyconventional energy sourcesand list conservationmeasures to reduce energyconsumption.ESS.05.01.02.a. Identifyalternative energy sources.ESS.05.01.01.b. Identifyadvantages anddisadvantages toconventional energy sources.ESS.05.01.02.b. Identifyadvantages anddisadvantages to alternativeenergy sources.ESS.05.01.01.c. Evaluatethe impact the burning offossil fuels has on theenvironment.ESS.05.01.02.c. Evaluatethe impact of alternativeenergy sources on theenvironment.ESS.06. Performance Element: Use tools, equipment, machinery and technology toaccomplish tasks in environmental service systems.ESS.06.01. Performance Indicator: Use technological and mathematical tools tomap land, facilities and infrastructure.Science: A3Social Studies: 3c and 3eESS.06.01.01.a. Explain theimportance of surveying andmapping for environmentalservice systems.ESS.06.01.01.b. Explainsurveying and mappingprinciples and identify andexplain the use of equipmentfor surveying and mapping.ESS.06.01.01.c.Demonstrate surveying andcartographic skills to makesite measurements and mapfacility accesses andinfrastructure.ESS.06.02. Performance Indicator: Maintain tools, equipment and machinery insafe working order for tasks in environmental service systems.ESS.06.02.01.a.Demonstrate proper use andmaintenance of hand tools.ESS.06.02.01.b. Operateequipment and machinery inaccordance withmanufacturers’ instructionsand OSHA standards,specifically addressingpersonal protectiveequipment and propermachine guarding.ESS.06.02.01.c.Demonstrate properpreventive maintenancetechniques and set up amock preventivemaintenance schedule.37

Career Cluster: AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND NATURAL RESOURCES (AFNR)Career Pathway: Food Products and Processing Systems (FPP)Pathway Content Standard: The student will demonstrate competence in the application of scientific principles,practices and techniques in the processing, storage and development of food products.Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationFPP.01. Performance Element: Examine components of the food industry and historicaldevelopment of food products and processing.FPP.01.01. Performance Indicator: Evaluate the significance and implications ofchanges and trends in the food products and processing industry.Science: F1Language Arts: 7 and 8Social Studies: 1g and 8cFPP.01.01.01.a. Discussthe history and describe andexplain the components(e.g., processing,distribution, byproducts) ofthe food products andprocessing industry.FPP.01.01.02.a. Identifyand explain environmentaland safety concerns aboutthe food supply.FPP.01.01.01.b. Evaluatechanges and trends in thefood products and processingindustry.FPP.01.01.02.b. Discussthe issues of safety andenvironmental concernsabout foods and foodprocessing (e.g., GeneticallyModified Organisms,microorganisms,contamination, irradiation).FPP.01.01.01.c. Predicttrends and implications inthe food products andprocessing industry.FPP.01.01.02.c. Determineappropriate industry responseto consumer concerns toassure a safe andwholesome food supply.FPP.01.02. Performance Indicator: Work effectively with industry organizations,groups and regulatory agencies affecting the food products and processing industry.Language Arts: 12Social Studies: 6c and 8fFPP.01.02.01.a. Explain thepurposes of organizationsthat are part of or regulatethe food products andprocessing industry.FPP.01.02.02.a. Explain theimportance and usage ofindustry standards in foodproducts and processing.FPP.01.02.01.b. Evaluatethe changes in the foodproducts and processingindustry brought about byindustry organizations orregulatory agencies.FPP.01.02.02.b. Discussthe application of industrystandards in the foodproducts and processingindustry.FPP.01.02.01.c. Interacteffectively with organizations,groups and regulatoryagencies that affect the foodproducts and processingindustry.FPP.01.02.02.c. Prepare aplan for implementation ofindustry standards in foodproducts and processingprograms.38

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationFPP.02. Performance Element: Apply safety principles, recommended equipment and facilitymanagement techniques to the food products and processing industry.FPP.02.01. Performance Indicator: Manage operational procedures and createequipment and facility maintenance plans.Language Arts: 12FPP.02.01.01.a. Explain theimportance of developing andmaintaining SanitationStandard OperatingProcedures (SSOP).FPP.02.01.02.a. Explain thepurpose of GoodManufacturing Practices(GMP).FPP.02.01.03.a. Identifyreasons for using a plannedmaintenance program tomaintain equipment andfacilities.FPP.02.01.01.b. Evaluatethe SSOP of a food productsand processing company.FPP.02.01.02.b. Evaluatethe GMP of a food productsand processing company.FPP.02.01.03.b. Develop abasic equipment and facilitymaintenance program.FPP.02.01.01.c. DevelopSSOP for a food productsand processing company.FPP.02.01.02.c. ImplementGMP for a food products andprocessing company.FPP.02.01.03.c. Performbasic equipment and facilitymaintenance in a foodproducts and processingoperation.FPP.02.02. Performance Indicator: Implement Hazard Analysis and CriticalControl Point (HACCP) procedures to establish operating parameters.Science: F5Language Arts: 8FPP.02.02.01.a. Describecontamination hazards(physical, chemical andbiological) associated withfood products andprocessing.FPP.02.02.02.a. Identify theseven principles of HACCP.FPP.02.02.01.b. Outlineprocedures to eliminatepossible contaminationhazards associated with foodproducts and processing.FPP.02.02.02.b. Explain theimplementation of the sevenprinciples of HACCP.FPP.02.02.01.c. Analyzethe effectiveness of a foodproducts and processingcompany’s Critical ControlPoint (CCP) procedures.FPP.02.02.02.c. Implementan HACCP program for a foodproducts and processingfacility.FPP.02.03. Performance Indicator: Apply safety and sanitation procedures in thehandling, processing and storing of food products.Science: A2 and F5FPP.02.03.01.a. Explaintechniques and proceduresfor the safe handling of foodproducts.FPP.02.03.02.a. Describethe importance of performingquality-assurance tests onfood products.FPP.02.03.01.b. Evaluatefood product handlingprocedures.FPP.02.03.02.b. Performquality-assurance tests onfood products.FPP.02.03.01.c.Demonstrate approved foodproduct handling techniques.FPP.02.03.02.c. Interpretquality-assurance test resultsand apply correctiveprocedures.39

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationFPP.02.03.03.a. Describethe effects food-bornepathogens have on foodproducts and humans.FPP.02.03.04.a. Explain theimportance of record keepingin a food products andprocessing system.FPP.02.03.03.b. Explain theimportance of microbiologicaltests in food productpreparation, listing commonspoilage and pathogenicmicroorganisms.FPP.02.03.04.b. Discussdocumentation procedures ina food products andprocessing system.FPP.02.03.03.c. Conductand interpret microbiologicaltests for food-bornepathogens and implementcorrective procedures.FPP.02.03.04.c.Demonstrate proper recordkeeping in a food productsand processing system.FPP.02.04. Performance Indicator: Demonstrate worker safety procedures withfood product and processing equipment and facilities.Science: F5Language Arts: 8FPP.02.04.01.a. Explainsafety standards that mustbe observed in facility designand equipment use.FPP.02.04.01.b. Outlineguidelines for personnelsafety in the food productsand processing industry.FPP.02.04.01.c. Evaluate afacility to determine theimplementation of safetyprocedures.FPP.03. Performance Element: Apply principles of science to the food products andprocessing industry.FPP.03.01. Performance Indicator: Apply principles of science to food processingto provide a safe, wholesome and nutritious food supply.Science: A2, B3 and F1FPP.03.01.01.a. Discusshow research and industrydevelopments lead toimprovements in the foodproducts and processingindustry.FPP.03.01.02.a. Explain theapplication of chemistry andphysics to food science.FPP.03.01.03.a. Explain theFood Guide Pyramid inrelation to essential nutrientsfor the human diet.FPP.03.01.04.a. Discusscommon food constituents(e.g., proteins,carbohydrates, fats, vitamins,minerals).FPP.03.01.01.b. Design aresearch project in foodscience using the scientificmethod.FPP.03.01.02.b. Explainhow the chemical andphysical properties of foodsinfluence nutritional valueand eating quality.FPP.03.01.03.b. Compareand contrast the nutritivevalue of food and foodgroups.FPP.03.01.04.b. Compareand contrast foodconstituents and their relativevalue to product taste,appearance, etc.FPP.03.01.01.c. Conductresearch in food science andinterpret results to improvefood products.FPP.03.01.02.c. Determinethe chemical and physicalproperties of food products.FPP.03.01.03.c. Design adaily food guide for ahealthful diet.FPP.03.01.04.c. Analyzefood products to identify foodconstituents.40

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationFPP.03.01.05.a. Identifycommon food additives (e.g.,preservatives, antioxidants,buffers, stabilizers, colors,flavors).FPP.03.01.06.a. Explain theimportance of food labelingto the consumer.FPP.03.01.07.a. Describefactors in planning anddeveloping a new foodproduct (e.g., regulation,creativity, and economics).FPP.03.01.05.b. Describethe purpose of common foodadditives.FPP.03.01.06.b. Explain therequired components of afood label.FPP.03.01.07.b. Plan andcreate a new food product.FPP.03.01.05.c. Formulateand explain incorporation ofadditives into food products.FPP.03.01.06.c. Prepareand label foods according tothe established standards ofregulatory agencies.FPP.03.01.07.c. Performsensory-testing andmarketing functions tocharacterize and determineconsumer preference andmarket potential.FPP.04. Performance Element: Select and process food products for storage, distribution andconsumption.FPP.04.01. Performance Indicator: Utilize harvesting, selection and inspectiontechniques to obtain quality food products for processing.Science: F1Language Arts: 12FPP.04.01.01.a. Identifyquality and yield grades offood products.FPP.04.01.02.a. Select rawfood products based on yieldgrades, quality grades andrelated selection criteria.FPP.04.01.03.a. Identifyand describe acceptedanimal treatment andharvesting techniques.FPP.04.01.04.a. Describethe importance of premortemand post-morteminspections of animals forharvest.FPP.04.01.01.b. Discussfactors that affect quality andyield grades of food products.FPP.04.01.02.b. Performquality-control inspections ofraw food products forprocessing.FPP.04.01.03.b. Compareand contrast acceptedanimal treatment andharvesting techniques.FPP.04.01.04.b. Explaindesirable and undesirablecharacteristics of both premortemand post-mortemanimals in relation to theproduction of food products.FPP.04.01.01.c. Assignquality and yield grades tofood products according toindustry standards.FPP.04.01.02.c. Implementprocedures to maintainoriginal food quality andyield.FPP.04.01.03.c. Harvestanimals using regulatoryagency-approvedor industryapprovedtechniques.FPP.04.01.04.c. Conductpre-mortem and postmorteminspections ofanimals.FPP.04.02. Performance Indicator: Evaluate, grade and classify processed foodproducts.Science: F1Language Arts: 8FPP.04.02.01.a. Identifyand describe foods derivedfrom meat, egg, poultry, fishand dairy products.FPP.04.02.01.b. Discussdesirable qualities ofprocessed meat, egg,poultry, fish and dairyproducts.FPP.04.02.01.c. Evaluate,grade and classify processedmeat, egg, poultry, fish anddairy products.41

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationFPP.04.02.02.a. Identifyand describe productsderived from fruits andvegetables.FPP.04.02.03.a. Identifyand describe productsderived from grains, legumesand oilseeds.FPP.04.02.02.b. Discussdesirable qualities of fruit andvegetable products.FPP.04.02.03.b. Discussdesirable qualities of grain,legume and oilseed products.FPP.04.02.02.c. Evaluate,grade and classify processedproducts from fruits andvegetables.FPP.04.02.03.c. Evaluate,grade and classify finishedproducts derived from grains,legumes and oilseeds.FPP.04.03. Performance Indicator: Process, preserve, package and present foodand food products for sale and distribution.Math: 1C, 4A and 4BScience: F1FPP.04.03.01.a. Identifyand explain common weightsand measures used in thefood products and processingindustry.FPP.04.03.02.a. Explainmethods and materials forprocessing foods for sale asfresh-food products.FPP.04.03.03.a. Identifymethods of food preservationand give examples of foodspreserved by each method.FPP.04.03.04.a. Explaintechniques for preparingready-to-eat food products.FPP.04.03.05.a. Explainmaterials and methods offood packaging andpresentation.FPP.04.03.06.a. Identifyand explain storageconditions to preserveproduct quality.FPP.04.03.01.b. Weigh andmeasure food products andperform conversions betweenunits of measure.FPP.04.03.02.b. Preparefoods for sale anddistribution as fresh-foodproducts.FPP.04.03.03.b. Explain theprocesses of foodpreservation methods.FPP.04.03.04.b.Demonstrate techniques ofpreparing ready-to-eat foodproducts.FPP.04.03.05.b. Select andutilize packaging materials instoring processed foods andraw food products.FPP.04.03.06.b. Selectmethods and conditions forstoring raw and processedfood products.FPP.04.03.01.c. Useweights and measures toformulate and package foodproducts.FPP.04.03.02.c. Evaluatefoods prepared for the freshfoodmarket based on factorssuch as shelf life, shrinkage,appearance and weight.FPP.04.03.03.c. Preservefoods using various methodsand techniques.FPP.04.03.04.c. Evaluateready-to-eat food products.FPP.04.03.05.c. Analyzethe foods stored in variouspackaging materials todetermine which materialsretain desirable foodqualities.FPP.04.03.06.c. Compareand contrast foods storedunder varying conditions forquality, shelf life andintended use.42

Career Cluster: AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND NATURAL RESOURCES (AFNR)Career Pathway: Natural Resource Systems (NRS)Pathway Content Standard: The student will demonstrate competence in the application of scientific principlesand techniques to the management of natural resources.Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationNRS.01. Performance Element: Explain interrelationships between natural resources andhumans necessary to conduct management activities in natural environments.NRS.01.01. Performance Indicator: Apply knowledge of natural resourcecomponents to the management of natural resource systems.Math: 5aScience: C4 and F3Social Studies: 3h and 3kNRS.01.01.01.a. Identifynatural resources.NRS.01.01.02.a. Defineecosystem and relatedterms.NRS.01.01.01.b.Differentiate betweenrenewable and nonrenewablenatural resources.NRS.01.01.02.b. Describethe interdependence oforganisms within anecosystem.NRS.01.01.01.c. Researchand debate one or morecurrent issues related to theconservation or preservationof natural resources.NRS.01.01.02.c. Conduct afield study of an ecosystem,and record and documentobservations of speciesinteractions.NRS.01.02. Performance Indicator: Classify natural resources.Science: F3NRS.01.02.01.a. Describemorphological characteristicsused to identify trees andother woody plants.NRS.01.02.02.a. Describemorphological characteristicsused to identify herbaceousplants.NRS.01.02.03.a. Describemorphological characteristicsused to identify wildlifespecies.NRS.01.02.04.a. Describemorphological characteristicsused to identify aquaticspecies.NRS.01.02.05.a.Demonstrate techniquesused to identify rock, mineraland soil types.NRS.01.02.01.b. Identifytrees and other woody plants.NRS.01.02.02.b. Identifyherbaceous plants.NRS.01.02.03.b. Identifywildlife species.NRS.01.02.04.b. Identifyaquatic species.NRS.01.02.05.b. Identifyrock, mineral and soil types.NRS.01.02.01.c. Conduct afield inventory of trees andother woody plants, andrecord and documentfindings.NRS.01.02.02.c. Conduct afield inventory of herbaceousplants, and record anddocument findings.NRS.01.02.03.c. Conduct afield inventory of wildlifespecies, and record anddocument findings.NRS.01.02.04.c. Conduct afield inventory of aquaticspecies, and record anddocument findings.NRS.01.02.05.c. Conduct afield inventory of rock,mineral and soil types, andrecord and documentfindings.43

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationNRS.02. Performance Element: Apply scientific principles to natural resource managementactivities.NRS.02.01. Performance Indicator: Develop a safety plan for work with naturalresources.Science: F3 and F5Language Arts: 8NRS.02.01.01.a. Identifyhazards associated with theoutdoor environment.NRS.02.01.02.a. Recognizebiohazards associated withnatural resources.NRS.02.01.01.b.Demonstrate safety practiceswhen working in an outdoorenvironment.NRS.02.01.02.b. Useappropriate techniques andequipment when working withbiohazards.NRS.02.01.01.c.Demonstrate appropriateresponses to accidents andinjuries that occur in anoutdoor environment.NRS.02.01.02.c.Demonstrate appropriateresponses for disastersinvolving biohazardousmaterials.NRS.02.02. Performance Indicator: Demonstrate cartographic skills to aid indeveloping, implementing and evaluating natural resource management plans.Math: 4BScience: A3 and F2Social Studies: 3b and 3cNRS.02.02.01.a.Demonstrate how to usemaps to identify directionsand features, calculateactual distance anddetermine the elevations ofpoints.NRS.02.02.01.b. Locatenatural resources using aland survey and geographiccoordinate system.NRS.02.02.01.c. EmployGlobal Positioning Systemand Geographic InformationSystems technologies toinventory features in naturalresource management.NRS.02.03. Performance Indicator: Measure and survey natural resource statusto obtain planning data.Math: 5CScience: A3 and F2Social Studies: 3hNRS.02.03.01.a. Describethe value of resourceinventories and populationstudies.NRS.02.03.01.b. Discussthe procedures forconducting resourceinventories and populationstudies.NRS.02.03.01.c. Conductresource inventories andpopulation studies to assessresource status.NRS.02.04. Performance Indicator: Demonstrate natural resource enhancementtechniques.Science: F3Social Studies: 3g and 3kNRS.02.04.01.a. Identifythe different kinds ofstreams.NRS.02.04.02.a. Identifycharacteristics of a healthyforest.NRS.02.04.01.b. Identifyindicators of the biologicalhealth of a stream.NRS.02.04.02.b. Identifyways in which forest standsmay be improved.NRS.02.04.01.c. Createand implement a streamenhancement plan.NRS.02.04.02.c. Formulatea timber stand improvementplan for a forest.44

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationNRS.02.04.03.a. Identifycharacteristics of a healthywildlife habitat.NRS.02.04.04.a. Identifycharacteristics of healthyrangeland.NRS.02.04.05.a. Identifynatural resourcecharacteristics desirable forrecreational purposes.NRS.02.04.06.a. Identifycharacteristics of healthymarine and coastal naturalresources.NRS.02.04.03.b. Identifymethods of wildlife habitatimprovement.NRS.02.04.04.b. Identifymethods of rangelandimprovement.NRS.02.04.05.b. Identifynatural resourcemanagement techniques forimproving recreationopportunities.NRS.02.04.06.b. Identifymethods to improve marineand coastal naturalresources.NRS.02.04.03.c. Conduct asurvey of a habitat anddevise a comprehensiveimprovement plan.NRS.02.04.04.c. Evaluate arangeland and develop amanagement plan forimprovement.NRS.02.04.05.c. Evaluatethe impact of recreationalactivities on naturalresources and create animprovement plan.NRS.02.04.06.c. Assessmarine and coastal naturalresources and prepare animprovement plan.NRS.02.05. Performance Indicator: Interpret laws related to natural resourcemanagement and protection.Science: F3Language Arts: 7Social Studies: 6cNRS.02.05.01.a. Identifylaws associated with naturalresource systems.NRS.02.05.02.a. Definemitigation.NRS.02.05.01.b. Identifythe purposes of lawsassociated with naturalresource systems.NRS.02.05.02.b. Identifyissues involving mitigation ofnatural resources.NRS.02.05.01.c. Abide byspecific laws pertaining tonatural resource systems.NRS.02.05.02.c.Demonstrate mitigationtechniques for naturalresources.NRS.02.06. Performance Indicator: Apply ecological concepts and principles tonatural resource systems.Science: D2 and F3Social Studies: 3b, 3f and3hNRS.02.06.01.a. Identifybiogeochemical cycles.NRS.02.06.02.a. Describeproperties of watersheds andidentify the boundaries oflocal watersheds.NRS.02.06.03.a. Compareand contrast groundwaterand surface-water flow.NRS.02.06.01.b. Diagrambiogeochemical cycles andexplain the processes.NRS.02.06.02.b. Relate thefunction of watersheds tonatural resources.NRS.02.06.03.b. Explainstream hydrology andstructure, and determine thedifferent classes of streams.NRS.02.06.01.c. Determinethe human influence onbiogeochemical cycles.NRS.02.06.02.c. Analyzeecosystem functions of awatershed.NRS.02.06.03.c. Classifyand predict the behavior oflocal streams.45

Level I Level II Level IIINRS.02.06.04.a. Defineriparian zones and riparianbuffers, and explain theirfunctions.NRS.02.06.05.a. Describethe processes associatedwith ecological succession.NRS.02.06.06.a. Explainpopulation ecology,population density andpopulation dispersion.NRS.02.06.07.a. Defineinvasive species.NRS.02.06.08.a. Describesources of pollution anddelineate between point andnonpoint source pollution.NRS.02.06.09.a. Describeclimatic factors that influencenatural resources.NRS.02.06.04.b. Identifytechniques used in thecreation, enhancement andmanagement of riparianzones and riparian buffers.NRS.02.06.05.b. Giveexamples of primarysuccessionand secondarysuccessionspecies in acommunity of organisms.NRS.02.06.06.b. Discussfactors that influencepopulation density andpopulation dispersion.NRS.02.06.07.b. Discussfactors that influence theestablishment and spread ofinvasive species.NRS.02.06.08.b. Describethe impact of pollution onnatural resources.NRS.02.06.09.b. Describethe impact climate has onnatural resources.NRS.02.06.04.c. Create,enhance and manageriparian zones and riparianbuffers.NRS.02.06.05.c. Conduct afield study to determine thestages of ecologicalsuccession in a communityof organisms.NRS.02.06.06.c. Createand implement amanagement plan based ona population study for acommunity of organisms.NRS.02.06.07.c. Developand implement a plan toreduce the impact of invasivespecies on natural resources.NRS.02.06.08.c. Createand implement a plan toprevent or limit the effects ofpollution on naturalresources.NRS.02.06.09.c. Monitorthe effects of climate onplants and wildlife.National AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationNRS.03. Performance Element: Apply knowledge of natural resources to production andprocessing industries.NRS.03.01. Performance Indicator: Produce, harvest, process and use naturalresource products.NRS.03.01.01.a. Describeforest harvesting methods.NRS.03.01.02.a. Describeuses of tree species.NRS.03.01.03.a. Identifywildlife species that can besustainably harvested.NRS.03.01.04.a. Identifyproducts obtained fromwildlife species.NRS.03.01.01.b. Determinewhen to harvest forestproducts.NRS.03.01.02.b. Describeprocessing of forest products.NRS.03.01.03.b. Describetechniques used in theharvesting of wildlife.NRS.03.01.04.b. Describetechniques used in theprocessing of wildlife.NRS.03.01.01.c. Harvestforest products according toprinciples of sustainableforest management.NRS.03.01.02.c. Processforest products.NRS.03.01.03.c. Formulatea management plan forprotecting wildlife fromoverexploitation.NRS.03.01.04.c. Processharvested wildlife.Science: F346

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationNRS.03.01.05.a. Describethe value of minerals andores to the economy.NRS.03.01.06.a. Describethe value of fossil fuels to theeconomy.NRS.03.01.07.a. Describethe benefits of hydroelectricgeneration.NRS.03.01.08.a. Identifyrecreational uses of naturalresources.NRS.03.01.09.a. Identifyaquatic species harvested forcommercial and recreationalpurposes.NRS.03.01.10.a. Identifyuses of aquatic species.NRS.03.01.05.b. Describeeconomically importantminerals and ores that areextracted and processed.NRS.03.01.06.b. Describesources of fossil fuels andproducts made from fossilfuels.NRS.03.01.07.b. Describecharacteristics of sites thatlend themselves tohydroelectric generation.NRS.03.01.08.b. Debate anissue related to therecreational use of naturalresources.NRS.03.01.09.b. Describetechniques used to harvestaquatic species.NRS.03.01.10.b. Explaintechniques used to processaquatic species.NRS.03.01.05.c. Giveexamples of methods used toextract and process mineralsand ores.NRS.03.01.06.c. Giveexamples of methods used toextract and process fossilfuels.NRS.03.01.07.c. Describehydroelectric generationtechniques and procedures,and prepare a report on theimpacts of hydroelectricdams on aquatic systems.NRS.03.01.08.c. Evaluate anatural resource site andrecommend opportunities forrecreational activities.NRS.03.01.09.c. Harvestaquatic species according tosustainable managementprinciples.NRS.03.01.10.c. Processharvested aquatic species.NRS.04. Performance Element: Demonstrate techniques used to protect natural resources.NRS.04.01. Performance Indicator: Manage fires in natural resource systems.Science: F5NRS.04.01.01.a.Differentiate betweendesirable and undesirablefires and prepare a report onthe role fire plays in a healthyecosystem.NRS.04.01.01.b. Describetechniques used to suppresswildfires and manageprescribed fires.NRS.04.01.01.c.Demonstrate the applicationof fire suppression and firesafety techniques.NRS.04.02. Performance Indicator: Diagnose plant and wildlife diseases andfollow protocol to prevent their spread.Science: F1 and F3Social Studies: 9dNRS.04.02.01.a. Identifycauses of diseases in plants.NRS.04.02.02.a. Identifycauses of diseases in wildlife.NRS.04.02.01.b. Report theobservance of diseasesaffecting plants to theappropriate authorities.NRS.04.02.02.b. Report theobservance of diseasesaffecting wildlife to theappropriate authorities.NRS.04.02.01.c. Explainmanagement techniquesused to reduce infection andspread of plant diseases innatural resources.NRS.04.02.02.c. Explainwildlife disease managementtechniques.47

Level I Level II Level IIINRS.04.03. Performance Indicator: Manage insect infestations of naturalresources.National AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationScience: C4 and F3NRS.04.03.01.a. Identifyharmful and beneficialinsects and signs of insectdamage to natural resources.NRS.04.03.01.b. Reportobservance of insect pests tothe appropriate authorities.NRS.04.03.01.c. Describetechniques used to managepests of natural resources.NRS.05. Performance Element: Use effective methods and venues to communicate naturalresource processes to the public.NRS.05.01. Performance Indicator: Communicate natural resource information tothe public.Science: F3 and F6Language Arts: 5 and 6NRS.05.01.01.a. Identifyways in which a messageregarding natural resourcesmay be communicated to thepublic.NRS.05.01.01.b. Designand construct a display thatcommunicates a naturalresource topic and discussthe topic in a public forum.NRS.05.01.01.c.Communicate a naturalresource message throughthe press, radio, television orpublic appearances.48

Career Cluster: AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND NATURAL RESOURCES (AFNR)Career Pathway: Plant Systems (PS)Pathway Content Standard: The student will demonstrate competence in the application of scientific principlesand techniques to the production and management of plants.Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationPS.01. Performance Element: Apply knowledge of plant classification, plant anatomy and plantphysiology to the production and management of plants.PS.01.01. Performance Indicator: Classify agricultural plants according totaxonomy systems.PS.01.01.01.a. Explainsystems used to classifyplants.PS.01.01.02.a. Describethe morphologicalcharacteristics used toidentify agricultural plants.PS.01.01.01.b. Compareand contrast the hierarchicalclassification of agriculturalplants.PS.01.01.02.b. Identifyagriculturally important plantsby common names.PS.01.01.01.c. Classifyagricultural plants accordingto the hierarchicalclassification system, lifecycles, plant use and asmonocotyledons ordicotyledons.PS.01.01.02.c. Identifyagriculturally important plantsby scientific names.PS.01.02. Performance Indicator: Apply knowledge of plant anatomy and thefunctions of plant structures to activities associated with plant systems.PS.01.02.01.a. Diagram atypical plant cell and identifyplant cell organelles and theirfunctions.PS.01.02.02.a. Identify thecomponents, the types andthe functions of plant roots.PS.01.02.03.a. Identify thecomponents and thefunctions of plant stems.PS.01.02.04.a. Discuss leafmorphology and thefunctions of leaves.PS.01.02.01.b. Compareand contrast mitosis andmeiosis.PS.01.02.02.b. Identify roottissues and explain thepathway of water andnutrients into and throughthe root tissues.PS.01.02.03.b. Describethe processes oftranslocation.PS.01.02.04.b. Explain howleaves capture light energyand allow for the exchange ofgases.PS.01.02.01.c. Apply theknowledge of celldifferentiation and thefunctions of the major typesof cells to plant systems.PS.01.02.02.c. Relate theactive and passive transportof minerals into and throughthe root system to plantnutrition.PS.01.02.03.c. Applyconcepts associated withtranslocation to themanagement of plants.PS.01.02.04.c. Explain therelationships between leafstructure and functions andplant management practices.Science: C3Science: B6, C3 and C549

Level I Level II Level IIIPS.01.02.05.a. Identify thecomponents of a flower, thefunctions of a flower and thefunctions of flowercomponents.PS.01.02.06.a. Explain thefunctions and components ofseeds and fruit.PS.01.02.05.b. Identify thedifferent types of flowers andflower forms.PS.01.02.06.b. Identify themajor types of fruit.PS.01.02.05.c. Apply theknowledge of flowerstructures to plant breeding,production and use.PS.01.02.06.c. Apply theknowledge of seed and fruitstructures to plant cultureand use.PS.01.03. Performance Indicator: Apply knowledge of plant physiology and energyconversion to plant systems.PS.01.03.01.a. Explain thebasic process ofphotosynthesis and itsimportance to life on Earth.PS.01.03.02.a. Explaincellular respiration and itsimportance to plant life.PS.01.03.03.a. Defineprimary growth and the roleof the apical meristem.PS.01.03.04.a. Identify thefive groups of naturallyoccurring plant hormonesand synthetic plant growthregulators.PS.01.03.01.b. Explainrequirements necessary forphotosynthesis to occur andidentify the products andbyproducts ofphotosynthesis.PS.01.03.02.b. Explainfactors that affect cellularrespiration and identify theproducts and byproducts ofcellular respiration.PS.01.03.03.b. Explain theprocess of secondary plantgrowth.PS.01.03.04.b. Identify theplant responses to plantgrowth regulators anddifferent forms of tropism.PS.01.03.01.c. Explain thelight-dependent and lightindependentreactions thatoccur during photosynthesisand apply the knowledge toplant management.PS.01.03.02.c. Explain thefour stages of aerobicrespiration and relate cellularrespiration to plant growth,crop management and postharvesthandling.PS.01.03.03.c. Relate theprinciples of primary andsecondary growth to plantsystems.PS.01.03.04.c. Select plantgrowth regulators to producedesired responses fromplants.National AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationScience: B6 and C5PS.02. Performance Element: Prepare and implement a plant management plan thataddresses the influence of environmental factors, nutrients and soil on plant growth.PS.02.01. Performance Indicator: Determine the influence of environmentalfactors on plant growth.PS.02.01.01.a. Describethe qualities of light thataffect plant growth.PS.02.01.02.a. Describethe effects air, temperatureand water have on plantmetabolism and growth.PS.02.01.01.b. Describeplant responses to light color,intensity and duration.PS.02.01.02.b. Determinethe optimal air, temperatureand water conditions forplant growth.PS.02.01.01.c. Evaluateplant responses to variedlight color, intensity andduration.PS.02.01.02.c. Design,implement and evaluate aplan to maintain optimalconditions for plant growth.Science: C650

Level I Level II Level IIIPS.02.02. Performance Indicator: Prepare growing media for use in plantsystems.National AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationScience: B2PS.02.02.01.a. Identify themajor components of growingmedia and describe howgrowing media support plantgrowth.PS.02.02.02.a. Identify thecategories of soil water.PS.02.02.01.b. Describethe physical characteristics ofgrowing media and explainthe influence they have onplant growth.PS.02.02.02.b. Discuss howsoil drainage and waterholdingcapacity can beimproved.PS.02.02.01.c. Formulateand prepare growing mediafor specific plants or crops.PS.02.02.02.c. Determinethe hydraulic conductivity forsoil and how the resultsinfluence irrigation practices.PS.02.03. Performance Indicator: Develop and implement a fertilization plan forspecific plants or crops.Math: 4BScience: A2PS.02.03.01.a. Identify theessential nutrients for plantgrowth and development andtheir major functions.PS.02.03.02.a. Discuss theinfluence of pH and cationexchange capacity on theavailability of nutrients.PS.02.03.03.a. Collect soiland plant tissue samples fortesting and interpret the testresults.PS.02.03.04.a. Identifyfertilizer sources of essentialplant nutrients, explainfertilizer formulations anddescribe different methods offertilizer application.PS.02.03.01.b. Describenutrient deficiency symptomsand recognize environmentalcauses of nutrientdeficiencies.PS.02.03.02.b. Contrast pHand cation exchange capacitybetween mineral soil andsoilless growing media.PS.02.03.03.b. Determinethe nutrient content of soilusing appropriate laboratoryprocedures and prescribefertilization based on results.PS.02.03.04.b. Calculatethe amount of fertilizer to beapplied and calibrateequipment to apply theprescribed amount offertilizer.PS.02.03.01.c. Monitorplants for signs of nutrientdeficiencies and prepare ascouting report.PS.02.03.02.c. Adjust thepH of growing media.PS.02.03.03.c. Determinethe nutrient content of planttissue samples usingappropriate laboratoryprocedures and prescribefertilization based on results.PS.02.03.04.c. Usevariable-rate technology toapply fertilizers to meet cropnutrient needs.PS.03. Performance Element: Propagate, culture and harvest plants.PS.03.01. Performance Indicator: Demonstrate plant propagation techniques.Science: C2PS.03.01.01.a. Explainpollination, cross-pollinationand self-pollination offlowering plants.PS.03.01.01.b. Diagram theprocess of plant fertilization.PS.03.01.01.c. Design andimplement a plan to controlthe pollination of plants.51

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationPS.03.01.02.a.Demonstrate sowingtechniques and providefavorable conditions for seedgermination.PS.03.01.03.a. Describeoptimal conditions forasexual propagation anddemonstrate techniquesused to propagate plants bycuttings, division, separationand layering.PS.03.01.04.a. Definemicropropagation, discussadvantages associated withthe practice and outline thefour main stages of theprocess.PS.03.01.05.a. Explain theprinciples behindrecombinant DNA technologyand the basic steps in theprocess.PS.03.01.02.b. Handleseed to overcome seeddormancy mechanisms andto maintain seed viability andvigor.PS.03.01.03.b.Demonstrate properprocedures in budding orgrafting selected materials.PS.03.01.04.b.Demonstrate asepticmicropropagation techniques.PS.03.01.05.b. Giveexamples of the risks andadvantages associated withgenetically modified plants.PS.03.01.02.c. Conducttests associated with seedgermination rates, viabilityand vigor.PS.03.01.03.c. Evaluateasexual propagation practicesbased on productivity andefficiency.PS.03.01.04.c. Propagateplants by micropropagation.PS.03.01.05.c. Evaluate theperformance of geneticallymodified crops.PS.03.02. Performance Indicator: Develop and implement a plant managementplan for crop production.Science: C5 and C6Language Arts: 7PS.03.02.01.a. Explain theimportance of starting withpest- and disease-freepropagation material.PS.03.02.02.a. Explain thereasons for preparing growingmedia before planting.PS.03.02.03.a.Demonstrate proper plantingprocedures and post-plantingcare.PS.03.02.04.a. Observe andrecord environmentalconditions during thegermination, growth anddevelopment of a crop.PS.03.02.01.b. Inspectpropagation material forevidence of pests or disease.PS.03.02.02.b. Prepare soilfor planting with the additionof amendments.PS.03.02.03.b. Apply preplanttreatments required ofseeds and plants andevaluate the results.PS.03.02.04.b. Monitor theprogress of plantings anddetermine the need to adjustenvironmental conditions.PS.03.02.01.c. Producepest- and disease-freepropagation material.PS.03.02.02.c. Preparegrowing media for planting.PS.03.02.03.c. Operatemechanized plantingequipment.PS.03.02.04.c. Prepare andimplement a plant productionschedule based on predictedenvironmental conditions.52

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationPS.03.02.05.a. Explain thereasons for controlling plantgrowth.PS.03.02.05.b.Demonstrate propertechniques to control andmanage plant growth throughmechanical, cultural orchemical means.PS.03.02.05.c. Create andimplement a plan to controland manage plant growth.PS.03.03. Performance Indicator: Develop and implement a plan for integratedpest management.Science: C4 and C6Language Arts: 7PS.03.03.01.a. Identifytypes of plant pests anddisorders.PS.03.03.02.a. Describedamage caused by plantpests and diseases.PS.03.03.03.a. Describepest control strategiesassociated with integratedpest management.PS.03.03.04.a. Explain risksand benefits associated withthe materials and methodsused in plant pestmanagement.PS.03.03.01.b. Identifymajor local weeds, insectpests and infectious andnoninfectious plant diseases.PS.03.03.02.b. Diagram thelife cycles of major plantpests and diseases.PS.03.03.03.b. Describetypes of pesticide controlsand formulations.PS.03.03.04.b. Explainprocedures for the safehandling, use and storage ofpesticides.PS.03.03.01.c. Design andimplement a crop scoutingprogram.PS.03.03.02.c. Predict pestand disease problems basedon environmental conditionsand life cycles.PS.03.03.03.c. Employ pestmanagement strategies tomanage pest populations,assess the effectiveness ofthe plan and adjust the planas needed.PS.03.03.04.c. Evaluateenvironmental and consumerconcerns regarding pestmanagement strategies.PS.03.04. Performance Indicator: Apply principles and practices of sustainableagriculture to plant production.Science: F3, F4 and F6PS.03.04.01.a. Explainsustainable agriculture andobjectives associated withthe strategy.PS.03.04.01.b. Describesustainable agriculturepractices and compare theecological effects oftraditional agriculturalpractices with those ofsustainable agriculture.PS.03.04.01.c. Prepare andimplement a plan for anagricultural enterprise thatinvolves practices in supportof sustainable agriculture.PS.03.05. Performance Indicator: Harvest, handle and store crops.Science: F5PS.03.05.01.a. Identifyharvesting methods andharvesting equipment.PS.03.05.01.b. Assess thestage of growth to determinecrop maturity or salability anddemonstrate properharvesting techniques.PS.03.05.01.c. Operatemechanized harvestingequipment.53

Level I Level II Level IIIPS.03.05.02.a. Explainreasons for calculating cropyield and loss.PS.03.05.03.a. Identifystorage methods for plantsand plant products.PS.03.05.04.a. Explain thereasons for preparing plantsand plant products fordistribution.PS.03.05.02.b. Evaluatecrop yield and loss data.PS.03.05.03.b. Explain theproper conditions to maintainthe quality of plants andplant products held instorage.PS.03.05.04.b.Demonstrate techniques forgrading, handling andpackaging plants and plantproducts for distribution.PS.03.05.02.c. Implementplans to reduce crop loss.PS.03.05.03.c. Monitorenvironmental conditions instorage facilities for plantsand plant products.PS.03.05.04.c. Evaluatetechniques for grading,handling and packagingplants and plant products.National AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationPS.04. Performance Element: Employ elements of design to enhance an environment.PS.04.01. Performance Indicator: Create designs using plants. Language Arts: 12PS.04.01.01.a. Definedesign and identify designelements.PS.04.01.02.a. Discuss theapplications of art inagriculture/horticulture.PS.04.01.01.b. Explaindesign elements of line,form, texture and color andexpress the visual effect eachhas on the viewer.PS.04.01.02.b. Discussprinciples of design that formthe basis of artisticimpression.PS.04.01.01.c. Selectplants, hard goods, suppliesand other materials for use ina design based on a range ofcriteria.PS.04.01.02.c. Create andimplement designs byfollowing establishedprinciples of art.54

Career Cluster: AGRICULTURE, FOOD AND NATURAL RESOURCES (AFNR)Career Pathway: Power, Structural and Technical Systems (PST)Pathway Content Standard: The student will demonstrate competence in the application of principles andtechniques for the development and management of power, structural and technical systems.Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationPST.01. Performance Element: Use physical science principles and engineering applicationswith power, structural and technical systems to solve problems and improve performance.PST.01.01. Performance Indicator: Select energy sources in power generationappropriate to the situation.PST.01.01.01.a. Identifyrenewable and nonrenewableenergy sources and pathwaysof delivery.PST.01.01.01.b. Examineenvironmental impacts andefficiencies of energysources.PST.01.01.01.c. Comparethe efficiency of energyproduction from varioussources.PST.01.02. Performance Indicator: Apply physical science laws and principles toidentify, classify and use lubricants.PST.01.02.01.a. Classifylubricants by source,sustainability and equipmentcompatibility.PST.01.02.01.b. Classifylubricants by SAE viscosityand API serviceclassifications.PST.01.02.01.c. Select, useand dispose of lubricants.PST.01.03. Performance Indicator: Identify and use hand and power tools andequipment for service, construction and fabrication.PST.01.03.01.a. Identifyand demonstrate safe useand maintenance ofmeasurement and layouttools.PST.01.03.01.b. Select,maintain and use hand andpower tools in service,construction and fabrication.PST.01.03.01.c. Assess theperformance of employees inuse of hand and power toolsto safely and efficientlyservice, construct andfabricate quality products.Science: B5, D1 and F3Science: B4Science: E2PST.02. Performance Element: Design, operate and maintain mechanical equipment,structures, biological systems, land treatment, power and technology.PST.02.01. Performance Indicator: Perform service routines to maintain powerunits and equipment.PST.02.01.01.a. Identifyand schedule power unit andequipment lubrication.PST.02.01.02.a. Servicefiltration systems andmaintain fluid levels onpower units and equipment.PST.02.01.01.b. Ensure thepresence and function ofsafety systems and hardwareon tools and equipment.PST.02.01.02.b. Adjustequipment, including beltsand drives, chains andsprockets, and maintain fluidconveyance components,such as hoses, lines andnozzles.PST.02.01.01.c. Test andservice electrical systems.PST.02.01.02.c.Troubleshoot malfunctionsand failures in equipmentusing computer and on-boarddiagnostics.Science: E255

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationPST.02.01.03.a. Maintainthe cleanliness andappearance of power unitsand equipment to assurefunctionality.PST.02.01.03.b. Develop apreventive maintenanceschedule for power units andequipment.PST.02.01.03.c. Maintainand calibrate metering,monitoring and sensingdevices on equipment.PST.02.02. Performance Indicator: Operate, service and diagnose the condition ofpower units and equipment.Science: E2PST.02.02.01.a. Identifypower unit and equipmentcontrols and instruments,along with their functions.PST.02.02.02.a. Performpre-operation inspectionaccording to manufacturers’specifications and/orprevailing industry standards.PST.02.02.01.b. Performstart-up and shut-downprocedures on power unitsand equipment as specifiedin technical manuals.PST.02.02.02.b.Demonstrate safe practicesand regulations in theoperation of power units andequipment.PST.02.02.01.c. Selectpower units and equipmentfor operational efficiencies.PST.02.02.02.c. Adjustequipment for safe andefficient operation.PST.03. Performance Element: Service and repair mechanical equipment and power systems.PST.03.01. Performance Indicator: Troubleshoot and repair internal combustionengines.Science: A1 and A4Language Arts: 3PST.03.01.01.a. Identifycomponents and systems ofinternal combustion engines.PST.03.01.02.a. Describethe operation of internalcombustion engines by typesof fuel used.PST.03.01.01.b. Utilizetechnical manuals andcomputer-based diagnosticsin engine analysis and repair.PST.03.01.02.b. Analyzeand troubleshoot internalcombustion engines.PST.03.01.01.c.Performance test internalcombustion engines todetermine service and repairneeds.PST.03.01.02.c. Overhaulspark-and-compressioninternal combustion engines.PST.03.02. Performance Indicator: Utilize manufacturers’ guidelines to serviceand repair the power transmission systems of equipment.Math: 1C and 6BScience: B4 and E1PST.03.02.01.a. Identifyand describe applications ofsimple machines in powersystems.PST.03.02.02.a. Calculatemechanical advantage inmechanical systems.PST.03.02.01.b. Identifyand compare operationprinciples and features,benefits and applications ofvarious power transmissionsystems.PST.03.02.02.b. Describefeatures, benefits andapplications of mechanicaltransmission components,including belts, chains,gears, bearings, seals,universals and drive shafts.PST.03.02.01.c. Use speed,torque and powermeasurements to improveefficiency in powertransmission systems.PST.03.02.02.c. Inspect,analyze and repair hydrostatictransmissions.56

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationPST.03.02.03.a. Identifypower transfer principles,including those using friction,gears and fluids.PST.03.02.03.b. Inspect,analyze and repair clutchesand brakes.PST.03.02.03.c. Inspect,analyze and repairdifferentials, final drives,transmissions (includinggear-type and power-shifttransmissions) and auxiliarydrives.PST.03.03. Performance Indicator: Service and repair hydraulic and pneumaticsystems.Science: B4 and E1PST.03.03.01.a. Describefeatures, benefits andapplications of commontypes of hydraulic andpneumatic systems.PST.03.03.02.a. Applyhydrostatic andhydrodynamic principles inhydraulics and pneumatics,including Archimedes’principle and Pascal’s law.PST.03.03.03.a. Evaluatehydraulic and pneumaticsystem functionality.PST.03.03.01.b. Describeprinciples of hydraulic andpneumatic system operation.PST.03.03.02.b. Identifymajor components ofhydraulic and pneumaticsystems and describe theiruse.PST.03.03.03.b. Identifyhydraulic and pneumaticsystem fittings and ports.PST.03.03.01.c. Utilizesymbols and schematicdrawings in the maintenanceof hydraulic and pneumaticsystems.PST.03.03.02.c. Inspect,analyze and repair hydraulicand pneumatic systemcomponents, including fluidand compressed-airconveyance components.PST.03.03.03.c. Use apressure-and-flow tester indiagnosing malfunctions andrepairing hydraulic andpneumatic systems.PST.03.04. Performance Indicator: Troubleshoot and service electrical systems.Math: 6BScience: E1PST.03.04.01.a. Apply themeaning and measurementof electricity, includingamperage, voltage andwattage.PST.03.04.02.a. Identify thekinds and applications ofelectricity, including directand alternating current.PST.03.04.01.b. Assess andinstall electrical circuits,including conductors,insulators and controls.PST.03.04.02.b. Interpretelectrical system symbolsand diagrams.PST.03.04.01.c. Evaluatepower unit and equipmentelectrical systems, includingignition, lighting, auxiliary andelectronic braking.PST.03.04.02.c. Assess andrepair malfunctioningelectrical systems andcomponents, such asbattery, lighting,instrumentation andaccessories.57

Level I Level II Level IIIPST.03.05. Performance Indicator: Service vehicle heating and air-conditioningsystems.National AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationMath: 4A and 6CPST.03.05.01.a. Identifyprinciples of heat andtemperature measurement.PST.03.05.01.b. Describephysical principles ofoperation of vehicle heatingand air-conditioning systemsand interpret symbols anddiagrams used with suchsystems.PST.03.05.01.c.Troubleshoot, repair andevacuate and charge heatingand air-conditioningcomponents, includingcompressors, expansionvalves, receiver dryers,pumps, hoses and recoverytools and systems.PST.03.06. Performance Indicator: Service and repair steering, suspension,traction and vehicle performance systems.Math: 4A and 6CPST.03.06.01.a. Identifyand explain principles ofmotion, including speed,velocity and acceleration.PST.03.06.02.a. Identifyprinciples of force onacceleration, includingfriction and gravity.PST.03.06.01.b. Evaluatevehicle traction, ballastingand weight transfer andservice as needed.PST.03.06.02.b. Evaluatevehicle performance andthen service as needed,including horsepowermanagement, ballasting, soilcompaction and fuelefficiency.PST.03.06.01.c. Evaluatevehicle stability, power-hop,creep-crawl, wheel slip andtractive performance andservice as needed.PST.03.06.02.c. Evaluatevehicle suspension andsteering systems and serviceas needed.PST.04. Performance Element: Plan, build and maintain agricultural structures.PST.04.01. Performance Indicator: Create sketches and plans of agriculturalstructures.Math: 4AScience: A3 and E1PST.04.01.01.a. Identifysymbols and drawingtechniques used to developplans and sketches.PST.04.01.02.a. Preparebills of materials toaccompany plans andsketches.PST.04.01.01.b. Developplans and sketches usingdrafting equipment andcomputer programs.PST.04.01.02.b. Use scalemeasurement and dimensionto develop plans andsketches.PST.04.01.01.c. Applyprinciples of design,fabrication and installation ofagricultural structures.PST.04.01.02.c. Designfunctional and efficientfacilities for agricultural use.PST.04.02. Performance Indicator: Apply structural plans, specifications andbuilding codes.Language Arts: 12PST.04.02.01.a. Identifymajor parts of a constructiondrawing.PST.04.02.01.b. Identifyand interpret different viewsof a construction drawing.PST.04.02.01.c. Locate,explain and apply elementsof a construction drawing.58

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationPST.04.02.02.a. Identify thesources and importance ofindustry construction andmaterials standards,including those of theAmerican National StandardsInstitute (ANSI) andUnderwriters’ Laboratories(UL).PST.04.02.03.a. Identifydesign and constructionrecommendations andpractices in agriculturalstructures.PST.04.02.02.b. Identifylocal code enforcementagencies and procedures.PST.04.02.03.b. Read andinterpret local structural codeinformation.PST.04.02.02.c. Followlocal construction and safetycodes and specifications inagricultural construction.PST.04.02.03.c. Completeappropriate local permitapplications for aconstruction project.PST.04.03. Performance Indicator: Examine structural requirements for materialsand procedures and estimate construction cost.Math: 1C and 6BPST.04.03.01.a. Identifycriteria in selecting materialsin agriculturalconstruction/fabrication.PST.04.03.02.a. Explain theimportance and use ofrequests for constructionbids.PST.04.03.01.b. Selecttypes of materials, determinequantities and estimate theircosts and other costsassociated with a specifiedproject plan.PST.04.03.02.b. Establishbusiness relationships withvendors of materials andservices used in agriculturalconstruction.PST.04.03.01.c. Prepare aproject cost estimate,including materials, labor andmanagement.PST.04.03.02.c. Prepare abid package for a plannedconstruction project,including constructiontimelines, site evaluation,construction plans andrelated management factors.PST.04.04. Performance Indicator: Follow architectural and mechanical plans toconstruct and/or repair equipment, buildings and facilities.Math: 1C, 4A and 4BScience: E2PST.04.04.01.a. Constructand/or repair with wood andmetal.PST.04.04.02.a. Identifyelectricity measurements andmake measurementcalculations.PST.04.04.03.a. Calculateareas and volumes forcoatings.PST.04.04.01.b. Installand/or repair pipes andplumbing equipment andfixtures.PST.04.04.02.b. Distinguishelectrical circuits andcomponents of each.PST.04.04.03.b. Paint orprotect with coatings.PST.04.04.01.c. Evaluatework products or samples forquality and efficiency ofworkmanship followingarchitectural and mechanicalplans.PST.04.04.02.c. Installand/or repair electrical wiringcomponents and fixturesfollowing appropriate codesand standards.PST.04.04.03.c.Electroplate or otherwise coatmaterials.59

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationPST.04.04.04.a. Calculateefficiencies gained throughinsulation.PST.04.04.05.a. Measureand calculate materials forconcrete, brick, stone ormasonry units in agriculturalconstruction.PST.04.04.06.a. Measureand calculate fencingmaterials.PST.04.04.07.a. Identifykinds and characteristics ofmetal materials.PST.04.04.08.a. Measureand calculate glass, rigidplastic panels and filmplastics for job requirements.PST.04.04.04.b. Identifyinsulation materials andmethods to achieve desiredR-value.PST.04.04.05.b. Constructand/or repair with concrete,brick, stone or masonryunits.PST.04.04.06.b. Constructand/or repair fencing,including wood, static wire,electrical wire and otherfencing materials.PST.04.04.07.b. Distinguishwelding processes, positions,and materials preparation.PST.04.04.08.b. Installglass, ridged plastic panelsand/or film plastics.PST.04.04.04.c. Insulate astructure.PST.04.04.05.c. Seal,pigment and otherwiseprepare concrete, brick,stone or masonry unitsurfaces.PST.04.04.06.c. Complywith government regulationsand applicable fencing andinstallation codes.PST.04.04.07.c. Constructand/or repair metal structuresand equipment using weldingfabrication procedures,including those associatedwith SMAW, GMAW, GTAW,fuel-oxygen and plasma arctorch methods.PST.04.04.08.c. Developmaintenance and serviceplans for glass, ridged plasticpanel, and film plasticsinstallations.PST.05. Performance Element: Apply technology principles in the use of agricultural technicalsystems.PST.05.01. Performance Indicator: Use instruments and meters to test andmonitor electrical and electronic processes.Math: 4BScience: A3PST.05.01.01.a. Discussvarious types and sources ofelectricity.PST.05.01.01.b. Use voltand amp meters andcontinuity testers todemonstrate electricityprinciples.PST.05.01.01.c. Locate anduse electrical codes andregulations.PST.05.02. Performance Indicator: Prepare and/or use electrical drawings todesign, install and troubleshoot control systems.Science: E1PST.05.02.01.a. Recognizecommon electrical symbols.PST.05.02.01.b. Read anddesign schematic drawingsfor an electrical controlsystem.PST.05.02.01.c. Identifyand use electrical controlsystem components,including transistors, relays,HVAC and logic controllers.60

Level I Level II Level IIINational AcademicStandard Grade-LevelExpectationPST.05.02.02.a. Identifyuses of electrical sensors andcontrols.PST.05.02.03.a. Identifyhazards and safety practicesin planning, installing andusing electricity.PST.05.02.04.a. Identify theimportance and uses ofcomputer-based systems inagriculture, food and naturalresources.PST.05.02.05.a. Usecommon computer-basedprograms to analyzeagricultural data.PST.05.02.02.b. Interpretmaintenance schedules forelectrical control systems.PST.05.02.03.b. Distinguishand select materials andtools used in electricalcontrol circuit installation.PST.05.02.04.b. Delineatethe functions ofprogrammable logiccontrollers (PLC) inagricultural production andmanufacturing.PST.05.02.05.b. Assessdatabase summaries to drawconclusions and proposeplans of action.PST.05.02.02.c.Troubleshoot electricalcontrol system performanceproblems.PST.05.02.03.c. Plan andinstall electrical controlcircuits to assure properoperation.PST.05.02.04.c. Developand implement controlsystems using programmablelogic controllers (PLC) and/orother computer-basedsystems that operate asspecified.PST.05.02.05.c. Usecomputer-based dataacquisition devices andsensors to statisticallyanalyze and interpret data.PST.05.03. Performance Indicator: Use geospatial technologies in agriculturalapplications.Science: A3, E2 and F6Social Studies: 3cPST.05.03.01.a. Identifygeospatial technologies,including global positioning,geographical information andremote sensing.PST.05.03.02.a. Explainsite-specific agriculture asrelated to geospatialtechnologies.PST.05.03.03.a. Identifyuses, components and setupof precision technology inagriculture, food and naturalresources.PST.05.03.04.a. Describethe meaning and use ofsensors, controllers andactuators.PST.05.03.01.b. Explainand evaulate concepts andprinciples of geospatialtechnologies.PST.05.03.02.b. Describeequipment and processesused in geospatialtechnologies.PST.05.03.03.b. Describeprinciples of precisionagriculture for map- andsensor-based systems.PST.05.03.04.b. Identifysensor, control, and actuatorsystem components onpower units and equipment.PST.05.03.01.c. Assess andinstall instrumentation anddata acquisition systems,including Global PositioningSystem (GPS) receivers.PST.05.03.02.c. Output andapply maps using GIS/GPSsystems.PST.05.03.03.c.Demonstrate geospatialapplications, includingcalibration, volumetriccontrolling and electricaldesign.PST.05.03.04.c. Diagnosemalfunctions and repaircontrol systems and sensors,including those of engines,transmissions andimplements.61

APPENDIXNational Academic Content StandardsAligned to AFNR StandardsNational academic standards for mathematics, science, English language arts andsocial studies are reported below. The statements are based on information inreports of the respective associations/organizations in the academic areas. Someadjustment of numbering was done to facilitate the process of alignment withthe standards that have been developed in the pathways of the Agriculture, Foodand Natural Resources (AFNR) Career Cluster.The approach was to determine the presence of alignment between the contentstandards, expectations or thematic strands of the four academic areas and theperformance indicators of the AFNR Standards. Supporting statements havebeen included to clarify content of the respective content standards, expectationsor thematic strands. The statements were initially developed independently bythe respective organizations and, therefore, are not parallel in wording andpresentation. Occasionally minor editing was done to adjust the background orstem of a statement but not the statement itself.MathematicsThe mathematics standards presented here are for high schools and are reprintedwith permission from Principles and Standards for School Mathematics, copyright2000 by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. All rights reserved.1. Standard and Expectations: Number and OperationsInstructional programs should enable all students to:1A. Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers,relationships among numbers, and number systems.1B. Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to oneanother.1C. Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates.Standards are listed with the permission of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics(NCTM). NCTM does not endorse the content or validity of these alignments.62

2. Standard and Expectations: AlgebraInstructional programs should enable all students to:2A. Understand patterns, relations, and functions.2B. Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structuresusing algebraic symbols.2C. Use mathematical models to represent and understandquantitative relationships.2D. Analyze change in various contexts.3. Standard and Expectations: GeometryInstructional programs should enable all students to:3A. Analyze characteristics and properties of two- and threedimensionalgeometric shapes and develop mathematicalarguments about geometric relationships.3B. Specify locations and describe spatial relationships usingcoordinate geometry and other representational systems.3C. Apply transformations and use symmetry to analyzemathematical situations.3D. Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling tosolve problems.4. Standard and Expectations: MeasurementInstructional programs should enable all students to:4A. Understand measurable attributes of objects and the units,systems, and processes of measurement.4B. Apply appropriate techniques, tools, and formulas to determinemeasurements.5. Standard and Expectations: Data Analysis and ProbabilityInstructional programs should enable all students to:5A. Formulate questions that can be addressed with data andcollect, organize, and display relevant data to answer them.5B. Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data.5C. Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are basedon data.5D. Understand and apply basic concepts of probability.Standards are listed with the permission of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics(NCTM). NCTM does not endorse the content or validity of these alignments.63

6. Standard and Expectations: Problem SolvingInstructional programs should enable all students to:6A. Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving.6B. Solve problems that arise in mathematics in other contexts.6C. Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solveproblems.6D. Monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problemsolving.7. Standard and Expectations: Reasoning and ProofInstructional programs should enable all students to:7A. Recognize reasoning and proof as fundamental aspects ofmathematics.7B. Make and investigate mathematical conjectures.7C. Develop and evaluate mathematical arguments and proofs.7D. Select and use various types of reasoning and methods of proof.8. Standard and Expectations: CommunicationInstructional programs should enable all students to:8A. Organize and consolidate their mathematical thinking throughcommunication.8B. Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently andclearly to peers, teachers, and others.8C. Analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategiesof others.8D. Use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideasprecisely.9. Standard and Expectations: ConnectionsInstructional programs should enable all students to:9A. Recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas.9B. Understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build onone another to produce a coherent whole.9C. Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside ofmathematics.Standards are listed with the permission of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics(NCTM). NCTM does not endorse the content or validity of these alignments.64

10. Standard and Expectations: RepresentationInstructional programs should enable all students to:10A. Create and use representations to organize, record, andcommunicate mathematical ideas.10B. Select, apply, and translate among mathematical representationsto solve problems.10C. Use representations to model and interpret physical, social, andmathematical phenomena.Standards are listed with the permission of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics(NCTM). NCTM does not endorse the content or validity of these alignments.ScienceThe science content standards and their underlying abilities and conceptspresented here are for grades 9–12. These are reprinted with permission fromthe National Science Education Standards, © 1995 by the National Academy ofSciences; courtesy of the National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.A. Content Standard: Science as InquiryAs a result of their activities in grades 9–12, all students should develop theability to:A1. Identify questions and concepts that guide scientificinvestigation.A2. Design and conduct scientific investigations.A3. Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations andcommunications.A4. Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models usinglogic and evidence.A5. Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and models.A6. Communicate and defend a scientific argument.B. Content Standard: Physical ScienceAs a result of their activities in grades 9–12, all students should develop anunderstanding of:B1. Structure of atoms.B2. Structure and properties of matter.B3. Chemical reactions.65

B4. Motions and forces.B5. Conservation of energy and increase in disorder.B6. Interactions of energy and matter.C. Content Standard: Life ScienceAs a result of their activities in grades 9–12, all students should develop anunderstanding of:C1. The cell.C2. Molecular basis of heredity.C3. Biological evolution.C4. Interdependence of organisms.C5. Matter, energy, and organization in living systems.C6. Behavior of organisms.D. Content Standard: Earth and Space ScienceAs a result of their activities in grades 9–12, all students should develop anunderstanding of:D1. Energy in the earth system.D2. Geochemical cycles.D3. Origin and evolution of the earth system.D4. Origin and evolution of the universe.E. Content Standard: Science and TechnologyAs a result of their activities in grades 9–12, all students should develop:E1. Abilities of technological design.E2. Understanding about science and technology.F. Content Standard: Science in Personal and Social PerspectivesAs a result of their activities in grades 9–12, all students should developunderstanding of:F1. Personal and community health.F2. Population growth.F3. Natural resources.F4. Environmental quality.F5. Natural and human-induced hazards.F6. Science and technology in local, national, and global challenges.66

G. Content Standard: History and Nature of ScienceAs a result of their activities in grades 9–12, all students should developunderstanding of:G1. Science as human endeavor.G2. Nature of scientific knowledge.G3. Historical perspectives.English Language ArtsThe English language arts standards presented here are for high schools. Theywere taken from a document entitled Standards for the English Language Arts,by the International Reading Association and the National Council of Teachersof English (copyright 1996 by the International Reading Association and theNational Council of Teachers of English; reprinted with permission).1. Students read a wide range of print and non-print texts to build anunderstanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of theUnited States and the world; to acquire new information; to respondto the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and forpersonal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction,classic and contemporary works.2. Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in manygenres to build an understanding of the many dimensions (e.g.,philosophical, ethical, aesthetic) of human experience.3. Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret,evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience,their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge ofword meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies,and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound-lettercorrespondence, sentence structure, context, graphics).4. Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g.,conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with avariety of audiences and for different purposes.5. Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and usedifferent writing process elements appropriately to communicate withdifferent audiences for a variety of purposes.6. Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions(e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language,and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and non-print texts.67

7. Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideasand questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, andsynthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and non-printtexts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways thatsuit their purpose and audience.8. Students use a variety of technological and information resources(e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather andsynthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge.9. Students develop an understanding of and respect for diversity inlanguage use, patterns, and dialects across cultures, ethnic groups,geographic regions, and social roles.10. Students whose first language is not English make use of their firstlanguage to develop competency in the English language arts and todevelop understanding of content across the curriculum.11. Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and criticalmembers of a variety of literacy communities.12. Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish theirown purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and theexchange of information).Social StudiesThe social studies standards and performance expectations presented here arefor high schools. They are organized by thematic strands according toinformation in the document entitled Expectations of Excellence: CurriculumStandards for Social Studies, published by the National Council for the SocialStudies, 1994. (© National Council for the Social Studies. by permission.)1. Thematic Strand: CultureSocial studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study ofculture and cultural diversity, so that the learner can:1a. analyze and explain the ways groups, societies, and culturesaddress human needs and concerns;1b. predict how data and experiences may be interpreted by peoplefrom diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference;68

1c. apply an understanding of culture and an integrated whole thatexplains the functions and interactions of language, literature,the arts, traditions, beliefs and values, and behavior patterns;1d. compare and analyze societal patterns for preserving andtransmitting culture while adapting to environmental or socialchange;1e. demonstrate the value of cultural diversity, as well as cohesion,within and across groups;1f. interpret patterns of behavior reflecting values and attitudes thatcontribute or pose obstacles to cross-cultural understanding;1g. construct reasoned judgments about specific cultural responsesto persistent human issues;1h. explain and apply ideas, theories, and modes of inquiry drawnfrom anthropology and sociology in the examination ofpersistent issues and social problems.2. Thematic Strand: Time, Continuity, and ChangeSocial studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study ofthe ways human beings view themselves in and over time, so that the learner can:2a. demonstrate that historical knowledge and the concept of timeare socially influenced constructions that lead historians to beselective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidencethey use;2b. apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change,conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and showconnections among patterns of historical change andcontinuity;2c. identify and describe significant historical periods and patternsof change within and across cultures, such as the developmentof ancient cultures and civilizations, the rise of nation-states,and social, economic, and political revolutions;2d. systematically employ processes of critical historical inquiry toreconstruct and reinterpret the past, such as using a variety ofsources and checking their credibility, validating and weighingevidence for claims, and searching for causality;2e. investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical andcontemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related toimportant events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues,while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment;2f. apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyzehistorical and contemporary developments, and to inform andevaluate actions concerning public policy issues.69

3. Thematic Strand: People, Places, and EnvironmentsSocial studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study ofpeople, places, and environments, so that the learner can:3a. refine mental maps of locales, regions, and the world thatdemonstrate understanding of relative location, direction, size,and shape;3b. create, interpret, use, and synthesize information from variousrepresentations of the earth, such as maps, globes, andphotographs;3c. use appropriate resources, data sources, and geographic toolssuch as aerial photographs, satellite images, geographicinformation systems (GIS), map projects, and cartography togenerate, manipulate, and interpret information such as atlases,data bases, grid systems, charts, graphs, and maps.3d. calculate distance, scale, area, and density and distinguish spatialdistribution patterns;3e. describe, differentiate, and explain the relationships amongvarious regional and global patterns of geographic phenomenasuch as land forms, soils, climate, vegetation, natural resources,and population;3f. use knowledge of physical system changes such as seasons,climate and weather, and the water cycle to explain geographicphenomena;3g. describe and compare how people create places that reflectculture, human needs, government policy, and current valuesand ideals as they design and build specialized buildings,neighborhoods, shopping centers, urban centers, industrialparks, and the like;3h. examine, interpret, and analyze physical and cultural patternsand their interactions, such as land use, settlement patterns,cultural transmission of customs and ideas, and ecosystemchanges;3i. describe and assess ways that historical events have beeninfluenced by, and have influenced, physical and humangeographic factors in local, regional, national, and globalsettings;3j. analyze and evaluate social and economic effects ofenvironmental changes and crises resulting from phenomenasuch as floods, storms, and drought;3k. propose, compare, and evaluate alternative policies for the useof land and other resources in communities, regions, nations,and the world.70

4. Thematic Strand: Individual Development and IdentitySocial studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study ofindividual development and identity, so that the learner can:4a. articulate personal connections to time, place, andsocial/cultural systems;4b. identify, describe, and express appreciation for the influences ofvarious historical and contemporary cultures on an individual’sdaily life;4c. describe the ways family, religion, gender, ethnicity, nationality,socioeconomic status, and other group and cultural influencescontribute to the development of a sense of self;4d. apply concepts, methods, and theories about the study ofhuman growth and development, such as physical endowment,learning, motivation, behavior, perception, and personality;4e. examine the interactions of ethnic, national, or culturalinfluences in specific situations or events;4f. analyze the role of perceptions, attitudes, values, and beliefs inthe development of personal identity;4g. compare and evaluate the impact of stereotyping, conformity,acts of altruism, and other behaviors on individuals and groups;4h. work independently and cooperatively within groups andinstitutions to accomplish goals;4i. examine factors that contribute to and damage one’s mentalhealth and analyze issues related to mental health andbehavioral disorders in contemporary society.5. Thematic Strand: Individuals, Groups, and InstitutionsSocial studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study ofinteractions among individuals, groups, and institutions, so that the learner can:5a. apply concepts such as role, status, and social class in describingthe connections and interactions of individuals, groups, andinstitutions in society;5b. analyze group and institutional influences on people, events,and elements of culture in both historical and contemporarysettings;5c. describe the various forms institutions take, and explain howthey develop and change over time;5d. identify and analyze examples of tensions between expressionsof individuality and efforts used to promote social conformityby groups and institutions;71

5e. describe and examine belief systems basic to specific traditionsand laws in contemporary and historical movements;5f. evaluate the role of institutions in furthering both continuityand change;5g. analyze the extent to which groups and institutions meetindividual needs and promote the common good incontemporary and historical settings;5h. explain and apply ideas and modes of inquiry drawn frombehavioral science and social theory in the examination ofpersistent issues and social problems.6. Thematic Strand: Power, Authority, and GovernanceSocial studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study ofhow people create and change structures of power, authority, and governance, sothat the learner can:6a. examine persistent issues involving the rights, roles, and statusof the individual in relation to the general welfare;6b. explain the purpose of government and analyze how its powersare acquired, used, and justified;6c. analyze and explain ideas and mechanisms to meet needs andwants of citizens, regulate territory, manage conflict, establishorder and security, and balance competing conceptions of a justsociety;6d. compare and analyze the ways nations and organizationsrespond to conflicts between forces of unity and forces ofdiversity;6e. compare different political systems (their ideologies, structures,institutions, processes, and political cultures) with that of theUnited States, and identify representative political leaders fromselected historical and contemporary settings;6f. analyze and evaluate conditions, actions, and motivations thatcontribute to conflict and cooperation within and amongnations;6g. evaluate the role of technology in communications,transportation, information-processing, weapons development,or other areas as it contributes to or helps resolve conflicts;6h. explain and apply ideas, theories, and modes of inquiry drawnfrom political science to the examination of persistent issuesand social problems;6i. evaluate the extent to which governments achieve their statedideals and policies at home and abroad;72

6j. prepare a public policy paper and present and defend it beforean appropriate forum in school or community.7. Thematic Strand: Production, Distribution, and ConsumptionSocial studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study ofhow people organize for the production, distribution, and consumption of goodsand services, so that the learner can:7a. explain how the scarcity of productive resources (human,capital, technological, and natural) requires the development ofeconomic systems to make decisions about how goods andservices are to be produced and distributed;7b. analyze the role that supply and demand, prices, incentives, andprofits play in determining what is produced and distributed ina competitive market system;7c. consider the costs and benefits to society of allocating goodsand services through private and public sectors;7d. describe relationships among the various economic institutionsthat comprise economic systems such as households, businessfirms, banks, government agencies, labor unions, andcorporations;7e. analyze the role of specialization and exchange in economicprocesses;7f. compare how values and beliefs influence economic decisionsin different societies;7g. compare basic economic systems according to how rules andprocedures deal with demand, supply, prices, the role ofgovernment, banks, labor and labor unions, savings andinvestments, and capital;7h. apply economic concepts and reasoning when evaluatinghistorical and contemporary social developments and issues;7i. distinguish between the domestic and global economic systems,and explain how the two interact;7j. apply knowledge of production, distribution, and consumptionin the analysis of a public issue such as the allocation of healthcare or the consumption of energy, and devise an economicplan for accomplishing a socially desirable outcome related tothat issue;7k. distinguish between economics as a field of inquiry and theeconomy.73

8. Thematic Strand: Science, Technology, and SocietySocial studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study ofrelationships among science, technology, and society, so that the learner can:8a. identify and describe both current and historical examples ofthe interaction and interdependence of science, technology, andsociety in a variety of cultural settings;8b. make judgments about how science and technology havetransformed the physical world and human society and ourunderstanding of time, space, place, and human-environmentinteractions;8c. analyze how science and technology influence the core values,beliefs, and attitudes of society, and how the core values,beliefs, and attitudes of society shape scientific andtechnological change;8d. evaluate various policies that have been proposed as ways ofdealing with social changes resulting from new technologies,such as genetically engineered plants and animals;8e. recognize and interpret varied perspectives about humansocieties and the physical world using scientific knowledge,ethical standards, and technologies from diverse world cultures;8f. formulate strategies and develop policies for influencing publicdiscussions associated with technology-society issues, such asthe greenhouse effect.9. Thematic Strand: Global ConnectionsSocial studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study ofglobal connections and interdependence, so that the learner can:9a. explain how language, art, music, belief systems, and othercultural elements can facilitate global understanding or causemisunderstanding;9b. explain conditions and motivations that contribute to conflict,cooperation, and interdependence among groups, societies, andnations;9c. analyze and evaluate the effects of changing technologies on theglobal community;9d. analyze the causes, consequences, and possible solutions topersistent, contemporary, and emerging global issues, such ashealth, security, resource allocation, economic development,and environmental quality;9e. analyze the relationships and tensions between nationalsovereignty and global interests in such matters as territory,74

economic development, nuclear and other weapons, use ofnatural resources, and human rights;9f. analyze and formulate policy statements demonstrating anunderstanding of concerns, standards, issues, and conflictsrelated to universal human rights;9g. describe and evaluate the role of international and multinationalorganizations in the global arena;9h. illustrate how individual behaviors and decisions connect withglobal systems.10. Thematic Strand: Civic Ideals and PracticesSocial studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study ofthe ideals, principles, and practices of citizenship in a democratic republic, so thatthe learner can:10a. explain the origins and interpret the continuing influence ofkey ideals of the democratic republican form of government,such as individual human dignity, liberty, justice, equality, andthe rule of law;10b. identify, analyze, interpret, and evaluate sources and examplesof citizens’ rights and responsibilities;10c. locate, access, analyze, organize, synthesize, evaluate, and applyinformation about selected public issues—identifying,describing, and evaluating multiple points of view;10d. practice forms of civic discussion and participation consistentwith the ideals of citizens in a democratic republic;10e. analyze and evaluate the influence of various forms of citizenaction on public policy;10f. analyze a variety of public policies and issues from theperspective of formal and informal political factors;10g. evaluate the effectiveness of public opinion in influencing andshaping public policy development and decision-making;10h. evaluate the degree to which public policies and citizenbehaviors reflect or foster the stated ideals of a democraticrepublican form of government;10i. construct a policy statement and an action plan to achieve oneor more goals related to an issue of public concern;10j. participate in activities to strengthen the “common good,” basedupon careful evaluation of possible options for citizen action.75

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