Primary Productivity, Nutrients and Heavy Metal Concentrations at ...

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Primary Productivity, Nutrients and Heavy Metal Concentrations at ...

NATIONAL SEMINAR ON THE STATUS OF MARINE BIODIVERSITY OF THE ISLANDSAND COASTAL WATERS OF MALAYSIA l 26 - 28 Nov 2012Primary Productivity, Nutrients and HeavyMetal Concentrations at Kepulauan Sembilan,Pulau Besar and Merambung Shoals101Intro Present FutureResultsAazani Mujahid, Moritz Mueller, Natasha Nur Amarina Mohd Kaie, FaddrineHolt, Sivaraj, Jessica Song, Changi Wong, and Azizan A. Samah


101Sampling SitesWHAT? WHERE?


BackgroundStrategy of 3-part series of transect cruisesto complement biological cruises(K9, PB, MS)Spatial coverage:Transects gridded approx. 2 nm intervalfrom coast – islands (Total 45 stations)3 depths: 1m, 5m, 10m, bottom -1mThree-fold main aims:1. Update of coral reef ecology/ diversity of selected dive sites2. Physico-chemical parameters and hydrodynamics of theshallow coastal waters3. Coral reef video transect mapping (JTLM staff)4. Opportunistic sampling for VSLS, microbiology, plankton &hyperspectral studies


Kepulauan Sembilan (K9)12 - 13 MayGroup of is. and rocks, 45mins Lumut,12nm Sg Perak (tin mining)


Pulau Besar (PB)27 - 28 JuneGroup of 8 islands, 30mins Melaka,12nm Sg Muar21.5nm Petronas refinery Sg. Udang


Merambung Shoals (MS)29 – 30 SeptemberGroup of is. and rocks, 30mins Sg Pendas,4nm Port (Tjg. Pelepas)


Opportunity to discussfurther collaborationbtwn institutions- and for students toincrease field experience


Brief Notes on InstrumentationHydrolabSurveyorADCPWatersamplerNetsMulti-parametersShallow water current(magnitude and direction)Nutrients, HM, Chl aPhytoplankton,ZooplanktonHACH Kit, AASSpectrophotometerMicroscopy(SEM, TEM, Molecular)


Primary Productivity,Nutrients and Heavy MetalConcentrationsPRESENT RESULTS


0.3500.300Chlorophyll a (mg/L)(K9)0.3500.300Chlorophyll a (mg/L)(PB)0.2500.2500.2000.2000.1500.1500.1000.1000.0500.0000.0500.0002Chlorophyl a (mg/L)MerambungHighest productivity inMerambung >K9>PB1.51Shallow coastal areashave higher productivity?Mixing? Nutrients?0.50MS1 MS2 MS3 MS4 MS5 MS6 MS7 MS8 MS9 MS10


0.140.120.10.080.060.040.020OrthophosphateConcentration (mg/L) (K9)0.140.120.100.080.060.040.020.00Orthophosphate Concentration(mg/L) (PB)0.140.120.10.080.060.040.020Orthophosphate Concenration(mg/L) MerambungMS1 MS2 MS3 MS4 MS5 MS6 MS7 MS8 MS9 MS10Highest orthophosphates inK9>Merambung>PBShallow coastal sites andselected areas around islandshave higher orthophosphate?Fertilisers from land?Natural fluctuations(internal processes/ variablelocal transports?


0.30.250.20.150.10.050Nitrate Concentration (mg/L)(K9)0.300.250.200.150.100.050.00Nitrate Concentration (mg/L)(PB)0.60.50.40.30.20.10Nitrate Concentration (mg/L)MerambungMS1 MS2 MS3 MS4 MS5 MS6 MS7 MS8 MS9 MS10Highest nitrates inMerambung >PB>K9Shallow sites nearest to islandshave higher nitrates?Except in Merambung,average generally highLeaching and runoff from land?


MerambungStation / HM [ppm] Cu Fe Mn Pb As ZnMS1 0.000 0.085 0.000 0.007 0.026 0.628MS2 0.000 0.150 0.003 0.013 0.061 0.628MS3 0.000 0.109 0.000 0.013 0.052 0.508Shallow sites onaverage havehigher Zn and Asconcentrations.MS4 0.000 0.190 0.000 0.033 0.073 0.496MS5 0.000 0.228 0.004 0.029 0.000 0.526MS6 0.000 0.202 0.000 0.019 0.000 0.378MS7 0.000 0.223 0.001 0.041 0.000 0.366MS8 0.000 0.214 0.000 0.022 0.000 0.317MS9 0.000 0.117 0.000 0.032 0.000 0.381MS10 0.000 0.198 0.001 0.038 0.000 0.637Deeper sites inthe mid-channelon average havehigher Fe and Pbconcentrations


K9, KB and MSSUMMARYHigh productivity in Merambung >K9>PBShallow coastal areasHigh orthophosphates in K9>Merambung>PBShallow coastal sites and shallow sites islandsHigh nitrates in Merambung >PB>K9All Merambung; shallow sites around islandsHigh Zn and As around shallow sitesHigh Fe and Pb in the mid-channel, deeper sitesCLASS 2CLASS 3Malaysia Marine Water QualityCriteria and Standard (DOE)Marine Life,Fisheries, CoralReefs, Recreationaland MariculturePorts, Oil & GasFields


NATIONAL SEMINAR ON THE STATUS OF MARINE BIODIVERSITY OF THE ISLANDSAND COASTAL WATERS OF MALAYSIA l 26 - 28 Nov 2012Linking Physico-chemical and BiologicalMarine Aspects of Kepulauan Sembilan, Perak


T1S1T1S2T1S3T1S4T1S5T1S6T1S7T2S1T2S2T2S3T2S4T2S5T2S6T2S7T2S8T2S9T1S1T1S3T1S5T2S1T2S3T2S5T3S1T3S3T3S5P1P2P2BP3P4P5T1S1T1S3T1S5T2S1T2S3T2S5T3S1T3S3T3S5P1P2P2BP3P4P5Tukun JepunPulau AgasPulau PayungCONSERVATION?ZONING?Pulau RumbiaPulau Lalang0.4000.3000.2000.1000.000Chlorophyll a (mg/L)(K9)0.150.10.050OrthophosphateConcentration (mg/L) (K9)0.30.250.20.150.10.050Nitrate Concentration(mg/L) (K9)


Caution for ‘snapshot’ data:Increasing, decreasing, stable over time?Seasonal trends, periodical effects monsoons,Rapid events (storms)?XSub-annual or Inter-annual?Seasonal or Periodical?


K9, KB and MSFUTURE WORK?1. Continue investigation of results from ADCP and CTD data,hyperspectral data for all sites: comparison to previous research?Source & sinks?2. Continue investigations of results of productivity, nutrients, heavymetals for all sites: comparison to previous research? Source &sinks?3. Compile all data from cruises, determine relationship to biologye.g. Plankton, fish, bacteria community structure, VSLS4. Gridded transect data allowing for numerical modeling efforts,and future validation in-situ or feasibility studies of satellite altimetry


Many Thanks!Jabatan Taman Laut Malaysia (JTLM)University of Malaya (UM)Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS),Faculty of Resource Science & TechnologyPostgraduates (IOES, NARC-UM; IBEC, FSTS-UNIMAS)© Aazani Mujahid

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